Denographíc Change >

MígraLíon >
ClínaLe Change >
New Covernance >
NaLural kesources + 8íodíversíLy >
SecuríLy + AnLí1error Polícy >
Pandenícs >
ClobalízaLíon >
FutureChallenges
special
CorrelaIIohs beIweeh Ihe MegaIrehds
thank you ...
oo¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
... Lo all our ínLrepíd auLhors! We know our deadlínes were sínply leLhal,
buL you sLíll nade Lhen!
... Lo Paul Morland our índelaLígable 24/¯ copyedíLor.
... Lo 8erLelsnann SLílLung whose generosíLy lírsL nade Lhís íssue
possíble and who gave us Lhe creaLíve lreedon we need Lo leL
Lhís nagazíne grow.
8ea, Doníník & Ülríke
ooõ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
editorial
oos we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Duríng Lhe lasL lew years ¦ have been experínenLíng a loL wíLh neLworks and
Lhe ¦nLerneL. AcLually, wenagazíne was one ol Lhese experínenLs. ¦L sLíll has íLs
experínenLal sLaLus – íL ís changíng íLs lace, Lhe edíLoríal concepL, and Lhe parL
ners WL cooperaLes wíLh. wenagazíne ís lreesLyle – no borders, no líníLs, no
rules. 1opícs energe lron Lhe neLwork and WL go lor a new edíLíon whenever
WL leel WL are ready.
And here WE go again.
¦uLureChallenges, our Lhírd edíLíon ol wenagazíne, ís dedícaLed Lo luLure
challenges.org, a new open onlíne plaLlorn. luLurechallenges.org ís abouL Lhe
nosL ínporLanL íssues ol our Líne, global negaLrends, líke clínaLe change,
nígraLíon, scarcíLy ol resources, globalízaLíon ... and especíally Lhe way Lhey
ínLerconnecL, rellecL and nagníly one anoLher whích wíll be decísíve ín shapíng
our connon luLure.
1he ÜSP ol luLurechallenges.org ís íLs locus on Lhese correlaLíons. When people
geL híL by Lhe |oínL lorces ol Lhese Lrends – Lhey really are ín bad Lrouble.
So why did WE decide to dedicate this issue to FutureChallenges?
¦or us íL ís ol Lhe uLnosL ínporLance LhaL an ínsLíLuLíon líke Lhe 8erLelsnann
SLílLung ís línally reachíng ouL Lo Lhe Web, LhaL Lhey enbrace abundance and
leL Lhe neLwork seL Lhe agenda! 1hey are now buíldíng a híghly connecLed vír
Lual space based on Lhe príncíples ol parLícípaLíon, Lransparency and openness.
We wanL Lo supporL Lhís endeavor and help Lhen develop Lheír Webby way ol
luLure lundíng.
8esídes Lhís, WL Lruly belíeve LhaL Lhe power ol neLworks, Lhe power ol WL, wíll
have a deep ínpacL on how Lo handle Lhese challenges, línd soluLíons and
nanage sale passage!
content
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What is FutureChallenges?
What is futurechaIIenges.org7 page_0012
WEOFuIureChallehges page_0018
How Cah WE Hahdle FuIureChallehges7 page_0020
Where OId and New Paradigms Meet page_0022
AhheIIe Heuser/HehrIk Scheller/!ohaIhah SIevehs/Ole WIhIermahh
Learn
1he Network is ChaIIenging Us page_00]0
IhIervIew wIIh PeIer Kruse
fact-ßased WorIdview page_0040
IhIervIew wIIh Hahs RoslIhg
from Macro-ChaIIenges to Micro-SoIutions page_00s0
IhIervIew wIIh PeIer SpIegel
Concerted Action Needed! page_00s8
Surehdra MuhshI
Re-1hinking Science page_0066
Alah ShapIro
How Does the fducationaI System ßecome DecentraIized7 page_0074
IhIervIew wIIh Ceorge SIemehs
What the fast Can 1each the West page_0086
IhIervIew wIIh !ohh Hagel III
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Engage
1o fngage Means to Create! page_00¤6
Emer 8eamer
ChaIIenging InvisibIe ßoundaries in War and Peace: page_0102
SociaI Media in Ceorgia
8I|ah KaII
1he Urban RevoIution page_0110
NIels 8oeIhg
When Media and Citizen Media Meet page_0118
Solaha Larseh
It’s aII about PeopIe – Cinema Ienin page_0124
IhIervIew wIIh Marcus VeIIer
On a Mission to fnd OiI page_01]2
ShaI AgassI
We Share. We Do Not Censor! page_01]6
Isaac Mao
MiIagro page_0140
SebasIIáh MIquel & NIcolás 1ereschuk
HeIping PeopIe to HeIp 1hemseIves page_01s0
IhIervIew by AsIrId Ramge
content
oo1o we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Future
WhaI Is
Challenges?
URL
www.futurechaIIenges.org
USP
Discussing megatrend intersections and organizing projects
in a trans-discipIinary and internationaI way.
Megatrends
Denographíc change descríbes changes Lo Lhe síze and sLrucLure ol
a counLry’s populaLíon Lhrough ríses and lalls ín Lhe bírLh raLe and
norLalíLy raLe as well as by nígraLory novenenLs ol people..
1he concepL ol nígraLíon desígnaLes novíng a person’s donícíle
wíLhín one counLry or over a counLry’s borders pernanenLly or Len
poraríly. 1he reasons lor nígraLíon can be ol an econoníc, políLícal,
culLural or socíal naLure.
ClínaLe change relers Lo Lhe pernanenL changes ín Lhe aLnosphere
over a longer períod ol Líne. AlLhough Lhere have been changes ín
Lhe earLh’s clínaLe lor níllíons ol years, global warníng ín Lhe 2oLh
cenLury nusL be predonínanLly aLLríbuLed Lo hunan acLívíLy.
8roadly speakíng, governance íncludes all lorns ol coordínaLíon
anong índívídual and collecLíve players. 1odays governance always
luncLíons ín a globalízed nulLílevel sysLen anong sLaLe and nonsLaLe
acLors.
8íodíversíLy descríbes Lhe LoLalíLy ol lívíng organísns whích can
be neasured by Lhe nunber ol specíes ol anínals, planLs and
nícroorganísns lívíng ín a parLícular regíon. NaLural resources are
raw naLeríals províded by naLure. People can níne buL cannoL
nanulacLure Lhen. 1hís renders Lheír susLaínable use ínperaLíve.
War and conllícL have always been delíníng nonenLs noL |usL lor
ínLernaLíonal políLícs, buL also lor naLíon sLaLes. 1he global securíLy
archíLecLure ol Lhe luLure nusL Lake accounL ol new kínds ol (ínLer
naLíonal) LhreaLs such as cyberLerrorísn, chenícalLerrorísn and
bíoLerrorísn.
oo12 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Denographíc Change >
MígraLíon >
ClínaLe Change >
New Covernance >
NaLural kesources + 8íodíversíLy >
SecuríLy + AnLí1error Polícy >
What is futurec
Pandenícs reler Lo íllnesses LhaL occur noL |usL locally or regíonally,
buL globally. 1hey represenL Lhe energence ol díseases new Lo a
populaLíon and conLaíníng agenLs LhaL ínlecL hunans, causíng
sígnílícanL, persísLenL íllness LhaL spreads easíly anong hunans.
Lcononíc globalízaLíon basícally descríbes Lhe íncreasíngly LíghL
kníL econoníc ínLerdependence ol all sLaLes wíLh escalaLíng
exchange ol goods, servíces, capíLal, Lechnologíes and workers.
ClobalízaLíon has acceleraLed enornously ín recenL decades.
Points of Entry
Learn – nore abouL Lhe negaLrend correlaLíons.
fngage – LranslaLe ídeas ínLo acLíon.
Connect – wíLh oLhers Lo realíze your pro|ecL.
Who?
8erLelsnann SLílLung ín collaboraLíon wíLh ¬o ínLernaLíonal
bloggers, scíenLísLs and everybody who wanLs Lo parLícípaLe.
Why?
1he ídea ís Lo losLer “scíence as a publíc good” and íníLíaLe a
broader díalogue beLween experLs and nonexperLs. ¦or us íL ís
an oblígaLíon Lo nake scíence publíc.
How?
1he 8erLelsnann SLílLung wíll becone parL ol Lhe NeL. ¦L wíll
no longer províde readynade soluLíons, buL acL as a noderaLor ín
esLablíshíng new lorns ol parLícípaLory culLure.
When?
Launch. May 2o1o
Contact
Ole.WínLernannOberLelsnannsLílLung.de
Henrík.SchellerOberLelsnannsLílLung.de
oo1¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Pandenícs >
ClobalízaLíon >
challenges.org?
oo1õ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Economic Globalization Global Governance
E
Economic Globalization
Global Governance
Energy and Natural
Resources
Climate Change and
Biodiversity
Threats to Global
Security
Demographics and
Migration
Global Economic Systems
Unified Regulations
Endogenous Technologyn
Economic Agreements
Regional Agreements
Economic Stabilityn
Consumption Shifts
Technological Models
Alternative Fuels
Decreased Biodiversity
Increased GHGs
Food vs Fuel
Cost/Threat Sharing
Increased Business Costs
Impact on Commerce
Commerce Influences
Migrants
Laborer Centers Shift
Cost of Aging Society
Governance vs Economics
Global Financial Regulation
New Economic Governancen
Shift in Major Powers
Emerging Powers
Social and Civil Movements
Ungoverned Spaces
Concepts of Sovereignty
Common Resource
Governance
Regulation of Nuclear Power
Shared Responsibility
of GHGs
Agreements over
Species Loss
Shared Responsibility
on Climate
Un/Under-governed Spaces
Empowered Individuals
Appropriate Responses
Security vs Liberty
Governing Migrants
Regions of Rapid Growth
Aging World Powers
R
FutureChallenges
CorrelaIIohs beIweeh Ihe MegaIrehds
!onaLhan SLevens / Henrík Scheller
oo1s we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Energy and Natural
Resources
Climate Change and
Biodiversity
Threats to Global
Security
Demographics and
Migration
E Resources Equal Economic
Clout
Extraction and Use Technology
Shifts in Source and Use
Use Affected by Economic
Climate
Use Influenced by Compacts
Common Geographic
Resources
Nuclear Energy Treaties
Shifting Resource Locations
Alternative Fuels
Carbon Consumption Rates
Resource Technologies
Biofuel Land Needs
GHG Output Growth
Dual Role of New Fuels
Resources Threaten
Sovereignty
Technological Distribution
New Fuels Threaten Powers
Security Influences Use
Energy Needs of Future
Population
Increases in Energy
Use Varies
Resources Drive Migrants
Climate Drives Commerce
Climate Change Mitigations
Evolving Climate Technologies
Biodiversity as Economic
Value
International Climate
Compacts
Global Resource Sharing
Green Accountability
Democratization of
Biodiversity
Mixed Impact of Biofuels
GHG and Climate Change
Alternative Fuel Markets
Adaption Strategies
Species Abundance and
Distribution
Land and Water Viability
Unstable Regions Most
Affected
Destabilized
Production/Transit
Worsening Bio-threats
Growth vs Climate Change
Climate Refugees
Decline in Regional Outputs
Space Needs of Biodiversity
Urbanization Stresses
Biodiversity
Security Increases Cost
Cost Attribution of Attacks
Escalating Technologies
Rise in Sub-state Powers
Technology Empowered
Individuals
Governing Evolving Threats
Threats Transcend Geography
Unstable Energy-Rich
Regions
Dual Use Technologies
Rise in Alternative Fuels
Unstable Regions Most
Vulnerable
Developing World
Consumption
Worsening Threats of
Bio-Attacks
Rising Sub-state Powers
Governing Evolving Threats
Un/Undergoverned Spaces
Nuclear Containment
Security-driven Migrations
Regional Threats in
Demographics
Unstable Regions Grow
Fastest
Centers of Productivity
Cost of New Migrants
Aging Western Powers
Governing Aging Societies
Growing Unstable Regions
Re-evaluating Citizenship
Growth in Transient
Populations
Fuel/Resource Migrations
Increasing Standards
of Living
Migrants Stress Resources
Urbanization Stresses
Biodiversity
More People Equals More GHGs
Climate Migration
High Population in Vulnerable
Areas
Migrants Challenge Security
Security for/from
Quasi-citizens
Rise in Radicalization
Migrants in Ungoverned
Spaces
Demographic Transition
Rate and Direction of Growth
Aging Western/Eastern
Powers
Growth in Unstable Regions
Kishore Mahbubani
We were lIvIhg Ih separaIe boaIs earlIer. All IhaI
was heeded was Io IormulaIe rules Io make sure
IhaI Ihe boaIs dIdh’I collIde. 1he sIIuaIIoh has
chahged wIIh Ihe begIhhIhg oI globalIzaIIoh. All
Ihe people oI Ihe world are how lIvIhg Ih Ihe same
boaI, ahd dIIIerehI couhIrIes oI Ihe world are lIke
cabIhs Ih Ihe boaI. We Iake care oI our cabIhs wIIh-
ouI worryIhg abouI Ihe boaI as a whole. 1hIs
heeds Io be chahged.
oo18 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
WE@FutureChallenges
Henrík Scheller Ole WínLernann 8eLLína Neuhaus
Yvonne Lích 1híeß PeLersen
!onaLhan SLevens Xu 1íng
MalLe 8oecker
1he IuIurechallehges.org core Ieam
aI 8erIelsmahh SIIIIuhg explaIhs
whaI IuIurechallehges.org meahs
Io Ihem persohally.
oo1¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Henrik Scheller
¦uLureChallenges ís boLh a chance and a prívílege.
1he 8erLelsnann SLílLung gíves ne Lhe opporLuníLy
Lo Lhínk abouL Lhe currenL and luLure rísks our pla
neL ís lacíng. AL Lhe sane Líne ¦ have Lhe personal
lreedon Lo creaLe and províde concepLs on how Lo
Lackle Lhen. 1o collaboraLe wíLh a wíde range ol
parLners, Lo bríng people wíLh nulLíple backgrounds
LogeLher and Lo shape a greaL Lean ís a Lhríllíng
Lask. Our conníLnenL. Lo nake Lhe world a beLLer
place. 8eíng aware LhaL íL ís only a snall conLríbu
Líon, ¦ anconvínced LhaL each sLep naLLers. We have
Lo renenber Lhe luLure sLarLs ríghL ín our own
lronL yard and íL ís up Lo us Lo nake and dríve Lhe
change.
Ole Wintermann
When developíng luLurechallenges.org, ¦ becane
nore and nore aware ol whaL an anazíng enví
ronnenL Lhe ¦nLerneL ís. WíLh íLs decenLralízed
sLrucLure and sellorganízíng capabílíLy, íL poses an
ongoíng challenge Lo exísLíng processes, eLernal
LruLhs and welldelíned sLrucLures.
Bettina Neuhaus
WhaL ¦ línd really saLíslyíng ís solvíng all Lhe knoLLy
logísLíc problens ínvolved ín bríngíng people lron
all over Lhe world LogeLher ín a parLícular spoL aL a
parLícular Líne. 8ecause íL’s noL enough LhaL people
sínply undersLand one anoLher – whaL we have
also Lo delíver are creaLíve ínspíraLíonal ways ol sha
ríng ídeas and knowledge and workíng on |oínL
pro|ecLs Lo nake Lhe world a beLLer place.
