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TRIM OF MARINE

VESSELS

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Concept of Mass Center for a Rigid Body

G

Centroid – the point about

which moments due to

gravity are zero:

E g m

i

(x

g

– x

i

) = 0 Æ

x = E m

i

x

i

/ E m

i

= E m

i

x

i

/ M

g

• Calculation applies to all three body axes: x,y,z

• x can be referenced to any point, e.g., bow,

waterline, geometric center, etc.

• “Enclosed” water has to be included in the mass

if we are talking about inertia

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Center of Buoyancy

A similar differential approach with displaced mass:

x

b

= E A

i

x

i

/ A. where A

i

is incremental volume,

A is total volume

Center of buoyancy is the

same as the center of

Images removed for copyright reasons.

displaced volume: it doesn’t

matter what is inside the

outer skin, or how it is

arranged.

Calculating trim of a flooded vehicle: Use in-water weights of the

components, including the water (whose weight is then zero and can be

ignored). The calculation gives the center of in-water weight.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

•

body, a sufficient

condition for

stability is that z

b

is above z

g.

For a submerged

g

Righting arm:

h =(z

b

-z

g

)sinu

u

Righting

moment:

pAgh

G

B

Make (z

b

-z

g

) large Æ the “spring” is large and:

• Response to an initial heel angle is fast (uncomfortable?)

• Wave or loading disturbances don’t cause unacceptably

large motions

• But this is also a spring-mass system, that will oscillate

unless adequate damping is used, e.g., sails, anti-roll planes,

etc.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

slice thickness dx

provided by the

b

intuition: wedges

• In most surface

vessels, righting

u

stability is

submerged volume dA.

waterplane area.

dA = Adx

B

2

B

1

h

l

K

l/3

b/6

G

u

M

g

y

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

RECTANGULAR SECTION

Geometry:

dA/dx = bh + bl/2 or

h = ( dA/dx – bl/2 ) / b

l = b tanu

dF

dF

Vertical forces:

dF

G

= p g dA (no shear)

B1

= p g b h dx

B2

= p g b l dx / 2

y

Moment arms:

G

= KG sin u : y

B1

= h sin u / 2 ; y

B2

= (h + l/3) sin u + b cos u / 6

Put all this together into a net moment (positive anti-clockwise):

dM/pg = -KG dA sinu + bh

2

dx sinu / 2 + (valid until the corner

b l dx [ (h+l/3) sinu + b cosu / 6] / 2

comes out of the water)

Linearize (sinu ~ tanu ~ u), and keep only first-order terms (u):

dM / p g dA = | ÷KG + dA / 2 b dx + b

3

dx / 12 dA| u

For this rectangular slice, the sum |dA / 2 b dx + b

3

dx / 12 dA| must

exceed the distance KG for stability. This sum is called KM – the

distance from the keel up to the “virtual” buoyancy center M. M is the

METACENTER, and it is as if the block is hanging from M!

-KG + KM = GM : the METACENTRIC HEIGHT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Note M does not

M

have to stay on the

centerline**!

G

R: righting arm

R

“down-flood”

damage,

flooding, ice

Images removed for copyright reasons.

heel angle

Ships in stormy waves.

How much GM is enough?

Around 2-3m in a big boat

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Considering the Entire Vessel…

Transverse (or roll) stability is calculated using the same moment

calculation extended on the length:

Total Moment = Integral on Length of dM(x), where (for a vessel with all

rectangular cross-sections)

dM(x) = pg [ -KG(x) dA(x) +

dA

2

(x) / 2 b(x) dx + b

3

(x) dx / 12 ] u or

dM(x) pg [ -KG(x) A(x) dx +

A

2

(x) dx / 2 b(x) + b

3

(x) dx / 12| u

First term: Same as –p g KG A, where A is ship’s submerged volume,

and KG is the value referencing the whole vessel.

Second and third terms: Use the fact that dA and b are functions of x.

Notice that the area and the beam count, but not the draft!

