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# AppendixII - Fire Services System

## Fire Services System

1. Fire Services Control Center
From the regulation by F.S.D., the F/S Control Center which has minimum one hour fire
resisting period located at ground floor on the main face of a building, preferably adjacent to
main entrance. In addition, the room should be large enough to settles all the house equipment,
recorders and annunciators.
The recommended room size is 3m(L) x 3m(W)

## 2 Automatic Sprinkler System

2.1 Automatic Sprinkler Tank Size
In the design, reliable source is employed that the water tank size is dependent on inflow.
According to BS5036, Part 2, for ordinary Group III, the minimum design capacity of tank is
75m3 and the maximum period of inflow for section tank is 60 min.
The Internal tank size is 5m(L) x 5m(W) X 3M(H)

## 2.2 Pump Rating

2.2.1 Duty Pump
To calculate the duty pump rating, friction loss of the pipes and fittings should be investigated first.
According to the above pressure and flow requirement, the pump head required for each installation
is calculated based on the equation shown in BS 5306,
(a) Static Pressure Difference
Static pressure difference (pd) = 0.1h
h = the vertical distance between the points (m)
(b) Pipe and Fitting Friction Loss
Pipe and fitting friction loss (PL ) = k x L X Q1.85
k = a constant for the size, type and condition of the pipe
For 100 mm G.I. pipe, k = 1.35 x 10-8 (BS 5306)
L = Equivalent length of pipes and fittings (m)
can be found from the table below
Q = Flow rate through pipe (l/min)

## Equivalent length of the fitting

Fitting

Average equivalent
length (m)
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## AppendixII - Fire Services System

90 screwed elbow
Standard screwed tee
(150mm)
Gate valve
Alarm

1.89
8.61
0.81
5.07

Also, by BS5306:Part 2:1990, Section 4, 17.4.6.3, for ordinary group III Hazard (OH III), if the
distance between the highest and lowest sprinklers is less than 15m, the following pump requirement
should be follow:
Nominal Rating
Pressure at
Flow
pump outlet
1.4 bar

2250
L/min

High Flow
Pressure
Flow
at C
gauge
2.9 bar
1350
L/min

Low Flow
Pressure at
Flow
C gauge
3.2 bar

1100
L/min

If the distance between the highest and lowest sprinklers is between 30m and 45m, the following
pump requirement should be follow:
Pressure at
pump outlet

Flow

2.5 bar

3100
L/min

Pressure
at C
gauge
5.9 bar

Flow

Pressure at
C gauge

Flow

1350
L/min

6.2 bar

1100
L/min

## Assumption: All distribution pipes are made of Galvanized heavy Steel.

With regard to the building geometry, there are totally 5 pumps. One the public area at LG/F and
G/F while the others for the voids in the residential block ( 2 for Block 1 & 2 for Block 2). Base on
the following information, the duty pump rating can be determined.

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## (a) Duty Pump for LG/F and G/F

According to the building geometry, the horizontal pipe run from the F/S pump room to the farthest
shop 4 is 50m while the vertical pipe run from the pump at LG1 to the ceiling level of G/F is 6.5m.
Also, the actual pump rating is accessed by adding the nominal rating to a 10% safety factor. Hence,
the result is shown as follow.
G/F
Public Services

height)

OH III

Control valves

3.5m (Floor-to-floor
LG1

3m

Nominal flow
L = 50m pipe run + 4 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 50 + 4(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 72.9 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 72.9 x (2250)1.85
= 1.57 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 6.5
= 0.65 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 1.4 + 1.57 + 0.65
= 3.62 bar/2250L=36.2 mH/2250L
The actual flow requirement = 40mH/2250L
High flow
L = 50m pipe run + 4 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 50 + 4(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 72.9 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 72.9 x (2250)1.85
= 1.57 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 6.5
= 0.65 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 2.9 + 1.57 + 0.65
= 5.12bar/1350L = 51.2mH/1350L
The actual flow requirement = 56mH/1350L
Low flow
L = 50m pipe run + 4 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 50 + 4(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 72.9 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 72.9 x (2250)1.85
= 1.57 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 6.5
= 0.65 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 3.2 + 1.57 + 0.65
= 5.42bar/2250L = 54.2mH/1100L
The actual flow requirement = 60mH/1100L

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## AppendixII - Fire Services System

Since the maximum height of a zone is 45m, the maximum reached floor is 14. Therefore, The
served floors for zone 1 are ranged from 1/F to 14/F. Also, the same as before, the actual pump
rating is accessed by adding the nominal rating to a 10% safety factor. Hence, the result is shown
as follow.
14/F
40m
OH III