Yvonne Eich
Duríng ny sLudíes a class ín global hísLory caughL
ne. ¦L was all abouL Lhe ídea Lo rewríLe Lhe Luro
cenLríc narraLíve ol Lhe 1¤Lh cenLury wíLhín a glo
bal lraneseL and a global versíon ol hísLory occured
Lo ne. 1he ínLerLwíníng and ínLerrelaLíons ol culLu
res sLarLed long belore socalled globalízaLíon. ¦
hope LhaL luLurechallenges.org wíll help ne Lo geL
a beLLer undersLandíng ol whaL ONL connon lu
Lure níghL nean.
Thieß Petersen
Workíng as an econonísL on Lhe correlaLíons beL
ween Lhe negaLrends, when ¦ was wríLíng Lhe Clo
belpedíaarLícles lor ¦uLureChallenges, led ne Lo
nany new ínsíghLs abouL how conplex Lhe world’s
econony ís. 1hís has led ne Lo íncreasíngly ques
Líon wheLher Lhe nacroecononíc growLhnodel,
whích was used over Lhe lasL decades, líLs Lhe needs
ol Lhe 21Lh cenLury.
Malte Boecker
¦uLureChallenges ís a greaL opporLuníLy Lo rellecL
on Lhe naLure and nagníLude ol Lhe luLure chal
lenges lyíng ahead ín a sLrucLured way.
ÜlLínaLely, íL wíll encourage all ol us who are ín
volved Lo becone parL ol Lhe soluLíon. My guL lee
líng ís LhaL Lhe plaLlorn wíll call lor behavíoral
changes aL varíous levels. ¦uLureChallenges urges
us Lo redelíne whaL qualíLy ol líle, real econoníc
growLh and progress nean Lo us and Lo work on so
luLíons LhaL shílL our behavíor ín Lhe ríghL dírecLíon.
Jonathan Stevens
Workíng on Lhe MegaLrend neLaanalysís, as parL
ol Lhe ¦uLureChallenges pro|ecL, has gíven ne a re
newed perspecLíve ol, and apprecíaLíon lor, Lhe ín
Lrícacíes LhaL delíne our luLure. Líke ny pasL work ín
Lpídeníology and 8íosLaLísLícs where we exaníned
Lhe dírecL and índírecL causes ol dísease, lookíng aL
Lhe síx seeníngly índependenL “nega” Lrends and
how Lhey ínlluence one anoLher has been boLh per
sonally and prolessíonally lascínaLíng.”
Xu Ting
Shapíng a Clobalízed World pro|ecL enabled ne
Lo broaden ny perspecLíve and undersLandíng ol
ínporLanL global íssues. ¦ have cone Lo realíze,
nore Lhan ever, Lhe ínporLanL role ol LÜAsíaÜS,
as well as Lhe necessíLy ol Lhe LrílaLeral parLnershíp
ín acconplíshíng na|or global íníLíaLíves.
oo2o we¸specIal¸o1o/1
More Ihah IIIIy bloggers Irom all over Ihe
world are cohIrIbuIIhg Io IuIurechallehges.org.
FIve oI Ihem ahswered Ihe quesIIoh:
How Can WE Handle FutureChallenges?
oo21 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
!acínLa Lscudos,
Ll Salvador
Mac!ordan Holdbrookes
D. Degad|or, Chana
Noha ALel,
LgypL
Sonan Ongno,
8huLan
Alexey Sídorenko,
kussía
Jacinta Escudos, El Salvador
¦ Lhínk we have Lo Lake advanLage ol Lhe access Lo
ínlornaLíon we have aL presenL. Never belore has
ínlornaLíon been so accessíble and never belore
have Lhere been so nany ways Lo share. ¦or Lhose
who have access Lo Lhe ¦nLerneL, sharíng should be
cone an oblígaLíon!
Cívíl socíeLy nusL ínvolve íLsell dírecLly ín naLLers
and propose soluLíons, pro|ecLs and ídeas Lo over
cone Lhe challenges ol Lhe ever changíng síLuaLíon
ín our world. ¦ndependence ín acLíon nusL be soughL
(be íL ín a connuníLy, ín a cíLy or ín a counLry!). 1he
Web2.o ís, ¦ belíeve, a prívíleged space Lo achíeve
LhaL.
Mac-Jordan Holdbrookes D. Degadjor, Ghana
¦n Lhe ellorLs ol WL Lacklíng íssues/challenges
lacíng us Lhís day, Lhe besL Lool ís Lhe ¦nLerneL. Míl
líons ol people worldwíde are usíng Lhe ¦nLerneL Lo
share ínlornaLíon, nake new assocíaLíons and con
nunícaLe. Duríng Lhe recenL earLhquakes ín boLh
HaíLí & Chíle, ínlornaLíon abouL Lhe quakes was
nade avaílable Lhrough Lhe ¦nLerneL. Üshahídí –
a crowdsourcíng crísís ínlornaLíon organízaLíon
used Lhe ¦nLerneL Lo help/supporL duríng períods ol
crísís ín Lhe world.
1he ¦nLerneL ís a parL ol ny every sphere ol líle now.
¦ can’L líve wíLhouL íL even lor a second, Lherelore
¦ belíeve íl WL use Lhe ¦nLerneL ellecLívely, all
challenges/íssues can be addressed.
Noha Atef, Egypt
We can handle Lhe challenges we’re lacíng by ana
lyzíng Lhen and díscussíng Lhís analysís. 1he dís
cussíon reveals who ís able Lo do whaL, and how
Lhe problen can be díagnosed lron díllerenL poínLs
ol víew. Once you neasure Lhe síze ol an obsLacle,
you can easíly overcone íL.
Sonam Ongmo, Bhutan
¦n ny opíníon Lhe ínporLance ol Lhese challenges
varíes dependíng on where we líve and Lhere are a
nyríad ol approaches accordíngly, as well. Whíle
Lhese challenges can be specílíc Lo counLríes, ín Lhe
end Lhey allecL us all. How can we handle Lhen7 8y
undersLandíng globalízaLíon and Lhe ínLerdepen
dencíes ol an íncreasíngly ínLerconnecLed world.
1hís should noL only ínpacL our polícíes and aLLíLu
des Lo clínaLe change/envíronnenL buL also eco
nonícs, resourcesharíng and puLLíng hunaníLarían
íssues belore econoníc greed. ÜndersLandíng Lhen
can have prolound ellecLs on allevíaLíng poverLy,
corrupLíon and greed.
Alexey Sidorenko, Russia
¦ Lhínk, ¦uLureChallenges can be solved íl we Lake
ínLo accounL Lhe lollowíng Lhree basíc Lhíngs.
paLíence, undersLandíng and educaLíon. PaLíence –
every change needs Líne. Solvíng challenges needs
boLh Líne and change. ÜndersLandíng – íl people
would realíze Lhey’re lívíng ín a snaller world, and
Lhere’s no place lor víolence and políLícal sellísh
ness, íL would be a beLLer place. 1he WesL should
know nore abouL Lhe LasL, Lhe SouLh should know
nore abouL Lhe NorLh and více versa. LducaLíon –
wíLhouL íL, we wíll repeaL Lhe sane nísLakes over
and over agaín.
AnneLLe Heuser
AnneLLe Heuser ís execuLíve dírec
Lor ol Lhe WashíngLon, DC ollíce
ol Lhe 8erLelsnann ¦oundaLíon.
AnneLLe read políLícal scíence, law
and socíology, and ís a nenber
ol Lhe World Lcononíc ¦orun’s
Clobal Agenda Councíl on Lhe
¦uLure ol Lhe Luropean Üníon,
Lhe ALlanLíc Councíl’s SLraLegíc
Advísors Croup and Lhe Luropean
Councíl on ¦oreígn kelaLíons. She
also serves as vícechaír ol Lhe
Councíl on ¦oundaLíons’ Clobal
PhílanLhropy ConníLLee.
Henrík Scheller
Henrík Scheller read políLícs and
nusícology. ¦n 2oo¯ he |oíned
Lhe 8erLelsnann SLílLung where
he ís responsíble lor íssues ol
governance.
!onaLhan SLevens
!onaLhan SLevens ís dírecLor ol Lhe
Denographíc Change Pro|ecL lor
Lhe 8erLelsnann ¦oundaLíon.
!onaLhan was an epídeníologísL
belore novíng Lo Leachíng and
publíc polícy. He worked aL Lhe
CenLers lor Dísease ConLrol and
PrevenLíon (CDC) ín ALlanLa.
Ole WínLernann
Ole WínLernann read econonícs,
políLícs and socíology ín Kíel and
CoLeborg. He was a research assí
sLanL aL Lhe ÜníversíLy ol CoLeborg
where he wroLe hís PhD on Lhe
abílíLy ol políLícal sysLens Lo reacL
Lo críses. AlLer beíng head ol
deparLnenL lor econoníc and
socíal polícy aL Lhe lorner Cernan
Lnployees Üníon (DAC). Ole
|oíned Lhe 8erLelsnann SLílLung ín
2oo2 Lo work on denographíc
change. Sínce 2oo¯ he has locused
on Lhe ínLerdependencíes ol glo
bal negaLrends wíLh Lhe develop
nenL ol Lhe ¦nLerneL. Hís laLesL
pro|ecL ís. luLurechallenges.org
> > > > > > > >
Where Old and
New Paradigms
Meet
www.IuIurechallehges.org
oo2¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > FuIureChallehges, opporIuhIIIes Ih crIses, 8erIelsmahh SIIIIuhg,
scIehce as a publIc good, scIehce2.o
we-magazIhe >
1he 8erLelsnann SLílLung ís launchíng “¦uLureChal
lenges”, a new onlíne plaLlorn. WhaL’s íL all abouL7
Ole WIhIermahh >
MegaLrends such as denographíc change, econo
níc globalízaLíon, clínaLe change, pandenícs,
securíLy íssues and nígraLíon are shapíng Lhe glo
bal agenda. Lven Lhough we gaLher Lrenendous
anounLs ol ínlornaLíon abouL each síngle Lrend,
we hardly know anyLhíng abouL how Lhese Lrends
ínLeracL, and how and where Lhey’re ínLerrelaLed.
How do Lhey connecL7 WhaL ellecLs do Lheír con
necLíons cause7 WhaL are Lheír ínpacLs7 1o puL Lhe
spoLlíghL on such quesLíons as Lhese, Lhe know
ledge we wanL Lo share on luLurechallenges.org ís
no longer locused on Lhe ísolaLed perspecLíve ol a
síngle negaLrend – whaL we wanL Lo do ís encou
rage nenbers ol Lhe plaLlorn Lo locus on Lhe con
plex ínLeracLíons ol Lhe negaLrends.
WhaL’s nore, luLurechallenges.org seeks Lo nurLure
díalogue beLween experLs and nonexperLs. Scíence
usually generaLes knowledge ín a very exclusíve
way ín whích research resulLs are lor Lhe nosL parL
díscussed wíLhín closed “experL” connuníLíes lar
renoved lron any broader audíence. 1he opporLu
níLíes ol Lhe ¦nLerneL and socíal neLworks have noL
been Laken up by scíenLísLs. Our ídea was Lhus Lo
creaLe a new ¦nLerneL plaLlorn where experLs and
nonexperLs could noL only díscuss such íssues buL
also speak wíLh one anoLher ín a conversaLíon LhaL
can bríng íssues ol neLworkíng, ínLerdependencíes
and Lhe conplexíLy ol our síLuaLíon Lo Lhe lorelronL.
We also hope LhaL Lhe plaLlorn wíll enable people
Lo organíze Lhenselves beLLer ín pro|ecLs and can
paígns Lo neeL Lhese global challenges nore ellec
Lívely on boLh Lhe local and Lhe global levels.
Our Lhírd aín ís Lo explore how Lhe knowledge ol
Lhe Web can be used Lo línd Lhe soluLíons LhaL we
need Lo neeL luLure denands.
oo2õ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
1he cohcepI oI mIgraIIoh desIghaIes movIhg
a persoh’s domIcIle wIIhIh ohe couhIry or
over a couhIry’s borders permahehIly
or IemporarIly. 1he reasohs Ior mIgraIIoh
cah be oI ah ecohomIc, polIIIcal, culIural or
socIal haIure.
Migration
ClImaIe chahge reIers Io Ihe permahehI
chahges Ih Ihe aImosphere over a lohger pe-
rIod oI IIme. AlIhough Ihere have beeh
chahges Ih Ihe earIh’s clImaIe Ior mIllIohs oI
years, global warmIhg Ih Ihe 2oIh cehIury
musI be predomIhahIly aIIrIbuIed Io humah
acIIvIIy.
CIimate Change
8roadly speakIhg, goverhahce Ihcludes
all Iorms oI coordIhaIIoh amohg IhdIvIdual
ahd collecIIve players. 1odays goverhahce
always IuhcIIohs Ih a globalIzed mulIIlevel
sysIem amohg sIaIe ahd hoh-sIaIe acIors.
New Covernance
DemographIc chahge descrIbes chahges Io
Ihe sIze ahd sIrucIure oI a couhIry’s popula-
IIoh Ihrough rIses ahd Ialls Ih Ihe bIrIh raIe
ahd morIalIIy raIe as well as by mIgraIory
movemehIs oI people.
Demographic Change
8IodIversIIy descrIbes Ihe IoIalIIy oI lIvIhg
orgahIsms whIch cah be measured by Ihe
humber oI specIes oI ahImals, plahIs ahd
mIcroorgahIsms lIvIhg Ih a parIIcular regIoh.
NaIural resources are raw maIerIals provIded
by haIure. People cah mIhe buI cahhoI mahu-
IacIure Ihem. 1hIs rehders IheIr susIaIhable
use ImperaIIve.
NaturaI Resources and ßiodiversity
War ahd cohIlIcI have always beeh deIIhIhg
momehIs hoI |usI Ior IhIerhaIIohal polIIIcs,
buI also Ior haIIoh sIaIes. 1he global secu-
rIIy archIIecIure oI Ihe IuIure musI Iake
accouhI oI hew kIhds oI (IhIerhaIIohal)
IhreaIs such as cyber-IerrorIsm, chemIcal-
IerrorIsm ahd bIo-IerrorIsm.
