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CheatDayStrategiesForAHedonist

5:52PM|PostedbyMartinBerkhan

CanyouavoidfatgainduringcheatdaysandholidayfeastslikeThanksgivingandChristmas?Sure,you
can.Butifyou'reabigeaterthatlovesfood,likeme,it'smoreaquestionofminimizingfatstoragethan
attemptingtoavoidit.Andtrustme,there'safewniftystrategiesthatcanbeusedfordamagecontrol
whilestillenjoyingholidayhedonism,cheesecakemasteryandspontaneousfeastsofallsorts.

Thekeytodamagecontrolduringadlibitum("atone'spleasure")eatingspreesliesnotonlyinhow
muchyoueatbutalsowiththechoiceofmacronutrients.Foodcombinationvoodoo?No,justpurefacts
basedonnutrientmetabolismandscience.

Thequestionisalsohowtoquicklygetbackontrackforthereisnodoubtthatbigeaterscaneat
thousandsofsurpluscaloriesthatdoleadtofatgainandpostholidaybloat.Oneofthe"secrets"
tomaintaininglowbodyfatwhilestillbeingabletoenjoywildexcessfromtimetotimeisthereforeto
makeaquickturnaroundinthedaysafter.

LastweekendIatemoundsofporterbeef,stuffedgooseandcheesecake.Ah,howIlovesuchdaysof
unfetteredhedonism.


CheatdaysandRefeeds

InthisarticleI'llbeusing"cheatday"and"feasts"interchangeablybuttheyarebothsynonymsfor
shorttermoverfeedingofvariousdurationsandmagnitudes.Thesamegeneralprincipleswillapply,
moreorless.A"refeed"isoftenusedinthecontextofastructureddietapproach.Ittendstobemore
strictandplannedintermsofmacronutrientcomposition(highcarb,lowfat.)

WhileIwilldiscussrefeedsinbrief,thisarticlewillmainlydiscussoverfeedingofamixeddietthatis,
whatyoushouldtakeintoconsiderationonThanksgiving,attheChristmasdinnertable,oranyother
occasionwhereyouwillbepresentedwithlotsoftastyfoods.

Myplanisnottotellyouexactlywhattoeatorhowmuchofitthatwouldbeabsurd.Idon't
encouragesomeonetocountcaloriesonThanksgivingDayorsimilarsuchoccasions.Instead,I'lltalk
aboutsomefactorsthatwilldeterminehowmuchfatyouendupputtingonandhowyoucan
potentiallyreducethetimespentmakingupforyoursplurging.

First,let'slookatthegeneraleffectsofoverfeedinganddosomemythdebunkingintheprocess.

EffectsofOverfeeding

Itendtolookatcheatdaysandfeastsmostlyaspsychologicalreliefandfun,butyou'lloftenseesome
overlyoptimisticclaimsaboutcheatdaysbeingmadeinthefitnesscommunity;howitboostsyour
metabolicrateandtricksyourbodyinto"fatburningmode"fortherestoftheweek.There'ssometruth
tothis,buttherealimpactofcheatdaysareexaggeratedifyoulookatthenumbersyou'redealingwith.

Studiesonoverfeedingshowsthatmetabolicratetypicallyincreasesabout68%forupto24hoursafter
feeding.There'salsolargedifferencesinbetweenindividuals,illustratedbythefactthatthemagnitude
oftheincreaserangesfrom310%.Thosepronetoobesity("thrifty"phenotypes)tendtobeinthelower
range(3%),whilethenaturallylean("spendthrifty"phenotype)tendtobeintheupperrange(10%).
Eitherway,fromafatlossperspectiveit'snotreallyjustifiedtoeatthousandsofsurpluscaloriestoburn
afewhundredcaloriesextra.

Theotherargument,abouttrickingyourbodyintofatlossmode,usuallyalludestotheeffect
ofoverfeedingcarbsonleptin.Foraleanperson,orforsomeoneoneaprolongeddietingstint,low

leptinisanissue.Thishormone,thekingofhungerregulation,controlsmetabolicrate,
appetite,motivationandlibido,amongotherthings.Leptindropswheneveryourbodysensesacalorie
deficitandwhenfatmassislost.

Thereversehappenswhenyourbodysensesacaloriesurplus.Asurplustemporarilyboostsleptin,
whichleadstodownstreameffectsonfatoxidation,thyroid,dopamineandtestosterone.Inthecontext
ofdieting,refeedsarethereforebeneficial.

