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Architectural

Architectural Office
Office Practices
Practices and
and Standards
Standards
A Practical Guide to Documentation
and Project Management

VOLUME
VOLUME 33
Working Drawings Handbook

JNX Group, LLC • 165 South Hudson Street • Denver, Colorado 80246 • 720.231.0634 • info@jnxgroup.com

© Copyright 2003-2008
All Rights Reserved

AOPS
Architectural Office Practices and Standards

WORKING
DRAWINGS
HANDBOOK

Principal Author

Larry D. Jenks
JNX Group, LLC
Denver, Colorado
Working Drawings Handbook -- A primer for students and recent graduates to provide a crash
course in creating working drawings and in time management.
There are approximately 17,000 architectural firms across the U.S. and considerably more
world-wide; and approximately 86% of these firms have less than 10 employees. The Working
Drawings Handbook was written with these firms in mind. Our experience suggests that firms
like these may be the least likely to have the financial, human, or technical resources necessary
to produce an in-house guide to producing working drawings. Our goal was to make a ready-touse manual available to firms like these to enable them to focus their energies on creating
architecture.
ISBN 0-9754830-1-3 (print)
ISBN 0-9754830-3-X (CD-ROM)
Copyright © 2003-2007 by JNX Group, LLC. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of
America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this
publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a data
base or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of JNX Group, LLC.
This electronic manuscript was set in Arial by Larry Jenks.
Cover art by Meredith Bradford and Larry Jenks.
Published by the JNX Group, LLC, Denver, Colorado

Information contained in this work has been obtained by JNX Group, LLC from sources
believed to be reliable. However, neither JNX Group, LLC nor its authors guarantee the
accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither JNX Group,
LLC nor its authors shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising
out of use of this information. This work is published with the understanding that JNX
Group, LLC and its authors are supplying information but are not attempting to render
engineering or other professional services. If such services are required, the assistance
of the appropriate professional should be sought.

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..30 Details................................................................................................54 Reference Symbols ..................................................................................19 Record Keeping ............................................................55 Materials Symbols .............21 Drafting Quality ........... VII REFERENCES ................................................................................................................................25 Cross-Referencing.............24 Managing Your Time ...................................................................................................................................22 Model or Object-Based Computer Aided Design/Drafting .....I Table of Figures ...............................................................48 Descriptive Specifications .......................................................................................................................41 CHAPTER 3 -.......................................48 Proprietary Specifications ...........21 Lineweight Hierarchy ............................................40 Drawing Organization — Drawing Identification...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS............................................................................................48 Reference Standards ....... VIII INTRODUCTION ........ iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................15 Drawing............................................................... Checking................................................................................................................................................30 Detail Libraries .......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................SPECIFYING TECHNIQUES ..................................................................................................................33 Photo-Drafting........15 Contract Documents...........................................................................................58 Identity Symbols .......................................................................................STANDARD SYMBOLS ..............................................................................................................21 Sheet Composition and Organization ..................50 CHAPTER 6 -...........................38 Drawing Organization — Sheet Design ........................................................33 Field Verification Guidelines ...........................................48 Performance Specifications .........................................................................................................52 CHAPTER 7 -..................................................................................... and Management Responsibilities .............................................WORKING DRAWINGS.............................................................60 Line Symbols ..........................................................61 i Table of Contents AOPS ©2003 ..........................................................................................................................................TERMINOLOGY ........................INTERIORS DRAWING SHEET STANDARDS ...............................................23 Revisions.......................................................................................................................................................................................31 Starting Point Drawings....................................... X CHAPTER 1 -.....................................................................................................49 CHAPTER 5 -....19 Manual Drawing versus Computer Aided Drafting ...............................................................28 Schedules .....................................................29 Finish Schedules ......................36 Drawing Organization — Cartooning ....................... IV FOREWORD ..............................46 CHAPTER 4 -........................................................................................................................................................................... V PREFACE ....................................24 Spelling...................................................ABBREVIATIONS.......2008 .....................

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...............................................................................................................................................COORDINATING NOTES WITH YOUR DRAWINGS AND SPECS ......................................STANDARD PRACTICE ................................................................................................................80 Floor Plans ................................74 CHAPTER 10 -...........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................71 CHAPTER 9 -.........................................................90 Steps in Writing Notes.....................STANDARD MOUNTING HEIGHTS........82 Reflected Ceiling Plans ............................................................................................................................................85 General Notes for Renovation Construction.................63 Redundancy ...............CREATING THE REDLINE/CHECK SET.................................91 Using Keyed Notation..........................97 CHAPTER 16 – WORK PLANS AND CHECKLISTS FOR TYPICAL DRAWING TYPES...............................................................................................................70 Hierarchical Organization....................................................................................................78 CHAPTER 11 -.........................83 Roof Plans..........................................................................................90 Proper Terminology ...............................................................................................................................................2008 ................... Work Plans and Drawing Checklists for Various Drawing Types .......................80 Wall Sections .68 Drawing Hierarchies ..............................................................84 CHAPTER 12 -.........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................105 INDEX ..............91 System Notation ......92 Abbreviations .........................Text & Template Symbols ........................................................64 Masonry and Coursing Dimensions ...............................................................................................................63 Dimensioning ............................107 ii Table of Contents AOPS ©2003 ............94 CHAPTER 15 -.........................................105 Hyperlinks to Drafting Conventions.........86 CHAPTER 13 -....................REMODEL PROJECTS ......................................................................................................................................................................................92 Drawing Composition ........................................NOTATION & KEYED NOTATION ................WORKING DRAWINGS DOS AND DON’TS .............................GENERAL NOTES........................92 CHAPTER 14 -.........62 CHAPTER 8 -..................................................................................90 Types of Notes........90 General Rules and Requirements .........

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......................................................................................................................................................................................................2008 ...Table of Figures CSI Specification Divisions .........................32 Example of the Use of Photo-Drafting ..........................18 Sample Table of Contents for the Typical Project Notebook .................................................................................102 Typical Furring Channel Installation...17 Traditional Design and Documentation Sequence ..20 Approximate Percentages of Net Architectural Fee Required For Working Drawings Activities....26 Estimated Breakdown of Drawing Tasks ...............................................25 Estimated Allocation of Fees for Working Drawings....................................................................... Rods and Pipe.............................................................................................................................................................42 Sheet Type Designation..........................................................................................................................................17 Process Equipment Subgroup ........................................................................103 iii Table of Figures AOPS ©2003 ....................79 Typical Hollow Metal Frame Installation ..........................16 Facilities Services Subgroup............18 Schematic Design .............16 Site and Infrastructure Subgroup.......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................15 MasterFormat 2004 ............44 Standard Mounting Heights .................................................................................................................................31 Suggested Detail Library Categories .....103 Bars.............................................................................................43 Small Project Organization ..................................................................................27 Detail Libraries...................................37 Discipline Designations .............78 Standard Toilet Room Fixture Mounting Heights: ....................................... Tubes............................................

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The original chapters of both manuals were published by McGraw-Hill in 1995 under the name Architectural Office Standards and Practices: A Practical Users Guide. The following individuals made contributions to the original Architectural Office Standards and Practices: A Practical User’s Guide that was published by McGraw-Hill: Editor. the working title for the manual was Office Practices and User Standards ( O P U S).C. It was produced as a result of the efforts of the Office Practice Committee of the Denver Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. Brand Gould Joe Levi Creative and Technical Consultants Marianne Garehime John Maus Lance Sherwood Graphics and Drawings Bill Campbell Mark McClelland Ben Wilking Warren Lange Elizabeth Rehfeld Maureen Troy Mark Carvalho Lance Sherwood AOPS Logo Design -. AIA /Denver Office Practice Committee Chairman and Principal Author Larry D.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This manual was created as a supplement to the Architectural Office Practices and Standards (A O P S) Manual published by the JNX Group. Jenks Contributing Authors Bruce Bollenbach Mark McClelland Eric Bartczak Cornelius R.2008 .Meredith Bradford iv Acknowledgements A O P S © 2003 . Parts of many sections of this manual were authored during the 20 years I spent with Klipp Colussy Jenks DuBois Architects. P. LLC. (Kin) DuBois David Lay Jeff von Breitenfeld Laurie Jessen Ben Wilking Curt Dale L. The Committee met regularly during the period from 1989 through 1994. in Denver. During that period. Colorado. I want to acknowledge their support of these efforts..

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FOREWORD by Fred Stitt Production of working drawings is the most time-consuming part of architectural design services. The price is too high and the profession must change. it doesn’t. That meant middle-class and upperclass kids would go to the university and become designers. and licensed professionals. and supervisory time. How does change start? What do we do first? What will be done about it is that the nation’s most concerned professionals will start to pull together to make up for the deficiencies of the schools. Last year I reviewed a list of the skills that the National Architectural Accrediting Board expected schools to convey to students. So employees just have to sort of “pick it up. it’s a wonder that things aren’t much worse. you would expect the subject to receive lots of respectful attention by professionals and educators. Almost every year.2008 . With this piecemeal approach to technical education. It was not to be something that “better” people did or thought about. And. I could not find the words “drafting. From whom? From bosses and supervisors who are too busy getting their own work done to offer anything resembling systematic training or formal education. No surprise: You won’t find such subjects taught in most institutions of higher architectural education. How bad is it? The average sheet of working drawings has from four to six major coordination errors. Pretty much. one out of four insured design firms suffers claims for errors or omissions. It was a dumb idea and Fascist to boot.  It requires the most office space.” or “working drawings” anywhere. managers. So how are people supposed to learn it? On the job. The seeds for all this were planted in the 50s and 60s with a movement to “professionalize” architectural education. and construction contract administrators.  And it’s the phase of design most fraught with liability risks. and most of those building failures are traceable to flawed documents. Working-class kids would go to technical schools and become drafters.  It’s the most expensive part of design service. Building failures. resources. labor. big and small. That meant the end of any vestige of prestige or respect for the “technical” side of practice. Contractors are now trained how to seek out and charge extra costs from errors in working drawings — a profit center for them. They’ll create reference manuals like this one — Architectural Office Standards and Practices — which is a major effort towards creating a ready-made production v Foreword A O P S © 2003 . From that perspective.” And they do.” “production. as everybody knows. spec writers. Now we pay the price. but it became the unwritten law of the land. are epidemic across the United States.

and newsletters. San Francisco Institute of Architecture. Editor/Publisher. And more important. They’ll set new standards for enlightened education and ongoing training of design professionals. Author of Production Systems for Architects and Designers. Architect’s Room Design Data Handbook. much needed information on production standards.management manual that most offices can use as is. they’ve provided great information on how to cut drudgery and eliminate some of the more absurd timewasters in working drawing production. manuals. This foreword is from the original edition of “Architectural Office Standards and Practices: A Practical Users Guide”. You’ll find this Architectural Office Standards and Practices manual to be enormously beneficial to your office and I endorse it wholeheartedly. long-overdue reform throughout the profession. Design Office Handbook. Director. Fred Stitt. practical.2008 . The Architect’s Detail Library. and other related books. vi Foreword A O P S © 2003 . Guidelines. Larry Jenks and the fine professionals he has brought together have assembled solid. I see it as an important step toward larger.

Over the last eight years we have moved almost exclusively into the realm of computer aided drafting and we have come to understand the pitfalls and benefits of relying on this technology. which have led to developing methods of producing documentation that reflect periodic labor shortages and the experience levels of recent graduates. and construction document production. Complicated systems that are hard to read and understand without a concentrated effort. will lead to ignoring the documents. vii Preface A O P S © 2003 . You will have to be specific as to exactly what it is you want them to build using procedures that they are familiar with and can recognize.2007 . First. We have had to adapt to changing economic conditions.PREFACE Our objective in issuing this revised addition of the OPUS Manual is twofold. Much of what was written in the original OPUS manual is still valid today and is expanded upon in this updated version. They are not trained in sophisticated graphic design or three-dimensional thinking. The people that will use your documents.  Procedures must be simple and easy to use. design documentation. Complicated systems of explaining your design invite muddled interpretations. Secondly we are providing many new subject areas of document production that need explanation and definition. You won’t get very far speaking English while traveling in France. we are building on experience gained in project management. errors. your audience. We feel that the production concepts that follow reflect a better understanding of the process of communicating our designs to a contractor. The procedures and processes that follow utilize the computer realistically in a document production mode. and a pass the buck mentality. having been created in part by input from Contractors. The same holds true for Construction Documents. assumptions. in order to avoid change orders and compromising your design.  Know your audience. If you want a contractor to build your design. Concepts  Procedures must be easy to check. in good times or bad. you will need to communicate your ideas to him in a language that he understands. are for the most part graduates of short night school courses on “How to Read Blueprints”. We have a better understanding of the limits of the computer and the limits of the draftsperson using it. developed by the Construction Specifications Institute is one such standard language. The Uniform Drawing System. Errors must stand out vividly and in so doing they can be caught more readily. The French prefer that you use their language if you wish to communicate with them.  Procedures should be standardized. and change orders. laziness. The use of mental crutches and rules of thumb are encouraged so that the “out of the ordinary” becomes questioned. We accept that errors will occur and are trying to make them easy to spot and correct before the document is issued for construction.

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1999. Linde/Osamu A. McGraw-Hill. 1994.  NAWIC Construction Dictionary. Phoenix. Honolulu Chapter of the American Institute of Architects. Paul I. Refrigerating. Inc. Inc.REFERENCES  A Manual of Construction Documentation. Wakita.  Systems Drafting. Inc. 1990. 1984.  Architectural Office Standards and Practices: A Practical Users Guide. 1989. American Society of Heating. Alexandria.  Tri-services: Part Two – A/E/C CADD Standards. 1995. McGraw-Hill. 1994. 1984. Northern California Chapter of the American Institute of Architects (The POP Manual).  Guide to Production Procedures. Inc. McGraw-Hill. Stitt. 1997. 1993.S.  The Professional Practice of Architectural Working Drawings. McGraw-Hill.  ASHRAE Handbook – Fundamentals. th viii References A O P S © 2003 . Fred A. McGraw-Hill. and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Whitney Library of Design.  Working Drawing Manual. Richard M. Wiley & Sons. Richard M. 1980. 1989.  Production Systems For Architects and Designers. 1981. 1974. Frederick Jules. 1990. Army Engineers. Guzey and James Freehof.2007 . 1995. Van Nostrand Reinhold. Tri-Service CADD/GIS Technology Center.  Recommended Standards on Production Procedures.  Architectural Graphic Standards 9 Edition. Glenn Wiggins.  ConDoc. the National Association of Women in Construction.  Uniform Drawing Format Manual. Fred Stitt. Inc. U. Construction Specifications Institute. Autodesk Press. Inc. John Wiley & Sons. Wakita. Van Nostrand Reinhold. The American Institute of Architects. Stitt. GA  AutoCAD Conventions For Architects. Inc. Onkal K. John Ray Hoke. Committee on Production Office Procedures. 1997.  Reading Construction Drawings.  The Professional Handbook of Architectural Working Drawings. Inc. John Wiley & Sons. The New System for Formatting and Integrating Construction Documentation. 1998. VA. Atlanta. Fred Stitt. Linde/Osamu A. Wallach.  Time-Saving Techniques for Architectural Construction Drawings. 1999. Fred Nashed. Larry Jenks. AZ. Fred A.  The Uniform Drawing System.

 Being a familiar system to the contractor. out of the many ways of doing things that we had to choose from.2007 . These Guidelines should be questioned and evaluated over the years. A form is provided for suggesting change.Methodology  Read through these Guidelines and understand why.  An accepted. Your input is welcome.  Evaluate these Guidelines based upon the concepts of:  Being able to spot errors.  Simplicity and ease of use. ix References A O P S © 2003 . industry wide recognized way of doing things. these processes were included in the AOPS Manual.

Historically. Indeed. Yet. A typical architectural firm probably has less than 10 employees. and others are performed as part of the routine tasks associated with managing and administrating an architectural office. that has meant that firms which were interested in organizing these aspects of their practices had to scour the scattered sources for this kind of information. although most would agree that it would be a valuable thing to do. Where necessary. and activities that are routinely performed in architectural offices. Moreover. without really understanding what certain procedures are for. It has been our feeling (corroborated through our individual experience) that these are the firms least likely to have the financial or human resources necessary to produce an in-house manual of standard practices. Folks who are new to the profession are left to their own devices to acquire the information. The A O P S Manual – Workings Drawings Student Edition was written with those people in mind. Neither are they the kinds of issues that architects typically feel compelled to convey to younger members of their firms. Hopefully.000 architectural firms nation-wide. management. these kinds of issues are not seriously addressed in the college education that architects receive. consider adopting the one shown. procedures and forms that appear in this manual were prepared for an imaginary office. Most architects are not trained to do this sort of thing. and approximately 86% of these firms have less than 10 employees. your office will bear enough resemblance to this imaginary office that you will be able to use many of them just as they are. functions.2008 . The AOPS Manual was written with these firms specifically in mind. x Introduction A O P S © 2003 . There are many procedures. or administrative procedures into place in their offices. procedures. We wanted to make a ready-touse manual available to these firms so they could focus their energy on creating architecture. the technical and administrative aspects of practice have not been addressed comprehensively in the technical literature.INTRODUCTION Purpose The purpose of this manual is several-fold. or why they are performed in the manner and sequence that they are. Some of these procedures are performed in the course of creating a set of working drawings. If you do not already have a policy or procedure for something included here. we have found it to be uncommon for the individuals in these firms to even think about many of the issues our manual was conceived to address. and may not have the skills to do it well. These firms do not typically have the human or financial resources to put standard production. and conventions. modify the language so that it reflects the actual conditions or methodology of your office. and they usually end up acquiring it in an unstructured way. information. We conceived it to serve as:  A reference for the preparation and development of working drawings in a 1 typical size and type of architectural practice There are approximately 17. or reinvent it themselves. 1 The policies.

Our experience lies primarily in non-residential building types. Nevertheless. However. xi Introduction A O P S © 2003 . We have created the AOPS Manual to fill this niche. Obviously. Our imaginary design team consists of the following: Architect  Principal-in-Charge  Project Manager or Project Architect  Job Captain or Project Captain  Two or more drafters  One or more support staff The roles of each of these team members is described fully in the Job Descriptions included in the Appendix.  An advanced guide and textbook for architecture and interior design students In the Foreword to the AOPS Manual. College and university curricula seem to be slanted heavily toward design. and for no member of the team to consider what he or she does to be “merely drafting. there is no other practical way for students to learn design theory and philosophy. architecture schools have drifted away from emphasizing technical matters. To associate with those technical aspects of architectural practice was to denigrate one’s self in the eyes of family and peers. and the working class of student. The result is that students must learn on the job. contributing members of the architectural profession. 2 I dislike the terms “production” and “drafting” because I believe they marginalize the design work still required at the working drawings phase of documentation. There is a great deal of design required for every detail of a building if the overall design is to be successful.” 3 We’re not saying that this is a bad thing. students must become educated in these kinds of issues.2  A drafting room manual We believe there is an ever-widening gap between the theoretical education most architecture students receive. there is a major part of typical architectural practice (technical documentation) that is not generally addressed effectively in the academic arena. and is (hopefully) a step towards standardizing the way architects perform those things which can and should be standardized. yet the resources available to accomplish this are extremely limited. who become drafters. Typical Project Team The project design team in the imaginary office we have conjured up is fairly typical of the sort of team that might be required for a small to medium-sized project. but there is no reason why the standards proposed here could not be effectively integrated into a practice that focuses on residential projects.2008 . Because of this. and the practical knowledge they need to be productive. My goal is to emphasize the importance of design at all levels of the project team. He says a rift has developed since the late 1950s and early ‘60s between the professional class of student. The AOPS Manual can be used as a reference in any office that seeks to introduce new staff to the manner in which things are done in the real world. and have not provided a balance in the 3 technical areas. who become designers. Fred Stitt cites a shift in architectural education away from the technical and towards the conceptual.