Longitudinal (or pitch) stability is similarly calculated, but it is usually

secondary, since the waterplane area is very long Æ very high GM

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Weight Distribution and Trim

• At zero speed, and with no

other forces or moments,

the vessel has B

(submerged) or M (surface)

directly above G.

G

M

Too bad!

For port-stbd symmetric hulls, keep G on the centerline using a

tabulation of component masses and their centroid locations in the

hull, i.e., E m

i

y

i

= 0

Longitudinal trim should be zero relative to center of waterplane

area, in the loaded condition.

Pitch trim may be affected by forward motion, but difference is

usually only a few degrees.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Rotational Dynamics Using the Centroid

Equivalent to F = ma in linear case is

T = J * d

2

u / dt

2

o

where T is the sum of acting torques in roll

J

o

is the rotary moment of inertia in roll,

referenced to some location O

u is roll angle (radians)

J written in terms of incremental masses m

i

:

J = E m

i

(y

i

-y

o

)

2

OR J = E m

i

(y

i

-y

g

)

2

o g

J written in terms of component masses m

i

and their own moments of

inertia J

i

(by the parallel axis theorem) :

J = E m

i

(y

i

-y

g

)

2

+ E J

i g

The y

i

’s give position of the centroid of each body, and J

i

’s are

referenced to those centroids

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

What are the acting torques T ?

• Buoyancy righting moment – metacentric height

• Dynamic loads on the vessel – e.g., waves, wind, movement of

components, sloshing

• Damping due to keel, roll dampers, etc.

• Torques due to roll control actuators

An instructive case of damping D, metacentric height GM:

J d

2

u / dt

2

= - D du /dt – GM p g A u OR

J d

2

u / dt

2

+ D du /dt + GM p g A u = 0

d

2

u / dt

2

+ a du /dt + bu = 0

d

2

u / dt

2

+ 2 . e

n

du /dt + e

2

u = 0

n

A second-order stable system ÆOverdamped or oscillatory

response from initial conditions

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Homogeneous Underdamped Second-Order Systems

x’’ + ax’ + bx = 0; write as x’’ + 2.e

n

x’ + e

2

x = 0

n

Let x = X e

st Î

(s

2

+ 2.e

n

s + e

2

) e

st

= 0 OR s

2

+ 2.e

n

s + e

2

= 0 Î

n n

s = [-2.e

n

+/- sqrt(4.

2

e

2

– 4e

2

)] / 2

n n

= e

n

[-. +/- sqrt(.

2

-1)] from quadratic equation

s

1

and s

2

are complex conjugates if . < 1, in this case:

s

1

= -e . + ie

d

, s

2

= -e . – ie

d

where e

d

= e

n

sqrt(1-.

2

)

n n

Recalling e

r+iu

= e

r

( cosu + i sinu) , we have

x = e

-.ent

[ (X

1

r

+ iX

1

i

)(cose

d

t + isine

d

t) +

(X

2

r

+ iX

2

i

)(cose

d

t – isine

d

t) ] AND

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

x’ = -.e

n

x + e

d

e

-.ent

[ (X

1

r

+ iX

1

i

)(-sine

d

t + icose

d

t) +

(X

2

r

+ iX

2

i

)(-sine

d

t – icose

d

t) ]

Consider initial conditions x’(0) = 0, x(0) = 1:

x(t=0) = 1 means X

1

r

+ X

2

r

= 1 (real part) and

X

1

i

+ X

2

i

= 0 (imaginary part)

x’(t=0) = 0 means X

1

r

- X

2

r

= 0 (imaginary part) and

-.e

n

+ e

d

(X

2

i

– X

1

i

) = 0 (real part)

Combine these and we find that

X

1

r

= X

2

r

= ½

i

X

1

i

= -X

2

= -. e

n

/ 2 e

d

Plug into the solution for x and do some trig:

x = e

-.ent

sin(e

d

t + k) / sqrt(1-.