However,similartotheeffectsofoverfeedingonmetabolicrate,aleptinboostisalsorathertransient
anddropsagainonceyouresumeyourdietandyourbodysensesthedeficit.It'sforthisreasonIprefer
tousefrequentbutmoderateoverfeeding,orrefeeds,aspartoftheLeangainsapproach.Usuallyin
conjunctionwithweighttrainingtotakeadvantageoftheanaboliceffects.

Whatmacronutrientcausesthegreatestboostinleptincaloriepercalorie?Thehierarchylookslikethis:

1.Carbohydrate.(Glucosenotsucroseorfructose.)

2.Protein.Glucoseissuperiortoprotein,butIsuspectitmightbeabetterchoicetosucroseorfructose.
(I'mquitesurethatproteinhasn'tbeencomparedtosucroseandfructose,butI'lllookintoitjustin
case.)

3.Dietaryfat.

4.Alcohol.Ethanolhasnotbeendirectlycomparedtotheothermacronutrients.However,theeffectis
anegativeone.Whileonestudyactuallyfoundapositiveeffectonleptin,moststudiespointtowards
aninhibitoryeffect.Strangely,areverseeffecthasbeenseeninwomenfromredwine.Iwonderifthis
hassomethingtodowiththefactthatalcoholconsumptionisassociatedwithlowerbodyweightsin
womenbutnotmen.I'llhavetolookintothat.

Duetothesuperioreffectsofcarbsonleptin,andleptin'sdownstreameffectsonmetabolismand
anabolichormones,ahighcarb,moderateproteinandlowfatrefeedistraditionallyrecommendedfor
dietingpurposes.

LyleMcdonaldhaswrittenagreatdealonthistopic,mostextensivelyin"TheUltimateDiet2.0."Though
Iamnofanofthedietitself,thebookisatremendousresourceforanyoneinterestedinthephysiology
ofdietinganditsimpactonvarioushormonalparameters.

Lylehasalsowrittenalengthyanddetailedarticleseriesonleptin.Ihighlyrecommenditifthistopic
piquesyourinterest:"BodyWeightRegulation:LeptinPart1."

However,alowfat,highcarbrefeedisobviouslynotsodoableduringThanksgivingDay,Christmas,or
anyothersuchoccasions.Afewdifferentfactorsshouldbetakenintoaccountoncheatdaysandfeasts.

RestassuredthatIhavedocumentedmyrecentcheesecakemasteryingreatdetail.ThistimeIusedan
ancientanddarktechniquethatisnottobetakenlightly.I'lltellyoumoreaboutitinthenearfuture.

NutrientMetabolism:AQuickPrimer

Thisisaquickprimeronnutrientmetabolism,asitwillhelpyouunderstandsomeoftheconcepts
discussedlateron.

TheeasiestwaytothinkaboutnutrientmetabolismisintermsoftheRespiratoryQuotient(RQ)and
insulin.Theyareassociatedwheninsulinishigh,RQishigh,andviceversa.Here'saquote
from"IntermittentFastingandStubbornBodyFat":

"Afteryoueat,insulinandfattyacidsareelevated.Youareinthefedstateandthere'szerofatburning
goingon.Yourbodyisrelyingcompletelyonglucoseoxidationduringthehoursfollowingthemeal."

Thisdoesn'tmeanthatyou'llbeburningmorebodyfatifyoufollowalowcarbhighfatdiet,orthat
you'llneverburnfatonhighcarbdiets.Inenergybalance,24hourRQisreflectiveof
themacrocompositionofthedietratherthanfatgainorfatlossperse.Dietaryfathasinsulin
independentstoragemechanisms(ASP)and"fatbalance"(netstorageofdietaryfat)isprimarily
dictatedbytotalcalorieintakeattheendoftheday.Thetimecourseandtrendinsubstrate
metabolismwillbedifferentdependentofthecarb:fatratio,butnottheneteffect.

Keypoint

OverfeedingelevatesRQforseveralhoursuptoadayevenandindicatesthatglucosemetabolismis
dominant.Sinceglucosemetabolismishigh,fatburningisloworinsignificant.Thismetabolicstate
allowsnetstorageofdietaryfat.Carbs,proteinandalcoholallelevateRQandaffectsfatburning
negatively.DietaryfatdoesnotaffectRQbuthasinsulinindependentwaysofgettingintofatcells.