Civil engineering consultant (due to pressure from liability insurance
carriers, the civil engineers may actually be under contract with the owner,
rather than the architect; nevertheless, the working relationship between
the two remains essentially that of architect/consultant, as if the
contractual relationship was between those two entities).
Landscape Architect
Structural engineering consultant
Mechanical engineering consultant
Electrical engineering consultant
The importance of an accepted, industry-wide recognized way of doing
things
This book is about communication.
Its premise is that all completed architectural works, whether “good” or “bad”
in terms of design, whether socially responsible or irresponsible, whether
complex or simple in their content — each and every one must first be
effectively communicated to contractors, masons, steel erectors, plasterers,
painters, and suppliers before they can ever begin to communicate on a
more significant, philosophical level. If we ever hope to see our designs
realized, we must clearly, completely, competently and consistently explain
precisely what it is we want done.
The original A O P S Manual makes certain assumptions about the level of
experience of its readers and users. It is comprehensive and extensive, and
much of its contents seem to be beyond the scope of what architectural
students and interns/apprentices can be expected to learn in a semester of
office practice or working drawings studies. This manual was conceived as
an introduction to working drawings for architectural students and
interns/apprentices who have a basic understanding of the elements of
orthographic projection, and the types of drawings architects use to convey
ideas using two-dimensional media. It is my fantasy that this manual will
become a standard drafting room manual throughout the country.
One of the reasons why I wrote this manual was my belief in a movement
towards national standards. The CSI has made major strides forward in this
regard (in its CSI Uniform Drawing System -- UDS) by consolidating and
publishing many standards that have widely used historically throughout
architectural practices everywhere. Many of these standards have been
provided in Architectural Graphic Standards for many years, as well as a
number of other industry-related publications. The UDS is an excellent
resource for a comprehensive listing of many architectural and engineering
office drawing standards; however, it is very expensive, and not generally
accessible by the typical student. Yet this information must be available if a
national standard is to be achieved. What we are attempting to do is to make
architectural drawing standards which have become commonplace over time,
and are in the public domain in disparate locations, available to students and
interns/apprentices. The focus of this manual is architects, and for that
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reason, it does not include many of the UDS symbols (pages upon pages)
which are used primarily, if not exclusively, by engineering offices.
This book is about how we can prepare our construction contract documents
in a manner that will facilitate both communication and construction. It is
about how we can improve, even streamline, the way we prepare
construction drawings, and the ways in which others use them.
Standardization of working drawing methodologies and processes
What we hope to achieve through this book is a standardized, consistent
method or language for communicating. Each chapter focuses on a specific
area of communication. Some chapters are very, very specific in their scope
and very literal in their application. Others are more broad and address
matters of overall drawing organization.
While assisting our fellow
professionals in attaining a higher level of consistency within any given set of
construction documents or within a particular firm was clearly one of our
initial goals, our broader goal is to establish an expanded level of consistency
among design firms everywhere.
After all, we rely on the same universe of contractors to execute designs.
There is simply no rational explanation for why these contractors should have
to figure out each architect’s unique way of communicating the same kinds of
information, done under the guise of improving upon the ways of our
predecessors, or (worse yet) to demonstrate the creative spirit that drives us
all. Further, given the up and down nature of business and the seeming
propensity for major projects to go on “hold,” or conversely spring up
overnight, there is a great deal of fluidity in terms of staff flowing from one
excellent design firm to another. There is no rational explanation for why
each new staff member should have to learn two or ten different ways of
accomplishing the same things in different offices. So, there are many good
reasons to seek standardization.
Coordination with the CSI Uniform Drawing System
As I mentioned above, we are absolutely committed to a standardized
national system of preparing and developing a set of working drawings. For
that reason, we have embraced whole-heartedly the CSI Uniform Drawing
System (UDS), copyright 1999. Wherever we disagree with the UDS but there
was no studied or considered reason to depart, we have proposed whatever
standard the UDS has shown. On a few rare instances, we have discovered
some places where we believe the UDS should have given more
consideration to something. In those cases, we have provided both the UDS
standard, a proposed AOPS standard, and the reason why we think a
departure from the UDS standard should be considered. That way, you can
decide for yourself whether you prefer the UDS standard or a different one.
Disclaimer
“Standard of Care” is a legal concept used to help determine the outcomes of
lawsuits in local jurisdictions all over the country. The practice of architecture
is going to look different in Manhattan, New York than it does in Manhattan,
Louisiana. That is as it should be. It is not the intent of this manual to present
its ideas as representing a standard of care that should be used in all
practices in all parts of the country. On the contrary, our intention is to present
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our ideas as a point of departure so that interested firms do not have to start
at ground zero to prepare a manual that ser4ves its particular needs. Of
course, we would not be disappointed if some firms elected to use it verbatim.
The drawings and other information contained in this manual were obtained
from a variety of sources, including professional architects, architectural firms,
construction general contractors or firms, and the like. The author and the
publisher have made every reasonable effort to assure that this reference
work is accurate and authoritative, but do not warrant, and assume no liability
for, the accuracy or completeness of the text or ideas contained herein, and
cannot warrant its fitness for any particular purpose. It is the responsibility of
the users to apply their professional knowledge in the use of the information
contained in this manual, to consult other sources for additional information
when appropriate, and (if they themselves are not professional architects) to
consult an architect when appropriate.

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and written orders for minor changes in the work issued by the architect). masons. assembly.2008 Page 15 . etc. suppliers. and bid forms are not part of the contract documents.) and the specifications are qualitative (they indicate the required qualities of each product. Over the years. painters. VA 22314 Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . plasterers.WORKING DRAWINGS Our objective in preparing a set of working drawings is to effectively communicate our virtual design to someone who can convert it into something real. addenda. Contract Documents The Working Drawings are part of the Contract Documents. steel erectors. © 1983. specifications. and more. and installation). The Construction Specifications Institute. and modifications (change orders. Alexandria. other documents listed in the agreement. March 1986. In preparing a set of working drawings. the conditions of the contract. 601 Madison Street. and Conditions of the Contract Division 1 – General Requirements Division 2 – Sitework Division 3 – Concrete Division 4 – Masonry Division 5 – Metals Division 6 – Wood and Plastics Division 7 – Thermal and Moisture Protection Division 8 – Doors and Windows Division 9 – Finishes Division 10 – Specialties 4 5 See the later section in this Manual about object or model-based design versus traditional 2D CAD CSI MasterFormat. relationships. In the simplest terms. drawings. the drawings are quantitative (they show sizes. instructions to bidders. which consist of the agreement between the owner and the contractor. and for that understanding to be evident in your work. product and material is to be described. dimensions. The Construction Specifications Institute (CSI) has developed a 16-Division specifications system (called the MasterFormat) to govern where each construction system. Those 16 Divisions are as follows: CSI Specification Divisions 5 Division 0 – Bidding Requirements. Contract Forms. It is our goal with this manual to share some of these systems and graphic language to those who wish to learn them in as quick and as succinct a manner as possible. a graphic language and documentation systems have evolved to 4 help us communicate three-dimensional designs using two-dimensional media. dimensions. it is imperative to understand the relationship between the drawings and the specifications. shapes. The invitation to bid. construction change directives. To do this.CHAPTER 1 -. we have to be able to effectively communicate our ideas to contractors. material. Fourth Printing.

It is beyond the scope of this manual to restate that information here. Level 2 and Level 3 categories. Electrical Division 16 has been reserved for future expansion and material has been relocated to Divisions 26 – Electrical and 27 – Communications in the Facility Services Subgroup. and the nomenclature used for describing various systems. materials. and which now supersedes the previous editions. and again into Level 3 categories. Division 16 – Reserved.Division 11 – Division 12 – Division 13 – Division 14 – Division 15 – Division 16 -- Equipment Furnishings Special Construction Conveying Systems Mechanical Electrical Each of these divisions is further sub-divided into what the CSI refers to as Level 2 categories. You should acquire a copy of the CSI MasterFormat and become familiar with the Divisions. and Composites Division 07 – Thermal and Moisture Protection Division 08 – Openings Division 09 – Finishes Division 10 – Specialties Division 11 – Equipment Division 12 – Furnishings Division 13 – Special Construction Division 14 – Conveying Equipment Division 15 – Reserved. A quick reference of these divisions is as follows: Division 00 – Procurement and Contracting Requirements Division 01 – General Requirements Division 02 – Existing Conditions Division 03 – Concrete Division 04 – Masonry Division 05 – Metals Division 06 – Wood. Mechanical Division 15 has been reserved for future expansion and material has been relocated to Division 22 – Plumbing and Division 23 – Heating. which was released in 2004. and products. 6 MasterFormat 2004 The CSI developed a new MasterFormat.2008 Page 16 . Ventilating. the major changes occur in Divisions 15 thru 48. and Air Conditioning in the Facility Services Subgroup. Plastics. Facilities Services Subgroup Division 21 – Fire Suppression Division 22 – Plumbing 6 The Construction Specifications Institute web site Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . The first 14 divisions remain essentially the same.

you are more than likely to have a coordination issue when it changes one place and not the other. Sand smooth. 5/8” Type X.2008 Page 17 . fairly common in architectural offices for the drawings and specifications to be poorly coordinated. Max.C.Division 23 – Heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning Division 25 – Integrated Automation Division 26 – Electrical Division 27 – Communications Division 28 – Electronic Safety and Security Site and Infrastructure Subgroup Division 31 – Earthwork Division 32 – Exterior Improvements Division 33 – Utilities Division 34 – Transportation Division 35 – Waterway and Marine Process Equipment Subgroup Division 40 -. Moreover. 5/8” Type X Not… 09250 – GYPSUM BOARD. An example of how drawing notes should be written so as not to duplicate or contradict the specifications is as follows: 09250 – GYPSUM BOARD. Purification and Storage Equipment Division 44 – Pollution Control Equipment Division 45 – Industry-Specific Manufacturing Equipment Division 46 – Solid Waste Equipment Division 48 – Electrical Power Generation It is. it is inevitable that something will change during the process of drawing the drawings or writing the specifications. Cooling. Mud and tape. If your drawing notes duplicate something that is more appropriately covered in the specs. regrettably. See the section on Notation later in this manual for an explanation of the use of the new 6-digit CSI section number. Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . and Drying Equipment Division 43 – Process Gas and Liquid Handling.Process Integration Division 41 – Material Processing and Handling Equipment Division 42 – Process Heating. Screw to metal stud backup using metal drywall screws at 8” O.

Click here for a link to the Schematic Design Checklist Design Development Many firms begin the working drawings for any given project at this stage. It is important to understand this progression because key decisions you have to make in the working drawings stage are dependent upon what you know about the building at that time. and then should be required to provide a design that can be built within the budget. as opposed to developing the DRAWINGS (a very common foible). all of which is generally established during the earlier stages. and exterior building elevations to show what the building will look like. and blocking and stacking diagrams. Pre-Design (includes Programming) 2. and the concept drawings are further developed to include preliminary drawings (or perhaps narratives describing the design) from each of the consultants. Design Development 5. You should become familiar with the following Design Development Guidelines to make sure your time is spent primarily developing the DESIGN. the design will be fairly well developed by the time you begin your working drawings. the preferences of the office you are in. a typical building section or two. Pre-Design The drawings required for this stage would include bubble diagrams. Working Drawings and Specifications If the work of each step in the progression of the drawings is done properly. this is a decision that should be made based on the complexity of the project. In addition to all of the drawings created for the Schematic Design stage. Since improper use of the Design Development (DD) stage can result in considerable redrawing.Traditional Design and Documentation Sequence The traditional design and documentation sequence usually looks something like this: 1. Concept Design 3. and a host of other criteria. Schematic Design Schematic level reflected ceiling plans are typically added at this stage. the Design Development drawings will also typically include wall section studies. Each consultant should be given a budget for his/her discipline. Schematic Design 4. Concept Design This stage translates the blocking and stacking diagrams into rudimentary floor plans. Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 .2008 Page 18 .

the following Responsibilities Matrix may be helpful. It would not be uncommon to see a SD design that had perhaps 45 different wall construction conditions. However. and Management Responsibilities The project design team is very much like a football team or a baseball team. Click here for a link to Responsibilities Matrix Record Keeping Project Notebook and Project Files It really is imperative to keep all project information organized in a manner that allows you or other members of our imaginary team to find and retrieve whatever piece of information you may need. you will have a great deal more time to spend working out essential details. For a suggested filing system (both electronic and paper). see the following project file tree structure. you can simplify the building while you do this. Each member of the team has specific responsibilities that go along with the position. Click here for a link to Design Development Guidelines Working Drawings This is the stage where every aspect of the design is documented. Click here for a link to Project File Tree Structure Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . It is important at the DD stage to do pencil sketch studies to understand the design thoroughly before spending too much time drawing parts of the building that may have to change.2008 Page 19 . in pencil.possibly composed from detail studies done freehand. Drawing. If you are careful and thoughtful enough. Most files created in the architect’s office are created electronically and should be filed in an electronic project directory. or 250 doors. Every condition must be considered and drawn. If you can simplify the design without losing its essential character by reducing the number of wall sections to 20. a corresponding paper filing system is also a necessity. In order to organize these responsibilities and minimize the danger of something being overlooked. So. Checking. the “paperless office” is further from reality now than it was in the last days of the typewriter. These responsibilities are described in a general way in the Job Descriptions presented earlier.

But don’t feel compelled to use all categories from the very beginning. Others insist on having all original files in the firm’s central filing cabinets. Elevator. For smaller or less complex projects. such as Acoustical. keep the filing system as simple and as straightforward as the project will allow. Different offices handle record keeping differently. Click here for a link to Routing and Distribution Matrix Sample Table of Contents for the Typical Project Notebook A sample Table of Contents for the typical Project Notebook might be as follows: Telephone Log Project Communications and Transmittals a Owner b Consultants • Civil • Landscape • Structural • HVAC • Plumbing • Electrical • (others as required. you can use the following Routing and Distribution matrix. so make sure you understand the preferences of the office you are in. etc.If you look carefully at this file tree structure. other members of the team will also need copies of certain kinds of information at their desks.) c Contractor d Authorities Having Jurisdiction (Governing Agencies) • Zoning/Planning • Building • Fire Project Management e Fee f Budget and Cost Estimates g Schedule h Production organization Meeting Minutes i Owner Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . you will see that it is organized hierarchically. Food Service. the system lends itself very well to that.2008 Page 20 . and if you find you need more of a breakdown after you get into a project. Perhaps some categories require more levels and others don’t. and this is what we would recommend. It is set up this way to allow maximum flexibility to be adapted for most project sizes. Often. Copies of any files the team needs can easily be made and placed in a Project Notebook for ready reference. perhaps only the first or second levels of the structure will be necessary. To facilitate routing and distribution of this information. Some offices allow Project Managers to keep project files in a notebook at their desks.

particularly at the detail level. The list of manual tools includes:      Pencils (mechanical and wooden) Pens and ink Colored markers Colored pencils Watercolor paints The list of computer software includes programs such as:  FormZ  AutoCAD. For example. it is only because you haven’t honed your manual skills with a pencil. First. to learn these tools and become facile with them. Your choice of tools should be based on what is appropriate for the task at hand.j k l Consultants Contractor Authorities Having Jurisdiction Architectural Design Data Program Requirements Specifications Separate notebooks should be set up for Bidding/Negotiation and for Contract Administration. and revisions are an inevitability. These studies should be executed in pencil for several reasons. Some are manual and some computerized. There is a time and a place for each of the other tools… make sure you know what they are. Manual Drawing versus Computer Aided Drafting There are many tools available to you today to help you communicate your ideas to others. but only a means to an end (the “end” being the constructed building). technical design studies need to be made for all aspects of the building. it should be fast for you to sketch in pencil. pencil sketches can be erased and revised. rather than what tools you know how to use.2008 Page 21 . Our Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . You should be able to do pencil sketches at least twice as fast (if not three times as fast) as a computer sketch. ArchiCAD and a host of others  3D Studio  Sketchup  PhotoShop  The list goes on… It is incumbent upon you as you pursue a career path in architecture. Also. Drafting Quality Sheet Composition and Organization It is often said (because it is true) that our drawings are not ends in themselves. If you can sketch faster on the computer than you can in pencil. in the creation of working drawings.

working drawings don’t need to be works of art. But too many times, this
becomes an excuse for not organizing our drawings well, or not drawing them in
a manner that reveals an underlying aesthetic sense. The same rules of
composition that apply to the printed page also apply to a sheet of working
drawings. Your drawings should be laid out according to an unseen grid, just like
a page from your brochure. Where the opportunities exist to do so, you should
make things line up. You should consider the judicious use of white space. Your
sheet should be organized to communicate on several different levels by using a
hierarchy of type styles and line weights.
Type Styles
You can create different levels of emphasis using the variables available to
us in choosing the lettering for our drawings. We can vary the height and
width of the letters, and the boldness or lightness of the pen stroke used to
make those letters. We can also vary the kerning (the space between the
letters) to make the words condensed or expanded. And the computer now
allows us to use various combinations of upper and lower case lettering very
easily.
A good type style hierarchy would be as follows:

DRAWING
TITLES
(1/4” high, bold, ALL CAPS, s l i g h t l y e x p a n d e d )
DRAWING SCALE

(1/8” high, bold, ALL CAPS)

04200 – BRICK MASONRY
Standard CSI notation (3/32” high, bold, ALL CAPS)
04200 – BRICK MASONRY; soldier course
Standard CSI notation qualifiers (3/32” high, not bold, lower case)
ROOM NAMES

(3/32” high, bold, ALL CAPS)
48’-4 DIMENSIONS

Dimensions (3/32” high, not bold)

Lineweight Hierarchy
Lineweights can be dictated in a set of CAD standards, but this is a poor
substitute for skillful use of lineweights. The same rules apply for lineweights
on working drawings as for any artistic drawing – varying lineweights make
a drawing easier to read, and it becomes more interesting. For ease of
communication, rather than actual penweights, I’d like to suggest a 5
penweight hierarchy where 5 is the boldest and 1 is the finest (1 being a
hairline).
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Some general guidelines for selecting line weights:
 Anything that meets the cutting plane (plan or section) should be drawn
with a bold line (5); it is sometimes helpful to draw a bold outline around
the profile of the portion of the drawing that is actually cut in section
 Steel should generally be drawn with a bold line (a single solid line for
drawings at 1”=1’-0 or smaller)
 Anything not intersecting the cutting plane will be shown in elevation;
anything shown in elevation should be shown with lightweight lines to
make those elements “recede” visually (2 and 1).
 Planes in elevation closer to the viewer should be outlined with a bolder
line than those planes further from the viewer (3). With multiple planes
gradually receding from the viewer, the lineweights should also
gradually become lighter (thinner) to make them appear to recede
visually in order of proximity to the viewer (2 and 1)
 Layers of waterproofing, dampproofing, membrane roofing and the like
should be shown with a distinct, bold line, separated slightly from the
lines around it (3)
 More important information should be shown with a bolder line than less
important information. For example, in a plan drawing, the walls (which
intersect the cutting plane) will be drawn using the boldest lines (5).
Plumbing fixtures should be drawn with a considerably thinner line (3).
Same with countertops (2). Dashed lines need to be bold enough to be
visible among all of the other lines on the drawing (3). Dashed lines
should have a ratio of about 12:1 between the lines and the spaces.
Floor patterns should be the lightest lines (1, a hairline).
 Column grid lines need to be visible amongst all the other information
shown on the drawing (3).
 Dimension lines should be just bold enough to see without disappearing
(2).
 Poché should be drawn very light (1). It may be helpful at times to give
the poché a halftone pattern so that it recedes from the drawing as
much as possible without disappearing altogether.

Click here for a link to a sample plan showing
Lineweight and Lettering Hierarchies

Model or Object-Based Computer Aided Design/Drafting
As I write this, object-based design is beginning to emerge as an invaluable tool
for designing and documenting building designs. It appears to be what we all
thought CAD should have been at the beginning. It allows a designer/drafter to
create a complete virtual model of a building in three dimensions, complete with
all the necessary support systems. Interferences and conflicts are readily
apparent. It is a major paradigm shift, and it will require all of us to change the
way we think about design and documentation. For some, that reality may

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already be here. For most, it is still a way off in the distance. But it is coming,
and it is the future of architecture. So be ready for it.
Revisions
Changes to your working drawings are as much of the process as drawing the
drawings in the first place. You may not always know when or where, but you
know (or should know) that the drawings are going to change. Accept it. Prepare
for it. Deal with it. You can help to minimize the changing you will have to do by
following a systematic process for developing the design and the drawings. That
is one of the goals of this manual.
The computer makes erasing (I use the term metaphorically) much easier now
than it used to be in the manual days of yesteryear, and changing the drawings
is usually not difficult either. But we all have our sights set on a goal, and that
goal is to finish the drawings. Revisions seem to derail us from our path towards
that goal. Try not to look at changes that way. In fact, it may be more
appropriate to look at drawing certain things prematurely as the real villain. So
be disciplined about what you draw and when you draw it. Don’t be fooled into
drawing what you think you know, because you are likely to find out later that
what you thought you knew was wrong. Do the homework first.
The computer allows us to do things now that we would never have considered
doing in the days of pencil and drafting vellum or film. It seems to be a
manifestation of the “excess perfection” syndrome. I’ve been guilty of it many
times. Time and again, I have seen project teams wait to do any crossreferencing until 99% of the details were drawn. You see, they always want the
details to be perfectly organized, and placed next to whatever other details they
relate to. This is a noble objective. But it is not necessary. Chances are that you
know 60-70% of the details near the beginning of the project. Give them a home
and an address. Leave some space around them for new details you hadn’t
thought about. But get the cross-referencing started. Checking is exceedingly
difficult without cross-references, and adding cross references at the end
invariably breeds mistakes. It really doesn’t make that much difference to the
contractor if every detail is placed in the perfect spot in the drawing set anyway.
And besides, you’ll probably be able to achieve 85% of perfection; try not to let
that 15% bother you so much that you don’t follow a natural sequence in doing
your work.
Spelling
Spelling mistakes are one of my major pet peeves. It drives me nuts. And I say
that with the full admission that there are some words that I just can’t remember
how to spell correctly (eradicate, elucidate, and many others). And it bothers me
that the spelling of some words has been changed for architectural practice, for
reasons that are not all that clear to me (gage versus gauge, for example). But I
have accepted that, and have moved on.
A “spell check” feature is available as part of just about every tool we use today.
Yet I see misspellings all the time. To me, it betrays a lazy mind. Bad spellers
know that they are bad spellers, and even if you are a good speller, you
generally know what words are problem words for you. In the worst case
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leaving approximately 40% of the net fee for the working drawings phase (or about $28. The net fee is further allocated for various phases of the project. and some portion is given to the consultants (usually around 30-33% for structural. keep a dictionary handy. the gross fee is $100.000.800 $1. Poor spelling is unprofessional.000).scenario. and electrical consultants. There are variables regarding the scope of work and what is included and what isn’t. The remaining fee is the net architectural fee. and it has no place in a set of working drawings. The other 60% is allocated for schematic design.400 $13. and this is what your project team has to work with to do all your work.000 5% 47. the net architectural fee would then be $70.400 $2. mechanical.800 $2. design development. and your project may or may not look like the one below). In this scenario. Managing Your Time Most commonly. Let’s say. You can use the following breakdown as a guide (keep in mind that contract requirements differ.000. if other consultants are involved. and some fee needs to be allocated for them. where you are on your own without computer assistance. As you prepare your cartoon set (see the section on Cartooning later in this manual). But there are many other activities that need to happen during the working drawings phase.5% 15% 10% 5% 10% 5% 2. the fees architects receive are calculated as a percentage of a building’s construction cost.300 $4. The gross fee is then divided up. and construction contract administration.5% 100% Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 .000 . you begin to get your arms around the number of drawings you will need in the working drawings set.2008 Page 25 $1.400 $700 $28. bidding or negotiation.200 $1. for convenient purposes of discussion. The percentage varies as a function of the size and complexity of the project. their fees are typically negotiated as additional). so each fee is the result of a negotiation… some give and take. Approximate Percentages of Net Architectural Fee Required For Working Drawings Activities Net Architectural Fee Available for Working Drawings Phase: Technical Design Documentation Specifications Coordination Admin/Management Meetings Checking and Review Reimbursables* $28.