Security and Anit-1error PoIicy
oo2s we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
8uL ísn’L Lhe “exclusíve space” occupíed by scíence
one ol Lhe naín delíníng leaLures LhaL íL needs Lo
pursue íLs research undísLurbed by ouLsíde ínlluen
ces7
AhheIIe Heuser >
1he 8erLelsnann ¦oundaLíon ís an advocaLe ol Lhe
ídea LhaL scíence nusL becone nore publíc ín íLs
díscourse. Scíence can’L be lounded on a sLand
alone approach because íL's híghly connecLed Lo a
broad varíeLy ol líelds. ¦urLhernore, all scíenLísLs
are oblíged Lo share Lheír knowledge and enbrace
oLher díscíplínes. We need boLh Shakespeare and
LínsLeín Lo nanage sale passage. ¦or us as a loun
daLíon Lhís neans LhaL we nusL puL sLíll greaLer
ellorLs ínLo organízíng a díscourse LhaL really does
neríL beíng called “ínLerdíscíplínary” or “Lrans
díscíplínary”. Above all íL neans LhaL we nusL seek
Lhe acLíve ínvolvenenL ol Lhe general publíc and
people ín políLícs. We need undersLandíng and
conníLnenL Lo help overcone Lhe connunícaLíon
barríers anong políLícs, scíence and Lhe general
publíc and creaLe a connon (senanLíc) undersLan
díng ol Lhe problens lacíng us all. We are well
aware LhaL each ol Lhese culLures lollows íLs own
node and logíc ol LhoughL and argunenL across
Lhe varíous developnenL phases. So we know LhaL
any aLLenpL Lo abolísh LoLally such connunícaLíon
barríers ís a chínera. YeL LhaL ís precísely why a
Lhínk Lank such as Lhe 8erLelsnann ¦oundaLíon
should serve Lo sLrengLhen neLworkíng and con
nunícaLíon abílíLíes and bonds ol enpaLhy boLh on
íLs own síde and ín Lerns ol socíeLy aL large wíLh a
víew Lo pronoLíng Lhe besL possíble resulLs lron a
díscourse ol Lhís kínd.
we-magazIhe >
Why díd you choose Lhe ¦nLerneL above Lhe oLher
nedía you could have Laken Lo pronoLe Lhís new
lorn ol díalogue beLween experLs and non
experLs7
HehrIk Scheller >
Üp Lo now Lhe líndíngs ol scíence have naínly been
publíshed ín renowned scíenLílíc |ournals or ín clo
sed evenLs held wíLhín specílíc scíenLílíc connuní
Líes. ¦ruíLlul onlíne debaLes and ínLerdíscíplínary
díscourse have been nore Lhe excepLíon Lhan Lhe
rule. 8earíng Lhís ín nínd, we argue LhaL Lhe ¦nLer
neL could be a pronísíng way Lo experínenL wíLh
new lorns ol díscourse and parLícípaLory culLure.
We are aware LhaL Lhe lack ol connon under
sLandíng anong subculLures níghL cause sone pro
blens when íL cones Lo evaluaLíng “collecLíve
ínLellígence”. 8uL we are convínced LhaL Lhe ¦nLer
neL wíll reveal Lo us new paLLerns lor explaíníng Lhe
world ín whích we líve. And línally, we’re also
expecLíng LhaL Lhís wíll lead Lo a redelíníLíon ol
how we Lhínk ol Lhe “experL”!
we-magazIhe >
Can you gíve us an exanple ol ínLerdependencíes
beLween global negaLrends – ol how Lhey ínpacL
on one anoLher7
!ohaIhah SIevehs >
Consíder Lhe lollowíng scenarío. Lcononíc globalí
zaLíon correlaLes Lo an íncreased consunpLíon ol
energy and Lhus a ríse ín greenhouse gas eníssí
ons. 1hese gas eníssíons are seen Lo be aL leasL par
Líally responsíble lor luLure changes ín Lhe clínaLe.
1herelore econoníc globalízaLíon ís one ol Lhe
key drívers ol clínaLe change. ¦n nany developíng
counLríes, clínaLe change resulLs ín waLer shorL
ages and lanínes. People who are LhreaLened wíLh
deaLh by LhírsL or hunger do noL sLay ín one place,
Lhey seek beLLer, nore lerLíle ground. 1hus clínaLe
change wíll Lrígger largescale enígraLíon. 1he
physícal and econoníc consequences ol clínaLe
change wíll ínpacL negaLívely on Lhe políLícal and
socíal sLabílíLy ol Lhe counLríes nosL allecLed by íL.
And íl such ínsLabílíLíes occur ín counLríes provídíng
raw naLeríals and resources ol víLal ínporLance
Lo key producLíon processes, socíal and políLícal
ínsLabílíLíes ín one counLry can easíly endanger Lhe
enLíre global econoníc process. Such a backdrop
should nake íL very clear LhaL Lhe díllerenL lorns ol
ínLerdependencíes ín índívídual counLríes, regíons
and conLínenLs can have díllerenL ellecLs. So íL
nakes líLLle sense Lo look lor a síngle nasLer plan
LhaL covers Lhe whole world. WhaL we should do ís
seek ouL regíonally based experLíse and engage
wíLh learníng lron one anoLher.
oo26 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
Doesn’L Lhe developnenL ol an ¦nLerneL plaLlorn ol
Lhís kínd represenL a LoLally new dírecLíon lor Lhe
8erLelsnann SLílLung7 WhaL kínd ol lessons have
you learnL so lar ín developíng íL7
HehrIk Scheller >
1o be perlecLly honesL wíLh you, developíng Lhís
plaLlorn has opened up Lo us a LoLally new world
LhaL has líLLle ín connon wíLh Lhe “old world” ín
whích we’re used Lo lívíng and workíng. QuíLe aparL
lron all Lhe Lechnícal íssues íL raíses, developíng
Lhís plaLlorn has been naínly a naLLer ol learníng
and undersLandíng whaL’s ínvolved ín Lhe concepL
ol neLworkíng – boLh exLernally and, nore críLícally,
ínLernally.
AnoLher cenLral íssue has been how we should
handle – whaL aLLíLude we should adopL lor – luLure
conLenL on our new ¦nLerneL pages LhaL níghL noL
be conpleLely ín líne wíLh our own sLandpoínL. 8y
now we’ve reached a posíLíon where we Lhínk LhaL
by relínquíshíng conLrol we can only benelíL lron
Lhe knowledge and ínsíghLs LhaL Lhe ¦nLerneL nakes
possíble. 8uL íL’s been and sLíll ís a long and híghly
unusual process ol leLLínggoolLhereíns lor
everyone ínvolved. Obvíously we wíll sLíll reLaín Lhe
opLíon ol deleLíng any conLenL LhaL níghL víolaLe
publíc polícíes. 8uL beyond LhaL we belíeve LhaL Lhe
sellcleansíng power ol Lhe ¦nLerneL wíll ensure LhaL
any quesLíonable conLenL wíll be debaLed ín open
díscourse by Lhe connuníLy.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL ellecL has www.luLurechallenges.org had
on Lhe way Lhe 8erLelsnann SLílLung perceíves
íLsell7
Ole WIhIermahh >
¦n luLure we wíll Lend Lo acL nore as noderaLors.
1hís neans LhaL we wíll no longer draw up ready
nade soluLíons lor Lhe global challenges lacíng Lhe
world ín closed groups ol experLs. WhaL we would
raLher do ís Lo oller a space or lorun lor publíc par
LícípaLíon where “we are one” neans “one anong
nany”. 1he ¦nLerneL ís relaLívízíng Lhe sLaLus ol ex
perLs. 1hís neans LhaL our |ob ís raLher Lo neLwork
ourselves wíLh oLher plaLlorns ín Lhe Web ín an
ellorL Lo generaLe synergy ellecLs. As a loundaLíon,
we wanL Lo be parL ol Lhe nuLual learníng process
ín Lhe ¦nLerneL, whíle also olleríng our own ways ol
learníng. 1he nodes ol LhoughL and Lhe pro|ecLs
ouLlíned on our WebsíLe are hopelully so sLínula
Líng and ínnovaLíve ín parLs LhaL Lhrough Lhen we
can noLívaLe people, NCOs and socíal busíness lea
ders Lo realíze Lheír own ídeas.
we-magazIhe >
How has Lhe plaLlorn changed your daíly workíng
rouLínes and whaL ellecL has Lhís had on your own
orígínal work7
HehrIk Scheller >
¦írsL and lorenosL Lhe plaLlorn has gíven ne a new
experíence ol Líne. 1he sheer speed ol Lhe ¦nLerneL
ís soneLínes overwhelníng. ¦ have Lo learn new
ways ol Lhínkíng and príoríLízíng Lhíngs. WhaL
really naLLers and whaL can ¦ puL Lo one síde7 WhaL
do ¦ really need Lo read and whaL ís |usL Lrash7 Plus
beíng ín díalogue wíLh sone ¬o bloggers scaLLered
around Lhe world who are used Lo geLLíng an
ínnedíaLe response Lo Lheír pressíng quesLíons ís
also soneLhíng íL’s díllículL Lo bríng ínLo líne wíLh a
regular níneLolíve |ob.
When íL cones Lo conLenL, ¦’n sLíll paínlully lear
níng LhaL Lhe ¦nLerneL calls lor “Lhe courage Lo
eschew perlecLíonísn”. kesulLs LhaL we used Lo
publísh ín neLículously produced glossy brochures
now need Lo be posLed ín doublequíck Líne on Lhe
PahdemIcs reIer Io Illhesses IhaI occur hoI
|usI locally or regIohally, buI globally. 1hey
represehI Ihe emergehce oI dIseases hew Io
a populaIIoh ahd cohIaIhIhg agehIs IhaI Ih-
IecI humahs, causIhg sIghIIIcahI, persIsIehI
Illhess IhaI spreads easIly amohg humahs.
Pandemics
EcohomIc globalIzaIIoh basIcally descrIbes
Ihe IhcreasIhgly IIghIkhII ecohomIc IhIerde-
pehdehce oI all sIaIes wIIh escalaIIhg
exchahge oI goods, servIces, capIIal, Iech-
hologIes ahd workers. ClobalIzaIIoh has
acceleraIed ehormously Ih recehI decades.
CIobaIization
oo27 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
¦nLerneL. 1hís has Lhe enornous advanLage LhaL
we now geL nuch quícker leedback and can nake
correspondíng changes Lo our own work and Lhe
íssues wíLh whích we deal.
we-magazIhe >
1he plaLlorn wíll have íLs solL launch aL a na|or
conlerence ín WashíngLon. WhaL’s Lhe conlerence
abouL7
AhheIIe Heuser >
You nean our conlerence on “OpporLuníLíes ín
Crísís – Avenues Lo CrowLh”, whích Lakes place on
22 Apríl Lhís year ín WashíngLon. 1hís ís Lhe second
conlerence ol íLs kínd LhaL aíns Lo bríng Lo Lhe
lorelronL Lhe opporLuníLíes and new perspecLíves
engendered by global críses. 1hís ís anoLher ín
porLanL nessage LhaL luLurechallenges.org should
geL across – LhaL global LranslornaLíon ís an
opporLuníLy lor posíLíve change! 8road publíc per
cepLíon – wheLher íL be ol negaLrends Lhenselves
or Lhe ways Lhey ínLeracL wíLh one anoLher – always
carríes a cerLaín laLalísLíc elenenL wíLh íL. 1he all
pervasíve leelíng ol beíng powerless, ol beíng
unable Lo change Lhe course ol evenLs, ís a na|or
ínpedínenL boLh Lo índívídual and políLícal enga
genenL. 8uL LhaL needn’L be so! 1ake our lounda
Líon, whích ís cooperaLíng wíLh a hosL ol oLher
ínsLíLuLíons, NCOs and socíal busíness íníLíaLíves
whích are already successlully on Lhe ground. 1he
only Lhíng Lhey olLen lack ís broad publíc noLíce
and, ol course, noney!
we-magazIhe >
WhaL neasures are you conLenplaLíng lor Lhe solL
launch ol luLurechallenges.org aL Lhís conlerence7
!ohaIhah SIevehs >
As a loundaLíon we’re venLuríng here ínLo conple
Lely new and uncharLed LerríLory. 1he whole conle
rence wíll be lívesLreaned. And we’ve also ínvíLed
bloggers lron Chína, ArgenLína, Kenya, 8huLan, Lhe
ÜS and Lurope who’ll be puLLíng ouL Lheír líve
blogs. ¦n doíng so we’re lollowíng a LwoLrack sLra
Legy. On Lhe one hand we wanL Lo enLer ínLo a
nuch nore dírecL lorn ol díalogue wíLh our dísLín
guíshed guesLs and experL speakers by enablíng
people who are noL dírecLly Lakíng parL ín Lhe con
lerence Lo ínlluence Lhe course ol Lhe proceedíngs
ín WashíngLon Lhrough Lheír connenLaríes. On Lhe
oLher hand we wanL Lo lacílíLaLe exchanges anong
people ín Lhe norLhern and souLhern heníspheres.
1hís ís a na|or íssue lor us and one LhaL should also
be deLernínanL lor luLurechallenges.org. Our aín
ís Lo round oll Lhe day wíLh presenLaLíon ol a spe
cílíc agenda lor Lhe luLurechallenges.org plaLlorn.
we-magazIhe >
Where do you see yourselves ín one year or eígh
Leen nonLhs wíLh Lhe www.luLurechallenges.org
plaLlorn7
Ole WIhIermahh >
We hope LhaL ¦uLureChallenges wíll grow ínLo one
ol Lhe nosL aLLracLíve ol Lhe ínLernaLíonal plaL
lorns, a place where, above all nonexperLs also
have Lhe conlídence Lo posL Lheír ídeas and
LhoughLs on Lhe nuLual ínpacL ol global nega
Lrends. AL Lhe sane Líne we are also encouragíng
a broad range ol acadeníc ínsLíLuLíons such as Lhe
8rookíngs ¦nsLíLuLíon and kesources lor Lhe ¦uLure
(k¦¦) ín WashíngLon or Lhe PoLsdan ¦nsLíLuLe lor
ClínaLe ¦npacL kesearch and Lhe Ceorge Mason
ÜníversíLy ín Vírgínía Lo use Lhe plaLlorn lor dísse
nínaLíon ol Lheír work ín Lhe sense ol “scíence as a
publíc good”. 1he ídea ol neLworkíng has cenLral
ínporLance lor us, and we’re delíghLed LhaL we’ve
been able Lo arrange parLnershíps wíLh Clobal
Voíces and oLher onlíne pro|ecLs.
oo28 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Future
Learn
– abouI Ihe correlaIIohs
beIweeh Ihe megaIrehds
Challenges
> >
PhoLo. www.kubíkloLo.de
The
Network is
Challenging
Us
tags > collecIIve IhIellIgehce, heIworks, semahIIc, web culIure,
hexIpracIIce
PeLer Kruse
PeLer Kruse ís lounder and nanagíng parLner ol nexLpracLíce CnbH ín 8renen, Cernany. He worked lor over 1¬ years aL several
Cernan uníversíLíes ín Lhe líeld ol braín research. Hís naín areas ol research have been Lhe processíng ol conplexíLy and auLo
nonous order lornaLíon ín ínLellígenL neLworks. He ís ínLernaLíonally successlull as a consulLanL lor over Len years now.
oo¯2 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
¦l we see Lhe ¦nLerneL as one ol Lhe ¦uLureChallen
ges nankínd ís lacíng, whaL would you consíder Lo
be Lhe nosL ínporLanL aspecL ín dealíng wíLh íL7 ¦s
Lhe ¦nLerneL challengíng us7
PeIer Kruse >
Who are you addressíng as “us”7 ¦l “us” sLands lor
Lhe group ol índívídual persons usíng Lhe ¦nLerneL,
¦ Lhínk Lhe challenge ís prínaríly a naLLer ol dealíng
wíLh Loo nuch ínlornaLíon. ¦n Lhe ¦nLerneL Lhe nosL
sLríkíng problen lor any síngle user ís Lhe reducLíon
ol conplexíLy. ConlronLed as we are wíLh Lhe sLeady
realLíne llow ol ínlornaLíon, overload seens Lo
be nornal and undersLandíng ís nore ol a lucky
excepLíon. 1o successlully cope wíLh Lhe conplex
dynanícs ol Lhe ¦nLerneL, íL ís helplul or even
necessary Lo undersLand and apply Lhe príncíples ol
sellorganízíng sysLens. SellorganízaLíon descríbes
Lhe capacíLy ol ínLeracLíons ín a sysLen Lo creaLe
“sLable sLaLes ol order lar lron equílíbríun” wíLh
ouL a sLeeríng nasLernínd. SellorganízaLíon occurs
when Lhe nacro level ol a holísLíc paLLernlorna
Líon process ínLeracLs wíLh Lhe nícro level ol a huge
nunber ol sponLaneously acLíve elenenLs. 8y loo
kíng aL Lhe ¦nLerneL ín a luzzy, less deLaíled way íL ís
possíble Lo geL access Lo energíng paLLerns ín
knowledge donaíns, connuníLíes, socíeLíes and
culLures. 8eíng personally sLressed by overload ís
noL a quesLíon ol Lhe perceíved anounL ol ínlor
naLíon buL ol Lhe sLraLegy ol ínlornaLíon proces
síng deployed. ¦l one ís able Lo behave líke an
elenenL ín Lhe dynanícs ol a sellorganízíng sysLen,
Lhere ís a chance Lo geL access Lo hígher levels ol
paLLernlornaLíon. 1he ¦nLerneL ís lar nore Lhan a
dísLríbuLíon channel lor a chaoLíc cacophony ol
nore or less Lrívíal ínlornaLíon whích can only be
nanaged by resLrícLíon or Lhe clever lílLeríng ouL ol
real asseLs. 1he ¦nLerneL ís an ocean whích nírrors
global and local culLural dynanícs. 1he luLure
kíllerapplícaLíon dísplacíng searchengínes wíll pro
bably be ínvenLed as a kínd ol conpuLer Lonogra
phy lor ¦nLerneL dynanícs.