Knowingthisis,aretheresomewaystolimitfatgaininmixeddietoverfeedingorisitallabout
calories?Toanswerthis,let'slookattheenergycostsforfatstorageofvariousmacronutrients.

EnergyCostofFatStorage:TheMacronutrientHierarchy

Duringoverfeeding,surpluscaloriesarestoredasfatwithagreatdealofvaryingefficacy.

(Frommostlikelytobestoredasfatinadiposetissueduringoverfeedingtoleastlikely.)

1.Dietaryfat.

Theenergycostforstorageofdietaryfatisminimal(02%dependingonsaturation.)

2.Carbohydrate.

Theconversionofcarbstofat,denovolipogenesis(DNL),ishardlysignificantinhumansandusually
onlyoccurswhenglycogenstoresaresaturated(i.e.prolongedhighcarboverfeeding).Thisdoesnot
mattermuchinpracticalterms,astherewillbeplentyofdietaryfatinmixeddietoverfeeding.Carbs
promotefatgainbyreducingfatoxidation,asexplainedbefore.There'ssomevariancebetween
individualshere,basedongenetics,metabolicstateandhabitualdietpatterns.Enzymesthatmodulate
DNLareupregulatedinhabitualhighcarbdietsandintheobese.Anotherfactorthatplayarole
isinsulinsensitivity.Therearesimilarindividualaspectstothestorageofdietaryfataswell(mediated
byLPLandASP.)


Inmetabolicallyhealthyhumans,theenergycostforDNLisapproximately25%.Inpracticalterms,this
meansthat3outof4caloriescanbeusedforfatsynthesisoncea"carbohydratesurplus"isachieved
(aftersaturatedglycogenstores).Giventhatglycogenstoresareneverfullinconditionsofenergy
balance,peoplehavealarge"carbsink"touseupbeforecarbscontributetofatgaindirectly.(Until
then,theeffectofcarbsisindirectviasuppressionoffatmetabolism.AmIbeingredundantyet?)

Theaboveisinparticularreferencetoglucose;sucroseandfructosearemorelipogenicduetosome
differencesinmetabolicpathways.Fructosedonotgotomuscleglycogenstores,buttoliverglycogen
andthisglycogendepotissignificantlysmallerthanmuscleglycogen.OnestudycomparingDNLfrom
glucoseandsucroseoverfeedinginleanandobesepeople,showedDNLtobe10%and20%higher
respectivelyafterthesucroseexperiment.*

*Fromresults:"Thetypeofcarbohydrateoverfeeding(sucroseorglucose)hadnosignificanteffecton
denovolipogenesisineithersubjectgroup."Whichmeansthatthedifference(1020%)wasnotenough
tobedeemedsignificantfromascientificstandpoint.Fructoseoverfeedinghasnotbecomparedto
glucoseinacontrolledstudy,butjudgingfromthisstudy,DNLwouldlikelybesubstantial(sucroseishalf
fructose,halfglucose)

3.Proteinandalcohol.

Theenergycostforstorageofaminoacidsandethanolasfatareveryhardtoquantifyfor
methodological,biochemicaland(inthecaseofethanol),ethicalreasons.Nocontrolledstudieshas
beenperformed.However,it'ssafetoconcludethatthesetwosubstratesserveasverypoorprecursors
forfattyacidsynthesisforafewdifferentreasons.

Firstofall,thethermiceffectoftheseparatemacronutrientsis2030%forprotein,~5%for
carbohydrate,and03%forfat.TotalTEFisgenerallysaidtobe10%oftotalcalorieintake,butthis
numberisforthestandardAmericandiet,whichislowinprotein,relativelyspeaking.TEFforalcoholis
hardertoestimate,asvaluesrangebetween1030%invariousstudies.ItalkedaboutalcoholandTEF
in"TheTruthAboutAlcohol,FatLossandMuscleGrowth":

"Alcoholislabeledas7.1caloriespergram,buttherealvalueismorealongthelinesof5.7caloriesdue
tothethermiceffectoffood(TEF)whichis20%oftheingestedcalories.ThismakestheTEFofalcohola
closesecondtoprotein(2030%dependingonaminoacidcomposition)."

Inasimilarvein,therealcaloricvalueofproteinwouldbecloserto3kcal/gandnot4kcal/gasit's
currentlylabelled.Indeed,argumentsthatwerevampnutritionallabelingtomorecloselymatchthe
truemetabolicimpactbyvariousmacronutrientshasbeenmade.Liveseyproposedthatproteinshould

becountedas3.2kcal/g,forexample.