But you begin to get some idea of how much fee is available for each drawing. For further elaboration on this idea. xeroxes.2008 Page 26 .) are handled varies from office to office.* Reimbursable expenses include items such as air fare. A common standard would be that reproductions used in-house (by the architectural team and the consultants) would be part of the net architectural fee. and a working spreadsheet to help you with these calculations. There isn’t really a lot of money left from the $100. This $13.596 100% $13. Only $13. definitions. etc.064 Stairs & Elevators 5% $665 Interior Elevations 5% $665 Door Types. Frame types.300 now has to be allocated for each of the architectural drawings in the set.596 Roof Plan 5% $665 Level 1 Reflected Ceiling Plan 5% $665 Level 2 Reflected Ceiling Plan 5% $665 Exterior Building Elevations 10% $1. index. Casework types 5% $665 Details 12% $1.330 Building Sections 4% $532 Wall Sections 8% $1. while progress sets distributed to the owner and contractor would be considered true reimbursable expenses (meaning that extra dollars would be available from the owner to cover those costs). legends 2% $266 Site Plan & Site Details 5% $665 Level 1 Floor Plan 12% $1. Let’s say your cartooning exercise leads you to the conclusion that you need the following architectural drawings: Estimated Allocation of Fees for Working Drawings General information. long distance telephone calls. bluelines.300 in this example.596 Level 2 Floor Plan 12% $1. and reproduction costs. your educated guesses are probably going to be different. lodging. The manner in which these costs of reproduction (plotting.300 The %s shown are educated guesses about how much of the fee should be allocated to each drawing sheet. Door Schedule 5% $665 Partition Types. As you can see. facsimile reproductions. see the following example of Budgeting for Working Drawings: Click here for a link to Fee Budgeting Example Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 .000 fee to do the actual working drawings.

I have seen team after team go through the exercise of determining how complete each sheet in the set is. and then added together to find out what the total projected cost is for that sheet. The firm’s rate includes a multiplier to provide a source of income to pay for overhead (taxes. and the like). as shown on the illustration above. Keep in mind the old 80/20 rule… the first 80% of the work takes 20% of the time and the last 20% of the work takes 80% of the time (or. and calculating an overall % complete – and not believing it! You have to trust this information. This DPR is not 100% accurate. Click here for a link to an electronic spreadsheet of the Drawing Progress Report form Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . as architects practice it… the first 80% of the work takes 20% of the time and the last 20% of the work takes the other 80% of the time). nor is it the rate that the firm charges for your time. at your hourly rate. But that is not the cost to the firm of employing you. computers.0. let’s say you have been assigned to do the Level 1 Floor Plan. cost of facilities. You know from the above illustration that you have $1596 to spend to get it done. Therefore. Estimated Breakdown of Drawing Tasks         Initial drawing layout and linework Dimensioning Cross-referencing Notation Materials indications Consultant coordination Final checking Picking up final redlines Total 27% 10% 10% 10% 3% 15% 15% 10% 100% Each of these tasks is going to require a percentage of the available dollars or hours allocated for the Level 1 Floor Plan. So the firm charges your time at a rate of $$45/hour accordingly. you will have about 35 hours to complete this sheet. vacations. but it is usually tracked as a cost to the job in this way. holidays. This may not actually be billed to the client in this way. a similar calculation must be done for each person. let’s look at all of the things you have to do to complete the drawing. doesn’t it? Well. 35 hours seems reasonable. The following Drawing Progress Report (DPR) form gives you a worksheet to track your hours and your drawing progress to make sure you stay on track.2008 Page 27 . If more than one person is working on the sheet. The real danger is not believing it. You‘d be amazed at close this axiom can be. A typical multiplier to cover those kinds of things would be around 3. But how many hours is that? Let’s say you negotiated an hourly wage when you accepted your current position with your employer of $15/hour.To take this thought process one step further. but it is a good way to put your finger on the pulse of how complete your drawing is.

Make a daily to-do list of the things that you need to complete each day. but these tools are no substitute for being proactive. so if you don’t know. We then typically go to the elevations and building sections to help us understand the building in the third dimension. and the day after that. you’ll be approaching the deadline. Pretty soon. If you feel like you are falling behind. We use these signs so we know from the plan where the building sections are cut.You should accept the responsibility for managing your time so you can get the work done within the allocated time and fee. and horizontal locations (plan dimensions) of all the major features of the building. Similarly. Don’t let that happen. Deal with the work on a daily basis and keep yourself on schedule. We routinely begin to understand the building by looking at the plans. We know from the building sections where we can go to find wall sections of selected areas at a larger scale. go find out. then make the commitment to stay as long as it takes to finish that task. Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . shape. you will then have whatever you don’t get done tomorrow to do as well. The plans show us the size. This whole system is called crossreferencing. architects developed a sophisticated 2-dimensional system that consists essentially of plans (horizontal cross-section cuts). We know from the wall sections where we can go to find even larger drawings of selected details shown on the wall sections. then do your best to get it done in 8 hours. By putting the two views together mentally. The details may refer us back to the plans or the elevations to tell us even more about the building. and still have a couple of weeks worth of accumulated work left to do. And the next day. discuss this with your project architect/manager at your weekly team meetings. you should understand what belongs on the wall sections and what belongs on the details. Be reasonable. You should know how much of your time has been budgeted for each sheet. sections (vertical crosssection cuts).2008 Page 28 . Click here for a link to a typical Weekly Project Team Meeting Agenda Cross-Referencing Before technology enabled us to draw complete virtual models of our designs. You should understand what information belongs on the plans and what belongs on the building sections or elevations. It is important to understand this system in order to be able to guide the contractor through the set of drawings in as clear a manner as possible. Tie it to the worksheets that show how much time you have to accomplish various tasks. If you find that you have been distracted or less productive than you should have been. If the worksheets tell you that you have 8 hours to do all of the cross-referencing on a given sheet. If you wait until tomorrow. A system of directional signs has also been developed to help us find our way through the drawings. We have provided you with some tools to facilitate this. and elevations. Each of these 2-dimensional drawings uses orthographic projection (no perspective or vanishing) to convey the essence of the building. we begin to understand what the building 3-dimensionally.

jamb. Location of relevant head. and have them transcribed by support staff into Excel or another spreadsheet program. But I don’t mean to trivialize schedules. or whatever else makes up the wall. and more detailed wall sections should be cross-referenced from them. while the sections and elevations should show you vertical dimensions. Then you have to check it to make sure it was transcribed correctly. but it isn’t hard to learn. and sill details 11. make sure you ask the appropriate questions. but (unless the scale is sufficiently large). A door schedule should include this information for each door: 1. This takes two steps out of the process. Number of leaves (active and inactive) and their respective sizes 4. Any special requirements Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . Frame material and finish 8. there is a tendency to hand-write the schedules out by hand. Frame type 7. not as much detail as the details crossreferenced from them. Schedules are used to convey a lot of information about a large number of things in a very concise and straightforward way. In my experience. you should try doing it. If you’ve never tried to draw a wall section by hand at a scale of 1/2” = 1’-0. A plan drawn at a scale of 1/8” = 1’-0 will show walls using two lines. Door mark (the number given to the door on the floor plan) 2.This will require some experience. The wall sections should show more detail. routinely have the highest density of errors of anything in the drawing set. The building section should be a simple profile of the portions of the building that intersect the cutting plane. Schedules Schedules are really just tables. just as all schedules do. But we must remain mindful that the final output is still going to be a scale drawing. Fire resistive requirements 9. A schedule is still the answer to this issue. and a variety of interior finishes. For example. whereas a detail showing that wall will show each layer of gypsum board. Opening size 3. Door type 5. and should result in a higher degree of accuracy. the plans should show you horizontal dimensions. But until you learn it. for example. or perhaps special MS Excel worksheets. They require diligence and perseverance. This distinction is very difficult to make now that technology allows us to zoom in on any part of our drawings to show as much detail as we want. I strongly encourage you to learn the software and sufficient data entry that you are able to create the schedules yourself. Now that schedules can be created on the computer. Door material and finish 6. and it shouldn’t be cluttered with unnecessary detail.2008 Page 29 . That will give you a great idea of how much detail you can (and should) show on those drawings. Even a simple project may have several dozen doors and frames. door schedules. ceramic tile. Hardware group 10.

and place your bumwad or trace paper over it. you don’t have to re-do the entire drawing to incorporate a comparatively small change. You can add notes to the drawing using a very quick freehand technique. For this reason (as well as others). sketch them at 3” = 1’-0 and then reduce them for preliminary paste-ups. Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . in pencil. but I encourage you to use pencil because you can erase it. you should do your detail studies freehand. Click here to go to link to a Typical Room Finish Schedule Details  As you progress through the process of designing details. but a copier works just as well.2008 Page 30 .Click here to go to link to a Typical Door Schedule Finish Schedules The same applies to finish schedules. you will learn new things or make new decisions that will affect details you have already drawn. The details can then be drawn up on the computer after you have thoroughly studied all of the conditions around the building. then use the following sample Finish Schedule. If the finishes are too complicated to handle using the finish codes (see Standard Symbols). Many architects prefer to sketch with a soft tip pen. For details that should be at a scale of 1 1/2” = 1’-0 in the final drawings. Use a sheet of 1/8” graph paper as an underlay. You may scan them if you wish.

But I have rarely seen a detail library that is conceived and implemented successfully.Sample of a freehand sketch detail Detail Libraries Detail libraries are stockpiles of fairly standard details that are available for use on any project. A flag pole base or a concrete curb is probably going to be pretty similar from one project to the next. many site details are fairly standard. go ahead and begin drawing it for the project at hand. discussed.2008 Page 31 . They have been suggested. and go on to finish it. roofs. That is certainly enough difference to put those details into a non-standard category. we may want to use the same windows in a building with wood siding that we used a few projects ago on a building with brick veneer. and the like. Once you have identified a detail as a potential detail for the library. There are probably a number of tried and proven ways of cataloging standard details. However. Then place a copy of it in a folder for the library. For example. And there are many reasons for this. The method I prefer is to catalog them by building system – exterior envelope. and used for many years – at least thirty that I know of. But stop short of adding projectspecific information (such as grade elevations and the like). The Construction Specifications Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . site. One reason is that folks have a very hard time distinguishing between a standard detail and a one-time use detail.

there are certain sheets that lend themselves well for use as standard “starting point” drawings. Sheets that are particularly good choices for “starting point” drawings are as follows (and some of the standard information that can be created in advance): Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . and then placed in a library of “starting point” drawings.2008 Page 32 . They should be created as a generic form of the sheet.Institute uses a system called the UniFormat. which provides a convenient way to catalog details by building system. Suggested Detail Library Categories A Substructure A10 D Services Foundations D10 Conveying Systems A1010 Standard Foundations D1010 Elevators and Lifts A1030 Slabs on Grade D1020 Escalators and Moving Walks A20 Basement Construction B Shell B10 Superstructure B1010 Floor Construction B1020 Roof Construction B20 Exterior Enclosure D20 Plumbing D30 HVAC D40 Fire Protection Systems D50 Electrical Systems E Equipment and Furnishings B2010 Exterior Walls E10 B2020 Exterior Windows E20 Furnishings B2030 Exterior Doors B30 Roofing F Special Construction and Demolition B3010 Roof Coverings B3020 Roof Openings C Interiors C10 Equipment G Building Sitework Interior Construction G10 Site Preparation C1010 Partitions G20 Site Improvements C1020 Interior Doors G30 Site Civil/Mechanical Utilities G40 Site Electrical Utilities G90 Other Site Construction C1030 Specialties C20 Stairs C30 Interior Finishes C3010 Wall Finishes C3020 Floor Finishes C3030 Ceiling Finishes ` Just as for standard details.

completely dimensioned and noted  Elevations of several of the most common frame types.Starting Point Drawings A0.X A3.X A2.X A7.X A4.X A1.X A1. Site Plans.X A2. Details  Drawing title and scale  North arrow  Standard site details Floor Plans  General notes  Drawing title and scale  North arrow Reflected Ceiling Plans  General notes  Drawing title and scale  North arrow Building Elevations  General notes  Drawing title and scale Building Sections And Wall Sections  General notes  Drawing title and scale Stairs and Elevators  General notes  Drawing title and scale  North arrow(s) Interior Elevations  General notes  Drawing title and scale  Horizontal lines to separate rows of interior elevations Door Types And Frame Types  General notes  Drawing title and scale  Elevations of several of the most common door types.X A1. completely dimensioned and noted Field Verification Guidelines Goals: The purpose of all field verification activities is to gather (and record) enough information about an existing project to allow a responsible design and Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 .X General Information Sheet  Abbreviations  Materials indications  Standard symbols  Drawing index Demolition Plans.X A4.2008 Page 33 . completely dimensioned and noted  A place to import an Excel door schedule Partition Types  Sections of several of the most common partition types.

In order to make informed decisions. When you return from the project site. Compare existing drawings to actual materials—note discrepancies. If you have questions. 2. The room numbers shall correspond to Schematic drawing numbers wherever possible. Use Schematic Design drawings as the redline set. In order for our verification work to be successful. Photos will be organized in notebook form to accompany the redline set. Verify room configuration (measure as required to verify). which will be kept at the Project Architect’s desk. Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . 6. For field purposes. and special problems for areas affected by new construction. If the room number comes from the existing drawings. xeroxes of partial plans may be most convenient. you will be responsible for organizing the photos and transferring their information onto the Master redline set. Drawings shall be marked to indicate existing materials (including finishes). 10. room number. ceiling conditions. Consolidate redlines into a Master redline set. 11. 3. In some areas. 5. No photos needed for rooms that will not be altered. Keep notes that correspond to the photos (if it seems necessary). Neatness and clarity in your field verification notes are very important. Keep the photos and negatives in specially made plastic sleeves. 8. and initials of photographer. ask your Project Architect. Since we cannot always anticipate how the design may evolve. we should:      Verify existing materials Verify existing configurations Photographically document interior spaces and exterior conditions for future reference Measure existing walls (only where required to coordinate with new work) Identify areas requiring more extensive verification Methods: 1. In renovation projects. 9. 7. 12. Negatives should be kept in the project files.documentation effort to result. 4. indicate so on the photograph. xeroxes of existing drawings may be required to understand the area—especially for demolition. many decisions are driven by the feasibility of modifying existing features of the building. Photograph walls. Identify photos by date.2008 Page 34 . the existing conditions must be clearly understood. Do not get bogged down in detail unless the effort seems needed to you. we must prepare as complete and as accurate a record as we can in order to assess the impact on design issues that were not known at the time of the verification work.

pull stations. rounding to the nearest 1/2”. The degree of accuracy reflected in your measurements is important. Standard nomenclature for dimensioning is: 8’-1. hose cabinets. 14. Team Members: (Identify the members assigned to each team). but keep in mind that a measurement between two walls that are slightly out of plumb could vary by an inch or more. life safety equipment. dashed above. record them as typical coursing dimensions. tenant lease lines. etc. Field Measurement Graphics: 1. depending on the height at which the measurement was taken. Use standards set by office for dimension lines. and the teams assigned to each area). 3. Therefore. For modular materials. round each measurement to the nearest 1/2”. with regular eraser (include red pencils) – Backpack (day pack) to carry gear – Flashlight – Appropriate dress—hard sole shoes. dashed below. the following should be indicated:  Date sketch was made Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . For most purposes. Sketches to be done in consistent media. and should be recorded accurately. cabinet heaters.  On the sketch itself. Any deviation from standard coursing dimensions greater than an inch could mean that bricks were cut. minor deviations are presumed when the dimensions are stated with the standard “±” required for all existing dimensions.) and photograph large units. Timing and Tasks: (Indicate dates for various verification activities). property lines. 2. Note significant equipment (panel boards.13. fan units.2008 Page 35 . etc. increase the level of accuracy to 1/8”. Tools: – Measuring tapes – Hard hat – Note pad – Clip board – 6” scale – Camera and plenty of film – Pencils. such as concrete block or brick. perhaps jeans Teams/Areas of Responsibility: (Identify areas of the building which will have to be verified. preferably graphite on graph paper. centerlines. Pay particular attention to location of expansion joints and covers. ignore minor deviations from standard coursing dimensions. 15. If we know we are going to have to accommodate a specific piece of furniture or equipment.

solid lines. lease lines. think about how you might be able to use photos to reduce or eliminate drawing. You may still have to do that.  Line types — centerlines. but technology has simplified this process immeasurably. leader lines. All sketches should be hardlined on trace paper or on CAD. Standard graphic symbols should be used on each drawing. and match lines. Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 .2008 Page 36 . dimensions. CAD name for drawings should be at the bottom left hand corner of each individual drawing. 6. line types  Symbols  Text:  styles  font files  layers  sizes 2. 3. 5. for other reasons. Indication of floor level  Number of sheets used to define the sketch  Section. CAD      plotting procedures should be outlined with respect to: Pen sizes Layers and colors Plotting scale Sheet sizes Plotting medium Photo-Drafting Photo-drafting has been a very popular technique for renovation/alteration projects. partitions. Dimensioning and noting should occur approximately in the same placement and orientation from drawing to drawing. Photo-drafting allows you to note demolition or new finishes for existing construction without having to measure and draw the building from scratch. Drawings should be sketched with a reasonable sense of scale and clarity. Sketches should be oriented on the sheet in the same orientation as the schematic design drawings. 4. but before you do.  To check for discrepancies  To calculate square footage Drawings should include:  Date of original sketch  Date of hardline drawings  Indication of floor level CAD Drawings 1. symbols  Layers — text. if necessary 4. We used to have to go through some fairly complicated photographic processes to get a photo onto a sheet of drafting film. details.

Denver.2008 Page 37 .Example of the Use of Photo-Drafting RE-PAINT ALL PAINTED WOOD SURFACES WITH NEW PAINT TO MATCH EXISTING RE-GLAZE EXISTING WINDOWS WITH GLAZING COMPOUND RE-PAINT EXISTING WINDOW MUNTINS CLEAN ALL EXISTING STONE and RE-POINT MORTAR JOINTS The Molly Brown House. Colorado Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 .

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Use one for every sheet in the set. however. The work plan is then copied on the back of each cartoon set sheet. shape.CHAPTER 2 -. and a checklist of elements that should be included on the drawing. and location of each drawing on the sheet. Every set of working drawings must be planned to ensure that the drawings will be logically organized. Planning encourages the Project Architect to think about all the drawings that are necessary to adequately communicate the design.  The usefulness of the cartoon sets can be doubled if they are used as part of the work plan. You might go where your fancy takes you. this idea must be balanced with the idea that we should use as few sheets as possible. Perhaps you prefer to plan your trips. Cartooning is a graphic way of planning and organizing the set of working drawings. or mock set. Sample work plans for various kinds of sheets are included in the Appendix. and of planning the composition of each sheet within the set. and the drawings are not all as well organized or planned as well as yours are. and just start driving. and print as many copies as you need to complete the set. leave some open areas where possible to help in accommodating those inevitable unforeseen drawings  remember that it is more important to maintain clarity and cogency in the organization of the set than it is to fill up each sheet. give some thought to the details that will be needed. A cartoon set. or in a sequence corresponding to CSI divisions). select the appropriate mock set form (for 24 x 36 or 30 x 42 sheets). Contractors see many different drawings from many different architects. and acts as a road map for the person to whom that sheet has been assigned.2008 Page 38 . The work plan begins with a list of basic requirements that each drawing must comply with. Don’t merely set aside three sheets of drawings for details  include any schedules that will be needed  allow yourself some flexibility in your sheet composition. including the title sheet Block out each sheet. So it is with working drawings. accomplishes the following:     promotes efficient and orderly drawing layout allows an early determination of the number of drawings required assists in estimating the manpower requirements to complete the work aids in scheduling the work and in determining drawing assignments Go to the links at the end of this section.DRAWING ORGANIZATION Drawing Organization — Cartooning You might get in your car one day. showing the approximate size. and gives him or her an opportunity to group or separate drawings in a way that will facilitate bidding and construction. Or… you might not. and you might end up in some beautiful spot where you decide to spend the rest of your life.  Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . and try to organize them in some logical order (such as from the ground up. knowing where you want to go and how long you have to get there.

and of planning the composition of each sheet within the set. It is our responsibility to make this process as direct and as clear as possible. A little planning at the beginning will go a long way towards accomplishing that goal. Methodology:     Block out each sheet showing the approximate size. Give some thought to details that will be needed and locate them as close as possible to where they are referenced. Every set of working drawings must be planned to ensure that the drawings will be logically organized. Concepts:     Promote efficient and orderly drawing layout Allow early determination of the number of drawings required. Planning will encourage you to think about what drawings will be necessary to communicate the design and give you an opportunity to group drawings in a way that will facilitate bidding and construction. leave some open areas where possible to help in accommodating those inevitable unforeseen drawings. anticipate the things we forgot.Contractors usually have a very short time to figure out our drawings. key notes. Click Here for Link to Blank Cartoon Set Background (24x36) Click Here for Link to Blank Cartoon Set Background (30x42) Click Here for Link to Sample Cartooning Sheet Drawing Organization A O P S © 2003 . and key plans in a consistent format. Aid in scheduling the work and determining drawing assignments. Allow yourself some flexibility in your sheet composition. Locate general notes.2008 Page 39 . schedules. and prepare a bid that is competitive but requires no change orders. and location of each drawing on the sheet. Cartooning is a graphic way of planning and organizing the set of working drawings. legends. Assist in estimating the manpower requirements needed to complete the work. shape.

