Massachusetts Institute of Technology Subject 2.

017 Design of Systems for Uncertain Environments

DESIGN WORK 1
Assigned 9 February 2006 Due 16 February 2006

1. Consider the inertial properties of the vessel layout shown. (a) Given the following list of component masses and their layout relative to the origin ([0,0] on the figure), where is the center of gravity [xg , yg ] ? (b) Moments of inertia referenced to the centroid of each component are also given in the table. Recalling the parallel-axis theorem, what is the total mass moment of inertia about each axis, referenced to the origin? (c) What is the mass moment of inertia about the y-axis, referenced to the body center of mass?
y: stbd from CL, m

0.2 0.1 0 −0.1 −0.2 0

1

2

3 4

5 6

7 8

0.5

1 x: aft from bow, m

1.5

2

x y mass Jxx Jyy (m) (m) (kg) (kg-m2) (kg-m2) ------------------------------------------------------1 0.4 0 1 0.02 0.02 2 0.6 0.05 2 0.04 0.02 3 0.8 0.1 1.1 0.2 0.11 4 1 -0.1 0.5 0.1 0.2 5 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.01 0.02 6 1.2 -0.06 0.6 0.05 0.03 7 1.4 0.07 0.9 0.08 0.09 8 1.6 -0.02 1.2 0.12 0.2

i

2. Critically compare the two figures below, which contain the same data. What is good about one and not about the other? Is there some better way to present this data?! 3. Tradeoffs and optimization are demonstrated by the following simple example. An autonomous robot carries an energy source of E = 1.5 kiloWatt-hours. At operating speed U , the drive motors consume Pd = 40U 3 Watts. Additionally, no matter what the speed, the ”hotel” load of the robot - the computers, sensors, communication equipment, etc. - consumes Ph = 8 Watts. What speed should the robot travel so as to achieve the greatest distance, how long does this mission last, and how far does the robot go in this case? Hint: write the distance purely as a function of U , and set the derivative to zero. 1

7

8
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7 6

Trial 1 Trial 2 Trial 3

5

4

3

2

Lc, henries

Inductance

5 4 3 2 1 0 2 4 Rc, Ohms 6 8

1

1

2

3

4 Resistance

5

6

7

4. Autocorrelation. We use the autocorrelation function among other things to compute the time difference between two signals. The basic formulation is, for continuous (in time t) and discrete (indexed) signals, respectively: � A(τ ) A(k) = =
−∞ ∞ � −∞ ∞

f (t)g(t + τ )dt fj gj+k

It is extremely similar to convolution - but note, for example that the t + τ argument has replaced the τ − t, so the notion of ”flipping” g is not used here. As with the Fourier integrals, the idea is that the autocorrelation is high when f and g line up. The function is positive when positive f ’s multiply positive g’s and when negative f ’s multiply negative g’s; opposing signs will lead to negative autocorrelation. When the signals are of finite length, they are zero-padded as necessary front and back. Example: for f = [1 2 3] and g = [4 5 6], A = [12 23 32 17 6], and the indices that go with A are v = [-2 -1 0 1 2]. (a) Consider the two sequences f = [0 0 0 1 -1 2 1 -1 2 -1 1 2 0 0], and g = [0 0 1 -1 2 1 -2 2 -1 1 2 0 0 0], which were obtained on synchronized time steps. Plot the two signals versus their indices. Which signal leads the other (”starts first”), and by how much? (b) What is the autocorrelation function for these signals? Your answer should be a vector with 27 elements (some are zero). What is the index of the peak absolute value of A, and what delay does this correspond with? (c) When the autocorrelation function is messier, it might be necessary to come up with another estimate for the delay, one that doesn’t just use the peak k. One approach is the first moment: � � compute (|A|v)/ |A|, which is the ”center of mass” of the signal |A|. When you make the computation, how closely does this confirm your peak value above? Looking at f and g directly, what is the reason for the difference? (d) How does the continuous form of the autocorrelation function compare with time-domain convolution? 5. Please make a first list of the detailed requirements of the system as you understand it now, that will lead to the operational goals in the Challenge statement. Think about the various technical aspects fully, and how you will test the vessel next September and October. 2

6. Please list what you think are the major unknowns in the problem, given the requirements above. One goal of the first month is to bring to the fore those uncertain aspects that have greatest impact on meeting the requirements. Eliminating the uncertainty through modeling, analysis, and testing is a critical part of design.

NOTES: We expect to receive hardcopies of the solutions by the end of the day, on the due date. These can be handed in during class, or brought to my office . Supremely illegible or disorganized solutions will not be graded. Please make sure to indicate your answers clearly so that we can find them! Finally, don’t wait until the night before to do these problems! and if you need help or more information, ask the instructors or your classmates. You are encouraged to work together.

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