Furthercomplicatingtheissueinregardstoquantifyingfatsynthesisfromproteinistheaminoacid
compositionoftheproteinconsumed,asitvariesdependingontheproteinsource.Aminoacidsare
eitherglucogenic,ketogenic,orboth,andusedifferentmetabolicpathwaysforfatsynthesis.For
example,aglucogenicaminoacidmustfirstbeconvertedtoglucose(denovogluconegenesis)onceit
cancontributetofatsynthesisviadenovolipogenesis,whileaketogenicaminoacidcancontributeviaa
moredirectpathway(viaacetylCoA).

Imightrevisitthistopicagainsomeday,asI'vediscusseditwithsomesmartbiochemists,butthekey
pointhereisthatproteincannotcontributetofatgaindirectlytoanymeaningfuldegree.Eveninhighly
artificialscenarios,suchasoverfeedingthousandsofcaloriesofpureprotein,wouldyieldfatgainthatis
alotlessthanwhat'sestimatedfromtraditionalformulas(i.e.700caloriesurplusoffatorcarbs=+0.1
kgweightgainisnottrueforaproteinsurplus).

Similartocarbohydrate,proteinandalcoholactsimilarlyascarbsinregardstometabolism.Thatis,they
bluntfatoxidation.However,whilecarbscancontributetofatgaindirectlyonceglycogenstoresare
full,proteinandethanolareunlikelytodoso.(Ethanolmetabolismwasexplainedindetailin"TheTruth
AboutAlcohol,FatLossandMuscleGrowth".)

Keypoint

Inmixeddietoverfeeding,macrocompositionmatters.Incomparingtwodietsatthesamecalorieintake
say5000caloriestheonewiththehighestpercentageofcaloriesfromproteinyieldstheleastfat
gain.ThisismainlyexplainedbyTEFandthepoorefficacywithwhichproteincancontributedirectlyto
fatsynthesis.

Whatotherfactorsneedtobeconsideredforsomeonewhowantstominimizefatgainduring
overfeeding?

Satiety:EffectsofMacronutrients

Thisisacomplicatedtopictoaddressinreallifeterms,asmostpeopledonoteat"protein"and"carbs"
theyeatfood,andfoodcompositionmattersgreatly.Whileproteinisclearlysuperiortobothfatand
carbs,awheyshakelikelyprovideslesssatietyonacaloriepercaloriebasisthanforexamplean
equicaloricamountoffibrousveggies,eventhoughtheformerislowerinproteinandhigherincarbs.
Similarly,anequicaloricamountofsteakandwholeeggsismoresatiatinginboththelongandshort

termthanchickenandrice.

Addingtothat,there'sagoodmeasureofdifferenceinbetweenindividuals,asevidencedwiththe
varyingamountsofsuccesspeoplehavewithhighorlowcarbdietsrespectively.

Furthercomplicatingtheissue,there'sthe"hedonic"aspecttoconsider.Simplyput,atastyand/or
sweetprotein,carb,orfatbasedmealmightaffecthowmuchyouendupeating.

Withthatinmind,here'swhatresearchshows.

1.Protein.

Proteinissuperiortocarbsandfatintakeinbothshorttermandlongtermhungersuppression.This
seemstoberelatedtonotonlyastrongereffectonappetiteregulatinghormones(i.e.ghrelin,PYYand
GLP1),butalsotoitshighTEF.

2.Carbsandfat.

Upuntilafewyearsago,carbsweregenerallyregardedassuperiortofatintermsofsatietyona
caloriepercaloriebasis.Theproblemwiththestudiesthisbeliefwasbasedonwastheshortduration
usedformeasuringappetiteregulatinghormonesandsubjectivemeasuresofsatietyandfullness.In
recentyears,bettermethodologicalapproachesshowamorenuancedpicture.Insummary,itcanbe
saidthatcarbssuppressappetitebetterintheshortterm,whilefatwinsoutinthelongterm.

Thecarbohydratehierarchyintermsofbestappetitesuppressionfromsource:Glucose>sucrose>
fructose.

Withregardstosatietyfromdifferentfattyacids,there'snosignificantdifferencebetweensaturated,
monounsaturatedorpolyunsaturatedfat.(Anotherstudyshowedsimilarresults.)

3.Alcohol.