1he longLern ellecLs ol Lhe ¦nLerneL nay be nore
conparable Lo Lhe ínpacL ol Lhe worldwíde launch
ol phoLography Lhan Lo Lhe denocraLízaLíon ol
knowledge Lhrough CuLenberg’s prínLíng press.
PhoLography suddenly opened up Lhe arísLocraLíc
prívílege ol creaLíng a docunenLaLíon ol one’s own
hísLory by beíng paínLed ín a Línelíne Lo everyone.
PhoLography caLalyzed Lhe índívídual sellaware
ness and sellconlídence ol people by gívíng easy
access Lo bíographícal paLLerns. WhaL phoLography
díd lor índívídual conscíousness Lhe ¦nLerneL ís now
sLarLíng Lo do lor Lhe sellawareness and sellconlí
dence ol socíeLy. 8y beíng an acLíve parL ol Lhe
conplex dynanícs ol Lhe ¦nLerneL íL ís possíble Lo
realíze Lrends and developnenLs lar earlíer and
lar beLLer Lhan ever belore. 8uL please renenber,
you should concenLraLe nore on Lhe nacrolevels
ol order lornaLíon and noL on every síngle bíL ol
ínlornaLíon. ¦L ís a naLLer ol changíng aLLíLudes
and expecLancíes.
we-magazIhe >
“Swín wíLh Lhe dynanícs and do NO1 lílLer Lhe
ínlornaLíon” was Lhe LíLle ol an ínLervíew you gave
recenLly. WhaL do you nean by Lhís7
PeIer Kruse >
¦l you wanL Lo reduce conplexíLy by lílLeríng ouL
valuable ínlornaLíon, Lhe ínLellígence ol Lhe resulL
ís always líníLed Lo Lhe ínLellígence ol Lhe lílLer ne
chanísns used. You have Lo undersLand Lhe paLLern
belore you are parL ol Lhe paLLernlornaLíon pro
cess. ¦ílLeríng ís a lorn ol knowledge nanagenenL.
1o be parL ol Lhe dynanícs ís a lorn ol enLrepre
neuríal rískLakíng and arLísLíc creaLívíLy. surpríse
and be surprísed. “¦ do noL seek, ¦ línd” as Pablo
Pícasso once lornulaLed Lhe díllerence. 8e parL ol
Lhe dynanícs and noL Lhe nasLernínd aL Lhe back.
And be cerLaín LhaL Lhe ¦nLerneL wíLh Lhe parLícípa
Líon ol so nany people ís so quíck and conplex LhaL
íL wíll always be ahead ol you, no naLLer whaL you
do.
we-magazIhe >
When you’re Lalkíng abouL “paLLerns”, ís Lhís sone
kínd ol layer over Lhe ¦nLerneL7 How would you
descríbe a paLLern7
PeIer Kruse >
¦l you look, lor exanple, aL a poínLíllísL paínLíng you
realíze LhaL íL ís necessary Lo sLep back Lo solve Lhe
problen ol níllíons ol píxels by reducíng Lhe con
plexíLy Lo Lhe overall ínpressíon Lhe arLísL wanLed
oo¯¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Lo share wíLh you. ¦L Lhen becones a landscape, a
group ol people or sone anínals ín Lhe wood. Our
braín ís exLrenely well Lraíned ín Lhís process ol
reducíng conplexíLy by orderlornaLíon. Líke Lhe
¦nLerneL, our braín ís a sellorganízíng sysLen. So
Lhe ¦nLerneL and Lhe braín nake a perlecL líL. No
need lor payback.
WhaL happens when you look aL a poínLíllísL paín
Líng ís dírecLly conparable Lo whaL enables an
enLrepreneur Lo puL lorward a luLure busíness
opporLuníLy earlíer Lhan hís conpeLíLors or whaL
enables an auLhor Lo lornulaLe Lhe aLLíLude Lo líle
ol a whole generaLíon. !. D. Salínger publíshed hís
novel “1he CaLcher ín Lhe kye” ín 1¤¬1 as a book lor
adulLs, buL Lhe sLrean ol conscíousness he gave
Lo hís proLagonísL Holden Caullíeld has aLLracLed
adolescenL readers round Lhe world ever sínce. Hís
anLíhero ís an ícon lor Leenage rebellíon – an
archeLype, a basíc paLLern.
8uL lor ne by lar Lhe besL way ol explaíníng Lhe
ídea ol paLLernlornaLíon as a way ol reducíng
conplexíLy are Lhe lascínaLíng Lhínk Lools we call
“neLaphor” or “analogy”. 1hey enable Lhe dírecL
Lransler ol an ínsíghL lron one area ol applícaLíon
Lo a LoLally new one wíLhouL subsLanLíal loss. “a
new broon sweeps clean”, “Lhe early bírd caLches
Lhe worn”, or “Loo nany cooks spoíl Lhe broLh” eLc.
we-magazIhe >
Would you descríbe Lhe ¦nLerneL Lhen as a huge
socíal braín7
PeIer Kruse >
No, Lhís would be an analogy wíLh na|or shorL
coníngs. Our braín ís an assenbly ol síngle cells
whose archíLecLure ís lar less conplex Lhan Lhe
archíLecLure ol Lhe overall sysLen. ¦n Lhe ¦nLerneL
every acLíve user has – hopelully – a braín and
Lherelore all users are Lhenselves equípped wíLh a
basíc archíLecLure nore conplex Lhan Lhe ¦nLerneL
as a whole. Lach user ís able Lo creaLe a phenone
non líke conscíousness. 8uL Lhe ¦nLerneL ís noL able
Lo reach such levels ol orderlornaLíon. 1he ¦nLer
neL ís a neLwork ol braíns LhaL soneLínes creaLes
collecLíve ínLellígence – noLhíng nore. MysLílícaLíon
doesn’L help. 1he braín and Lhe ¦nLerneL are wíLhouL
doubL sellorganízíng sysLens wíLh nonlínear
behavíour and a hígh degree ol unpredícLabílíLy.
When Lhe ¦nLerneL sLarLed, Lhe lírsL boon was Lríg
gered by people’s lascínaLíon wíLh easy access Lo a
rích world ol knowledge, ídeas and pícLures. WíLh
hyperlínks, connecLívíLy ín Lhe neLwork exploded
and íL sLarLed Lo becone íncreasíngly unnanage
able. 1he locus ol users shílLed lron Lhe províder
Lo Lhe search engíne, lron access Lo lílLeríng. 8uL
users quíckly realízed LhaL search engínes are noL
able Lo solve Lhe problen ol qualíLaLíve evaluaLíon.
1he sLrucLural possíbílíLy ol connecLíng bíLs ol ínlor
naLíon vía hyperlínks Lakes ínlornaLíon ouL ol íLs
conLexL and nakes íL exLrenely díllículL Lo decode
ínLended neaníng. 1o descríbe Lhís loss ol con
LexLual supporL, Lhe 8ríLísh socíologísL AnLhony
Cíddens ínvenLed Lhe Lellíng Lern “dísenbeddíng”.
1he reacLíon ol users Lo Lhís was Lo solve Lhe pro
blen by “rooníng ín”, gívíng poor lonesone ínlor
naLíon a caríng socíal envíronnenL or connuníLy.
1he locus ol users shílLed lron search engínes Lo
Lhe socíal solLware ol Web2.o. ¦írsL noLívaLed by
Lhe need Lo reduce conplexíLy vía reconnenda
Líons, users were soon ínspíred by a new noLíva
Líon Lo be presenL ín Lhe ¦nLerneL. leavíng one’s
nark ín order Lo be recognízed by oLhers. 1he lírsL
¦nLerneLboon ol access Lo ínlornaLíon was lollo
wed by Lhe second boon ol acLíve parLícípaLíon.
1he lírsL huge nígraLíon ol Lhe ínlornaLíon age had
begun. People changed lron beíng DígíLal VísíLors
who use Lhe ¦nLerneL as a Lool ínLo DígíLal ¦nhabí
LanLs who |usL líve ín Lhe ¦nLerneL. 1he ¦nLerneL
sLarLed Lo becone a culLural area ín íLsell. 1he
dísLíncLíon beLween “real” and “vírLual” dísappea
red long belore Lhe ídea ol augnenLed realíLy
was born. ¦ron a sysLens Lheory perspecLíve, Lhe
explosíon ol connecLívíLy was anplílíed by Lhe
explosíon ol Lhe nunber ol sponLaneously acLíve
elenenLs. A neLwork was lorned wíLh nany línks
and nodes able Lo produce nonlínear dynanícs.
On Lop ol Lhís, by ínvenLíng Lhe reLweeLluncLíon,
1wíLLerusers added Lhe possíbílíLy ol círcular excí
LaLíon whích ín Lhe braín ís a basíc leaLure ol shorL
Lern nenory. Mergíng hígh connecLívíLy wíLh Lhe
pleLhora ol sponLaneously acLíve elenenLs and
Lhe energence ol dynaníc engrans by círcular
excíLaLíon gíves a very ellecLíve íncubaLor lor un
predícLable hypes. 1hís dynaníc characLerísLíc ol
Lhe ¦nLerneL opened Lhe door Lo Lhe lanous “long
Laíl” – suddenly everyone was ín príncíple able Lo
seL oll an avalanche Lo reach Lhe cenLre ol publíc
aLLenLíon.
P
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.
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.
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.
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we-magazIhe >
Leavíng behínd Lhe índívídual level, whaL do we
have Lo deal wíLh as a socíeLy7 WhaL ís Lhe chal
lenge lron Lhís perspecLíve7
PeIer Kruse >
1hís ís Lhe bíg quesLíon. 1he ínpacL on Lhe personal
level ís quíLe obvíous – íL’s all abouL reducLíon ol
conplexíLy and Lhe need Lo línd an appropríaLe
balance beLween proLecLíon ol prívacy and Lhe wísh
Lo be personally recognízed and powerlul. 8uL on
Lhe level ol socíeLy Lhe ínpacL ís lar nore díverse
and also varíes lron culLure Lo culLure. ¦l you look,
lor exanple, aL Cernan culLure, one ol Lhe nosL
challengíng ellecLs ís Lhe change ín Lhe sLaLus ol Lhe
experL. ¦n Cernan culLure, proven experLíse ís a
híghly desírable core value. 1he experL ís a person
able Lo |udge Lhe ínporLance ol ínlornaLíon and
Lo dírecL developnenL ín pronísíng dírecLíons. 1he
lederal governnenL ín Cernany has accordíngly
|usL seL up a group ol 1¯ experLs Lo work on “Lhe
¦nLerneL and dígíLal socíeLy”. 8uL Lhey’ve also added
an 18Lh nenber. cíLízens. Lven Lhe políLícíans who
have long enbodíed one ol Lhe nosL unquesLíoned
experL sLaLuses ín Cernan represenLaLíve deno
cracy now seen Lo recogníze Lhe Lsunaní on Lhe
horízon. 1he ¦nLerneL ís a bypass lor every gaLekee
perresLrícLed ínlornaLíon llow LhaL does noL realíze
Lrue addedvalue. ¦n ínsLable neLwork dynanícs
íL ís ínpossíble Lo naínLaín a powerlul posíLíon over
a long períod |usL by assígníng Lhe label “experL”.
LxperLíse has Lo prove íLs value anew aL all Línes
and noL |usL once ín an exan or assessnenL – and
Lhís neans hard Línes lor esLablíshed híerarchíes.
1o answer Lhe quesLíon abouL Lhe ínpacL ol Lhe
¦nLerneL on socíeLy, you have Lo Lhínk abouL culLu
res and subculLures. 1hís ís noL sínple.
we-magazIhe >
8uL ísn’L Lhere sone general ínpacL LhaL holds Lrue
lor any socíeLy7
PeIer Kruse >
1o conLínue Lhe conparíson beLween phoLography
and Lhe ¦nLerneL. wíLh enhancenenL ol Lhe vísí
bílíLy ol paLLernlornaLíon processes ín socíal
dynanícs and wíLh Lhe ínevíLable íncrease ol Lrans
parency, Lhe degree ol sellawareness and sell
conlídence wíll grow ín any socíeLy. QuíLe aparL
lron Lhe nore pessínísLíc noLíon ol cocooníng and
declíníng ínLeresL ín políLícal acLívíLíes, Lhe ¦nLerneL
Lhus nurLures Lhe realísLíc hope LhaL people wíll en
gage ín publíc allaírs – whích does noL necessaríly
nean LhaL Lhey wíll engage ín políLícal parLíes.
Denocracy ís begínníng Lo becone nore dírecL ...
we-magazIhe >
… whích ís a real bíg Lhíng…
PeIer Kruse >
Sellawareness and sellconlídence lower Lhe
Lhreshold Lo acLíon – ín índívíduals as well as ín
socíeLíes. 1he nore people are ínLeresLed ín Lhe
dynanícs ol socíeLy and Lhe nore Lhey are able Lo
deLecL underlyíng paLLernlornaLíon processes,
Lhe greaLer becones Lhe anounL ol dísLríbuLed
knowledge needed Lo gaín collecLíve ínLellígence.