G/F

Control valves

3m

Nominal flow
L = 70m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 70 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 94.8 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 94.8 x (3100)1.85
= 3.68 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 40
= 4 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 2.5 + 3.68 + 4
= 10.2 bar/3100L=102 mH/3100L
The actual flow requirement = 115mH/3100L
High flow
L = 70m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 70 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 94.8 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 94.8 x (3100)1.85
= 3.68 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 40
= 4 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 5.9 + 3.68 + 4
= 13.6 bar/3100L=136 mH/1350L
The actual flow requirement = 150mH/1350L
Low flow
L = 70m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 70 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 94.8 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 94.8 x (3100)1.85
= 3.68 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 40
= 4 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 6.2 + 3.68 + 4
= 13.9 bar/3100L=139 mH/1100L
The actual flow requirement = 153mH/1100L

28/F
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## AppendixII - Fire Services System

40m
OH III

15G/F

Control valves

43m

Nominal flow
L = 110m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 110 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 135m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 135 x (3100)1.85
= 5.24 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 80
= 8 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 2.5 + 5.24 + 8
= 15.8 bar/3100L=158 mH/3100L
The actual flow requirement = 173mH/3100L

High flow
L = 110m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 110 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 135m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 135 x (3100)1.85
= 5.24 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 80
= 8 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 5.9 + 5.24 + 8
= 19.2 bar/1350L=192 mH/1350L
The actual flow requirement = 211mH/1350L

Low flow
L = 110m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 110 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 135m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 135 x (3100)1.85
= 5.24 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 80
= 8 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 6.2 + 5.24 + 8
= 19.5 bar/1100L=195 mH/1100L
The actual flow requirement = 215mH/1100L

10/F
28m
OH III

G/F
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## AppendixII - Fire Services System

Control valves

3m

Nominal flow
L = 70m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 58 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 52.8 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 52.8 x (3100)1.85
= 2.05 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 28
= 2.8 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 2.5 + 2.05 + 2.8
= 7.35 bar/3100L=73.5mH/3100L
The actual flow requirement = 81mH/3100L

High flow
L = 70m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 58 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 52.8 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 52.8 x (3100)1.85
= 2.05 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 28
= 2.8 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 5.9 + 2.05 + 2.8
= 10.8 bar/3100L=108 mH/1350L
The actual flow requirement = 118mH/1350L

Low flow
L = 70m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 58 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 52.8 m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 52.8 x (3100)1.85
= 2.05 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 28
= 2.8 bar
The nominal flow requirement = 6.2 + 2.05 + 2.8
= 11.1 bar/3100L=111 mH/1100L
The actual flow requirement = 122mH/1100L

18F
20m
OH III

Control valves

11F

34m
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## AppendixII - Fire Services System

Nominal flow
L = 84m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 84 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 109m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 109 x (3100)1.85
= 4.23 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 54
= 5.4bar
The nominal flow requirement = 2.5 + 4.23 + 5.4
= 12.1 bar/3100L=121 mH/3100L
The actual flow requirement = 133mH/3100L

High flow
L = 84m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 84 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 109m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 109 x (3100)1.85
= 4.23 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 54
= 5.4bar
The nominal flow requirement = 5.9 + 4.23 + 5.4
= 15.5 bar/1350L=155 mH/1350L
The actual flow requirement = 171mH/1350L
Low flow
L = 84m pipe run + 5 bends + 2 gate valve + 1 tee + 1 alarm
= 84 + 5(1.89) + 2(0.81) + 8.61 + 5.07
= 109m
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 109 x (3100)1.85
= 4.23 bar
Pd = 0.1 x 54
= 5.4bar
The nominal flow requirement = 6.2 + 4.23 + 5.4
= 15.8 bar/1100L=158 mH/1100L
The actual flow requirement = 174mH/1100L

From the above calculation, the duty pump ratings can be found. In addition, the duty curves are
summarized as below:

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Zone 1(Block 1)
Zone 2(Block 1)
250
Zone 1(Block
2)
Zone 2(Block 2)

725
62
155
217
123
180

1100
60
153
215
122
174

1350
1750
2350
56 Duty Pump
44 Chart 38
150
141
131
211
200
190
118
105
97
171
165
153

2700

3100

123
181
88
145

115
173
81
133

200

150

Zone 1(Block 1)
Zone 2(Block 1)
Zone 1(Block 2)
Zone 2(Block 2)