This costs you and the contractor time that you might otherwise be using to do something fun. in different levels of detail. While there may be a time and place for this kind of cuteness. Determine a sheet size which is appropriate to the project scale and complexity. 2. The general contractor. keynotes legends. but it should be your objective to SIMPLIFY. Well. manufacturers. and plans in the same position on each sheet to speed orientation. A poorly organized set of construction drawings can drive up construction costs as well as increasing the number of questions during construction. materials suppliers.2008 Page 40 . I’m sure the author was simply trying to be clever. With larger or more complex projects. locate the details around the upper and left margins. and the same with page three. A little attention to organization when you begin a set of drawings can benefit all concerned. Be consistent. obviously. This is oversimplifying. Working drawings must be so clearly organized that anyone with the need to decipher them can do so easily. Locate title blocks. you get a letter on a folded sheet of paper.. 3. Your challenge is to find a way of communicating effectively with each of these groups.Drawing Organization — Sheet Design I’m sure you’ve seen this.. and page three is on the back and upside down so that when you get there and turn the page. The following items will help keep drawings clear and organized from the very start. key plans. 1. position details in a logical sequence starting from Drawing Organization AOPS © 2003 . dimensions and notations. using a sheet that is too large for a particular project encourages over drafting and wasted time in trying to fill the empty space. but in the meantime. owners. SIMPLIFY. SIMPLIFY. or store it in a 42” flat file. Clear and organized sheet design promotes communication of construction drawings quickly and easily. no problem. If a project requires few details and a separate sheet is not required. Avoid using odd sized formats whenever practical. consultants. working drawings is not it. When ignored. The whole idea is to put page two where everyone expects to find it. Group similar drawings together on the same sheet. But you soon realize that page two is where page three should be. page four is upside down where page two should have been in the first place. In addition. building officials. You start reading the front page. and even checkers in your own office are all seeking different information from different parts of the drawings. you’ve torn the letter apart and reassembled it in a sequence that seemed more logical to you. and so forth. It is also desirable to have the title block on the right margin so it is visible without unrolling the entire set. Then you turn the page and resume reading. Using a match line and breaking a plan into two or more drawings may be preferable to the drafting and storage problems encountered if you must draw on a 48” sheet with a 42” parallel rule. subcontractors. details can disappear into a maze of lines.

plan for final scale and space on the construction drawings. But the guy down the street has the same notion. lenders. it should be near the binding edge. To this end. dimensions. When sketching details or sections. Drawing Set Organization as a guideline in most areas. that there are many other individuals who look at our drawings– owners. Drawing Organization AOPS © 2003 . and the switch for the headlights was under the hood? After your initial wonderment. and more. We may think we are organizing our drawings logically. and the fuel gauge was in the glove compartment? Maybe the engine was mounted to a separate trailer you were dragging behind you. but it is very similar to the kind of thing we do to contractors nearly every day. if there is any left over space on the sheet. Drawing Organization — Drawing Identification What would you think if you got into a new car. you would probably start to become outraged. 1999. To establish consistent information finding methods throughout the Contract Documents. And we should have a darned good reason for departing from established standards and conventions. too. Allow space for titles. This scenario sounds ridiculous. as a result. keynotes. which is the most difficult area to get to). and grid designations. By being more consistent in our approach to our drawings. we can all do a great service to our profession. a model you had never seen before.2008 Page 41 . No wonder contractors get so annoyed with us. we recommend using Module 1 of the Uniform Drawing System. It is in our best interest to follow an accepted industry standard when it comes to organizing a set of drawings so as to be better able to defend our construction documents and to communicate our ideas with the least amount of confusion. more than a little agitated. Keep in mind. Group similar details together maintaining scale and orientation where ever possible. “What were these guys thinking about?” you ask yourself. 4.right to left and bottom to top (we recommend this approach because. We can do better. you discovered that the steering wheel was in the backseat? Or that the speedometer was in the trunk. coherently. when flipping through a set of drawings. members of the boards of directors. Construction Specifications Institute. it is easier to find drawings located in the lower right-hand corner of the sheet than it is one in the upper left-hand corner. and as soon as you sat down. References:  Uniform Drawing System. We need to move in the direction of a more consistent approach to presenting information from office to office. Concepts:   To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for drawing set organization so as to ensure correct communication with the document user. Module 1 – Drawing Set Organization. and the construction industry. building officials. materials suppliers. and he organizes his drawings totally differently.

” for example) Sheet Number A place for the architect’s or engineer’s stamp A Revisions record Sheet Contents Sheet Number A place to record the initials of the individuals who participated in the drawing of the sheet. It is helpful to include a sheet index on the general information sheet at the beginning of the set. which can be created as a reusable entity in CAD. as follows (as recommended by the CSI UDS): Discipline Designations G General Information H Hazardous Materials V Survey/Mapping B Geotechnical Drawing Organization AOPS © 2003 . along with their addresses and phone numbers Date of Issue Type of Issue (“DD pricing. Other information that may not be appropriate for the title block includes:     Drawing Name Key Plan or Section North Arrow Scale A strip approximately 2 1/2 ” wide adjacent to the right-hand margin seems to work best for the title block. if possible. organized by discipline. these should appear on the standard “starting point” drawings. project name. The void can then be filled in with project-specific information. It is most convenient to provide this information in a title block. Certain parts of the title block are repetitive from project to project (such as the architect’s name and address. and the disciplines should always occur in the same sequence. such as.  Drawings are sometimes used from phase to phase and the organization of the drawings and the numbering sequence should be consistent from phase to phase and project to project. The title block should include:              Project Name Project Address Project Number Architect’s Name and Address A place to identify the consultants on their respective sheets. leaving a void in the middle. This index should show each sheet number and sheet contents (matching the description shown in the title block). and number. Other areas of the title block will have to be completed by computer where appropriate.2008 Page 42 . Ideally.There are certain kinds of information that should appear on every drawing. address. and the graphic linework used to separate different areas of the title block). Each discipline should be identified by a single letter designation. and in reviewing it.

xx User Defined A8.1.xx 3D Representations (isometrics. sheet index. which does not include Food Service as a separate discipline) R X Z O Resource Other Disciplines Contractor / Shop drawings Operations Sheet Type Designation A0. legends.1. phasing. I prefer “ID” to the UDS “I” because it is not easily confused with a “1” – “one”) Q F P D M E T FS Equipment Fire Protection Plumbing Process Mechanical Electrical Telecommunications Food Service (this is another departure from the UDS.xx User Defined A9.xx General information. wall sections) A4.W C L S A ID Civil Works Civil Engineering Landscape Structural Engineering Architectural Interiors (this is a departure from the UDS. or sections that are not details) A5. Elevations. title or cover sheet A1. Electrical drawings commonly include a power plan. photographs) It is highly desirable for consultants’ sheets to correspond to the architectural.2008 Page 43 .xx Sections (sectional views.1 should also show the level one plan.1.xx Schedules and Diagrams A7. which corresponds to the architectural floor plan.xx Details A6. stair sections.xx Large Scale Views (plans. perspectives. The same applies for plumbing sheet P2. and a lighting plan. then mechanical sheet M1. which corresponds to the Drawing Organization AOPS © 2003 . definitions. If the architectural drawings show level one on sheet A1. electrical sheet E1.xx Plans (horizontal views) A2. etc.xx Elevations (vertical views) A3. code.

The same can be said for other additional issued information from the architect and the consultants (Change Orders. Details A6 Interior Elevations. Details Drawing Organization AOPS © 2003 . but AD is a better choice since addendum drawings can be supplemental as well as change drawings. If more than one drawing is used.4 Third Floor Reflected Ceiling Plan M1.3 Third Floor Electrical Power Plan or… A1. Site Plan. Casework types. code A2 Demolition Plan. Frame types. Details A4 Roof Plan. to allow the sheet numbering concept to carry through. Details A5 Exterior Elevations. Millwork.4.3 Third Floor Interior Finishes Plan Q1. information. Construction Change Directives.3 Third Floor Equipment Plan S1.3 Third Floor Framing Plan P1. Details A7 Partition Types. An example would be: A1 Cover.architectural reflected ceiling plan.4 Third Floor HVAC Plan E1. respectively) as a quick method of finding third floor information. index. & Details A3 Floor Plan.3 Third Floor Plumbing Plan E1. A1.4 Third Floor Electrical Lighting Plan or… A1.3* Third Floor Hazardous Materials Plan  Notice all third floor plans are indicated XX. Therefore. Door Types. etc. Wall Sections. Drawings required to accompany Supplemental Instructions or Proposal Requests should share the same number as the instruction or request and can be preceded with a SI or PR. PR-12B). Reflected Ceiling Plan. Small Project Organization Many projects do not need so many sheets to explain the work involved. it is helpful to put each reflected ceiling plan directly following the corresponding floor plan. Stairs.3 (or XX.2008 Page 44 . Enlarged Plans.3D Third Floor Demolition Plan H1. Identification of drawings issued after the selection of a contractor should also be consistent in nature. definitions. In such a case it is better to combine information onto a single sheet to avoid high reprographics costs and to make it easier to find things. Addenda drawings can have an AD preceding the drawing number Sometimes an “X” is used to indicate a “change” drawing. follow the number with a letter (PR-12A.3 Third Floor Plan ID1.).

and keynotes throughout all disciplines of the drawing set.  Encourages information composition and including the most information possible on any one sheet.2008 Page 45 . It is also difficult to keep several volumes in the same location. Drawing Organization AOPS © 2003 . could be very frustrating. door information (except door hardware schedule). and details. The project manual should contain written information only.  Module size conforms to industry standard for future use with manufacturers details available on the internet. and other information. symbols.  Encourages reuse of standard detailing. for example. Grid blocks can be used in any combination for large drawings. Methodology:  All graphic information should be shown in the drawings.Concepts:  To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for drawing sheet organization so as to ensure correct communication with the document user. key plans. since one literally references the other. It makes sense that all graphic information be grouped together and all written information be grouped.  Common location for notes. This includes abbreviations. and not having details at hand or to have a problem locating them in a project manual. legends.  To establish consistent information finding methods throughout the Contract Documents.

. ID5.x ID4. Locate tenant on key plan. ID0.3 ID5. Customize only if needed.4 Floor Plans (New Construction) New Construction Notes (only if notes do not fit on I2.0 Cover/Index/Data Sheet (always has a title block so info is exposed when rolled.0 ID1.0 ID3. any other drawing series that may be required.1) First Floor Reflected Ceiling Plan Second Floor Reflected Ceiling Plan Third Floor Reflected Ceiling Plan Etc.1) First Floor Demolition Plan (includes finish demolition) Second Floor Demolition Plan Third Floor Demolition Plan Etc.4 Reflected Ceiling Plans Reflected Ceiling Plan Notes (only if notes do not fit on I3.3 ID3. Drawing Organization AOPS © 2003 .x ID1.CHAPTER 3 -. or Demolition Reflected Ceiling Plans ID2. e. ID3.g. ID6.2 ID4.4 Finish Schedule and Plans Finish Schedule and Legend First Floor Finish Plan Second Floor Finish Plan Third Floor Finish Plan Etc.2 ID5.1 ID4.2 ID1. label this series in the drawing list on the Cover Sheet “Not Used”.0 ID4.1 ID3.x ID3. Sections.4 Demolition Plans Demolition Notes (only if notes do not fit on I1.3 ID1.2008 Page 46 .1 ID1. If you do not use.1 ID2.4 Furniture and Equipment Plans First Floor Furniture/Equipment Plan Second Floor Furniture/Equipment Plan Third Floor Furniture/Equipment Plan Etc.x ID5. Signage.3 ID4.2 ID2.3 ID2. This sheet also includes a key plan to illustrate exiting from building.) ID1.1) First Floor New Construction Plan Second Floor New Construction Plan Third Floor New Construction Plan Etc.0 ID2.x ID2. ID4.2 ID3.INTERIORS DRAWING SHEET STANDARDS Try to use this format for numbering Interiors sets when possible.1 If needed.1 ID5.

Note: Consultants’ drawings must correspond with architectural. i. M2. E3.1 Door/Window and Frame Types and Schedules ID9.e.1 Interior Elevations (includes toilet rooms). ID8. Interior Details.ID7. M E Mechanical Drawings Electrical Drawings Specifications Booklet Drawing Organization AOPS © 2003 . Add decimals if more than one sheet is necessary. Add decimals if more than one sheet is necessary.2008 Page 47 . etc.1 to be first floor mechanical plan.1 Partition Types.1 to be first floor reflected ceiling plan.

SPECIFYING TECHNIQUES Drawings and Specs establish a standard of required function.CHAPTER 4 -.5 water/cement ratio. Reference Standards  materials:  products:  design:  workmanship:  test methods:  codes: ASTM ANSI ACI ASTM ASTM ANSI/ASME – reference standards may include words used in a different context than those same words used in the General Conditions. two parts fine aggregate. Performance Specifications  Statement of required results  all desired end results must be spelled out. and quality.  Performance of 3.  Workmanship required for installation.  Example: (Descriptive Specification) Concrete mix of four parts coarse aggregate.  Proprietary names are not used. Abbreviations AOPS © 2003 .  criteria for verifying compliance must be included. with 0. one part cement.  The burden of performance is assumed by the specifier. but if the concrete did not test out. the contractor could not be held responsible if he provided a concrete mix as described. dimension.000 psi at 28 days is implied. appearance. – inappropriate provisions often appear in Reference Standards.2008 Page 48 . Specifications accomplish this by using one (preferably) of the following specifying techniques: Descriptive Specifications  Detailed description of properties of a product or material.

Typical master specification language for a semi-proprietary specification is as follows: “Subject to compliance with requirements. model. products which may be incorporated in the work include. provide one of the following:”. • • • Open Proprietary Specifications versus Closed Proprietary Specifications Open  allows substitutions  named product defines desired properties and level of acceptable quality  substitutions are proposed by contractor  products are reviewed and allowed if approved  Typical master specification language for an open specification is as follows:  “Subject to compliance with requirements. but are not limited to.2008 Page 49 .Proprietary Specifications • identification of product’s manufacturer. brand. Click here for a link to Specifications Coordination Checklist Abbreviations AOPS © 2003 . the following:” Closed  no substitution  may specify one product. type. etc.  may specify several products as options.

more readable drawing. do not abbreviate. STRUCT. the context should provide a clear meaning. Abbreviations should be easily recognizable to promote understanding of a specific note — not obscure it. If you encounter a special situation for which you feel it is desirable to abbreviate. it is important to be mindful that abbreviations will have to be interpreted and understood by people with a wide variety of interests and backgrounds. Do not use STR. Some common exceptions are EA.. Besides. Choose one abbreviation for a specific term. taking far more time to decipher than lettering the entire work or note. etc. bd. only those abbreviations which are generally understood and accepted throughout the industry should be used.). Generally. Provide an abbreviations list specific for each discipline. If in doubt. misuse can render a drawing virtually incomprehensible. JC. STRUC. 4. for example. Be consistent. or max. CA. Coordinate abbreviations used by other disciplines and within the specifications to avoid conflict and confusion. CDs.ABBREVIATIONS Abbreviations in print and speech proliferate throughout the architectural profession. Where abbreviations are desirable. and the like.). and should be easily recognized in order to achieve this: 1. Abbreviations AOPS © 2003 . W/. 6. 5. If it doesn’t. or perhaps the abbreviated form is more common and readily understood than the long form (gyp. they should generally be avoided. Any time spent contemplating an abbreviation is better spent writing out the full word or phrase.2008 Page 50 . AIA. While use of appropriate abbreviations can speed completion of a drawing and provide a cleaner. Perhaps space is limited. The purpose of an abbreviation is to limit space. Abbreviations should conform to commonly accepted practice. depending on available space. W/O. require no further explanation except to those outside the field. do not abbreviate. When misused. There are some good reasons to abbreviate. not provide punctuation. 2. They have long been considered fair game for individual expression and ingenuity in adapting drawing notations to the limited space usually available in a set of working drawings. Since the use of abbreviations can lead to misinterpretations and confusion. though. Do not use abbreviations that are nearly as long as the original word or phrase. However. abbreviations can frustrate and annoy. Do not include those abbreviations listed in the specifications.CHAPTER 5 -. Limit abbreviations to four or five letters. the contraction is implied by the use of a period at the end of an abbreviation (BLKG. do not use apostrophes (BL’K’G). STRUCT’L at random. and use it throughout a set of drawings. PA. there are some guidelines which should be followed. @. 3. if multiple definitions exist for an abbreviation (something that should be avoided). Edit the list to incorporate any project-specific abbreviations included in the drawings. PR. GC.

To this end. as our standard for proper terminology. and do not abbreviate anything that is not on this list. Familiarize yourself with this list. Click Here for a sample list of: Standard Abbreviations Abbreviations AOPS © 2003 . Do not make up new variations. References:  Uniform Drawing System. Module 5 – Terms and Abbreviations. When preparing your drawings.  To establish consistent abbreviations throughout the Contract Documents.2008 Page 51 . Show the most commonly used abbreviations on the title sheet and reference the UDS Terms and Abbreviations Module. Methodology:      Do not abbreviate words of five letters or fewer. use only the abbreviations which appear on this list. except in schedules.A sample word and symbol list is included here for your reference. It is in our best interest to follow an accepted industry standard when it comes to abbreviations so as to be better able to defend our construction documents and to communicate our ideas with the least amount of confusion. Terms & Abbreviations. Avoid the use of abbreviations with more than one meaning. Construction Specifications Institute. this firm has adopted Module 5 of the Uniform Drawing System. Only abbreviate if you have run out of room to spell the word. 1999. Concepts:  To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for abbreviating terms so as to ensure correct communication with the document user. This is intentionally a restrained list. Do not use “periods” with the abbreviation.

“Lineal. No one would even attempt something so obviously doomed to failure. it is recommended that one dictionary be established as the reference of choice for that project. even if the words are all in English. Words not having a consistent spelling or meaning within the industry will always be present. only identified terms.TERMINOLOGY The difficulty communicating a design described in English to a Dutch general contractor and Argentine subs is obvious. abbreviations. as a group. or expressions to describe the same things every time they are used. Make it your mission to know the words used in the general conditions. Referenced standards often use specific words to communicate information or identify materials and methods. standards. A proprietary name should not be used in drawings. terms. As a profession. or when we use the same words to describe different things.” for example is a poor variant of the word “linear” because its preferred use is in reference to genealogical lineage rather than measurement. Any effort in communication first requires that a common language be established between participants. and then be consistent—and relentless about being consistent—in their usage. and then to use these words. the use of the non-proprietary terms from specifications aids the reader in finding the matching specification. but there are some terms that have special meanings when used in a construction context. Yet. By not repeating information from the specifications in the drawings. we should agree on some common definitions for commonly used terms. in the General Conditions of the contract. Some words in common use in the industry are not appropriate. These should be identified for use prior to the start of the drawing.2008 Page 52 . Creation of the project specifications should begin with this same process of defining the language to be used. construction documents should begin by defining terms. and symbols that will be necessary to clearly interpret and understand the information presented. there should be little chance for confusion. In the drawings. These are most often identified on an initial drawing sheet. The drawings identify where specified products are required and how they are to interface with other specified products. Specified products should generally be identified by the same non-proprietary terms as are used by manufacturers. we do something very similar when we use different words to describe the same thing in a set of working drawings. Care should be exercised to avoid use of product names such as “vinyl asbestos tile” which Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . If a set of documents is consistent within itself and its referenced standards. Except for simple English. and symbols should be used. For words not taken from referenced standards or from manufacturers. and in Division 1 of the specifications. By reference or by inclusion. The English language generally serves us well for this purpose. and elsewhere in the specifications.CHAPTER 6 -. These same words should be used for the same intentions in the construction documents. small changes in the specifications can be made without affecting the drawing notation. Spellings used should generally be the first listed. abbreviations.

identifies a product that is no longer manufactured. The most common example is the word “approved. 1999 Methodology:  Verify that the terminology is consistent throughout the drawings and specifications using the UDS module as a guide. For guidelines regarding liability issues associated with the use of certain words. as the standard for proper terminology. Concepts:   To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for communicating the building design to others in order to eliminate individual preference and to better defend our documents. much may be assumed. “Sound resistive” and “fire resistive” are more accurate.” Without qualification of what is approved. Many words or word uses have been identified as poor choices by liability insurance carriers. References:  Uniform Drawing System. Words that do not say exactly what is meant. Module 5 – Terms and Abbreviations. To this end. Click here for a listing of: Standard Architectural Terminology Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . Having been pivotal in deciding liability cases against design professionals. Construction Specifications Institute. such as “sound proof” or “fire proof. To establish consistent terminology throughout the Contract Documents. Terms & Abbreviations. consult the firm’s liability insurance carrier. such words have become suspect for being interpreted in ways other than intended. we recommend adopting Module 5 of the Uniform Drawing System.2008 Page 53 .” should also be avoided.

When symbols are used well. These symbols should conform to industry standards. 3. obscure.CHAPTER 7 -. and graphic quality of working drawings or they can confuse. The following guidelines should help us to use symbols well. Symbols should be simple to draft. Anyone who reads the drawing should be able to ascertain the meaning of each symbol without difficulty. It should not be easily confused with other symbols. Symbols must not obscure the drawing. 1. to know where you are now. Symbols must be drawn so that they are informative. but not the predominant features of the drawing. Symbols should be unique. Each sign or symbol should be placed in a spot that makes it as clear and simple as possible for you to move around the neighborhood you are in. Preference should be given to symbols that are commonly used throughout the industry. Symbols should be standardized so that the drawing can be easily understood. There are five categories of symbols commonly used in architectural working drawings. 2. send your CAD manufacturer a copy of this book. along with an admonishment about the need to standardize throughout the industry. Any drafter should be able to draw them with little trouble.STANDARD SYMBOLS The graphic language that has evolved over the years uses symbols to help guide users through a set of drawings. where you’ve been. and where you’re going. Most CAD systems provide a library of common symbols. Think of symbols in the same way you think of road signs. Then.2008 Page 54 . clarity. A hierarchy of symbols should be developed so that the prominence of the symbol relates in a general way to the importance of the information to which it applies. 5. and obfuscate. Symbols should be readily discernible from other elements on the drawings. you should seriously consider customizing them. They are:  Reference Symbols  Material Symbols  Identity Symbols  Line Symbols  Text and Template Symbols Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . 6. Symbols must show the importance of information. 4. and if they do not. they enhance the readability. The reader should not confuse symbols with drawing elements or have difficulty finding symbols.