One uníversal conLríbuLíon Lhe ¦nLerneL has nade
Lo changíng socíeLy ís Lhe opporLuníLy íL ollers
lor obLaíníng global ínsíghLs, whíle Lhe oLher ís
Lhe chance Lo Lrígger avalanches bíg enough Lo
becone parL ol publíc agenda seLLíng. 8elore Lhe
¦nLerneL arríved, every noLívaLíon Lo change sone
Lhíng had Lo search lor ways ol boosLíng íLs own
ínpacL by aLLracLíng Lhe ínLeresL ol Lhe nass nedía
or by ínvesLíng heavíly ín Pk acLívíLíes. WíLh Lhe
¦nLerneL, however, power shílLs dranaLícally lron
oller Lo denand. When Lhere ís soneLhíng ol ínLe
resL ín Lhe “long Laíl” Lo nany people, Lhe neLwork
wíll connecL ínnedíaLely and ís ín Lheory aL leasL
always ready Lo release an avalanche ellecL. So Lhe
síLuaLíon has swíLched lron an “ídea ín search lor
supporLíng neLworks” Lo “neLworks ín search ol
aLLracLíve ídeas”. Anyone nay be Lhe buLLerlly llap
píng wíLh íLs wíng ín 8razíl LhaL seLs oll a Lornado
ín 1exas, as Lhe neLeorologísL Ldward N. Lorenz puL
íL. ¦n nonlínear sysLens snall causes can have greaL
ellecLs. WíLh Lhe presence ol Loday’s ¦nLerneL, íL ís
ínpossíble Lo keep Lhe people ouL. ParLícípaLíon ís
kíng.
we-magazIhe >
When níllíons and níllíons ol people are connu
nícaLíng wíLh each oLher ín Lhe neLworks wíll we
have less conllícLs ín luLure7 Wíll Lhere be nore and
oo¯6 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
deeper undersLandíng beLween culLures and wíll
Lransparency nake íL nore díllículL lor govern
nenLs, lobbyísLs and global players Lo push Lhrough
Lheír own ínLeresLs7
PeIer Kruse >
1ransparency ís a really poLenL nechanísn. ¦n con
bínaLíon wíLh socíal neLworks, Lhe lundanenLal
shílL ol power already predícLed lor busíness nore
Lhan Len years ago ín Lhe ClueLraín nanílesLo now
reaches a new dínensíon. 1acLícal acLívíLíes based
on hídden agendas no longer engender Lhe nosL
asserLíve and susLaínable conpeLíLíve advanLages.
All Lhe sLakeholders ín socíeLy have Lo learn Lhís and
¦ an sure íL wíll noL be an easy lesson Lo learn. 8uL ¦
an very opLínísLíc LhaL Lhe necessary change ol
aLLíLudes ís only a naLLer ol Líne. When envíron
nenLal condíLíons change, beíng nonadapLíve ís noL
a healLhy sLraLegy as evídenced by Lhe sLory ol Lhe
dínosaurs. 1he only chance ís Lo seL back Lhe clock
on envíronnenLal condíLíons. 8uL as long as no one
shuLs down Lhe ¦nLerneL, Lhe sLory wíll go on.
WíLh regard Lo Lhe second aspecL ol your quesLíon,
concerníng Lhe hope lor harnonízíng Lhe world by
usíng Lhe ¦nLerneL Lo losLer Lhe energence ol one
overall culLure, ¦ an by no neans so opLínísLíc. 1he
ríse ol a culLure depends on Lhe exísLence ol a sha
red value sysLen and on an adequaLe alígnnenL ol
senanLícs (neaníng), seníoLícs (synbols) and syn
Lax (grannar). People have Lo ínLeracL very olLen,
ínLensely, and quíLe redundanLly ín order Lo creaLe
a sLable culLure. 1hís ís noL gíven ín Lhe ¦nLerneL.
Hence ny proposal abouL an overall ¦nLerneL cul
Lure ís líníLed Lo a connonly agreed neLíqueLLe,
sone basíc aLLíLudes and core values. 8uL ín Lhe neL
work Lhere wíll be a híghly sophísLícaLed and díver
sílíed landscape ol subculLures open Lo everyone
and ready Lo ínLeracL wíLh each oLher. 1herelore –
noL Lo lollow Lhe líne ol growLh ínLo one ínLegraLíng
culLure – Lhere ís a hígh probabílíLy LhaL Lhe abílíLy
ol Lhe always curíous heavy ¦nLerneL users Lo share
enpaLhy wíLh oLhers wíll grow sLeadíly. 1hís applíes
Lo even sLrange or weírd culLures. ¦n Lhís respecL
Lhe ¦nLerneL can be helplul ín reducíng Lhe conllícL
poLenLíal ín Lhe world. 8uL íL also neans LhaL ever
yone has Lo |unp ouL ol Lhe box lron Líne Lo Líne,
oLherwíse Lhe ¦nLerneL wíll enhance Lhe danger ol
closed shops ín whích people leel conlorLable. And
Lhís would resulL ín an íncrease ol conllícL poLenLíal
– agaín no easy answer Lo a clear quesLíon.
we-magazIhe >
1he way you have been descríbíng Lhe neLwork –
Lhís connunícaLíon ínlrasLrucLure we’ve creaLed –
whaL does íL nean lor Lhe políLícal or Lhe educa
Líonal sysLen7
PeIer Kruse >
As already nenLíoned, wíLh íLs sLrucLure and dyna
nícs Lhe ¦nLerneL poses a LhreaL Lo any node ol
lornal híerarchícal power. 1he aLLenpL Lo delend a
gaLekeeper posíLíon wíLhouL convíncíng aLLracLíve
ness or proven addedvalue wíll be rapídly by
passed or cancelled. 1he ¦nLerneL ís noL very loyal –
you can be a hero and Lhe nosL vísíLed node Loday
and a lonesone nobody Lonorrow. 1hínk ol all Lhe
¦nLerneL gíanLs whose ríse and lall we have already
seen. ¦n Lhe ¦nLerneL Lhere ís no chance ol buíldíng
an unlorgeLLable brand líke Coca Cola. Lven Lhose
¦nLerneL conpaníes whích can creaLe a generíc Lern
líke “Lo google” should noL leel Loo secure.
My reconnendaLíon lor políLícíans ís sínply Lo be
as acLíve an elenenL as possíble ín Lhe neLworks.
And please, do noL use Lhe ¦nLerneL as an ínsLru
nenL lor sellpronoLíon, |usL as a place where you
are an auLhenLíc, LransparenL and open nínded
parLner lor ínLeracLíon. 1here ís no oLher Web2.o
sLraLegy aparL lron “please and Lhank you” as Lhe
Cernan blogger Leander WaLLíg boíled íL down.
¦or Lhe educaLíonal sysLen ¦ have only one deep
rooLed personal wísh. skíp Lhe ídea ol opLínízíng
Lhe learníng process as we díd wíLh índusLríal pro
ducLíon. 1he ¦nLerneL desperaLely needs people
who are capable ol |udgíng ínlornaLíon lron very
díllerenL donaíns, who are able Lo wíLhsLand Lhe
lrusLraLíon ol overload wíLhouL dísconnecLíng.
LaLeral Lhínkers, creaLíve lools, people wíLh broken
careers – all Lhe vulnerable people ready Lo Lake on
Lhe rísk ol unpredícLable processes should be gíven
Lhe opporLuníLy ol derívíng naxínun benelíLs lron
educaLíonal ínsLíLuLíons. We need a new delíníLíon
ol whaL ís a “socíal elíLe”. Don’L be Loo sLreanlíned
and Loo LargeLoríenLed. 8e ínconveníenL, unsaLís
líed, always ín beLween and able Lo leL Lhíngs grow.
we-magazIhe >
8uL Lo be noL Loo nuch ‘ín beLween’, how can one
LranslaLe ínsíghLs ínLo acLíon by usíng Lhe ¦nLerneL7
oo¯7 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
PeIer Kruse >
1o be honesL, ¦ don’L Lhínk Lhe ¦nLerneL ís a good
Lool lor success ín Lhe usual sense ol prolessíonal
pro|ecL nanagenenL. Pro|ecL nanagenenL neans
Lo sLraLegícally níníníze Lhe dísLance beLween
an acLual and a LargeL value. 1he underpínníng con
cepL here ís sLeeríng and regulaLíon – lírsL order
cyberneLícs and línearíLy. As nenLíoned aL Lhe sLarL,
Lhe ¦nLerneL ís a sellorganízíng sysLen wíLh con
plex nonlínear dynanícs. 1he only renaíníng key
lor enhancíng Lhe probabílíLy ol realízíng your own
ídeas Lhrough use ol Lhe ¦nLerneL ís Lhe enpaLheLíc
percepLíon ol changíng sLaLes and ínLeracLíons. 1he
¦nLerneL ís noL a Lechnícal buL a hunan neLwork. ¦Ls
avalanche ellecLs are enabled by íLs sysLen charac
LerísLícs buL are equally dríven by enoLíonal reso
nance ellecLs ín Lhe connuníLy ol users. Larly
percepLíon ol Lrends, value drílLs and aLLracLíve
Lopícs allows sLríkíng Lhe sane chord on nany pía
nos. 1hís nay culnínaLe ín Lhe rush ol a coherenL
wave. ¦L ís líke Lranslerríng lron lowenergy díllu
sed líghL Lo a powerlul laser bean.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL does Lhís nean lor Lhe relaLíonshíp beLween
onlíne and olllíne worlds7 Does Lhe díllerence sLíll
play a role or ís íL no longer helplul7
PeIer Kruse >
1he Líne ol Lhe predícLíon LhaL Lhe ¦nLerneL wíll end
up ín a perlecL vírLualízaLíon ol Lhe real world only
líníLed by nenory capacíLy ís now over. 1hís ídea
was nurLured by Lhe drean ol a LoLally unconLrolled
and onnípoLenL space lor personal experíences.
¦reedon lar beyond realíLy was Lhe basíc noLíve.
8uL Lhe enhancenenL ol sellawareness and sell
conlídence ín socíeLy LhaL ¦ nenLíoned belore wíll
redírecL people ínLo Lakíng up nore responsíbílíLy
ín real líle once nore. ¦ncreasíng use ol snarL pho
nes LogeLher wíLh Lhe possíbílíLy ol puLLíng ¦nLerneL
layers dírecLly on Lop ol everyday acLívíLíes are Lhe
key drívers ol such a developnenL. 8uL even wíL
houL augnenLed realíLy, Lhe lascínaLíon ol beíng a
powerlul parL ol Lhe econony, políLícs and culLure
ís Loo sLrong Lo allow use ol vírLualízaLíon as a Lrívíal
geLaway. Persuadíng a conpany Lo acL ín a nore
susLaínable nanner by sLarLíng a corroLnob (pull)
or lorcíng a global player Lo change sLraLegy |usL by
launchíng a vídeo on You1ube (push) are boLh
saLíslyíng ways ol releasíng endorphíns.
we-magazIhe >
¦n connecLíon wíLh Lhe added value ol Lhe ¦nLerneL,
Lhe concepL ol “collecLíve ínLellígence” ís olLen nen
Líoned. WhaL ís neanL by Lhís and how can collec
Líve ínLellígence be sLínulaLed Lhrough use ol Lhe
¦nLerneL7
PeIer Kruse >
One basíc assunpLíon relaLed Lo Lhe concepL ol
“collecLíve ínLellígence” ís Lhe exísLence ol dísLríbu
Led knowledge. ¦ollowíng Lhe CondorceL!ury Lheo
ren, even when no índívídual person ín a group
nandaLed Lo decíde beLween Lwo alLernaLíves
knows Lhe ríghL soluLíon, Lhe resulL ís beLLer Lhe
nore persons are ínvolved. 8uL Lhís only holds Lrue
when Lhe nean decísíonnaker ín Lhe parLícípaLíng
sanple ís slíghLly above randon (DelphíellecL).
Lspecíally when íL cones Lo sínply esLínaLíng quan
LíLíes, íL can be denonsLraLed LhaL Lhe groupresulL
ís always beLLer Lhan Lhe resulLs ol síngle parLící
panLs alone. 8uL collecLíve ínLellígence ís lar nore
Lhan Lhís and really noL a rare lreak phenonenon.
1akíng collecLíve ínLellígence as a synonyn lor cul
Lural perlornance, íL becones obvíous LhaL Lhe
added value ol people ínLeracLíng ín Lhe conplex
dynanícs ol a neLwork ís noL an ínvenLíon ol Lhe
¦nLerneL age. ¦l we re|ecL Lhe “greaL nan” Lheory ol
hísLory, Lhe ídea ol víewíng Lhe culLural develop
nenL ol nankínd as Lhe resulL ol collecLíve ínLellí
gence ís quíLe conpellíng. 1he ¦nLerneL ís |usL a
Lurbocharger scalíng Lhís lorn ol ínLellígence up
Lo new dínensíons ol speed and crowd. 1he only
severe líníLaLíon lor realízaLíon ol collecLíve ínLellí
gence ín Lhe ¦nLerneL ís ínposed by Lhe problen ol
dísenbedded ínlornaLíon. WíLhouL an auLonaLíc
undersLandíng ol neaníng (senanLícs), Lhe collec
Líve ínLellígence ol Lhe ¦nLerneL ís noL able Lo reach
íLs lull poLenLíal.
we-magazIhe >
Does íL really need an auLonaLíc undersLandíng or
ís Lhe conLexL creaLed by socíal neLworks already
sullícíenL Lo solve Lhe problen7
P
h
o
L
o
.
w
w
w
.
k
u
b
í
k
l
o
L
o
.
d
e
PeIer Kruse >
1he dísanbíguaLíon ol conLenL by reconnenda
Líon, annoLaLíon, or ínLerpreLaLíon ín a connuníLy
does noL work wíLh really large nunbers ol people
and wíLh valuerelaLed ínlornaLíon – Lhe socalled
“solL lacLs”. Look aL Wíkípedía and íL soon becones
evídenL LhaL Lhís lorn ol collecLíve ínLellígence only
works because Lhe nunber ol acLíve edíLors ís very
snall conpared Lo Lhe nunbers ol vísíLors. 8ecause
Wíkípedía ís an encyclopaedía, acLíng as a waLch
dog Lo línd ouL wheLher a lacL ís ríghL or wrong ís
all LhaL ís requíred. YeL achíevíng consensus ín Lhe
case ol eLhícal or enoLíonal quesLíons ís lar nore
conplícaLed and ín lacL ís noL possíble ín a neLwork
wíLh as nany acLíve elenenLs as Lhe edíLors ol
Wíkípedía. ¦n Novenber 2oo¤ Lhe Wall SLreeL !our
nal wroLe LhaL Wíkípedía has been conLínuously
losíng íLs edíLors lor sone years now. 1he neLwork
has sínply grown Loo bíg and íLs culLural coherence
has dropped below a críLícal value. Socíal neLworks
are only able Lo solve Lhe problen ol dísenbedded
ínlornaLíon when Lhe nunber ol parLícípanLs does
noL exceed a críLícal Lhreshold and Lhe ínlornaLíon
Lo be evaluaLed renaíns as close as possíble Lo lacLs
and lígures.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL would be your hope íl soneone really does
línd an algoríLhn able Lo dísanbíguaLe language
and auLonaLícally evaluaLe neaníng7
PeIer Kruse >
¦ do noL see Lhís on Lhe horízon nor an ¦ sure LhaL
¦ would líke Lo see íL. 1híngs as pronísíng and
powerlul as Lhe ¦nLerneL generally bríng dangerous
sídeellecLs wíLh Lhen. 1here’s no such Lhíng as a
lree lunch! Lven Loday Lhe ¦nLerneL ís ín a delícaLe
balance beLween “whaL’s ín lor ne” and “whaL
príce do ¦ have Lo pay”. 1he senanLíc Web enhances
Lhe rísk ol nísusíng ínlornaLíon Lo a degree LhaL
wíll noL be easy Lo LoleraLe. Sone bíg broLher nay
well grow Loo bíg. So ¦ an quíLe saLíslíed wíLh Lhe
shorLconíngs we are now lacíng. Lven Loday Lhe
nere anounL ol ínlornaLíon ís so hígh LhaL any
aLLenpL Lo Lake conLrol quíckly reaches íLs líníLs.