100

50

0
725

1100

1350

1750

2350

2700

3100

Flow rate

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## 2.2.2 Jockey Pump

From BS5306, Part 2, each installation rise pipe shall be with a jockey pump to maintain the static
pressure at any check or alarm valve at not less than 1.25 times the static head difference between
the valve and the highest installation.
Jockey pump head = Static head x 1.25 x 1.1 (safety margin)
In addition, the minimum design density for OHIII = 5 mm/min
the minimum conceal for OHIII area = 60 l/min
= 1 l/s
According to the following regulation, the rating of jockey pumps can be found as follow:
Pump
Jockey pump for LG/F & G/F
Jockey pump for zone 1 (Block 1)
Jockey pump for zone 2 (Block 2)
Jockey pump for zone 1 (Block 2)
Jockey pump for zone 2 (Block 2)

Rating
8.1 mH/1 l/s
60 mH/1 l/s
115 mH/1 l/s
43 mH/1 l/s
74.5mH/1 l/s

2.3 Pressure for starting the jockey, duty and standby pumps
As mentioned before, the duty pump, jockey pump and standby pump will operate automatically
when the pressure drop below 95%, 90% and 80% of the designated pressure, Their starting
pressures are as follow:
Pumps for Public Services at LG/F & /GF
Type of Pump
Duty pump
Jockey pump
Standby pump

Starting pressure
8.1mH x 0.95 = 7.7 mH
8.1mH x 0.9 = 7.3 mH
8.1mH x 0.8 = 6.5 mH
Pumps for zone 2 (Block 1)
Type of Pump
Duty pump
Jockey pump
Standby pump

Starting pressure
115mH x 0.95 = 110 mH
115mH x 0.9 = 104 mH
115mH x 0.8 = 92 mH

## Pumps for zone 1 (Block 1)

Type of Pump
Duty pump
Jockey pump
Standby pump

Starting pressure
60mH x 0.95 = 57 mH
60mH x 0.9 = 54 mH
60mH x 0.8 = 48 mH

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## Pumps for zone 2 (Block 2)

Type of Pump
Duty pump
Jockey pump
Standby pump

Type of Pump
Duty pump
Jockey pump
Standby pump

Starting pressure
74mH x 0.95 = 71 mH
74mH x 0.9 = 67 mH
74mH x 0.8 = 60 mH

Starting pressure
43mH x 0.95 = 41 mH
43mH x 0.9 = 39 mH
43mH x 0.8 = 35 mH

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## 2.4 Pipe Sizing

2.4.1 Sprinkler Tank incoming pipe

y l/s

Water
Tank
Pumps

Water
Main
G

## 2250 l/min (From

Table 28 of
BS5306)

Effective Volume
= 75m3
The internal tank size =
10200(L) x 6050(W) x 1620(H)mm

y

## = {(max. pump flow rate)x 60 min - V in litres } /

= {2250 l/min x 60 - 75 (1000 ) }/ 60x60
= 17 l/s

## For the flow rate of incoming water pipe = 17 l/s,

according to CIBS 4, 100mm galvanized pipes are used
Pipe velocity = 1.8 m/s, pressure loss per unit length = 350 Pa/m
2.4.2 Sprinkler Duty Pump Suction Pipe
Since the depth of water stored in the sprinkler tank is greater than 2m, the pump set is regarded as
being under suction lift From table 30 of BS5306, the suction pipe size is 200mm diameter for
Ordinary Hazard Group III.
2.4.3 Sprinkler Duty Pump Discharge Pipe
Since the discharge pipe is then connected to the sprinkler control valve and the riser, the minimum
size should be the same as the riser(100mm). Therefore, the size of discharge pipe is 100mm
diameter.
2.4.4 Sprinkler Jockey Pump Suction and Discharge Pipe
Due to the function of the pump, only very little water will be passed and the hence flow rate is very
small (1 l/s), 50mm diameter pipes are chosen.
2.4.5 Sprinkler Upfeed Pipe & Distribution Pipe
From BS5306 Part 2, the distribution pipes(include all risers and drops), between the highest design
point in the installation and the sprinkler installation main control valve set(in low-rise installation),
shall be sized by hydraulic calculation based on the values of table 59. The maximum friction loss
shall not exceed 0.5 bar at a flow rate of 1000 l/min.
In the proposed building, since heavy grade G.I. pipe is used, the pressure loss should based on the
following equations:
Static pressure difference (pd) = 0.1h
Pipe and fitting friction loss (PL ) = k x L X Q1.85
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## AppendixII - Fire Services System

As mentioned before, the horizontal pipe run from the F/S pump room to the farthest shop 4 is 50m.
the pressure losses are:
(b) 100mm diameter pipe
PL = 1.35 x 10-8 x 72.9 x (1000)1.85
= 0.35 bar < 0.5bar

## (a) 80mm diameter pipe

PL = 4.97 x 10-8 x 72.9 x (1000)1.85
= 1.29 bar >0.5 bar

100mm heavy grade G.I. pipe is used for the upeed and horizontal distribution pipe.