Establish a “Project North” on the Site Plan and then refer to it as “North” throughout the set on all other drawings. There are some differences. East. and West. We have not marked up the actual legend sheets in the event that you may wish to use them on your working drawings “Legends” sheet.Reference Symbols These symbols refer you to information found in another part of the drawing set (called cross-referencing) or give basic information on the drawing. Exterior Elevation References should be used only where special elevations need to be shown. however. Label them as North. They are independent of drawing scale. The reasons for these differences are as follows: Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . The reference symbols we recommend here follow the Uniform Drawing System in concept. Rely on compass point designations for major exterior elevation references. To establish consistency throughout the Contract Documents. Use the Section Reference’s “tail” to define the limits of the Section. Break the line as needed. Interior Elevations of the same room should be referenced under the same location. Click Here for Link to: Standard Architectural Symbols The symbols shown on the linked legends are essentially the same as those advocated by the CSI Uniform Drawing System. South. Symbols have been created for Identifiers not listed in the UDS using traditional processes recognizable to the construction industry. The Section Reference lines should be broken if necessary so as not to obliterate other parts of the drawing. Do not obliterate dimensions and text when using the Detail Reference Symbol.2008 Page 55 . The dark part of the Match Line circle always faces the drawing. Methodology:          Cross-check all references for accuracy. Concepts:   To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for Reference Symbols so as to ensure understandable communication with the document user and to better be able to defend our documents on the jobsite.

Door Identification Mark 202 A UDS Standard Door ID Mark The UDS uses a circle to surround the door number. then the drawing number is placed in the top half of the circle. and placing it inside a circle is like inserting a square peg in a round hole. This is additional work that we don’t feel is necessary.Interior Elevation Reference: UDS Interior Elevation Reference The UDS shows a horizontal line at the center of the circle. and the sheet number is placed in the bottom half of the circle. and are sufficient. We consider the drawing number to be redundant.2008 Page 56 . We consider the door number to be an adequate symbol. The letters in the above example indicate the drawing identifications. and represents additional unnecessary work. 4-Hour Fire Resistive Partition Symbol UDS 3-hour partition symbol UDS 4-hour partition symbol Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 .

Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . Materials Indications The UDS uses this 3-line symbol for steel and other metals. and has no symbol for batt insulation. because the 2-line symbol has been used for steel for many years (and the 3-line symbol for aluminum. This may be a mistake. We believe this is a mistake. identical to the 3-hour symbol. and the 2-line symbol for aluminum. This symbol has been used for batt insulation for many years. This may be a mistake in the UDS Manual.The UDS uses a line with three dashes for a 4-hour fire-resistive partition symbol. but we could not get confirmation from CSI on this. The UDS uses this symbol to represent loose fill insulation.2008 Page 57 .

Methodology: Several basic rules govern the use of symbols and materials indications:  A symbol is generally a superior way of communicating. This “poché” is used to make the extent and relationships among various materials readily discernible. Fine dot screen patterns will be splotchy if a reduced size reproduction is made.2008 Page 58 . Use poché at the boundaries or extremities of a material. it enhances the readability. where possible. Limit the use of materials indications to those areas where they will most effectively clarify the intent. and graphic quality of working drawings. 5. dot screens will produce an objectionable moiré pattern. When material poché is used well. The following guidelines will help the architect use material poché well. Never was the cry so loud for “Less is More” than in the use of materials indications. Material poché should be consistent with industry standards.Materials Symbols Materials indications are a necessary (if sometimes tedious) part of working drawings. 1. The same criteria should be used in making selections from the available patterns. Dot screens can be used to similar effect. 3. Continuous tones do not generally reproduce well by photographic methods (including xerox). A material should be pochéd the same way in all drawings in the set. Materials symbols graphically indicate certain materials and are used to help differentiate one material from another. Material poché should be consistent throughout a set of drawings. Materials indications must be consistent throughout a set of drawings and. but make your choices carefully. Concepts: To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for Materials Symbols so as to ensure understandable communication with the document user and to better be able to defend our documents on the jobsite. clarity. We recommend using materials symbols that follow the CSI Uniform Drawing System (see exceptions shown earlier in this chapter). Long brick walls rendered in their entirety are much more difficult to read than if the materials are indicated sparingly. 4. and should be avoided. and is preferred over a written explanation or description whenever the symbol can do the job adequately. CAD poché is readily available. poché should have a different graphic scale on a large scale drawing than one drawn at a small scale. Quite often. They can be dependent or independent of drawing scale. If the drawing is going to be reproduced as a half-tone. 2. and is generally a superior method for accomplishing this task. Material poché should be done at the appropriate scale. or where it meets another material. Keep in mind the reproduction techniques that may be used. they should be consistent with what are generally considered to be industry standards. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 .

only on proposed construction to differentiate between the two and illustrate the work to be performed. for that matter). Never use Material Indications on existing construction. Material Symbols should not be overdone. Use a very fine lineweight and border it in heavier lines.      Click Here for Link to: Standard Materials Symbols Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . They should be used where a material stops or where it changes direction. either. Different symbols for the same information should never be used in the same set of drawings (or other sets.  Different information should never be represented by the same symbol in a given set of drawings. Cross-check all references for accuracy.2008 Page 59 . Symbols have been created for materials not listed in the UDS using traditional processes recognizable to the construction industry.

Symbols have been created for materials not listed in the UDS using traditional processes recognizable to the construction industry. To establish consistency throughout the Contract Documents. Concepts:   To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for Identity Symbols so as to ensure understandable communication with the document user and to better be able to defend our documents on the jobsite.2008 Page 60 . They can be dependent or independent of drawing scale. We recommend using identity symbols that follow the CSI Uniform Drawing System (see exceptions shown earlier in this chapter). Using the UDS module (the industry standard) will help persuade them to alter their symbolism to a format you can use. Click Here for Link to: Standard Symbols Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . Identity Symbols should be coordinated with the engineering consultants so as to be able to exchange CAD information with them. Methodology:    Cross-check all references for accuracy.Identity Symbols Identity symbols indicate individual objects.

Concepts:   To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for Line Symbols so as to ensure understandable communication with the document user and to better be able to defend our documents on the jobsite. Symbols have been created for materials not listed in the UDS using traditional processes recognizable to the construction industry.2008 Page 61 .Line Symbols Line symbols indicate continuous objects with either single or double lines. Using the UDS module (the industry standard) will help persuade them to alter their symbolism to a format you can use. Methodology:    Cross-check all references for accuracy with consultant drawings. Line Symbols should be coordinated with the engineering consultants (Civil) so as to be able to exchange CAD information with them. To establish consistency throughout the Contract Documents. We recommend using line symbols that follow the CSI Uniform Drawing System (see exceptions shown earlier in this chapter). They are independent of drawing scale. Click Here for Link to: Standard Symbols Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 .

It must become the law. Template Symbols should be coordinated with the engineering consultants so as to facilitate the exchange of CAD information with them. Send it to your friends and colleagues. There are also many variations. Then. Concepts:   To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for Text & Template Symbols so as to ensure understandable communication with the document user and to better be able to defend our documents on the jobsite. Create your own standard set of symbols. Click Here for Link to: Standard Symbols There are many popular symbols which commonly appear in a set of working drawings. Peruse it. prepared as a standard on CAD. even competitors or enemies – anyone who might be tempted to deviate from the standard. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . for all of us. To establish consistency throughout the Contract Documents. copy it. They are independent of drawing scale. Methodology:     Cross-check all references for accuracy with consultant drawings. We recommend using text and template symbols that follow the CSI Uniform Drawing System. But don’t lose it..2008 Page 62 . Using the UDS module (the industry standard) will help persuade them to alter their symbolism to a format you can use. abuse it even. They are scale dependent.Text & Template Symbols Text symbols graphically indicate a word and may be used in notations on drawings. Symbols have been created for materials not listed in the UDS using traditional processes recognizable to the construction industry.. use it. and place it on your standard cover sheet. Template symbols resemble the actual objects being symbolized. based on the UDS standards. Template symbols used to show existing conditions should have a lightweight line type to differentiate them from proposed construction. And don’t deviate from it.

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Note any variations to the typical on the affected section or detail. This may seem like a logical thing to do. details. Concepts: Every office should have a Department of Redundancy Department to help eliminate our natural tendency to be redundant. Strive for clarity.STANDARD PRACTICE Redundancy Time is money.. Mark them as similar and note variations from the standard.). and the like can be described using the floor plan in conjunction with a casework schedule. duplication of information may add to the cost of construction. and other similar schedules (e.  Avoid drawing interior room elevations unless wall pattern.change order. and consistency. standard mounting height notes. it obfuscates the clarity of your drawings.. completely note the most typical section or detail and simply reference other sections or details to the one noted. Similarly. or details. etc.change order. do not repeat the same information on different drawings. including many classrooms. exterior and interior elevations.. or ornamentation require graphic depiction. If that decision was documented in many different locations throughout a set of drawings. Do not repeat on building sections.  Look for methods of simplification in room finish. it will have to be changed at each location.CHAPTER 8 -. there is an inconsistency in the drawings that jumps off the page to owners and contractors as a throbbing “change order. Most simply stated. simplicity. Repetition of information on multiple drawings and the subsequent multiple corrections that inevitably result cost both time and money. The users of your documents will be looking for Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . as a design evolves.g. If there are 100 rooms in a project. requiring less time for corrections.  Avoid showing room elevations in the backgrounds of building or wall sections. Create a room finish legend of the 10 types and subtypes and show a symbol on the floor plans with the legend adjacent. toilets. door. Methodology:  Design your working drawings as hierarchical shopping lists. it is. offices. Locate the “noted” section or detail on the right hand side of the drawing. and perhaps for design or presentation drawings. louvers..” Reducing the number of opportunities for this kind of oversight should result in drawings with fewer conflicts. When preparing the cartoon set. Avoid sheets of duplicative schedules. If one spot is missed. toilet accessories. and window identifications on floor plans.  Avoid repeating notes from wall section to wall section or detail to detail. moving from broadscope drawings to larger scale drawings and then to specific details. to repeat ourselves. determine which information or level of detail should appear on which drawing. wall sections.  Show room.2008 Page 63 . casework. there are probably no more than 10 standard room finishes (and perhaps some minor variations to those). to say the same things over and over. On a given drawing. door and window schedules. Most room elevations. But for working drawings. certain earlier decisions must change. Invariably.  Avoid repeating similar details.

even the simplest building can be rendered virtually indecipherable if dimensioning is not adequately considered.2008 Page 64 . This chapter is for the rest of us. Consider drawing wall sections or building sections. However. Avoid showing the same information on both small and large-scale drawings. draw it in detail at large scale and show only a schematic representation at small scale. Dimensioning Hands and feet. How convenient. we standardized the length of a foot. not on floor plans or building/room elevations. Move from plan to schedule to details. Dimensioning is necessary to define the size and location of various building materials. Obviously. and these buildings are uncompromised by dimensional “busts. Avoid describing material characteristics. If not. There are many. things were simpler then. not both.       interior elevations on the interior elevation sheets. Wall sections should be of sufficient scale to include critical vertical detailing. Then we divided these twelve increments into halves and into halves again and again and again – just to make certain that our base 10 calculators could never be used to add up the parts. many spectacular buildings built using this system. I suppose there was a time when these seemed like wonderful measuring devices. First. those of us still using the English system of measurement have made countless improvements to make the system more workable. typically on door and window frame elevations. If it is remote from a wall juncture. Locate door and window frame detail references consistently. Every symbol shown on Architectural RCP is a duplication of engineering drawings and consequently a potential source of conflict. When well done. We are simply trying to work with the system we have.” redesign costs. Reflected ceiling plans — consider calling for coordination drawings by contractor. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . Avoid plan details in general. This information more appropriately belongs in the technical specifications of the project manual. But we are not trying to change that here. After all. there is no reason to draw an enlarged plan detail. Building sections will typically be of sufficiently small scale to require detail enlargements (adjacent if possible) of key junctures. while the drawings indicate quantities and how different materials come together. or assembly instructions on drawings. product names. or change order increases. components and elements. If a small-scale plan shows a door jamb tight to an adjacent wall. In the intervening years. dimension it. If there is room to provide sufficient detail at small scale. you always had them with you (unless you were a convicted thief). limit the number of building sections to those necessary to generally describe building cross sectional characteristics. As a minimum. Good move. Then we divided it into twelve equal parts. Avoid repeating site drawing information on floor plans. dimensioning can clarify and simplify the construction of the most complex building. not the building section sheets. The specifications indicate quality requirements. omit the large scale.

where the dimension lines cross over the grid lines or extension lines. gridlines.  There may still be a few renegades that simply will not conform to these grids.  Work from the broad and general to the narrow and specific.  Locate the closest dimension line no closer than 11/2” from the building linework. Dimensioning is a comparatively simple arithmetic exercise. Dimension to the centerlines of columns. however. moving in toward the building. there were to be only one thing we did right on a set of working drawings. and it is so important that there is simply no excuse for not taking the time to do it right. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . and may be acceptable if the thickness of the partition is described in a legend of partition types. Dimension all items from an established reference point. and do not necessarily close the string of dimensions to the next grid. such as metal studs. should dimension the column grid. there are ways to make this process simpler and easier to manage. However. or to the centerlines of building elements. and these techniques should be used on every job. 2. The fourth line should locate the small elements.  Generally.  Dimension to one face of manufactured materials. 1. to see how much of your floor plan you can make work out to that module.If. The next line. the default should be to dimension to the face of concrete or masonry. break the line so there will be no confusion about whether a dimension dot or slash may have been forgotten. 4” or even 2” or 1” even-inch increments. such as a grid line.  Then go to a 2’ grid. 3. The third line in should dimension the building offsets. and to the finish face of gypsum board applied to studs. and to both faces of site-constructed items. Try to make the floor plan work out on a grid or a module  Start with a 5’ or a 4’ grid. dimensioning to the face of one side of the stud is more consistent with the manner in which partitions are actually laid out during construction. 5. For most projects.2008 Page 65 . as architects.  Dimensioning to the centerlines of partitions is common. 4. such as the openings. and modular partitions. for exterior dimensioning. but they should be very few. that one thing should be to make the dimensions add up correctly. actual faces. avoid fractions wherever you can. try to get them on 6”. this allows space for cross-reference symbols that read more clearly when placed close to the building lines. The nature and complexity of each building will dictate to dimension to finish faces. Arrange dimensions in a hierarchy that corresponds to the building hierarchy. to pick up any uncooperative stragglers. there should be four dimension lines: The line furthest from the building should be an overall dimension from the outside face to the outside face of the building. and then a 1’ grid.

the inch symbol (“) should be omitted. and CLEAR to show intent. dimensions over 1’-0” should be expressed in feet and inches. and make sure that masonry openings are indicated as such. both horizontally and vertically. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . 13. Do not dimension items such as partitions or doors that are centered or otherwise located by being on a grid. Make liberal (but studied and judicious) use of terms such as ALIGN. in many cases. 15. mullion. Use actual (as opposed to nominal) dimensions for all construction except masonry. Use nominal dimensions for unit masonry. Do not dimension to the centerlines of doors. “Windows” are to be distinguished from framed openings in that they are pre-manufactured assemblies. Dimension as much as possible from structural elements. Dimensions under 1’-0” should be stated in inches only (not 0’-6”. Always keep in mind the exact coursing intervals for the particular block or brick sizes you are using. a dimension may not be necessary when the intent is clearly indicated. 14. 12. masonry opening dimensions should be used). Give consideration to the overall dimensioning strategy in dimensioning large and small scale drawings. 1 9. Limit the smallest fractional increment to 1/8”. Never dimension any part of a masonry wall on the assumption that the difference can be made up by stretching or shrinking the mortar joints. CENTER. or by typical condition.6. or when it is not shown in a detail. Dimension to the centerlines of windows when the dimension of the actual unit installed (as determined by competitive bidding on one of several approved equivalents) may vary from the size of the unit you have shown on the drawings (except where window units are within masonry walls. rather than from items that may not be installed when the layout takes place. usually of a pre-determined dimension. MAXIUMUM. but 6”). 17. always use coursing dimensions. 8. Do not dimension openings that are dimensioned in a schedule. Fractions should be shown with a diagonal slash: 1/2 or /2 1 unacceptable 2 12 unacceptable 10. 16. 7. for example). Doors should be located by dimensioning to one jamb (at the edge of the opening) only when the location is not otherwise made clear by its context (as it would be when it is centered in a corridor.2008 Page 66 . MINIMUM.  For dimensions expressed in feet and inches. in which case. 11. When dimensioning unit masonry. because the “inches” part is implied and should be understood.

and that will be in place at the time new pieces of the construction are being installed. dimension to one face (the same face) of each partition. but you discover a condition where you feel it would be clearer to dimension to the face of a finish material. Dimensions should be checked. For doors in typical partitions. and then scale the dimension to make sure you are in the ballpark. Use common sense in determining a dimensioning strategy. And don’t dimension the thickness of the partition – that is the job of the partition types. Dimension for the installer. Dimension (and annotate) for the desired effect. If the plan features a series of rooms defined by partitions 10 feet apart (for example). better yet. make sure you are clear in indicating that deviation to the contractor. Don’t even think about converting the dimensions to decimals to use a regular calculator.      For example. if you have decided generally to dimension to the face of rough framing members. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . Use an Add-Feet. do not try to do it in your head. 18. use reference points that will be clear to the installer. When the dimension of a door jamb is clearly indicated on a detail. and the right face the next time. Don’t dimension to the left face in one instance. if you want a masonry scoring line to align with the edge of a window. Use the small scale plans for dimensioning areas that don’t appear in plan enlargements. dimension to the centerlines consistently. don’t dimension it on a plan. 22. Use the small scale plan for locating the perimeter points of areas shown at larger scale. Don’t dimension to a gridline if there will be a concrete wall between the installer and the gridline at the time of construction. don’t dimension the door or the opening size on the plans – let the door schedule handle this. 19. make sure the different ways of dimensioning them result in the same relative locations for those items (the same dimensions).   Don’t be redundant by repeating dimensions on the small scale plan that are more appropriately indicated on the larger scale plan. make it clear that that is the desired effect. and then checked again. and then tie that face back to the gridline. 20. Dimension to the face of the concrete wall.2008 Page 67 . then double-checked. or even on a scratch pad. When dimensioning common features in different parts of the plan. or. or a feet-and-inches calculator. and make it clear when you are deviating from the norms you have established for your project. establish a dimensioning strategy that allows a dimension of 10’-0 to be shown. Jr. 21. Make sure long strings of dimensions are tied to gridlines. Look for alternatives ways to arrive at the dimensions for a cross-check.

and we must be mindful of their coursing dimensions when we lay out and dimension buildings. but it is something you have to keep in mind when you’re working on a masonry building. Not such a good match. If you are not absolutely clear on what the preferred method is in your office. It is imperative that the dimensioning methodology be consistent throughout the entire set of working drawings. These arguments should be considered. or you can get a special door at 7’-2” high. pre-determined sizes. The chance for error is multiplied when we start adding opening into masonry walls. Make any special requirements clear. so with a 2” frame. Doors A typical door size would be 3’-0 w x 7’-0 h. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages. be sure that you can get one that comes in a standard coursing dimension for the brick or block you are using. So. go and find out.” Others are equally adamant about dimensioning to the rough face of structural or framing members to simplify the layout. even if the most favored method is not the current office standard. Framed Openings The frames in framed openings are put in placed after the masonry is installed. The same door would require a vertical opening of 7’-2”. a typical hollow metal frame would be 2” h (in cross-section). It’s not difficult. That works well with standard modular 3 brick. They can be any size you want. That makes 3’-4 /2 “.2008 Page 68 . and certain projects may present very compelling arguments in favor of one method versus another. a typical door and frame would require an opening of approximately 3’-4. make sure you have clearly indicated that. take your time and do it right. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . A final reminder: Keep it simple. Windows Windows are pre-manufactured units that are available from the manufacturer in specific. it will also course out. The closest coursing dimension would be 7’-4” (33 courses). But you still need an opening that courses out with the masonry you are using. or creating nominal dimensions for partitions and dimensioning that way. because a typical masonry opening would be 3’-4 nominal (3’-4 /8” actual). There is no right way or wrong way of doing it – only the way preferred by the office you are in. If you want to put one of these units in a masonry wall. if a window must meet the brick on both sides the same way. Others may favor dimensioning to the centerlines of partitions. Masonry and Coursing Dimensions Brick and concrete block are modular materials. Don’t forget to always show a shim space around the frame for shimming. You have a couple of choices… you can make the top portion of the frame 4” high so it courses out. Some firms are adamant about dimensioning to the face of a finish material to ensure the “desired effect. as the pieces are cut to measured field dimensions right at the job site. plus a 1/4” on each side for shimming it so it 1 will be plumb.