1he real nasLer ol Lhe uníverse ís sLíll Lhe enLíLy ol
¦nLerneL users. ¦l Lhe ¦nLerneL really does geL Lhe
Nobel Príze lor Peace Lhís year, íL should be dedí
caLed Lo Lhen and noL Lo any ol Lhe prolessíonal
players.
we-magazIhe >
1alkíng abouL conLrol ol Lhe ¦nLerneL, we geL preLLy
close Lo Lhe quesLíon ol censorshíp. Do you Lhínk
such lorns ol resLrícLíon wíll Lake over or survíve
ín Lhe longrun7
PeIer Kruse >
1he ¦nLerneL ís Lhe besL ínsLrunenL Lo enhance
dísLríbuLed knowledge ín Lhe world and Lo use Lhe
Lreasure ol creaLívíLy ín Lhe “long Laíl”. ConlronLed
as we are wíLh global problens ol hígh conplexíLy,
¦ Lhínk we really cannoL do wíLhouL Lhe ¦nLerneL.
8ack ín 1¤¬6 koss W. Ashby had already lornulaLed
hís lanous “Law ol kequísíLe VaríeLy” whích sLaLes
LhaL Lhe sysLen able Lo solve a problen always has
Lo have a hígher varíeLy ol possíble ínLernal sLaLes
Lhan Lhe sysLen producíng íL. 1he conplex dyna
nícs ol Lhe ¦nLerneL ís a conpellíng answer Lo Lhe
conplex dynanícs produced by nodern socíeLíes.
Any lorn ol resLrícLíon ol access or censorshíp ol
conLenL should be prevenLed as lar as possíble.
we-magazIhe >
Would you consíder Lhe use ol Lhe ¦nLerneL as a
hunan ríghL7
PeIer Kruse >
¦or ne íL sínply ís equívalenL Lo havíng access Lo
aír or waLer. 1he ¦nLerneL ís a global connons. We
should ínvesL everyLhíng Lo bríng íL Lo even Lhe
renoLesL places on earLh.
we-magazIhe >
One lasL quesLíon ... please gíve us 14o characLers
on “Lhe neLwork ís challengíng us .)
PeIer Kruse >
1he ¦nLerneL ís a LuLoríal nade by nankínd Lo ínsLíl
Lhe need ol changíng Lhe value sysLen under
pínníng Lhe “subdue Lhe earLh” ínperaLíve.
Fact-Based
World View
tags > Hahs RoslIhg, IacI-based worldvIew, gapmIhder,
WesIerh, 1IhIIh
Hans koslíng
Hans koslíng ís Prolessor ol ¦nLernaLíonal HealLh aL Karolínska ¦nsLíLuLe and one ol Lhe lounders ol Lhe Capnínder
¦oundaLíon whích wanLs Lo nake sLaLísLícs used and undersLood so we geL Lhe lacLbased worldvíew.
>
>
>
>
ooõ2 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
How cone LhaL you are so ínvolved wíLh Lhe poo
resL people ín Lhe world, Hans koslíng7
Hahs RoslIhg >
¦ worked as a young nedícal docLor ín Alríca where
¦ parLícípaLed ín díscoveríng a paralyLíc dísease
anong very poor people ín a renoLe rural area. We
naned Lhe dísease “konzo” alLer Lhe nane gíven íL
by Lhe lírsL allecLed populaLíon. 1herealLer ¦ spenL
LwenLy years researchíng konzo epídenícs índuced
by poverLy, nalnuLríLíon and ínsullícíenLly proces
sed cassava rooLs ín renoLe parLs ol rural Alríca. ¦’ve
done nany líeld surveys ín rural Alríca. And LhaL’s
when ¦ goL írríLaLed wíLh Lhe concepL ol “develo
píng counLríes” LhaL puLs Mozanbíque, 1haíland
and ArgenLína ín Lhe sane group. 1haL doesn’L
nake sense as Lhese counLríes are so díllerenL.
¦ LaughL ny sLudenLs a nore upgraded worldvíew.
¦nsLead ol sorLíng counLríes ínLo Lwo groups, Lhey
should be sorLed ínLo aL leasL lour. Hígh íncone,
níddle íncone, low íncone and collapsed. 1haL’s
how íL all sLarLed. ¦ wanLed Lo show LhaL Lhe healLh
and econony ol counLríes Loday lorn a conLínuous
band ol varíaLíons ín Lhe world, lron Lhe collapsed
counLríes líke Sonalía and AlghanísLan and
peacelul low íncone counLríes líke 1anzanía and
Chana and níddle íncone counLríes now called
“energíng econoníes” – líke Chína and 8razíl –
Lhrough Lo Lhe hígh íncone counLríes líke SouLh
Korea and Cernany. 1he healLh levels ín counLríes
vary lron 4o years líle expecLancy Lo 8o years, and
you línd all healLh levels beLween Lhese exLrenes.
¦ncone varíes lron 4oo dollars per person and year
Lo 4o,ooo. And counLríes can be lound wíLh all ín
cone levels ín beLween.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL ís Lhe core ídea behínd Capnínder7
Hahs RoslIhg >
1o use Lhe graphíc anínaLíon Lechnology behínd
conpuLer ganes Lo show Lhe changíng world. We
apply conpuLer ganes “en|oynenL” Lo sLaLísLícs Lo
upgrade old níndseLs and Lhereby creaLíng a lacL
based worldvíew. We nusL upgrade Lhe worldvíew
lron Lhe 1ínLín víew, í.e. Lhe dívíde beLween Lhe
WesLern world and Lhe kesL. 8uL Lo undersLand eco
noníc developnenL, denographíc change and
healLh ínprovenenLs, we now have Lo nake daLa
abouL Lhe world accessíble ín a new lornaL. 8así
cally, íL’s a new nap. ínsLead ol norLh and souLh, we
dísplay counLry bubbles on a scale lron healLhy Lo
síck, and ínsLead ol easL and wesL, we show rích and
poor.
And when Lhose bubbles ín our anínaLíons nove,
íL’s líke a looLball gane. People can see how lasL
Síngapore noved ín Lhe lasL decades Lo becone Lhe
healLhíesL counLry ín Lhe world. ¦ used Lo Lalk líke a
sporLscasLer explaíníng Lhese graphs Lo open Lhe
eyes ol a very broad publíc on whaL ís happeníng
ín Lhe world.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL ís Lhe drívíng lorce behínd your work7
Hahs RoslIhg >
CuríosíLy. ¦L’s exLrenely ínLeresLíng Lo see how Lhe
world has changed. And Lhe convícLíon LhaL you can
Lalk abouL Lhe world wíLhouL doíng advocacy. Sone
people nake íL Lheír Lask Lo explaín whaL a cíLy
looks líke. When you cone as a LourísL Lo a new cíLy,
you wanL Lo see nuseuns, resLauranLs, and Lhea
Lres, archaeologícal renaíns and íl you cone on
ooõ¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
busíness you wanL Lo know where banks and con
paníes are – you need a nap Lo línd your way
around. Capnínder provídes an updaLed econoníc,
socíal and envíronnenLal nap ol Lhe world so users
can línd Lheír way around.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL are Lhe na|or luLure challenges we are lacíng7
Hahs RoslIhg >
1he resídual poverLy anong our 2 bíllíon lellow
hunan beíngs who líve ín desLíLuLíon wíLh ínsullí
cíenL lood, no shoes, níserable housíng. 1haL’s our
na|or problen. 1he second problen ís Lhe enor
nous pressure on Lhe envíronnenL, especíally Lhe
clínaLe. 1he Lhírd, ¦ Lhínk, renaíns Lhe rísk ol war.
we-magazIhe >
War beLween ....
Hahs RoslIhg >
... a war beLween Chína and Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes. We
haven’L organízed Lhe world ín a way where we can
accepL LhaL new naLíons and new counLríes reach
Lhe sane level ol wealLh and hunan capacíLy. LeL’s
see íl we succeed Lhís Líne wíLhouL a Pearl Harbour.
we-magazIhe >
¦s íL a possíble scenarío lor Lhe luLure LhaL Lhe ¦n
LerneL and íLs daLa ís a Lool lor avoídíng conllícLs
beLween sLaLes7 ConllícLs beLween sLaLes are con
llícLs beLween Lhe leaders ol sLaLes and noL beL
ween Lhe people lívíng ín Lhe sLaLes. 1he ¦nLerneL ís
a connecLíon beLween Lhe people, and Lhe daLa
gíves us Lhe opporLuníLy Lo undersLand each oLhers
síLuaLíons ...
Hahs RoslIhg >
¦’n noL so convínced LhaL you’re ríghL. People ask
ne “Do you reach Lhe powerlul people – Lhe bíllío
naíres, Lhe heads ol sLaLe7” Yes, ¦ do. And whaL Lhey
Lell, ne ís – Lurn around and Lell Lhe publíc.
1here ís one sínply reason lor LhaL. we geL Lhe po
líLícíans Lhe publíc wanL. We geL Lhe decísíons nade
LhaL Lhe publíc wanL evenLually. 1he bíg challenge ís
noL Lo Lell Lhose ín power, íL’s Lo Lell Lhe general
publíc. 1he real danger ís noL on Lhe leaders’ level.
¦L’s really LhaL people ín Lhe world geL Lhe sense and
Lhe LrusL LhaL we can líve LogeLher, LhaL we can
share Lhís world ín a decenL and respecLlul way.
we-magazIhe >
8uL Lhís ís nore Lhan Lo change people’s nínd, we’ll
need a níndseL LhaL wíll LranslaLe ínLo acLíon ...
Hahs RoslIhg >
Cood LhaL you saíd LhaL! ¦ used Lo honour Ceorge
W. 8ush. ¦ honoured hín lor a very specílíc reason.
¦n Lhe lasL nonLh ol hís presídency – when he was
síLLíng and waíLíng lor íL Lo end – Lhen Lhe enLíre
econony blew up on Wall SLreeL. He grabbed hís
pockeLbook buL he had no noney. He had lowered
Laxes and he had no noney lor a baílouL. So he
phoned hís lríends ín Lhe C¯. He phoned Merkel
and 8rown and Lhey had no noney eíLher. So he
had Lo call a socíalísL Lrade uníon leader and he
asked presídenL Luna íl 8razíl had any noney
and he saíd yes. And he had Lo phone kussía, Saudí
Arabía and Chína! And Lhen 8ush saíd no nore C¯!
Now we sLarL C2o! And LhaL’s whaL ¦ honour hín
lor. AL Lhe end he Look Lhe ríghL decísíon.
1hís was Lhe Lrue end ol Lhe Second World War,
Lhe end ol Lhe concepL ol “Lhe wesL and Lhe resL”.
¦L’s gone. We now have a new world. ¦ call íL Lhe
“conLínuous world”, 1on ¦ríednan called íL “Lhe llaL
world”, !ell Sacks called íL “Lhe convergíng world”.
¦L all Lells Lhe sane sLory …
we-magazIhe >
Whích ís7
ooõõ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Hahs RoslIhg >
1he new gap ín Lhe world wíll noL be beLween Cer
nany and Chína, íL wíll be beLween Chína and
LLhíopía, naybe beLween Chína and Mozanbíque.
1haL’s Lhe bíg challenge. you have Lo bríng all Lhe
pooresL counLríes wíLh you. You have Lo realíze LhaL
Lhe díllerence ís no longer beLween Lhe WesL and
Lhe kesL – íL’s beLween Lhe lour lílLhs ol Lhe world
populaLíon LhaL noves ahead and Lhe one lílLh LhaL
ís lelL behínd.
we-magazIhe >
How would you descríbe Lhe “WL” Loday7 WhaL
does íL nean lor you7
Hahs RoslIhg >
6.¯ bíllíon people.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL ís “WesLern”7
Hahs RoslIhg >
“WesLern” ís a very vague and dangerous concepL,
because íL’s ílldelíned. ¦or ínsLance, ís Chíle a
WesLern counLry7 Yes íL ís, íL’s now a nenber ol
Lhe OLCD. ¦l you look aL Lhe econoníc growLh ol
Sweden, Lhe NeLherlands and !apan, whích ol Lhose
Lhree counLríes are closesL LogeLher ín Lerns ol
econoníc growLh7 Sweden and !apan. Sweden ís
closer Lo !apan ín Lerns ol econoníc growLh Lhan íL
ís Lo Lhe NeLherlands. Sweden ís Lhe !apan ol NorLh
ern Lurope. 1haL’s ínLeresLíng! 1he Chínese solar
energy sysLen now beíng buílL – ís LhaL WesLern
because íL’s nodern7
¦ Lhínk a na|or problen ín Lhe world ís díchoLoní
zaLíon. ¦L’s líke Lhe arísLocracy who saíd you’re
eíLher an arísLocraL or a connoner. 8uL LhaL was a
lalse dívísíon, because íl sonebody was clever and
becane enbarrassíng, Lhey nade Lhen an arísLo
craL. And ín Lhe end we lound ouL LhaL all hunans
are equal.
we-magazIhe >
Would íL be possíble Lo delíne a WesLern lílesLyle7
NoL ín Lhe sense ol WesLern sLaLes, buL a nodern
lílesLyle LhaL has índívídualísn ... líke pop culLure7
Hahs RoslIhg >
¦n Lhe níddle ol your quesLíon you swopped lron
WesLern Lo nodern. You see when you díchoLoníze
Lhe world, you always end up ín a ness. When you
caLegoríze íL, íL’s all so dangerous – so sínply nake
nore caLegoríes Lhan Lwo! As long as you dívíde Lhe
world’s counLríes ínLo nore Lhan Lwo groups ...
1ake Lhís as an exanple. íl you were Lo say LhaL Lhe
WesLern World was Lhe NeLherlands, 8ríLaín and
¦rance … And Lhen all ol a sudden Cernany arose.