From"TheTruthAboutAlcohol,FatLossandMuscleGrowth":

"IshigherTEFareasonableexplanationforlowerbodyfatpercentageinregulardrinkers?Weneedto
considerthatalcoholdoesnotaffectsatietylikeothernutrients.Thedisinhibitionofimpulsecontrol
thatfollowsintoxicationmayalsoencourageovereating.Evercomehomefromapartyinthemiddleof
thenightanddownedaboxofcereals?That'swhatImean."

Addingtothat,notewhatIwroteaboutleptinearlier:

"Ethanolhasnotbeendirectlycomparedtotheothermacronutrients.However,theeffectisanegative
one.Whileonestudyactuallyfoundapositiveeffectonleptin,moststudiespointtowardsaninhibitory
effect.

Alcoholclearlyprovidesnothinginregardstosatietyandmayevenencourageovereatingbyaffecting
impulsecontroland/orleptin.Foroccasionswherelargequantitiesofalcoholisconsumed,youmayfind
thestrategyoutlinedinmyarticleaboutalcoholuseful("Howtolosefatorpreventfatgainwhen
drinking.")

Keypoint

Foodcomposition,individualdifferencesandhedonicaspectsaside,proteinissuperiortocarbsandfat
intermsofsatietyandappetitesuppression.

I'venowcoveredwhatyouneedtoknowaboutmacronutrientsinordertomakeaninformeddecision
aboutfoodchoicesoncheatdaysorholidayeatingsprees.Let'slookathowthisinformationcanbeput
touseinpractice.

CheatDayStrategies

Herearesomestrategiesyoumightfinduseful.TheyarehowIapproachcheatdaysandholidayfeasts,
andwhatIencouragemyclientstodo.First,howeverletmeaddresswhatyoushouldnotbedoing.

1.Don'tstressit.

Somepeople"precompensate"holidaysbytrainingthemselvesintothegroundand/orreducecalories
significantlyinthedaysleadinguptothefeast.Ihighlyrecommendyoudonotdothis,sinceIcan
almostguaranteethatyouwillendupeatingalotmorethanyouwouldnormallyifyouapproach
holidaysorfeastsina"deprived"mindset.

Itouchedonthisissuein"IntermittentFasting,SetPointandLeptin."Onthefollyof"planning"abig
mealorrefeedattheendofthedietinsteadoftakingitniceandeasy,Isaid:

"...Iwouldsitandplanmybigrefeedmealattheendofthediet.Iwouldcounteverydaylikeaninmate
countingthedaystohisreleasefromprison.AndonceIreachedmygoal,Iwouldgobonkers,eata
bunchofcrap,takeseveralstepsbackandthengobacktodietinginafeebleattempttomakeupformy
screwedup'refeed'(akabingeinmycase)."

Takeitniceandslowdon'tdoanythingstupidinthedaysbefore.Noneedtotrainyourbuttoffand
depleteglycogen,noneedtoupyourcardiototwohoursaday.You'lljustendupeatingmorejunkif
youdo.Thisisduetoacombinationofpsychologyandphysiology(i.e.plummetingleptin.)

Thetopicofcaloriecompensationisawellknownphenomenon;it'spartofwhyexercisedoesn't
producethepredictedweightlossinsomepeople.ThisisbasedonstudiesonAverageJoesandJanes,
anddonotapplyinmostcircumstancestothepeoplereadingthisarticle.However,withspecific
referencetoholidayeatingandcheatdays,IdefinitelynoticeatendencyinmyselftoeatmorethanI
normallywouldifItrainorreducecaloriesinthedayleadinguptotheoccasion.

Surelysomepeoplegetawaywithitanddon'tcompensatebutinmyexperiencethosewhothinkthey
areexemptfromtherulearetheonestowhichtheruleapplies.

2.Createacaloriebuffer.

Onthedayofthefeast,you'llwanttomakesureyouhaveabuffersavedupfortheoccasion.You'll
eitherwanttoreduceyourmealfrequencyasmuchasyoucanorreduceyourcalorieintakeinthe
mealsleadinguptothefeast.

Ifpossible,fastupuntilthebigmeal.Thisiseasyandabitofanobrainerforthoseusedtointermittent
fasting.Ifyouareusedto16hourfastspermyusualrecommendations,itshouldnotbeanissueto
prolongitfurther,i.e.doinga2024hourfast("EatStopEat"style).

Makesureyoueatahighproteinmealonthedaybefore,asusualpreferablywithfibertoslowdown
absorption.That'salsoagoodpracticeforregularLeangainsfastsbutit'sevenmoresoimportantfor
>16hourfaststoavoidhungerpangsinmyexperience.Shouldhungerbecomeunbearable,whichI've

neverexperiencedevenduringprolongedfasting,drinksomecoffeeand/oreataplateoffibrous
vegetables.