A flexible system that will adapt to a variety of building types. Reduce drafting time: Dimension things once and in the most logical place. Click here for a link to a Sample Dimensioned Floor Plan Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . and always draw accurately. Easy to check: By tying all dimensioning to the structural grid it is easier to check for accuracy by adding between structural bays instead of having to add dimensions from one end of the building to the other. and finally dimension small elements such as openings. Casework and Millwork are the only areas where it is common to dimension in inches only. to the right side of partitions. not nominal. Understand that R. you can let the computer check the math for you. All dimensions 1”-0” and over should be expressed in feet and inches. measured from finish face to finish face. the next string follows the major building offsets (if applicable). next dimension the column grid. Slice through the building every so often with a string of dimensions. Methodology:         Create a single source of information. (rough opening) and M. in the most logical place. We require all dimensioning (except masonry) be actual distances. Approach dimensioning like you were slicing bread. preferably once. If you must dimension an existing condition label it as such with an (E) and define it as an “existing dimension to be field verified”. Change becomes easier that way. Position all text so it is readable without linework running through it. Understand what level of dimensioning is appropriate for details and what level is appropriate for broad scope information. for exterior dimensions there should be four dimension lines. Show dimensions the least number of times.O. Define your potential errors: Use such terms as “+/-“ and “Field Verify” as appropriate to indicate potential for varying dimension values. Easy to check: If you never change your CAD dimension values.2008 Page 69 . Limit the smallest fractional increment to 1/8”. Random dimension strings are a sure sign to the contractor that some items have been missed. (masonry opening) define openings and not necessarily frame sizes. In general.Concepts:        Easy to check: By using actual sizes and by dimensioning from finish surface to finish surface you will be able to tell at a glance if your building complies with code or if your equipment will fit. The outermost should be a building overall length.O.

Drawing Hierarchies
Let’s say you want to bake a layer cake. You could mix up the batter for the
first layer, and then bake it, and then frost it. And then start over for layer
two. You could, but since you don’t want to devote the entire day to baking
the cake, you probably opt in favor of mixing the batter for both layers at the
same time, baking both layers at the same time, and then frosting them at
the same time. You would follow a logical sequence of events that allowed
each activity to happen at the appropriate time, resulting in the most efficient
process for doing the work.
As architects, our reputations depend on our ability to conceive creative ideas.
But our livelihoods depend on our abilities to communicate these ideas
effectively to the people who will be translating our ideas into built reality. A
systematic, hierarchical approach to communicating our ideas is important for
the following reasons:
 to allow the most important information on a drawing sheet to occupy its
rightful place on the drawing
 to avoid overlapping and conflicting drawing elements
 to allow the drawing to become meaningful and useful at the earliest
possible point in its development
Drawing components can be divided into the following broad categories:
 initial drawing linework
 dimensions
 cross-referencing
 poché
 notation
 titles
The information contained within each of these basic drawing elements can be
prioritized in order to achieve the proper organization of the drawing elements,
to avoid overlapping information, and to deliver information to our consultants
and in-house team members according to a sequence which allows them to be
most productive.
Structural engineers need the following information at the start of working
drawings:
floor plans for all levels, but especially at foundation or below grade
levels (the grid has been determined during an earlier phase, in concert
with the engineer); include column grid lines with dimensions between
grid lines
 show wall and partition locations (including opening sizes and locations)
and construction materials
 roof plan
 building sections
 wall sections
Mechanical engineers need the following information at the start of working
drawings:

site plan

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floor plans (similar to the requirements for structural drawings, but
include plumbing fixture types and locations)
 reflected ceiling plans
 building sections
 mechanical equipment room plan
 building elevations
 roof plan
Electrical engineers need the following information at the start of working
drawings:





site plan
floor plans
reflected ceiling plans
furniture layouts
telephone and electrical room locations

Hierarchical Organization
In preparing each of the following types of working drawings, keep in mind the
information that each discipline needs to know, and develop the drawings
accordingly. Don’t clutter the drawings with a lot of architectural information until
the engineers have what they need. Remember that our mechanical and
electrical engineers may want to use sepias, CAD plots, or electronic versions of
our drawings as backgrounds for their work.
FLOOR PLANS (generally follow this sequence)
 title block showing project name
 drawing identification and scale
 north arrow
 column/grid lines with bubbles and alpha-numeric designations and
dimensions
 walls and partitions (clearly identify concrete and masonry walls)
 openings in floors and walls
 issue drawings to structural engineer
 add doors, door swings, and windows
 add stairs, elevators
 add plumbing fixtures (toilets, lavatories, sinks)
 issue backgrounds to mechanical and electrical consultants
 issue prints to structural consultant for coordination
 add balance of exterior dimensions (leave space between dimension
lines and building lines for cross-referencing symbols)
 add remaining plan features such as vanity tops, toilet partitions,
railings, changes in floor materials
 add interior dimensions
 add cross-referenced symbols such as building section marks, wall
section marks, detail marks, interior elevation marks
 add room names, room numbers, room finish codes

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place room names in rooms as possible, but not in conflict with
dimensions or cross-referencing
place outside but near rooms where necessary, with leader lines
add door symbols and marks
add notation
issue coordination sets to consultants
add poché (materials indications)
make necessary revisions
prepare final redlines

The above sequence applies to the development of the floor plans. Similarly,
certain drawings in the set should be started before others. The same criteria
apply.
Drawings that should be started first, all at about the same time, are:
 Site improvements plan
 Below-grade floor plans
 Above-grade floor plans
 Wall sections
Then, in descending order of priority:
 Reflected ceiling plans
 Floor plan enlargements
 Building elevations
 Building sections
 Details
 Partition types
 Interior elevations
 Schedules
Obviously, the preferred operating procedure will vary among consultants. Talk
to them; find out what they want. If their particular needs vary from this
sequence, that’s OK. It is better to deviate from this sequence than it is to make
assumptions that impede the productivity of our consultants.
Hierarchical organization is similarly important on other kinds of drawings as
well. For building and wall sections, it helps to keep the construction sequence
in mind as you develop the drawing. For example:
Start at the footing and work your way up the building.
 Put the structural elements in your drawing first; show the foundation wall,
floor joists, beams, etc., as you develop the drawing. Show the same
structural members and connections as the structural drawings show (but
leave out the detail).
 Develop the drawing from the outside in; make sure you have established
the proper relationships between the structure and the skin materials.

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and work the rest of the construction around it. Determine the parts of the construction that will drive decisions about the rest of the building. and let it say good things about you. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . then your drawings will communicate clearly. determine vertical masonry coursing early. logical. Take care with your work.2008 Page 73 . If your process is haphazard. The drawings you create will be the products of the thought process that you put into them. If your thought process is clear. then that is what will be communicated to the contractor. and coherent. for example.

.

sheetrock. A master notation system (including keyed notation) can eliminate this problem. We have created a library of standard notation (see the link at the end of this chapter). bd. and it is easy to understand why consistency in the use of architectural nomenclature is so essential in creating drawings that communicate effectively. make certain that someone following your instructions will find the information you say they will. Or he may ponder the difference you had in mind between gyp. It will help keep your notation consistent. etc. A contractor may ask himself. Mechanical. Conversely. But that is not the only advantage a notation system has to offer. 2. the proper use of standardized CSI notation automatically establishes a direct and deliberate relationship between the drawings and the specifications. a noble achievement in itself. if improperly used. A 4-digit CSI number (the first four digits of the 6-digit CSI numbering system) can then be added to tie the material to its proper address in the specifications. Electrical. gyp rock. This will accomplish the objectives of saving time and making the notation consistent. you can select additional ones at any time. as well as checking them) to make our notation consistent. We have three goals in the use of a master list of CSI notations:    to save time (both in creating our drawings. and other disciplines must be carefully coordinated with those disciplines. oh. it is not uncommon to find notes on our draings such as these: gyp bd. If you discover later that you need some that you haven't previously identified. It is extremely problematic to refer to consultant drawings if the information isn’t there. and from project to project – even office to office to tie the drawings to the specifications The use of CAD has automated some of the above objectives. maybe 500 opportunities. wallboard. In addition to producing drawings that are more graphically legible. whether you wanted a specific manufacturer of gypsum board (sheetrock) at certain locations but not at others. when the truthful explanation is that Dick used the term “drywall” to describe gypsum board. Otherwise.NOTATION & KEYED NOTATION Introduction Unfortunately. they can result in anything from simple confusion to potentially costly legal action. Even if you choose not to access notes from a computer library of notation. Go through the master list and choose whatever notes you think you will need and highlight them for editing and sorting by support staff.” Multiply this by. drywall.CHAPTER 9 -.2008 Page 74 . If you use this reference. bd. and drywall. while Jane used the term “gyp.. Structural. with attributes. it would be better to leave out this instruction altogether. or even you. Landscape. use the master list anyway. Some other considerations in using a master notation system: 1.. from drafter to drafter. Notation is typically inserted into the drawings as blocks. on the same set of drawings. References to Civil. since Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . from sheet to sheet. Notes as they appear on the drawings will consist of numerals and the actual notation.

A simpler and more effective method would be to create a single note. If Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . Type “X” or 09270 GYPSUM BOARD. Demolition notes must be carefully coordinated with specific project conditions. Imperative notes or clarifying notes should be written in full directly on the drawing. One method of annotation might be to create a separate note for each size or type. to cover all sizes and types of gypsum board with a tag to differentiate them.) The tagging system is particularly useful in differentiating different colors of the same material. finishes. 8. The size or type which is most prevalent on the job should be identified and the basic note in the legend would read “09270 GYPSUM BOARD. 4. etc. a long list becomes unwieldy and detrimental to the process. or colors are indicated in the drawings. but also some that you don’t use that often. It will serve as an excellent guide for making this determination. refer to the CSI MasterFormat book from the Manual of Practice. used with a qualifier. This usually occurs with certain accessories. This master list of notation should be used as the basis for all note lists used on working drawings. With some notable exceptions (such as demolition notes). such as paint. Try not to include information in the notes that rightfully belongs in the specifications. The use of a tag can be very helpful in reducing the number of notes needed. 7. For instance. Remember that just because an item is metal does not necessarily mean that it belongs in the metals section – it may be an accessory that should be specified in an entirely separate section. Remember that the drawings quantify and the specifications qualify. and vice versa. M.R. It is possible for the same note to appear in more than one section. such as 09270 GYPSUM BOARD .some requirement for a reference to consultant drawings is implied by language in the AIA General Conditions.2008 Page 75 . Once the limits of various sizes. 5. 1/2”) or type (such as “09270 GYPSUM BOARD. weeps may be under stone and under brick. the specifications take over to spell out the required finish in detail. This “Master Menu” of potential notes should include not only the most commonly used materials. Use of the attached master list should help accomplish this. The tag would indicate a different thickness (such as “09270 GYPSUM BOARD. At some point. For example. 6. it is important to develop a standard list of items which is as comprehensive as possible.” Any variations would be tagged when the note is applied to the drawing. More generic notes. notes should refer only to materials. to streamline its use.” may be more useful and effective than a separate note for every instance. 3. It is very easy to get overly detailed with these notes. Where there is some question as to the appropriate section or location for a material not already in the master list. plastic laminate. 5/8” unless otherwise noted. or "tail. a single project may require several different thicknesses or types of gypsum board. As with any type of lexicon. carpet. Be careful to use the proper note for the condition in question. Yet it is also important to keep the list as brief as possible. usually not too far into its development.

Just as toilets or doors can be inserted as “entities. in terms of coordination among disciplines.2008 Page 76 . Editing the Master Menu not only makes for a much more manageable notation list. When assigning CSI numbers for this method. As the project evolves.. on site development. more notes will be necessary. Each note can be inserted into the drawing in its entirety. Easy to check: CSI reference numbers can be checked against specification sections to see if the information is truly there. Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 . something every contractor will be ecstatic about. you may need some consulting help to set up a system that allows pulldown menu trees or tablet icon selections. make certain that all project consultants are aware of. the list will fall quickly into disuse. your notation system. floor drains. The fewer notes required to communicate the basic systems and assemblies the better. make a copy of the entire menu of notes. have them use the same list. Highlight the notes you know you will need. it provides only that information which is relevant to the project. have the list edited on the word processor and reprinted. where the first two digits indicate the Level 1 categories (Divisions). and the first two pairs of numbers gets the contractor to the appropriate CSI division and section category of the specifications.that happens.” so can notes. Once the preliminary selections are made. Use of the computer enables us to produce a “Master Menu” of notations that can be stored in the CAD database as a library of notes. and plumbing or electrical site plans) make certain that common elements utilize a common designation. group materials into sections of 4 digits. Concepts:    Easy to check: By creating a set of key notes common to all Architectural sheets in the set the keynotes are recognized easier and memorized quicker than if each sheet had a different system. landscape. The Master Menu should be consulted as early as practical in the course of the work so that a preliminary working list of notes can be generated and the project team can get accustomed to its use on the particular project. and actively use. and the CSI numbering system will take over from there. Last. Easy to check: By including written terminology after the CSI specification division reference number the drawing can be understood quicker. and electrical raceways as well as bricks. each composed in the same way described above (complete with its CSI designation). If other members of the team need to have input. civil engineering. Where overlap occurs between disciplines (e. Depending upon the system you use. and the second pair indicates the CSI Section numbers.g. The project architect should keep one project list which can be edited as the need for additional notes is discovered. It was designed to cover all 48 specification divisions and that covers structural steel. All other members of the team must clear new notations with the project architect to ensure that the same designation is not used for more than one note. A notation number that goes to the third level would make the system unwieldy. In using the Master Menu. Use of the master CSI notation system requires discipline and self-control. or vice versa.

5/8” unless noted otherwise.C. Use a single keynote list for all drawings in the Architectural set.2008 Page 77 .   Reduce drafting time: By creating an x-ref’d set of key notes common to all Architectural sheets in the set any additions or subtractions are accomplished quickly. See Detail 5/A8. A flexible system that will adapt to a variety of building types. such as the hexagon recommended by the CSI Uniform Drawing System -. screw to studs @ 6” O.3. it can be covered in the specs. and the last two digits represent the CSI Section number). Keep in mind that if there is only one size of something on your project. Methodology: Only use keynotes (a keynote is a numeral or letter contained inside a special symbol.  Follow Identification with Assembly information (if it is not covered elsewhere – it is generally covered in the specifications).  Follow the Division Number with Identification information (if it is not covered elsewhere). Different sizes are indicated in the notes to help clarify the extents/limits of (quantify) each size. 12    Example of a keynote symbol Only use keynotes if you have run out of space on the drawing to spell the note out. Proper notation involves understanding how to present information in a consistent sequence.  Follow assembly info with a Cross-Reference to another part of the set (if it is necessary).  An example of this sequence would be: 09200 –Moisture Resistant Gypsum Board. Click Here for Link to: Master List of CSI Notation Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 .if the term you need to use is repeated many times.  Start your note with a Specification Division number (a four-digit number where the first two digits represent the CSI Division number.  Follow the Identification info with dimensional Information (use the identical terminology/nomenclature as is used in the specifications).

... Handle to be 4'-0" max........................... Owner provided accessories include paper towel dispenser......... to center Electrical and communications receptacles @ wall mounted TV: 7'-8" to center Communications receptacle:.......................... where applicable....................... 7'-8" to center Clock & wall mounted speaker:............................... 3'-4" to bottom of cabinet........................... 6'-4" to center Panic hardware:...... toilet paper dispenser and soap dispenser............................ If conflicts arise...................... All reveals shall be centered unless otherwise noted................................ 3’...........2008 Page 78 ....... a second mounting height for pre-kindergarten and kindergarten rooms are given in parentheses...... 3'-8".......... 3'-4" to center Magnetic door holder:................ 3’-0”........ 2’-0 AFF to center of unit Drink fountain:........................ to center Electrical switch: ............................................................................ to center Center fire extinguisher cabinet: ........CHAPTER 10 -........................ local codes or office standards........................... Mounting heights indicated apply for general conditions unless noted otherwise (dimensions represent distance above finish floor typical)................... 4" above backsplash to operations/controls Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 ............ l'-6"........ to spout Markerboards/tackboards:......................................... Fire horn device: ........................................................................ Modify these heights as necessary to conform to ADA requirements....................... or 4" above counter or backsplash.......................... 3.................................... Model numbers for pre-manufactured casework: Refer to ISI Corporation units and model numbers.....................................................................................................................................0" to center Paper towel dispenser @ classrooms: .......................... or 4" above top of counter or backsplash.............. 3’-0 (2’-6”) to bottom rail Thermostats: ........ sanitary napkin dispenser.......... review with architect prior to installation of back boxes or framing....... 2....... 3'-8" to center Fire alarm pull station: ........... 1'-6"...STANDARD MOUNTING HEIGHTS General 1..... 7'-0' AFF to centerline of units Automatic door operator: .................................................. 5'-0" AFF to center Electrical receptacle: ............ Standard Mounting Heights ITEM MOUNTING HEIGHT Access panel @ water walls: .......... 4" above backsplash to operations/controls Soap dispenser @ classrooms: ......................... 2’-6” for additional fountain at same location...............................................

....................................... 6'-6" to center Standard Mounting Heights Drawing -............ 24" to center Paper towel dispenser at toilets: .............................. If conflicts are discovered...................................Standard Toilet Room Fixture Mounting Heights: Mounting heights indicated apply for typical conditions unless noted otherwise (dimensions are Above Finish Floor (AFF) typical)........................................................ local codes. 15" to rim Urinal: ........................................................... 6'-6" to center.........DWG format (AutoCAD) Standard Mounting Heights Drawing -......................... 24" to center Hand held shower head: .............. 36" to center of operational controls Napkin dispenser: ............................................................................................... 24" Mirror at toilets: ............ Confirm and modify these heights as necessary to conform to ADA requirements............................... ITEM MOUNTING HEIGHT Lavatory: .......................................... review with architect prior to installation of back boxes or framing............................... 17" Shower control:.......................2008 Page 79 ......................................................... 42" to center Shower rod:............................................................................................... a second mounting height for pre-kindergarten and kindergarten rooms are given in parenthesis.............................PLN format – (ArchiCAD) Standard Practices AOPS © 2003 ...... 40" to operational controls Napkin disposal: ... Where applicable.............................. 30” to rim or counter Water closet: .................................................................... or office standards............................................... 40" to bottom of mirror Soap dispensers at toilets: ............................................................................................ on 60" hose Shower seat: .............. 48" to center of operational controls Hand dryer: ... 40" to operational controls Toilet paper dispensers: ..................................................................................................................

unless noted otherwise. Also. consult the architect before proceeding with the Work. 7.GENERAL NOTES The following is a master list of common general notes which may or may not be required on any given project. Edit this list to remove any notes which do not apply. and are not to be taken literally. As you add new general notes. and interior elevation references within those areas. and be responsible for all conditions of the project. update the master list if you think the new notes will apply to most projects. All notes are to be reviewed. 2. Architectural drawing notation includes specification section reference numbers in conjunction with material descriptions. mechanical. These drawings use a modified ConDoc notation system. or design intent cannot be determined or reasonably inferred._ for partition types. plumbing. and descriptions. The contractor shall visit the site and become familiar with site conditions as they may affect carrying out the Work as described in these contract documents. and symbols. detail references. Refer to structural drawings for structural column and bearing wall locations and sizes. Floor Plans 1. 8. Refer to enlarged plans for dimensions. Refer to specification book for specific specification number. and notify the architect of any conditions that require modification before proceeding with the Work. and electrical for additional general notes.2008 Page 80 . The contractor shall investigate. and applied to related building components. and add any notes which do not appear here. Actual contract limits are to be determined by the contractor and approved by the Owner before actual construction work begins. Refer to sheet A_. Dimensions indicated are to faces of finish materials and grid lines (typical). verify that these notes accurately reflect your office standards. the verbal description shall take precedence. Any indication of project limits or lines of demarcation are shown for the convenience of the contractor. details. 5. unless otherwise directed. abbreviations. Refer to structural. Discrepancies between specification number references and written descriptions of materials or systems in no way relieves the contractor of responsibility for the completing of the Work as shown. 4.CHAPTER 11 -. Refer to Reflected Ceiling Plans for soffit locations and ceiling detail references. details. Where specific dimensions. The specification notation system uses three digits of specification section. Look for crossreferences. This information is provided for the convenience of the Contractor only and is not intended to indicate specific trades to be utilized for the Work. verify. and to customize the wording so that it applies directly to the project at hand. 6. 9. Remodel Projects AOPS © 2003 . Details not shown are similar in character to those that are shown. 3. and update them for your drawing set. In case of discrepancies between the reference number and the verbal description.

Wall. mechanical.2008 Page 81 . 16. Top of concrete finish floor (level one) is assumed at El. Fire-rated corridor partitions indicated on floor plans are components of continuous rated corridor assemblies consisting of walls. 12. structural. 13. The drawings and specifications. ceiling. Contractor shall verify installation requirements for all products to be incorporated in the Work (including partition thicknesses for recessed or semi-recessed products). electrical. Where doors in metal stud/gypsum board partitions are not specifically located on the plans with dimension strings. and products by other manufacturers may also be acceptable. provide a minimum hingeside jamb dimension of 6” from door opening to adjacent perpendicular walls.) are complementary. base. and floor finishes are to be provided in every room unless the drawings specifically indicate that a room or portion thereof is to remain “unfinished. 15. actual installation details and dimensions may differ from those shown. integrated and unified whole. floor. 14. Partition types continue around comers unless indicated otherwise. etc. See Reflected Ceiling Plans and Partition Types for specific methods of achieving the necessary ratings. 17. and is responsible for accommodating and coordinating changes to other materials or products that are necessary because of these differences. Dimensions and details for specific products may change before they are actually incorporated into the Work.10. All partitions are Partition Type ## unless indicated otherwise. The fact that the drawings are separated in no way suggests that the Work is not to be constructed as a complete. 11. locate the doors in the center of the corridor.” If room finishes are not specifically indicated. In the event of an inconsistency between the drawings and specifications. Where inconsistencies are not clarified prior to bidding. and ceiling. Where the specific method Remodel Projects AOPS © 2003 . including drawings prepared by specific engineering disciplines (such as civil. items shown in any one location in the drawings shall be considered to be requirements of the contract for construction. or of the drawings and specifications as a whole. The drawings and specifications are separated into disciplines for the convenience of the Architect and the Contractor. Therefore. provide the same finishes as are provided in the room adjacent to the room in question. 100’-0 (elevation 100’-0 equates to USGS datum elevation of XXXX’-X). The separations used herein are used only for the purposes of convenience and reference and in no way do they define or limit the scope or intent of any part of the drawings. the Contractor shall seek clarification or interpretation from the Architect prior to bidding. the Contractor shall include the better quality or greater quantity of Work in the bid proposal. Drawings are prepared using dimensions and product configurations or details of specific manufacturers (typically the first manufacturer listed under “Acceptable Manufacturers” in the Specifications). Where doors appear to be centered within corridors. or obtain clarification from the Architect prior to bidding. or within either document. and where the actual solution or intent cannot be reasonably inferred.