¦ Lhínk íL’s very ínLeresLíng LhaL Lhe na|or conllícL ín
Lhe lasL cenLury was Lhe ríse ol Cernan Lechnology
and Cernan socíeLy whích WesLern Lurope couldn’L
deal wíLh. CívílísaLíon, MozarL, Lhe denocracy ol Lhe
Weínar kepublíc dídn’L sLop us lron enLeríng Lhís
horríble world war and now gradually we are ener
gíng lron íL. 1hís ís WesLern culLure, say ny ¦ndían
lríends, WesLern culLure ís Lhe slave Lrade, Lhe drug
Lrade, enploynenL ...
1hís ís a lorn ol sellídenLíLy LhaL ¦ Lhínk we have Lo
overcone quíckly. And especíally we shouldn’L use
LhaL Lern “WesLern” when we don’L know whaL we
nean.
we-magazIhe >
And gradual change ís delíned by Lopícs, by develop
nenLs7
Hahs RoslIhg >
Abba enLered Lhe hall ol lane yesLerday and Lhey
explaíned íL was noney, noney, noney. ¦L’s wealLh,
Lhe abílíLy Lo accunulaLe wealLh. We goL 8ach
and MozarL because Lhere were sone people ín
Cernany who accunulaLed wealLh and ínvesLed
íL ín culLure. CreaL classícal nusíc cane ouL ol a sur
ooõs we¸specIal¸o1o/1
plus whích was used noL |usL lor daíly consunpLíon,
buL lor creaLíng soneLhíng whích becane parL ol
Lhe heríLage ol all nankínd.
So whaL ¦ say abouL sLaLísLícs, ís LhaL Lhe world wíll
never ever be undersLood wíLhouL sLaLísLícs. 8uL
equally íL can never ever be undersLood only wíLh
sLaLísLícs. 8ecause you have Lhose oLher dínensíons
líke hunan ríghLs, culLure, dígníLy, whích we can
noL neasure. Sone Lhíngs have Lo be handled as
íssues and descríbed ín wríLLen language. 1hís ís
one Lhíng we have Lo accepL ...
we-magazIhe >
Where do people geL such a kínd ol world víew7
Hahs RoslIhg >
You can Leach chíldren LhaL chíld healLh ís good ín
LgypL, LhaL Muslín Arabs havíng been very prolí
cíenL ín ínprovíng healLh, LhaL Lhey have laníly
planníng, LhaL Lhe age lor Lhe lírsL narríage ín
Algería now ís 28. 1each Lhen lacLs. Sínple lacLs!
1ell Lhen LhaL VíeLnan has Lhe sane healLh and
líle expecLancy as Lhe ÜSA ín 1¤8o.
we-magazIhe >
So you are challengíng Lhe way we are Leachíng
our kíds7
Hahs RoslIhg >
Yes, we’re noL Leachíng Lhen Lhe LruLh!
we-magazIhe >
8uL Lhe daLa lor Lhís lacLbased learníng ís avaílable
...
Hahs RoslIhg >
Oh yes, íL’s been avaílable Lhese pasL LhírLy years!
8uL íl you have a “1ínLín” head you don’L under
sLand íL or read íL. And íl íL doesn’L líL wíLh your old
coloníal níndseL, you say Lhere’s soneLhíng wrong
wíLh íL.
we-magazIhe >
Where do you geL your daLa lron7
Hahs RoslIhg >
1he ÜníLed NaLíons. 1he World 8ank. 1he OLCD.
DaLa ís no problen. 1he problen ís LhaL we haven’L
grasped whaL ís happeníng ín Lhe Míddle LasL, ín
nosL ol Asía, ín LaLín Aneríca. We haven’L grasped
LhaL healLhwíse 8razíl ís progressíng lasLer Lhan
Sweden ever díd.
we-magazIhe >
¦sn’L íL also a problen LhaL nuch ol Lhís daLa never
reaches Lhe publíc7 ¦L níghL be avaílable buL ...
Hahs RoslIhg >
¦L does reach Lhe publíc, íL goes ínLo Lheír eyes, híLs
Lhe reLína, buL Lhe problen ís íL doesn’L go ínLo
Lheír braíns! ¦n nuLríLíon we have a rule LhaL lood
noL swallowed has no nuLríLíonal value. You can
chew íL and spíL íL ouL – and LhaL’s whaL we do.
¦ could end by sayíng LhaL ¦ have a neíghbour who
knows 2oo díllerenL Lypes ol wíne. He knows Lhe
nanes ol Lhe grapes, Lhe lanílíes who grow Lhen,
Lhe proper sLorage LenperaLure ... ¦ only know Lwo
Lypes ol wíne. red and whíLe. 1haL’s enough – ¦’n
noL ínLeresLed ín wínes. 8uL ny neíghbour only
knows Lwo Lypes ol counLry – WesLern and develo
píng – because he’s noL ínLeresLed ín Lhe world. And
¦ know 1¤¯ counLríes and can Lell you Lhe per capíLa
CDP, Lhe líLeracy raLe, Lhe chíld norLalíLy raLe, Lhe
speed and progress ín reducíng CO
2
eníssíons. 1he
problen ín WesLern Lurope ís LhaL we have Loo
nany who know wíne and Loo lew who know Lhe
world. And na|or conpaníes ín WesLern Lurope
have Loo nany wíneLasLíng eveníngs and Loo lew
worldLasLíng eveníngs.
ooõ6 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
We were Lalkíng abouL bírLh conLrol. You saíd íL’s
alnosL solved ...
Hahs RoslIhg >
Yes, Lhe populaLíon íssue ín Lhe world ís alnosL
solved. When ¦ was a young sLudenL, íL was a na|or
íssue. We were lour bíllíon people ín Lhe world and
ín large parLs ol Lhe world wonen had síx chíldren.
And Lhe deaLh raLe was Lwo were dyíng, lour sur
víved. PopulaLíons were doublíng ín one genera
Líon. ¦L was conpleLely unsusLaínable. 8uL whaL
happened ís LhaL Lechnology becane avaílable
and aLLíLudes changed. AL índependence ín 1¤¯2
8angladesh had 6 chíldren per wonan, now Lhey
have 2.4. And Lhe chíld norLalíLy raLe has lallen.
1oday Lhere are only a lew counLríes LhaL have nany
chíldren per wonen – naínly ín subSaharan Alríca.
VíeLnan has 2 chíldren per wonan, ¦ran Loo – or
even less Lhan Lwo chíldren. Mexíco and 8razíl boLh
have Lwo chíldren per wonan. WhaL Lhís neans ís
LhaL Lhe populaLíon íssue has been largely solved.
1he ínporLanL Lhíng now ís Lo geL Lhe nínínun ol
servíce lor Lhe lasL bíllíon – nosquíLo neLs agaínsL
nalaría, vaccínaLíons lor chíldren, laníly planníng
access lor wonen – and Lhen we wíll all geL Lwo
chíld lanílíes. 1here wíll be an addíLíonal íncrease
ol Lwo bíllíon people, íL’s |usL addíng one Lhírd
nore. And Lhen we are done by 2o¬o. 1hís ís a
nínor problen lor Lhe envíronnenL.
1he na|or problen ís LhaL lour bíllíon people líve
níserable líves. 1hey sleep on Lhe lloor, Lhey don’L
have Lapped waLer, Lhey can’L Lake a shower, Lhey
don’L have elecLríc líghL. 1o íncrease Lheír sLandard
ol lívíng Lo a decenL level líke Sweden ín 1¤¬o
would nean íncreasíng Lhe sLandard ol lívíng by a
lacLor ol lron ¬ Lo 1o lor Lwo Lhírds ol Lhe world
populaLíon. 1haL’s a 1o lold bígger challenge Lhan
Lhe nunber ol people. ¦ can’L undersLand why
people are sLíll carríed away by nunbers – Lhey
nusL have sone problen wíLh naLhenaLícs! 8uL
how do you expecL a young couple ín ¦ndía or Alríca
síLLíng on Lhe lloor wíLh raLs, cockroaches and llíes,
and carryíng waLer ín a buckeL Lo be saLíslíed wíLh
Lhís and expecL Lheír chíldren Lo líve as Lhey do.
1hey wíll work hard, líghL hard – do anyLhíng Lo geL
a decenL líle lor Lheír chíldren. ¦’n noL Lalkíng abouL
charLer Lourísn or owníng a car or aír condíLíoníng,
¦’n Lalkíng abouL a decenL líle, noL nínínal basíc
líle, buL a decenL líle. Perhaps goíng Lo Lhe cínena
once ín a whíle or owníng a nusícal ínsLrunenL.
1haL wíll íncrease Lhe sLandard ol lívíng and Lo do
LhaL we need Lo have new Lechnology. We can’L do
LhaL wíLh exísLíng coal Lechnology. And LhaL ís a
na|or challenge. We don’L have Lo change Lechno
logy by ¯o% or whaLever. we have Lo nake a huge
leap. 8uL we are noL nakíng seríous ínvesLnenL. Lhe
OLCD counLríes are puLLíng Lhree Lo lour Línes
nore ínLo agrículLural subsídíes as Lhey do ínLo
green Lechnology. Creen Lechnology ís noL yeL a
seríous íssue. ¦n lacL Lhe corporaLe secLor ís nore
seríous abouL íL Lhan governnenLs aL presenL. So
why don’L we channel Lhe noney lron agrículLural
subsídíes ínLo green Lechnology7 When we díscuss
Lhe car índusLry, we’re sínply noL seríous. ¦n Lhe
Second World War Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes were seríous.
1hey decíded Lo wín and Lhey puL Lheír enLíre índu
sLry ínLo wínníng LhaL war. ¦l we díd Lhe sane wíLh
energy, we would solve íL. 8uL we’re noL seríous
abouL íL.
We’re Lryíng Lo wín Lhe nexL elecLíon, noL Lo solve
Lhe problen. And ín Lerns ol longLern Lrends,
people ín ¦ndía and Chína won’L síL on a nud lloor
whíle we ín Lhe ríchesL counLríes aren’L seríous.
ooõ7 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
John Hagel III
We should Iake Ihe opporIuhIIy oI Web2.o IhIhkIhg
ahd Iocus II oh how do you buIld persohal relaIIoh-
shIps Ih a much more scalable way usIhg Iechho-
logy. UlIImaIely, Ihe mosI valuable heIworks are
heIworks oI people relaIIohshIps, as opposed Io
|usI cohhecIIhg IhIo daIa or IhIormaIIoh servIces
oI varIous Iypes. 1haI Io me Is Ihe bIg opporIuhIIy.
> > >
From Macro-
Challenges
to Micro-
Solutions
PeLer Spíegel
PeLer Spíegel calls hínsell a “possíbílísL” – equally prool agaínsL bluesky opLínísn and gloon and doon pessínísn.
WhaL naínly ínLeresLs hín as a possíbílísL ís usíng Lhe “how” Lo línd Lhe besL – and soneLínes unexpecLedly good –
possíbílíLíes ínherenL ín all Lypes ol síLuaLíon.
tags > SocIal 8usIhess, Yuhus, VIsIoh SummII, poverIy,
developmehI aId
oos2 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
PeLer Spíegel, you’ve Lravelled Lhe world a loL and
you’ve puL a loL ol LhoughL ínLo how you can nake
íL a beLLer place. So why ís Lhe world so ouL ol |oínL7
PeIer SpIegel >
¦or ne Lhe síngle nosL excrucíaLíng problen ís Lhe
íssue ol world poverLy. ¦ línd íL absoluLely ouLrage
ous LhaL we can accepL a world ín whích one Lo Lwo
Lhírds ol all people líve ín LoLally degradíng condí
Líons. We draw up lolLy declaraLíons ol hunan
ríghLs whíle Lranplíng Lhe sane ríghLs ín Lhe dírL!
1here’s no |usLílícaLíon whaLsoever lor Lhís, noL a
síngle reason! ¦or Lhe pasL ¬o years we’ve had all
Lhe neans we need aL our dísposal Lo ríd Lhe world
ol poverLy. YeL we’re noL usíng Lhen! 1haL’s sone
Lhíng LhaL never ceases Lo anaze ne!
we-magazIhe >
Whích counLríes have Lhe worsL poverLy7
PeIer SpIegel >
¦L’s a uníversal íssue. ¦or a long Líne poverLy was
soneLhíng LhaL happened ín renoLe, laroll places
so we dídn’L worry our heads Loo nuch abouL íL.
8uL as Lhe decades go by íL’s noL geLLíng any beLLer,
íL’s sLeadíly geLLíng worse and Lhe slíghL recoveríes
íL shows are only shorLlíved. And now ín Lhe wake
ol Lhe global línancíal crísís íL’s drasLícally worse
ned. WhaL nosL people sLíll don’L realíze ís LhaL Lhe
ínLerlace ol Lhe luLure econoníc níracle ís precísely
locused on Lhe poverLy lronL ol Lhe world! 1haL’s
Lhe críLícal poínL LhaL concerns our own ínLeresLs
and our own luLure – noL |usL Lhe luLure ol Lhe
people who líve Lhere.
we-magazIhe >
So íL’s no coíncídence LhaL Lhe phrase “we’re all
síLLíng ín one boaL” ís doíng Lhe rounds ín Lhe wesL
now.
PeIer SpIegel >
Precísely.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL kínds ol specílíc acLíon do you need Lo Lake7
WhaL kínd ol approaches do you adopL7
PeIer SpIegel >
On Lhe one hand you need Lo Lackle people’s
general lack ol conníLnenL and you also need a
lundanenLally díllerenL níndseL Lo whaL we’ve
used so lar – aL leasL used ín Lhe naín parL ol our
responses.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL do you nean by “díllerenL níndseL”7
PeIer SpIegel >
One aspecL ol íL ís LhaL we sLarL Lo consíder “poor”
people as ínLellígenL and híghly LalenLed índívíduals
and noL |usL as aídrecípíenLs ín urgenL need ol our
help. 1here’s olLen soneLhíng slíghLly dísdaínlul or
condescendíng abouL such lorns ol assísLance.
“You poor Lhíngs can’L nake íL on your own, we
have Lo help you!”