## 3. Fire Hydrant / Hose Reel System

3.1 Sump Tank, Sump Tank Pump and Riser Sizing
Generally, the transfer tank should hold at least 5 minutes pumps flow rate. Normal range of
holding time is between 5 to 20 minutes, higher the holding time will be better as the pump will
not run all day. i.e. allow 20 mins pumps flow rate the capacity.
The effective capacity = 20 mins x 60s/min x 1.67 l/s
~ 2500 litres
Since the sump tank is used to store the water of two roof tanks( Block 1 and Block 2), the
actual tank size should be double.
The effective capacity of the tank is 5000L
The internal tank size is 2m(L) x 2m(W) x 1.5m(H)
In addition, based on the recommendation of FSD, the 27m3 supply tank for F.H /H.R is to be
filled within 6 hours.
Flow rate of the pump = (27m3 x 1000 litre/m3) / 6 hr x 3600 s/hr
= 1.25 l/s
Assume an internal diameter 100mm galvanised steel pipe is used as the rising main because it
is the commercial size for a building over than 45m height.
Then

## water flow velocity = 1.3m/s

Pressure loss per unit length = 400 Pa /m run
Equivalent length of pipe = 1.7 m
Static head = 140m
Pipe friction loss = 1.35 x 10-8 x (1.67 x 60)1.85 x 140
= 0.0095 ~ 0 ( can be neglected )
Then, the pump head = 140m + 140x 0.04
= 145.6mH
~ 160mH (10% safety margin)
The rating of pumps 1.67 l/s , 160mH are selected.
Diameter of risers = 100mm

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## AppendixII - Fire Services System

According to Code of Practice of Minimum Fire Services Installations and Equipment, the
minimum quantity of water required to be available which is regarded to the floor area factors of
the largest floor. As the gross floor area in the proposed building is Over 460m2 but not
exceeding 920m2. Therefore, a 27000L (27m3) roof tank should be installed in both buildings.
The effective volume of the tank is 27000L
The Internal tank size is 3.5m(L) x 3.5m(W) x 2.5M(H)
Assume an internal diameter 100mm galvanised steel pipe is used as the main distribution pipe.
Then water flow velocity = 1.3m/s
Pressure loss per unit length= 400 Pa /m run
Equivalent length of pipe = 1.7 m
By the relation that Pressure(P) is proportional to the square flow rate (Q),i.e. P Q2,
Pressure at 28/F is 3.5 + 1.5 bar = 5 bar,
Flow rate at 27/F is 450 l/min = 7.5 L/s
k = 8900
Also, Pressure at 27/F is 3.5 + 1.5 + 3 - 3x 0.04 = 7.88 bar
Flow rate = 9.4 L/s
With reference to COP, it states that the fire pumps shall be capable to provide adequate flow for
any 2 hydrant outlets ( i.e. each with a flow of 450 L/min at a running pressure of not less than
350kPa ) operating simultaneously with an aggregate flow of not less than 900 L/min.
The flow rate of the pump = 7.5 + 9.4
= 20L/s = 1020L/min
For the approximate length of horizontal running at roof = 5m,
the static head from the pump to the fire hydrant outlet = 5m and assume there is no fitting loss
Then, the pump head = 50-5+(5+5) x 0.04
~ 60mH (10% safety margin)
The rating for both Roof Pump are 1020 l//min with 60 mH.

## 3.3 Intermediate booster pump

The rating of the pump is the flow rate of any two hydrant outlets each with a flow of 450l/min
at a running pressure of not more than 850kPa.
Rating of Pump = 7.5 x 2
= 15 L/s
= 900 L/S
The Pressure head = 28 x 3 + 28 x 3 x 0.02
= 100 mH.
= 110mH (10% safety margin)
The rating Intermediate booster pump is 900L/min with 110 mH.

## 3.4 Hose reel branch pipe

From clause(i)(b) of 5.14 of the FSD circular letter no. 8/90, rising mains and associated pipework
used for the hose reels shall be not less than 40mm nominal bore and pipes feeding individual hose
reel shall not be less than 25mm nominal bore.
All hose reel pipes shall be 40mm except the pipes feed to individual hose reel shall be 25mm

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