Locate weep holes minimum 4. unless noted otherwise. The rating of the entire corridor must be maintained. obtain clarification from the Architect. See Partition Types for typical slip-joint connection design. 3. prior to bidding. If it is not clear whether ductwork penetrates a portion of the rated assembly. 25. Caulk all joints or cracks which occur where dissimilar materials intersect perpendicular to each other. and details of construction for specific conditions. 24. shapes. Provide continuous perimeter building insulation (minimum 1” thick unless another thickness is indicated) at all exterior walls. Wall Sections 1. 21. and the intersection is exposed to view. Provide fire safing and fire-rated sealants to maintain the continuity of the firerated system. refer to exterior building elevations and structural drawings for actual depth of ledges (typical). Door assemblies in 2-hour rated partitions are to be 90. refer to structural drawings for structural dimensions. Remodel Projects AOPS © 2003 . Paint all exposed steel or wood (unless noted otherwise). Refer to Civil drawings for site grading. Provide rated partitions. assume a rating to match the rating of the corridor walls.18. 24. All material colors to be selected by Architect.minute rated unless a higher rating is indicated in the Door Schedule. sizes. otherwise. Provide slip joint connections at the tops of all partitions which intersect the structure above. Coordinate with Civil drawings for site conditions at building perimeter. Structural steel or precast concrete shapes are shown for detailing of architectural finishes only. unless another form of safety glazing is specifically indicated on the drawings. If a ceiling rating is not specifically indicated. provide the appropriate fire and/or smoke dampers. Door assemblies in 1-hour rated partitions are to be 20. Use tempered glass in all openings within 18” of the floor or a door. provide fire-safing at all slip-joint connections in fire-rated partitions. prior to bidding. refer to architectural site plan and enlarged site plans for concrete paving patterns and spot elevations. and door or other opening assemblies to maintain the continuity of the fire rating. unless indicated otherwise on the drawings. 20. 19.2008 Page 82 . 22. obtain clarification from the Architect prior to installation. above finish grade (typical). Refer to Civil drawings for actual finish grades. obtain clarification from the Architect. 2. of achieving the rating is not indicated.minute rated unless a higher rating is indicated in the Door Schedule. If amount of deflection to be accommodated is not indicated. 23. Where mechanical work penetrates any component of the fire-rated assembly. Use wire-glass in all glazed openings within fire-rated corridors. floors. ceilings. obtain clarification from the Architect prior to bidding. Wall Sections show masonry bearing ledges at a depth of 8 inches below finish floor elevations (typical).

dampproofing. 10. All gypsum board soffits are to be held back a minimum of 2” from the face of adjacent masonry column or pilaster. Provide smooth faced concrete masonry units below finish floor elevation at brick ledge unless noted otherwise. 13. and between other ceiling mounted fixtures (typical). Provide fire-retardant wood wherever wood blocking is shown on the drawings. ceiling. Remodel Projects AOPS © 2003 . re: structural for required depth.2008 Page 83 . 8.O. 6. There shall be no exposed smooth face concrete masonry units. Coordinate final unit size with unit location and wall sections. and materials of construction. 14. and base materials and finish designations. smoke detectors. Refer to Mechanical and Electrical drawings for interfaces with these systems not shown on Wall Sections. unless indicated otherwise. M.X for typical precast concrete sill. floor.4. Provide compacted gravel fill directly below slab on grade. 2. No loads are to be transferred to veneer masonry . 3. Center all ceiling mounted items in acoustical panels. and insulation shown on wall sections indicate vertical locations only. 15. Sprinkler heads are to be centered within ceiling elements. 5. Provide sealant and backer rods (typical) at all exterior door and window frames and louvers. 12. All ceilings are to be xx’-x above finish floor. Reflected Ceiling Plans 1. Flashing. Coordinate access panel locations with locations of other ceiling mounted appurtenances. coordinate with finish grade. Contractor or window manufacturer to design. provide continuous systems. and between other ceiling mounted fixtures. 7. and heat detectors are to be centered within ceiling elements unless dimensioned at different locations. 11. provide and install complete attachment of window to structural steel or structural concrete. 5. 4. acoustical ceiling panels. in gypsum board soffits. Refer to Window Schedule and elevations for window and glazing types not shown on Wall Sections. or structural concrete masonry per specifications and window manufacturer’s requirements. 9. Refer to detail X/AX. soffit heights. (masonry opening) refers to nominal masonry opening dimensions in masonry construction. Refer to Reflected Ceiling Plans and ceiling details for ceiling heights. Speakers. Refer to Finish Schedule and interior elevations for all wall.

Provide walkway pads to ensure a protected path of travel between and around all mechanical equipment. 4. 5. Maintain minimum slope of 3/8” per foot at main roof areas. Refer to structural drawings for sloping structure. Maintain ± 4” thick R30 rigid insulation at roof drain locations.2008 Page 84 .Roof Plans 1. Overflow drains are to be 2” minimum higher than primary roof drains. Maintain minimum slope of 1/4” per foot at crickets and tapered insulation intersections. 6. Remodel Projects AOPS © 2003 . and window washing locations. 3. 2. access points.

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2008 Page 85 . To follow a nationally recognized industry standard for communicating the building design to others in order to eliminate individual preference and to better defend our documents. the existing work to be removed. and what is to be built. Most of the following information will show you the proper “graphic conversation” that you will need to explain your design and reduce the risk of having it compromised through a “Value Engineering” effort or through the “Change Order” process. Only label “existing” materials if you need to.CHAPTER 12 -. Concepts:   To graphically distinguish between the existing work to remain. We want the contractor to assume everything is “new” unless labeled otherwise. Never use material indications (poché) on existing materials. so as to be able to defend our construction documents and communicate our ideas with the least amount of confusion. All dimensioning of existing conditions should be labeled “Field Verify” if involving critical items of construction such as steel or casework. and proposed construction without extensive site investigation by the bidder. The proposed construction should stand out. In other words you will need to explain twice the information you normally would in a set of biddable contract documents. Distinguish between proposed construction and existing conditions by using a light lineweight for existing. Drafting Conventions. Perform a detailed survey of the existing conditions early in the program phase. as our standard for proper drafting methodology. In order for the contractor to be able to distinguish between what is to remain. not both. there is a certain language you will need to master if you want to explain your design properly. reserve this for proposed construction only. what is to be removed.REMODEL PROJECTS The trick with remodeling projects is to explain both the existing conditions and the proposed construction. To this end we have adopted Module 4 of the Uniform Drawing System. It is in our best interest to follow an accepted industry standard when it comes to graphic directions of this nature. If you must label an existing material use text followed with an (E) for existing. Methodology:      Define your potential errors: Avoid use of the word “new”. Remodel Projects AOPS © 2003 . Start your design effort with reliable information.

2. 6. and to coordinate such field verification with the contract documents and the execution of the work. at no additional cost to the Owner.General Notes for Renovation Construction General 1. accurate and complete drawings. materials and methods of construction that may affect or be affected by new work. Timely identifications of such conditions shall provide for a minimum period of ten (10) working days during which time the Architect will evaluate the conditions and make recommendations for accommodating new work. This information is provided for the convenience of the General Contractor. General Notes for Renovation Projects AOPS © 2003 . The information contained on these drawings with regard to existing conditions of construction in no way releases the General Contractor from the responsibility for verifying completely all field conditions relating to and affecting the execution of the work. It is the General Contractor’s responsibility to execute demolition work as required to allow the execution of new work. 3. Field-verification of existing conditions related to specific portions of the work shall be undertaken in advance to allow for the timely identification of existing conditions that may affect the scheduled installation of new work as designed and detailed. 5. It is the responsibility of the General Contractor to field verify and document all existing dimensions. 4. and is in no way intended to mean that demolition is limited only to those items specifically identified. The General Contractor shall further assist the Architect by providing in a timely manner prepared solutions to unanticipated existing conditions. sketches. This interpretation has been taken from record sets of “as-built” drawings on file at and has as been further supplemented by extensive field-measurement and observations. It is the responsibility of the General Contractor to assist the Architect in making their evaluations and recommendations by providing in a timely manner.2008 Page 86 . and to avoid undue and unreasonable delays to the project should such conditions be discovered. conflicts. and concealed or otherwise unanticipated existing conditions affecting new construction. and photographs sufficient to clearly describe discrepancies. Information contained on these drawings with regard to existing conditions of construction is provided for the convenience of the General Contractor in executing the work. as described in these contract documents. The Architect has endeavored to identify as completely as possible in the drawings and specifications existing items of equipment and construction that are required to be removed or otherwise demolished so as to allow the execution of new work. The Architect cannot and does not guarantee the accuracy of any such information and assumes no liability therefore. elevations and benchmarks. Every attempt has been made to provide complete and accurate representations of such existing conditions. Discrepancies and/or conflicts involving anticipated existing conditions shall be brought to the Architect’s attention immediately.

airborne dirt. 11. These plans and specifications do NOT contain information from which asbestos may be located nor have they been prepared in contemplation of asbestos removal. 13. Actual contract limits are to be determined by the General Contractor prior to bid openings by field verification. All areas above or on the existing ceiling that are affected by installation of new work shall be repaired completely with materials and products to match existing installation and fire-rated assemblies. if any. and is responsible for reinstalling each element in its original location after all work in the area has been completed. Notify any occupants of the building of any construction activities which may affect their ability to operate normally.2008 Page 87 . The General Contractor must be aware that construction in some areas surrounding the limits of this contract is currently in progress. Before any work is performed under these plans and specifications. The project is currently occupied. The General Contractor and affected subcontractors shall visit the project site prior to submitting a proposal.m. The Architect understands that others have prescribed or may prescribe procedures for location and abatement of asbestos. All items indicating contract limits and lines of demarcation are shown of the convenience of the General Contractor. and with the impact of the new work on the existing conditions. The Contractor shall become generally familiar with the project. the contractor performing the work should become fully aware of the location of asbestos and abatement procedures. Coordinate with the Owner any construction activities which may impede normal operations.m. 10. to 6:00 p. Such project elements shall be removed and stored prior to the performance of any work. 12. The Architect undertakes no responsibility to provide such information or guidance. Asbestos Location and Abatement 1.7. 9. and the contractor General Notes for Renovation Projects AOPS © 2003 . Any areas of concern shall be brought to the attention of the Architect prior to submitting a proposal. All such discrepancies shall be accurately and thoroughly recorded by the General Contractor and promptly reported to the Architect. No additional charge to the Owner will be approved which is attributable to the Contractor’s failure to do this. and are not to be taken literally. or which disrupts the normal functionality of the space. The Architect has been made aware that others have determined the presence of asbestos in the premises. for asbestos. Protect any adjacent space with dust partitions or curtains from activities which will create dust. and must remain completely operational during normal business hours (7:00 a. including any activity which operates excessive noise. actual existing conditions may vary from conditions indicated on these drawings. The General Contractor is responsible for ensuring proper interface between existing and new work. The General Contractor is responsible for identifying any unfinished wall areas that may be exposed as a result of adjusting finished ceiling heights. 8. For this reason. The Contractor is responsible for finishing these areas to match existing adjacent finished areas and fire-rated assemblies. weekdays). The Contractor is responsible for cataloging each element and its location in the building. The General Contractor is responsible for identifying all signage and other assemblies that may be affected by demolition or installation of new work.

1. field orders. approved shop drawings. and components into the building. Existing life safety and emergency systems may not be shown on the drawings in their entirety.” maintained in good condition. Photographs of existing building conditions are included on portions of these drawings. Contractor’s Project Record Documents Maintain at the job site one copy of all drawings. Existing conditions may vary from what these photographs show. The General Contractor is responsible for accommodating these systems when affected by new work so that all applicable code requirements are satisfied. photographed. shall be inspected. emergency lighting systems) as they may be affected by new work. When the execution of new work requires that these assemblies be disturbed. available at all times for observation by the Architect. Existing Life Safety and Emergency Systems 1.2008 Page 88 .should contact the Owner directly with respect to asbestos location and abatement. the contractor shall undertake to repair the existing work so that the required fire rating is maintained. General Notes for Renovation Projects AOPS © 2003 . smoke detection systems. 1. and other contract modifications. It is the responsibility of the General Contractor to identify existing components and assemblies within the building that are constructed as fire-rated assemblies and to determine their hourly fire rating. Each of these Contractor’s Project Record Documents shall be clearly marked “Project Record Copy. 2. The General Contractor is responsible for field-verification of location and extent of these systems (including but not limited to fire sprinkler systems. addenda. and not used for construction purposes. and it shall be the responsibility of the General Contractor to restore any part of the project to the condition shown in the record. Photographs of Existing Conditions. Use of such points of access shall be approved by the Owner. and other approved documents submitted by the Contractor in compliance with various sections of the Specifications. equipment. and recorded by the General Contractor prior to beginning any work. including the conditions of the finished surfaces and materials. Any change to these conditions which occurs after making this record will be attributed to construction operations. and Capacity of Existing Building Structure 1. The general condition of the building. It is the responsibility of the General Contractor to identify points of access to the building and to verify minimum clearances available for use in transporting necessary construction machinery. 2. Building Access. It shall be the responsibility of the General Contractor to verify all field conditions prior to the time of the bid and alert the Architect to any discrepancies between existing conditions and what the photographs show. materials. Information contained on these photographs is provided for the convenience of the General Contractor. specifications.

3. and significant detail not shown in the original Contract Documents. General Notes for Renovation Projects AOPS © 2003 . referenced in visible and accessible features of the structures. ➝ The location of internal utilities and appurtenances concealed in the building structures.2008 Page 89 . The information given shall include. the General Contractor shall provide the Owner one complete set of documents marked “Project Record Documents” showing changes to be original documents. Upon completion of the work. Mark on the most appropriate Documents to show significant changes made during the construction process.2. but not be limited to: ➝ The location of underground utilities and appurtenances referenced to permanent surface improvements.

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and “Asphalt Paving”.c. Do not ignore fastenings or understanding how items are attached. Every steel beam does not need the words “See Structural” following it anymore than it would need “See Specifications”. Types of Notes Identification Notes They name the material or the components. Use this type of note in special circumstances when extra coordination is needed. fastened.CHAPTER 13 -. However.  Start your note with a CSI specification number which matches the section in the project specifications where information about the item can be found. General Information Notes States common instructions or conditions. and finished. locations. “Gypsum Board”. Learn where the best place is to indicate information and then indicate it once.” These notes are used to help clarify the scope of work. Most notes tend to be too lengthy and include information such as tolerances. some miscellaneous metals will need to be sized if they are not called out in the Structural Drawings. and detailed descriptions that should properly be in the specifications. Use this type of note to make a point. it will either duplicate or contradict the notation.2”. Dimension Notes These notes identify quantities. If this sort of information is also in the specifications. Examples: “Refer to Specifications”. sizes. Be careful about being redundant. Check the office standard library of notation and your Project Architect or Specification consultant.I. Example: “2x4 Continuous Wood Blocking”. on 1 ½” carrying channels @ 4’-0” o. and “See Detail 4/A2. Example: “Suspended Metal Grillage – 7/8” furring channel @ 2’-0” o.COORDINATING NOTES WITH YOUR DRAWINGS AND SPECS General Rules and Requirements Keep it simple and generic. They are used mainly in details and are not appropriate on broad scope drawings. The General Contractor is told to take the package together as a whole. Steps in Writing Notes  Determine if your Identification Note matches the description of that item in the Specifications. if the Structural Engineer has called out the size of a beam your note need not include it.C. product names. Coordinating Notes with Drawings and Specs AOPS © 2003 . Reference Notes Notes like this direct you to other sources of information. Examples: “Slope to drain” and “N. For instance. right angle to furring”.c.2008 Page 90 . and spacings named in the Identification note. Examples: “Built-up Roofing”. Assembly Notes We need these notes to explain in detail how components are arranged. Duplication costs you production time and contradiction creates change orders.

It is a common language for national usage in construction projects. and “Wallboard” in the same document set several thoughts cross his mind:  “This set of documents is poorly coordinated. I’ll bet I can get a change order for having to eliminate or add a couple of them. I’ll bet I can get some change orders. Sheetrock”. though. Proper Terminology When bidding a project the contractor needs to be able to understand the contract documents.”  “I’ll bet I can get some change orders. When he notices “Gypsum Board”. and Owners all helped in its development. Ask your project Architect about where the best place to note this information would be. you will very seldom be able to just “insert a note from the pop down list”.2008 Page 91 . To this end we need to agree on consistent terminology to be used throughout the contract documents so as to make our intentions crystal clear. Coordinating Notes with Drawings and Specs AOPS © 2003 . if a note is repeated 30 – 40 times through-out the working drawings. I’ll bet I can get some change orders.     Decide if indicating a size of the material is needed. They should only be used.”  “I’ll price each of these terms.”  “This set of documents was probably produced by inexperienced staff. and other drawings. We have reviewed several standard lists of “proper construction terminology” and have decided to adopt the list featured in Module 5 of the Uniform Drawing Standards. Most instances do not need to be referred to every last bit of additional information because we state in the specifications that the document package is to be used as a whole. Indicating how things are fastened and attached has to be included! Finally. That’s it.” Making ourselves understood is tough. How is this item to be arranged? Fastened? Finished? Much of this information can be shown elsewhere such as schedules. specifications. Suppliers. It is up to you however to make sure that this information is included in the drawing set. Is the size already shown by dimension? Is it a uniform size used through out the project and indicated elsewhere? Do you need to refer the contractor to additional information? You’ll probably only need to refer if it is a very complex situation involving the work of several trades. or if there is absolutely no room to write the note in a crowded drawing. No other reason. Using Keyed Notation  Key Notes can save you time and red lining. is there any information of a general nature that would be helpful to the contractor to include? Is there any doubt as to what needs to be done? How can I prevent a construction error from occurring? As you can see from the above procedure. Every piece of information that you include in a contract document needs to be carefully considered. These standards were chosen in part because General Contractors.

 Editing assemblies takes less time.  On most projects you will end up with 40 or so key notes. such as a wall assembly or roof assembly and point to the object with one leader line. unchecked drawing. These system notes are sometimes keynoted and referred to in a legend such as a “Wall Types Legend” or a “Roof Types Legend”. A list of key notes is developed and x-ref’d into every sheet in the set having keynotes on it. Suppliers. More than that and you are making more work for yourself in coordination and checking time. CMU). composition.2008 Page 92 .  When you are discussing documentation strategies early on in your project you may find it to your advantage to try this approach.  Don’t abbreviate anything! Not practical. The advantages are:  Labeling assemblies takes less time. Engineers. and they give the impression of a lazy drafter or a hurried. make for harder to read CD’s and are more easily prone to construction errors. re-bar. If you must abbreviate. drawing. It works best on projects with a lot of repetition and not so well on projects that are more straightforward in their assemblies. Drawing Composition Here’s where we are relying on your graphic training as an Architect to produce a clear. sentences featuring abbreviations unnecessarily are harder to read and process. w/o th’nk’ng. Lists of keynotes that are sheet specific. This list serves all sheets in the Architectural drawing set. Abbreviations  Don’t abbrev. This means. not overshoot. Some of the customs & traditions we use to create readable. System Notation  Group a bunch of identification notes together. and lineweight.  In an effort to end the arguments arising with just how to abbreviate certain words. readable. You have the advantage of understanding proportion. we have decided to adopt the Abbreviations Module of the Uniform Drawing System as developed by the Construction Specification Institute. rather than set specific. not fall short. Owners. Coordinating Notes with Drawings and Specs AOPS © 2003 . Any standard could have been chosen but once again we felt that this one was appropriate because of the fact that General Contractors (our audience). and Architects all had a say in its development. Other rules exist as well. coherent drawings are as follows:  Arrowheads must touch the line that defines the object. I know.  Changing assemblies is easier to coordinate. AHJ’s. plam. do so only because you have no room to do otherwise or because it is an industry accepted term (conc.