2

), where k = atan(e

d

/.e

n

)

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

.= 0.0 has

but no decay

. = 0.2 gives

about 50%

overshoot

.

about 15%

overshoot

.

the fastest

response

without

overshoot

. > 1.0 is

slower

fastest rise time

= 0.5 gives

= 1.0 gives

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

STABILITY REFERENCE POINTS

M

G

B

K

etacenter

ravity

Buoyancy

Keel

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

CL

LINEAR MEASUREMENTS IN STABILITY

KM

M

G

B

K

GM

KG

BM

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

CL

THE CENTER OF

BUOYANCY

WATERLINE

B

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

B

B

B

B

CENTER OF BUOYANCY

WL WL WL WL WL

B

G

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

CENTER OF BUOYANCY

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

B

- The freeboard and reserve buoyancy will also change

Reserve Buoyancy

Draft

Freeboard

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

G

KG

o

G

1

KG

1

G MOVES TOWARDS A WEIGHT ADDITION

MOVEMENTS IN THE CENTER OF GRAVITY

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

G

G

MOVEMENTS IN THE CENTER OF GRAVITY

G MOVES AWAY FROM A WEIGHT REMOVAL

G

G

G

G

G

1

KG

1

KG

o

G

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

G G

2

G MOVES IN THE DIRECTION OF A WEIGHT SHIFT

MOVEMENTS IN THE CENTER OF GRAVITY

DISPLACEMENT = SHIP’S WIEGHT

20

G

B

- if it floats, B always equals G

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

METACENTER

BBBB B B B B B

B

BBB

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

METACENTER

B SHIFTS

M

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

+GM

0

o

-7/10

o

CL

B

M

G

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

+GM

C

L

B

B

20

M

M

20

G

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

C

L

M

M

20

M

45

B

B

20

B

45

G

+GM

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

G

C

L

B

B

20

B

45

M

M

20

M

45

B

70

M

70

neutral GM

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

C

L

M

20

M

45

M

70

M

90

B

B

20

B

45

B

70

B

90

M

G

-GM

MOVEMENTS OF THE

METACENTER

THE METACENTER WILL CHANGE POSITIONS IN THE

VERTICAL PLANE WHEN THE SHIP'S DISPLACEMENT

CHANGES

THE METACENTER MOVES IAW THESE TWO

RULES:

1. WHEN B MOVES UP M MOVES DOWN.

2. WHEN B MOVES DOWN M MOVES UP.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

M

G

B

M

G

B

G

M

B

M

1

B

1

G

M

B

M

1

B

1

G

M

B

M

1

B

1

G

M

B

M

1

B

1

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

CL

K

B

G

MM

CL

G

B

K

B

1

C

L

M

G

B

K

B

1

C

L

M

G

B

K

B

1

C

L

K

B

G

M

B

1

Z

Righting Arm

Righting Arm

ANGLE OF

R

I

G

H

T

I

N

G

A

R

M

S

(

F

T

)

MAXIMUM RIGHTING

ARM

MAXIMUM

RIGHTING

ARM

DANGER

ANGLE

MAXIMUM

RANGE OF

STABILITY

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

ANGLE OF HEEL (DEGREES)

W

L

W

L

20°

G

B

Z

W

L

40°

G

B

Z

60°

G

B

Z

GZ = 1.4 FT GZ = 2.0 FT GZ = 1 FT

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

-1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

0

MAX GZ

REDUCED MAX

Righting Arm for LSD

10 20 30 40 50 60

Angle of Heel (deg)

R

i

g

h

t

i

n

g

A

r

m

(

f

t

)

Light Ship

Full Load

Damage/Full Load

LIST

ANGLE OF HEEL

THINGS TO CONSIDER

• Effects of:

– Weight addition/subtraction and movement

– Ballasting and loading/unloading operations

– Wind, Icing

– Damage stability

• result in an adverse movement of G or B

• sea-keeping characteristics will change

• compensating for flooding (ballast/completely flood a

compartment)

• maneuvering for seas/wind

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

References

• NSTM 079 v. I Buoyancy & Stability

• NWP 3-20.31 Ship Survivability

• Ship’s Damage Control Book

• Principles of Naval Architecture v. I

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Subject 2.017

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