Thesecondbeststrategyifyou'renotusedtointermittentfastingistousea"highproteinlow
everythingelse"dietleadinguptothefeast.Thiswillmaximizesatietyforthelowestamountof
calories.Here'sanexampleassumingyouhaveyourbigfeastplannedfordinneroraroundevening,58
PMorso:

1012PM:4050gprotein,tracecarbsandfat(~200250kcal)

23PM:Sameasabove.

58PM:Thegrandfeast.BeitThanksgivingDinner,cheesecakemasteryorwhateverelseyouhave
plannedthatinvolveseatingyourselfsilly.

Foraregularguy,theaboveplanallowsabout2000caloriesofgoodnessduringthebigmealuntilany
significantfatgainoccurs.Still,ifyou'relikemeyoucaneatawholelotmorethanthatinonesitting.
Nextwe'llhavealookatwhatyoucandofordamagecontrolduringthemealitself.

Bytheway,here'saprotip:Ifyoudon'tknowhowtomakea"highprotein,loweverythingelse"diet
bearable,youneedtotryproteinfluff.I'veyettoencounteramoresatiatingandtastyhighprotein
treat.

Proteinfluff;Imistakenlywrotethatyou'dneedcaseinormilkproteinisolateforthis,butpeoplereport
gettingrespectablefluffswithsomewheyproteinbrandsaswell.Giveitagoyou'llloveit.

3.Proteinpriority.

Intheshortterm,splurgingonhighcarb,highproteinandlowfatfoodswouldleadtoinsignificantfat
gain,asglycogenstoreswouldsoakupmostofthecarbs(whichwouldseverelylimitDNL.)However,
suchanapproachisnotveryappealing,orrealistic,ifyouwanttoexperiencethesplendorof
ThanksgivingandChristmas.Idon'tknowaboutyou,butIneverthinkofthegiftsonChristmasIthink
ofallthefoodIgettoeat:D

Here'showIsuggestyouapproachtheeatingspreethatisabouttoensue:

*Varyfatandcarbintaketopersonalpreferencebutmakeproteinahighpriority."Proteinfirstcarbs
andfatfortaste".Ifyouthinkofyourmealslikethis,it'llautomaticallyraisethepercentageofprotein
duringthemeal,increasingTEFandsatiety.

*Inregardstotheorderwhichyoueatyourfoods,Isuggestmainlyfocusingonprotein,fatandvolume
(i.e.veggies)firstandthenaddcarbsinlater.Inmypersonalexperience,thistendstomaximizeboth
shorttermandlongtermsatietyandreducecalorieintakelateron.Fathasalatenteffectonappetite
suppression,soeatingmorefatearlieronmakessense.

*Donotneglectfoodvolumeifpossible,trytofilluponveggiesinyourearlymealsandsavethemore
caloriedensestuffforlateron.

*Sucrose,fructoseandliquidcalories,i.e.treats,cakesandalcohol,shouldpreferablybeaddedinlast,
whenyou'refullfromthemainmeal(s).

4.Limitchoices,notamounts.

Studiesshowthatwhenpeoplearepresentedwithmultiplefoodchoices,theyeatmore.Infact,calorie
intakeduringabuffetscalesalmostlinearlywiththeamountofdifferentfoodstochoosefrom.IfI
offeredyouunlimitedamountsofturkeyandcheesecake,you'dlikelyonlyeatsomuchofitbeforeyou
felt"full"andsatisfied.

However,ifIthrewathirdfoodintothemix,likepotatoesorchocolatepudding,you'dendupeatinga

lotmoreevenifyouweren'tafanofpotatoesorchocolatepuddinginnormalcircumstances.Humans
arewiredabitfunnyandsomebehaviorsaremaladaptiveinourenvironmentofexcesses.Havinga
tasteofeverythingwasagoodstrategyduringourevolution,sinceitprotectedagainmicronutrient
deficiencies.

By"mentallylimiting"thefoodchoicesyouallowyourself,i.e.onlyeatingthatwhichyouabsolutelylove
andcrave,canbeaveryeffectivestrategyinregulatingcalorieintakewithoutfeelingdeprived.
Remember,youdon'tneedtotasteofeverydamnfoodortreatthatisoffered.Sticktothatwhichyou
trulyenjoyeatingandskiptherest.