Usually it is preferred practice not to cross dimension or extension lines. leaders should recede. this makes the drawing more organized easier to read.  Text lighter (strokes thinner) than .  Text smaller than 3/32” is extremely difficult to read on half sized prints. Text should be bold and stand out.  Keep your note leaders clear of dimension lines as much as possible.  Group your notes together in groups of 3 or 4. where a mass or field area is to be indicated. Dimension outboard of your notes if possible.2008 Page 93 . It’s best to keep your leader lines as short as possible. Then allow some space and repeat another grouping. objects should dominate. Do not place a note on the complete opposite side of an object and then use a long leader to tie the note to it.35mm is better). Arrowheads are used most everywhere. Dots are used on occasion. Line text up along a common vertical.25mm becomes lost in the drawing (. Click here for a link to a Sample Annotated Wall Section Coordinating Notes with Drawings and Specs AOPS © 2003 .  Keep your leader lines clear of the object as much as possible.

but the Project Architect should plan on doing most or all of this type of checking. doors. The Project Architect should review the Code Search Checklist prior to checking. area separations. Internally.CHAPTER 14 -.2008 Page 94 . Each consultant should receive a complete set of drawings. the Project Architect and the Job Captain should perform a comprehensive check of the drawings and will coordinate the work of the consultants. Meeting Minutes should be reviewed Creating the Redline/Check Set AOPS © 2003 . floor and ceiling assemblies. and he or she should coordinate his or her work with each of the other disciplines. The Project Architect should plan the coordination checking using the Coordination Checklist in Part Three. occupancy separations.CREATING THE REDLINE/CHECK SET The Project Architect should chart the course for producing a set of working drawings. the Project Architect. The Job Captain. They should discuss the checking requirements in advance so that each knows who is responsible for a given portion of the checking. The checking responsibilities should follow these broad guidelines: Job Captain:  Building Data (code related)  Dimensions  Keynotes (to confirm that the correct numbers have been used)  Drawing numbers. scales  Cross-referencing  Grid line designations  Room names and numbers  Partition types  North arrow  Overlay checking of consultant’s drawings Project Architect: Both the Project Architect and the Job Captain should check the drawings using the Working Drawings Checklist as a guide. the architect’s office should do a systematic check and coordination of the drawings to correspond with the consultant coordination. Make sure consultants are aware of their responsibilities for coordinating their work with the architectural drawings. Coordination checking responsibilities can also be assigned using the checklist. as well as other disciplines. exiting. and the Partner-in-Charge should all share in the checking and coordination process. and the Director of Quality Control should also be notified when these sets become available. The Project Architect should also review the drawings with the Partner-inCharge for compliance with the program. titles. and other code related issues. He or she should determine key points in the progress of the drawings when coordination sets should be printed and exchanged with our consultants. Together. He or she should give special attention to the fire-resistive requirements.

2008 Page 95 . If you have a question. Yellow out each redline separately. If you transfer a redlined note such as “These dimensions don’t add up – FIX!” to the actual working drawing sheet. However. Principal-in-Charge: The Principal-in-Charge should also review all aspects of the drawings. However. Red may also be used for this purpose. but it should be clouded or otherwise differentiated from redlines. Transferring redlines to the original is admittedly a dull and tedious task. it is important for you to be very systematic in your methods for making sure the job is done correctly. or otherwise resolved. In preparing a redline set. Because redlines can be complex or fragmented. which must definitely be incorporated in the drawings. a common convention is as follows: Red is reserved exclusively for comments. Always make sure the checker has received answers to his or her questions before you proceed. Green is for questions or comments raised by the checker which should be reviewed and resolved before the drawings are changed. Blue highlighters are used by checkers to highlight all information that has been checked and is correct as is. use colors to distinguish different kinds of information. additions or changes which must be incorporated (generally verbatim) in the original drawings. ASK it. double-checking as you go. you have abdicated your responsibility to the point that you should lose your job. You bear the ultimate responsibility to make sure that all redlines get picked up. you must use your head when you read redlined comments. Don’t simply Creating the Redline/Check Set AOPS © 2003 . The Job Captain should check the items listed above.to ensure that the drawings reflect any decisions made during meetings with the Owner. Before you yellow something out. Nevertheless. and get picked up accurately. it is an essential part of the working drawing process. this in no way relieves the Job Captain or the Project Architect from their responsibilities to perform a thorough and exhaustive check of their own. even though the Project Architect may duplicate this effort. Transferring the redlines to the originals… Yellow highlighters or pencils are used to color over all redlines and green questions once they have been transferred to the drawings. DOUBLE-CHECK to make sure you really did it. There should be no need for a checker to recheck the drawings to see if all of the redlines were accurately picked up.

This method seems to work very well in managing corrections and changes made to a set of drawings prior to the final check. Incomplete drawings make it difficult for our consultants and ourselves. One technique which we have seen used successfully to manage the redline process is for the Project Architect to keep a check set at his or her desk.2008 Page 96 . replacing the old one.circle drawings with yellow to indicate that you’ve finished picking up redlines in those areas. Creating the Redline/Check Set AOPS © 2003 . Be sure that the schedule allows sufficient time at the end to do a thorough check and picking up of redlines. The drawings should be 100% complete before the final check and coordination set is printed—no exceptions. Redline (and green) remarks are added to this set on a continuing basis. and result in extra time for rechecking and coordination. Periodically these redlines are picked up by one of the team members and the corrected sheet is then inserted in the check set.

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They should go through your minds as well. a contractor looking for loopholes (prospecting for change orders) will either find one or make one up.CHAPTER 15 -. where we show the relationship between true north and “project north. which may be coded to various places on the plans or elevations. North arrows should look like this: PROJECT NORTH TRUE NORTH SITE PLAN ONLY NORTH ALL OTHER PLANS Keep the Intent in Mind The drawings may show how you plan to achieve the desired intent. Think in Three Dimensions Heads. You still need to show the dampers on the drawings. Think about conditions above and below the one at hand. jambs. at least you have a leg to stand on if he finds a mistake. and sills for doors or windows should be designed together. use that for the north arrow included on all other plan sheets throughout the set. You can head this off by clarifying the intent. Working Drawings Dos and Don’ts AOPS 2003 . The lone exception is on the site plan. If you tell the contractor that the intent is that all glass within 18” is to be tempered. tell the contractor that the integrity of the entire rated envelope must be maintained. you should say that. If you do the coding wrong. If it is your intention that all glass within 18 inches of a door is to be tempered. If it is your intent that all mechanical ductwork serving rated corridors is to have a fire damper. you might do a series of frame types. but engineers are human and sometimes they get missed. If the intent is not clear. you’ve got a loophole.” Once “project north” is established on the site plan. Then you have a leg to stand on if you haven’t specified a rated ceiling. If it is your intent to provide a fire rated corridor. Secrets to Job Satisfaction and Retention) The following thoughts are things that go through the minds of quality assurance checkers when they check drawings.WORKING DRAWINGS DOS AND DON’TS (or. Typical wall conditions should be carried through to corners or other terminations. True North versus Project North You should show only one direction for north.2008 Page 97 . but that intent may not be clear to someone who has not spent the last year designing the project.

Don’t accept that. And use it. That’s not going to happen. you’ll get to do it during CA. When two trades are working towards each other. or they aren’t complete. Make sure you know what the correct solution is. We have to be concerned about the detail in the building and the detail in the drawing. Don’t hint at it. drywall. we’ve got a loophole again. or not? If they are. and that you have drawn the necessary details to describe each condition. But the building can’t be built from a rendering. We may think something should be evident to the contractor. so you should design the whole darned building. Detail for Realistic Tolerances Don’t indicate “zero tolerance” situations that can’t be met by human contractors in the field.Pay Attention to the Detail As architects. Be Thorough with the Building Envelope Trace with your finger such items as insulation and positive drainage to make sure that your systems are complete. You may encounter a design-build situation once in awhile were you give the contractor license to figure some things out and do them the way he likes best. Graphic Clarity When your drawings lack clarity. Bd. and the drawings show them at a perfectly matching elevation and line. you’ll encounter a contractor who is unrelenting in his insistence that he does the construction. but if we don’t address it specifically. Create a standardized but editable library of CSI notation to prevent this from happening. it’s often because they betray a lack of clear thinking. Gyp. The word “artist” never sounded so denigrating as when it is uttered by a contractor. If you haven’t done it during CDs. or if we haven’t thought things through. Be Thorough The contractor is going to have to build the whole darned building. Show a reveal or offset. they will never end up in the same place Example: a lay-in ceiling meets a window head. Working Drawings Dos and Don’ts AOPS 2003 . and Don’t Be Willing to Produce it If the drawings lack clarity. you do the design. Be Consistent In The Use of Architectural Nomenclature or Terminology Don’t refer to the “First Floor” in one place and “Level One” in another. sheetrock – are they the same thing.2008 Page 98 . Don’t Be Willing to Accept Inferior Work. When you do that in more traditional situations. If you allow it. we may fancy ourselves to be artists with a special talent for making buildings look beautiful. we have produced an inferior product.. Pinpoint all interfaces between materials on the exterior to make sure you have sealant and flashing to eliminate leaks. and then draw it that way. why did we call it something different? Glass mesh mortar units or cementitious backer board? You get the idea. the contractor may do something wrong just because he knows he can get some extra money because the drawings weren’t clear enough. All it takes is one oversight to invalidate the system.

Strategize expansion joint locations early in the game. We have to perform also. guardrails. are living. Follow Through on Coordination If you make a note that says “Re: Elec.2008 Page 99 .” If you fail to do this. Working Drawings Dos and Don’ts AOPS 2003 .Accept Your Responsibility as an Architect Avoid using notes which say “as required. Show a target at the top. Make sure that the engineers don’t violate the rules which you set up.” then it is your job to make sure that the Electrical engineer coordinates the item. Think through expansion details in three dimensions. it is not done at all. and another at the bottom.” The trend today is to pawn off responsibility whenever possible. breathing creatures. It is not acceptable to indicate a papier maché handrail and add a note indicating that it is to support a 300 lb. Accept Responsibility for Structural Requirements of Architectural Items Make sure that handrails. When we take what seems to be the easy way out by showing unheard-of thicknesses of tapered insulation. Different materials expand at different rates and all materials will expand and contract within a greater range if exposed to the exterior and/or sunlight than if they are indoors. The same goes for the case when the Electrical engineer puts down “Re: Arch. Plan for slip head details at the top of all partitions below roofs and floors that will deflect (that is. Design Lean and Mean Don’t take the easy way out on solving problems by designing details that rely on massive amounts of overkill to solve a problem which could be handled in a much simpler way. don’t show your elevation targets wandering off in the middle of the space. or by showing reveals that do the same thing. Don’t be led into dreamland by an unreasonable expectation of what the term “performance specifications” can do. unlike jewelry. Is a particular element going to move in one direction or two? Follow Through on Rated Construction Maintain in your detailing the integrity of all rated partitions. steps. Design for Movement Buildings. this is really just plain laziness. They expand and contract. There are some things which a Contractor simply can’t be held responsible for. lateral load per code. we set ourselves up for eventual ridicule by a contractor who is justified in inquiring as to what is going on. Don’t overlook control joints in materials that require them more frequently than overall building expansion control (such as drywall and masonry).” The same thing applies to notes like “coordinate” or “coordinate with Architect” or “per code. 99% of all floors and 100% of all roofs). of the transition. Don’t compromise rated walls by incorporating unrated portions that invalidate the entire wall. your job is worse than half done. or mortar beds. and other human-body-supporting elements are designed so it can be absolutely assured that they will perform. Provide Adequate Documentation of Elevation Transitions When you have steps or a ramp. Basic common sense (but frequently ignored). wood blocking.

Ask yourself whether one of the alternative scheduling methods will suffice for this particular project. Let’s learn to do better. Ask yourself whether you really need a door schedule or a finish schedule before you jump in and make one. We don’t want the detail names to become unwieldy. There are no awards for showing the most curlicues on an aluminum extrusion. Use language such as: “Plan Detail at Cafetorium Column”. Choose the most economical method that gets the job done. or the finishes plans. What you did at another office doesn’t mean diddly here. Solve the problem today rather than letting it come back tomorrow. The membrane Working Drawings Dos and Don’ts AOPS 2003 . Question standard or traditional approaches. or room names on top of sprinkler heads. Know How Details Are Going to Be Built If you show an unusual wood profile or metal shape. Clarity. if some layers are not visible.Don’t Overdraw Proprietary Sections It makes little sense to spend an entire day drawing the particulars of a specific manufacturer’s window sill detail. Don’t layer several kinds of information on top of each other. and the relationship of the membrane to other materials. Plan Your Documentation Strategy for Simplicity. Naming details – Give some indication as to location. Make Detail Alignment Consistent with the Plans If your plans are organized with north on the top of the sheet. For example. Roof details Show more clearly the limits and extents of the roof membrane. Don’t show this kind of information more than once.2008 Page 100 . etc. Sooner or later – probably sooner– the contractor will throw this one back at you. Use the Office Standards All it takes is a minimum of effort and caring. and to whether it is a plan detail or a sectional detail (unless it is patently obvious). A good detailer determines what the essence is of a particular product section. Don’t do it simply because it was done that way on your last project or in your last office. when there are 6:1 odds that you will end up with a different product. then your details (and your blow-up plans) must be done with the same orientation. Be especially attentive to this when creating CAD drawings. the 1/4” plans. The argument that “it fit better on the sheet that way” won’t hold water if your drawings leave the contractor scratching his head. don’t put reference bubbles on top of dimensions. Spread the materials out a little graphically so you can clearly follow the path of the membrane. Think about whether building sections are really necessary. Generally this is an area where interior designers and specialists like graphic designers do better than architects. or the reflected ceiling plans. but they should also stand alone when someone is working their way backwards through a set of drawings. and Economy Decide whether partition types and ceiling heights should be indicated on the 1/8” plans. and does no more. you had better know how it is going to be made (or at least know of one viable option).

Detailing Techniques Show masonry in plan details without holes or joints. Use a simple diagonal poché for brick. except at very tall parapets. At scales of 1” = 1’-0 or smaller. let the other side be free to accommodate the movement around it. Think about how the building is being isolated for movement. Grab Bars and ADA Requirements When dimensioning grab bars. For those kinds of items. show structural steel members cut in section as solid black. and the conditions at the top and bottom of the flight so (s)he can determine the connection details. we can dispense with the CSI reference number. You may want to use a dashed line as we sometimes do to distinguish plastic laminate. show the dimension from the front edge of the water closet to the extended end of grab bar (and make certain that dimension complies with ADA requirements) — do not dimension the length of grab bar (which should be handled by a model #). dimension the distance from the wall to the end of the grab bar. ➝ This will require you to become familiar with the components of any of the systems you might get (the “approved” manufacturers in the specs) to make sure you can live with the components provided. Stair Sections Do not draw shop drawings of stairs for stair fabricators. fire hose/extinguisher cabinets. the diagonal poché for steel only serves to obfuscate the drawing. roofs. If you’ve placed a partition over an expansion joint to conceal it. We don’t want wall systems crossing over the expansion joint without a break. Use language such as: MB — 8’ or HC or TB. as detailed by HM fabricators to accommodate frame anchors (studs back to back) Working Drawings Dos and Don’ts AOPS 2003 . On small-scale drawings. If the bar does not extend to the wall behind the water closet. Expansion Joints Show expansion joints all the way through the building — floors.should extend up the side of the parapet and over the top.2008 Page 101 . walls. if it will help clarify this path. Use a small enough pen weight that the edges of the steel are sharp and clear. We need to provide only the basic rise and run information. tackboards. ceilings. etc. Make sure that all of the dimensions add up to the ADA minimums/maximums. make sure you show attachment on only one side of the joint. and fill in the internal space with solid black fill. we can rely on the stair fabricator to provide the necessary details using components from his (or her) system. and design your wall locations accordingly. Symbols and Notation Use symbols to identify marker boards. You may need to confirm that the coursing works out properly. but handle that with a dimension — after you’ve sketched it for your own satisfaction. and our goal is clarity. ➝ If we have a plain old exit stair that doesn’t require any special embellishments. Show studs at door jambs appropriately.

Obviously. Do not use dashed lines to: ➝ Indicate the work of other disciplines (if it is part of the Work) Do not use solid lines to: ➝ Indicate any item that is NIC Wall Sections Do not indicate dampproofing on the outside of foundation walls where there is no interior space on the other side. door swings are handled adequately on floor plans. we probably don’t care if percolating moisture makes it through the wall or not (of course. By showing swing direction on elevations.2008 Page 102 . This helps to define the planes of the building better and makes the drawing easier to read. We seem to do this by rote. there are exceptions. Building Elevations Poché materials in elevation with a break line rather than covering the entire visible surface. The purpose of dampproofing is to discourage moisture percolating down from the surface from entering the building through cracks or form tie holes. without thinking about it very much.Typical Hollow Metal Frame Installation ➝ Use a single line to indicate hollow metal frames Interior Elevations Do not indicate direction of door swings on interior elevations. you’ve just added one more thing that could be wrong. Working Drawings Dos and Don’ts AOPS 2003 . so make sure you understand the recommendations of the soils report). if there is dirt on the other side of that wall. Plans Make proper use of dashed lines — use dashed lines to: ➝ Indicate items provided (furnished and installed) by owner ➝ Items otherwise not in contract (NIC) ➝ Items below grade or otherwise hidden from view ➝ Items above the cutting plane See the Linetype Symbols for more information on what types of dashed lines to use for each purpose. and has to be checked and coordinated.

circular in crosssection Working Drawings Dos and Don’ts AOPS 2003 . not dampproofing. don’t itemize individual components. And it also makes it necessary to use the correct nomenclature when labeling them. That makes it necessary to clearly identify each component. Look at the drawing below.If you are concerned about ground water rising up from below. Make sure you understand and communicate appropriately the following distinctions: Bars. square rectangular in cross-section ROD (solid. you should be using waterproofing. When noting wall sections. and elevations: ➝ Identify only assemblies and systems on small scale drawings. and memorize it: Typical Furring Channel Installation Flanges are secured to substrate This portion receives screws to attach gypsum board When viewing elevation drawings of ornamental metal fabrications such as stair railing systems. circular in crosssection PIPE (hollow. it is often difficult to tell whether the balusters might be square or circular in cross-section. Check your soils report for their recommendations. Rods and Pipe BAR (solid. square rectangular in cross-section TUBE (hollow. Tubes. building sections. Identify components of the systems or assemblies on the details ➝ Provide filler panels at the ends of all casework constrained at the ends by walls Too often metal furring channels (don’t call them “hat channels”) are indicated upside down.2008 Page 103 or or .

Working Drawings Dos and Don’ts AOPS 2003 .” That is an expression reserved for use by subcontractors who are referring to someone else also under subcontract with the General who will provide some work that surrounds or is surrounded by that trade.2008 Page 104 . we must use the term “NIC. As architects.General Do not use the expression “By Others.” or we must indicate who specifically is responsible for the referenced work.

Work Plans and Drawing Checklists for Various Drawing Types Title Sheets Code Plan Checklist Code Review Checklist Demolition Plans Site Plans Plans Roof Plans Ceilings Sections Enlarged Floor Plans Wall Sections Exterior Elevations Exterior Finishes Toilet Rooms Stairs and Elevators Work Plans and Checklists AOPS ©2003 – 2008 Page 105 .CHAPTER 16 – WORK PLANS AND CHECKLISTS FOR TYPICAL DRAWING TYPES Use the following buttons for links to discussion about the philosophy of our approach to specific drawing and documentation methodologies: Checklist for Working Drawings and Specifications Hyperlinks to Drafting Conventions.

Casework and Millwork Doors and Frames Partitions Interior Elevations Room Finishes — Room Finish Legend and Schedule Specialties and Equipment Kitchen Equipment Kitchen Equipment Schedule Landscape Drawings Civil Drawings Structural Drawings HVAC Drawings Plumbing Drawings Electrical Lighting Drawings Electrical Power Drawings END Architectural Office Practices and Standards WORKING DRAWINGS Work Plans and Checklists AOPS ©2003 – 2008 Page 106 .

36 Pre-Design. 51. 61 D Descriptive Specifications. 63 Cartooning. 34. 66.2008 Page 107 . 18 Project Files. 38 Drawing Organization — Drawing Identification. 19 F field verification. 25 Manual Drawing versus Computer Aided Drafting. 26 net fee. 18 Contract Documents. 100 Dimension Notes. 68 “ G “starting point” drawings. 66. 50. Checking. 80 P Performance Specifications. 29. 35. 26 C cartoon set. 80. 105 I Identification Notes. 62. 55. 75 MasterFormat. 28 Hierarchical Organization. 76. 44. and Management Responsibilities. 90 general notes. 15. 25 notation system. 100 DPR. 68 Cross Referencing. 86. i. 25 H B Budgeting for Working Drawings. 25. 33. 89 coursing dimensions. 92 Assembly Notes. 26. 60 L Line Symbols. 61. Work Plans and Drawing Checklists for Various Drawing Types. 15. 21 master list of notation. 47. 23 Mounting heights. 25. See cartoon set Model or Object-Based Computer Aided Design/Drafting. 60. 48 Design Development. 51. 28 cross-referencing. 31 Details. 74. 72. 48 Photo-drafting. 67. 41 Drawing Organization — Sheet Design. 33. 75 Materials Symbols. 90 Dimensioning. 25. 39. 44. 39. 53. 17. 43. 86 gross fee. 79 N net architectural fee. 64. 58 mock set. 90 Identity Symbols. 18 Detail libraries. 40 Drawing Progress Report. 71 Hyperlinks to Drafting Conventions. 33. 16. 92 Drawing Hierarchies. 41.INDEX framed openings. 42 A Abbreviations. 87 M Managing Your Time. 65 Discipline Designations. 27 Drawing. 32. 80 General Notes for Renovation Construction. 42 door schedule. See Concept Design. 30. 53. 27. 90 General Information Notes. 70 Drawing Organization — Cartooning. 27 Drawing Composition. 19 Index AOPS 2003 .. 78. 38.

60. 85. 41. 42 Routing and Distribution matrix. 63 Reference Notes. 18 Types of Notes. 91 Proprietary Specifications. 47. 46. 19. 97 Index AOPS 2003 . 91 W WORKING DRAWINGS. 55. 51. 18. 92 Using Keyed Notation. 19 Redundancy. 25. 53. 20 Proper Terminology. 49 R Record Keeping. 30. 44 Spelling. 29. 71 Traditional Design and Documentation Sequence. 72 Schematic Design. 90 U Uniform Drawing System. 20 S Schedules.Project Notebook. 26 Revisions.2008 Page 108 . 61. 24. 19. 40. i. 26. 62 title block. 94. 55 Reimbursable expenses. 58. 92 T Text & Template Symbols. 43 Small Project Organization. 90 System Notation. 90 Reference Standards. 15. 62. 48 Reference Symbols. 54. 42. 18 Sheet Type Designation. 24 Steps in Writing Notes.