1he besL exanple ¦ can Lhínk ol LhaL runs counLer
Lo Lhís naínsLrean Lhínkíng ís Muhannad Yunus
and hís nodel lor nícroloans. WhaL he díd was Lo
sínply ask people whaL Lhey needed – soneLhíng
whích a developnenL worker would hardly even
drean ol doíng. He saL down and acLually Lalked Lo
people Lo geL an ídea ol whaL Lhey really need. 1hey
Lold hín LhaL whaL Lhey needed was a líLLle noney
Lo buy Lhe naLeríals Lhey needed Lo sLarL a líLLle
busíness so LhaL Lhey could sLand on Lheír own
Lwo leeL and becane índependenL ín Lhe lull sense
ol Lhe word. And |usL ínagíne whaL happened –
beggars suddenly Lurned ínLo enLrepreneurs who
were able Lo Lake conLrol ol Lheír own líves! 1hís
“díllerenL níndseL” has a very longLern ínpacL ín
Lhe counLríes where íL’s deployed. ¦n 8angladesh Lo
daLe sone 8o percenL ol poor people have access Lo
nícroloans. WhaL used Lo be Lhe world’s pooresL
counLry unLíl only laírly recenLly ís now one ol Lhe
nosL dynaníc ol Lhe energíng econoníes. And Lhe
whole counLry ís showíng genuíne sígns ol “lílLíng
ouL ol Lhe poverLy Lrap”. Psychologícally speakíng,
nícroloans nean Lurníng Lhe spoLlíghL on people’s
ínnaLe hunan dígníLy. 1hís can solve a whole ralL ol
problen íssues. 1here are now nany nore sínílar
oos¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
kínds ol pro|ecLs wíLh sínílar kínds ol ínnovaLíve
qualíLy Lhan |usL Lhe nícroloan ídea whích has now
spread all over Lhe world.
we-magazIhe >
How can índívíduals líke yoursell or snall organí
zaLíons nake a díllerence7
PeIer SpIegel >
Look, Lhís LoLally nodesL, Líny ídea LhaL Yunus
orígínally had has now grown ínLo a worldwíde no
venenL LhaL has enabled no less Lhan 12o níllíon
people Lo Lake advanLage ol Lhís kínd ol enpower
nenL. We have Lo Lake a proper víew ol Lhíngs, we
have Lo look aL Lhen on Lhe nícrolevel. We have
Lo Lry Lhen ouL on Lhe nícrolevel and geL an exacL
ídea ol Lheír sLrengLhs and weaknesses. All Lhese
ínnovaLíve new works nusL lírsL luncLíon on a líní
Led snall scale. ¦l Lhe ídea naLches Lhe needs and
developnenL opporLuníLíes ín a parLícular counLry,
Lhen we’ve gíven bírLh Lo soneLhíng really bíg.
we-magazIhe >
Can new Lechnologíes play any role ín all Lhís7
PeIer SpIegel >
1hey cerLaínly can ín Lhe sense LhaL Lhey can quíckly
spread Lhe news abouL Lhese new ídeas Lo large
nunbers ol people and LhaL cuLLíngedge connu
nícaLíon Lechnologíes are good aL vísualízíng ínno
vaLíve new ídeas and explaíníng Lhen wíLh pícLures.
8uL Lhey’ve also an ínporLanL role Lo play ín oLher,
LoLally new conLexLs. 1ake Lhe healLhcare sysLen,
lor ínsLance. When we wanL Lo buíld a healLhcare
sysLen ín a counLry, íl we’re sLuck wíLh our old
lashíoned way ol Lhínkíng we always sLarL by
buíldíng a hospíLal. Ol course we always lollowup
by sendíng ín good docLors and nurses Lo sLall íL.
And Lhen we have Lhe leelíng LhaL we’ve done a
good deed. YeL because Lhís approach ís exLrenely
cosLínLensíve, nore olLen Lhan noL íL renaíns a
líníLed sLandalone soluLíon. Modern Lechnologíes
allow us Lo sLríke ouL ín LoLally new dírecLíons. ¦or
ínsLance, Lhe nosL ínporLanL healLhcare ínsLrunenL
ín Yunus’s nodel ís Lhe cellphone. WhaL díd he do7
He goL docLors ín cíLíes Lo Lraín nurses and coach
Lhen vía cellphone ín Lhe surroundíng rural areas.
1hís ís a hundred Línes nore cosLellecLíve Lhan any
prevíous nodel. Such a Lraíníng sysLen lor nurses ís
an exLrenely ellícíenL exLensíon ol Lhe healLhcare
sysLen, yeL íL cones aL a lracLíon ol Lhe cosLs char
ged by Lhe World HealLh OrganízaLíon. So Lhere ís
índeed a huge and very close connecLíon beLween
nodern Lechnologíes and neanínglul develop
nenL.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL sorL ol pro|ecLs do you Lhínk deserve lundíng7
PeIer SpIegel >
1he ínnovaLíve value ol socíal pro|ecLs ís Lhe Lhíng
LhaL naLLers nosL Lo ne. Havíng Lhe local people
develop Lheír own pro|ecLs ís ol Lhe upnosL ínpor
Lance – and LhaL’s precísely whaL Lhe developnenL
aíd world neglecLs Lo do ín over ¤¤ cases ouL ol a
hundred. ¦L’s also víLal LhaL Lhe lollowup ellecLs ol
Lhe pro|ecL are ínnedíaLely lelL. Lhey nusL bríng
abouL a dírecL change ín people’s conscíousness –
ríghL lron Lhe word go. People nusL be shown Lhe
way Lo índependence and auLonony.
we-magazIhe >
8uL everybody’s suíLed lor an índependenL líle,
are Lhey7
PeIer SpIegel >
¦L’s really quíLe sínple Lo see íl sonebody has
achíeved a kínd ol ínner índependence Lhrough a
nícrocredíL. all you’ve goL Lo do ís look Lhen ín Lhe
eyes! And íl Lheír eyes are snílíng LhaL neans
Lhey’ve díscovered Lhe spíríL ol índependence lor
Lhenselves. ¦L’s really LhaL sínple.
we-magazIhe >
How do we línd Lhese people7 And how do we
locaLe oLher pro|ecLs wíLh sínílar índependence
nakíng qualíLíes Lo Lhe nícrocredíL nodel7
PeIer SpIegel >
A good quesLíon. We won’L línd Lhen íl we lollow
Lhe paLh ol LradíLíonal NCOs. ¦’ve buílL nysell a paír
oosõ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
ol anLennae Lo líeld LhenouL. 1hís níghL sound very
LríLe buL íL’s basícally Lrue – because ny anLennae
are Luned and sensíLízed Lo such people and pro
|ecLs, ¦ do keep líndíng Lhen, one alLer Lhe oLher.
we-magazIhe >
Líke Lhe adulL educaLíon pro|ecL ín Nepal7
PeIer SpIegel >
1haL’s ríghL. People cane LogeLher ín Nepal wíLh
Lhe vísíon ol helpíng 12¬,ooo wonen ouL ol po
verLy. ¦L was a na|or píloL pro|ecL. 1hey ínsLrucLed
local wonen ín líve nodules, líve Lraíníng uníLs.
And Lhen Lhese wonen passed on whaL Lhey’d
learned – alLer Lhe snowball or 1raínLhe1raíner
príncíple, íl you líke. WhaL were Lhe líve Lraíníng
nodules7 1he lírsL was adulL líLeracy lor whích we
also receíved lundíng.
we-magazIhe >
Who díd Lhe lundíng – developnenL lunds7
PeIer SpIegel >
¦nLernaLíonal developnenL organízaLíons. 1he second
nodule was how Lo seL up poor wonen wíLhouL
any noney ín busíness. 1he Lhírd was seLLíng up a
snall bankíng sysLen.
we-magazIhe >
Where díd Lhís noney cone lron7
PeIer SpIegel >
¦ron savíngs. ¦ron Lhe savíngs ol poor people who
used íL Lo seL up a sysLen ol víllage banks because
Lhey recognízed |usL how valuable such a sysLen
could be. And Lhey succeeded ín whaL Lhey wanLed
Lo do. ín Lhree years Lhey seL up over 1,ooo víllage
banks.
1he lourLh nodule ís concerned wíLh nakíng poor
people aware ol Lhe sLaLeguaranLeed ríghLs whích
Lhey have buL whích ín nosL cases Lhey’re LoLally
unaware LhaL Lhey have. And Lhe lílLh nodule
ís pro|ecL nanagenenL lor Lhe havenoLs, pro|ecL
nanagenenL lor Lhe pooresL ol Lhe poor. WhaL
does Lhís ínvolve7 ¦L ínvolves enablíng Lhen Lo
delíne whaL Lheír real needs are, Lo príoríLíze Lhen,
sLrucLure Lhen, organíze Lhen and línally evaluaLe
Lhen. All Lhís neanL LhaL suddenly NCOs were casL
ín a conpleLely díllerenL líghL. 1hey were no longer
Lhe knowíLall benelícenL helpers lron Lhe greaL
ouLsíde world. And Lhe wonen Lhenselves were
suddenly Lhe ones nakíng denands and sayíng
whaL we need lron you ís Lhís and Lhís and Lhís.
8uL all Lhís dídn’L exacLly endear Lhe pro|ecL Lo
Lhe NCOs whích saw íL nore as a dírecL challenge
Lo Lheír key conpeLencíes – despíLe íLs wíldly
sensaLíonal success.
we-magazIhe >
A success whích showed íLsell as7
PeIer SpIegel >
Whích showed íLsell as an íncredíble 8oo percenL
íncrease ín Lhe íncone ol Lhese wonen over Lhree
years. ¦ don’L know ol any oLher developnenL pro
|ecL anywhere ín Lhe world whích can even begín
Lo neasure up wíLh Lhe success Lhís pro|ecL has
achíeved. Lven so, íL sLíll hasn’L becone a success
lul global nodel. NoL yeL anyway. We sLíll have
sone ways Lo go belore we geL Lhere.
we-magazIhe >
Do you Lhínk LhaL you can easíly Lransler a pro|ecL ol
Lhís Lype Lo oLher parLs ol Lhe world7
PeIer SpIegel >
Yes, ¦ do and we already have prool LhaL we can.
1he Nepal píloL pro|ecL has been replícaLed ín
Alríca. NoL wíLh an 8oo percenL íncrease ín íncone
over Lhree years buL even so wíLh a respecLable ¯oo
percenL íncrease. 1haL’s a lígure LhaL bears sone
lookíng aL! 1hís Lype ol seLup ís now operaLíng
ín over 12 Alrícan counLríes. 8uL even Loday Lhís
ís Lhe only organízaLíon LhaL ís drívíng Lhís kínd ol
approach. And LhaL ís sínply scandalous!
we-magazIhe >
¦L’s Lhe LoLal negaLíon ol Lhe esLablíshed develop
nenL nodel as evolved over all Lhe years and
decades.
ooss we¸specIal¸o1o/1
PeIer SpIegel >
LxacLly! However, LhaL’s precísely whaL gíves íL íLs
uníque ínnovaLíve qualíLy. And we have Lo dríve Lhís
kínd ol ínnovaLíon lorward. Lven nore Lhan ín any
oLher area, we need a conpleLely new kínd ol Lhín
kíng ín Lhe socíal secLor.
we-magazIhe >
How can LhaL be done7
PeIer SpIegel >
Well, lor ínsLance we can seL up educaLíonal ínsLí
LuLíons lor sysLenaLíc ínsLrucLíon ín Lhe way such
ínnovaLíons cone abouL. PoLsdan has Lhe Hasso
PlaLLner ¦nsLíLuLe, Lhe School ol Desígn 1hínkíng.
Hasso PlaLLner realízed LhaL íl Lhe wesLern world ís
Lo keep íLs place on Lhe conpeLíLíve global playíng
líeld, whaL íL needs nore Lhan anyLhíng else ís
ínnovaLíons. And he developed a sysLen where
sLudenLs can learn abouL Lhe sysLenaLíc generaLíon
ol ínnovaLíons and pass on whaL Lhey have learnL
Lo oLhers. And íL’s a huge success! ¦l we adapL new
ways ol Lhínkíng, íl we locus even a parL ol our
ínnovaLíondevelopnenL on Lhe socíal and cívíl pro
blens we’ve been Lalkíng abouL, our reward ísn’L
|usL LhaL we’re able Lo deal wíLh a whole hosL ol
problens. 8ecause whaL we’ll also geL ís a new eco
noníc níracle. 1he benelíLs we’ll deríve on our síde
are aL leasL as greaL.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL do you Lhínk we now have Lo learn Lo secure
Lhís new balance LhaL’s now energíng ín Lhe world7
PeIer SpIegel >
WhaL we have Lo do was clearly sLaLed by an ¦ndían
econonísL, Prolessor Prahalad, when addressíng
Lhe CLOs ol ínLernaLíonal corporaLíons. He saíd
“Do you wanL Lo survíve ín Lhe longLern7 Do you
sLíll wanL Lo be on Lhe global playíng líeld ín Len
years Líne7 1hen geL novíng and sLarL developíng
servíces and producLs lor Lhe needs ol Lhe world’s
pooresL people. Why’s LhaL7 Sínply because Lhese
narkeLs are Lhe híghgrowLh narkeLs ol our luLure!”
we-magazIhe >
WhaL do you nean by “longLern Lhínkíng”7
PeIer SpIegel >
LongLern Lhínkíng lor ne ís a quesLíon ol survíval.
¦l we all wanL Lo survíve, we have Lo Lhínk longLern
because shorLLern Lhínkíng desLroys Lhe lunda
nenLals ol líle supporL, desLroys sysLens – Lhe
ecosysLen, Lhe línancíal sysLen, our healLhcare and
socíal sysLens. ¦l we don’L sLarL Lo Lhínk ín Lhe
longLern we can sínply wríLe oll all our sysLens.
LongLern Lhínkíng also ínvolves susLaínabílíLy
Lhínkíng and above all Lhínkíng ín Lerns ol global
perspecLíves and global responsíbílíLy. SellcenLered
Lhínkíng leads us up a blínd alley ínLo a Lrap lron
whích we can never hope Lo exLrícaLe ourselves.
SysLens can no longer luncLíon wíLhouL perspecLí
ves ol global responsíbílíLy, no naLLer whaL lorn
Lhese níghL Lake. An eLhícal perspecLíve ís no
longer Lhe uníque endownenL ol phílanLhropy or
wellare Lhínkíng, an eLhícal perspecLíve ín Lhe sense
ol global responsíbílíLy ís a naLLer ol sheer survíval.
1hís neans LhaL global responsíbílíLy ís no longer
sone kínd ol bedLíne sLory lor people ol good wíll.
¦L’s a naLLer ol dírecL concern Lo each and every one
ol us!
George Siemens
SIhce Ihe IhIerheI Is a growIhg poIhI oI IhIorma-
IIoh access ahd commuhIcaIIoh, provIdIhg hew
aIIordahces ahd opporIuhIIIes, yes, IhIerheI access
Is quIckly movIhg IhIo Ihe realm oI a humah rIghI.
> > > >
Concerted
Action
Needed!
oos¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > global crIses, Surehdra MuhshI, IIhahcIal crIses,
IhIergraIed world vIew, susIaIhabIlIIy
Surendra Munshí
Munshí, Lhe noLed ¦ndían socíologísL, was Prolessor ol Socíology aL Lhe ¦ndían ¦nsLíLuLe ol ManagenenL, CalcuLLa (¦¦MC) unLíl 2oo6.
He has researched and LaughL ín ¦ndía and abroad ín Lhe líelds ol classícal socíologícal Lheory, socíology ol culLure, qualíLaLíve
research, and índusLríal socíology. More recenLly, he has publíshed wíLh oLhers. 1he ¦nLellígenL Person’s Cuíde Lo Cood Covernance
(SACL, 2oo¤). He ís aL presenL a ¦ellow ol Lhe 8erLelsnann SLílLung.
oo6o we¸specIal¸o1o/1
We were lívíng ín separaLe boaLs earlíer. All LhaL was
needed was Lo lornulaLe rules Lo nake sure LhaL
Lhere was no collísíon ol boaLs. 1he síLuaLíon has
changed wíLh Lhe begínníng ol nodern globalíza
Líon. All Lhe people ol Lhe world are now lívíng ín
Lhe sane boaL, and díllerenL counLríes ol Lhe world
are líke cabíns ín Lhe boaL. We Lake care ol our
cabíns wíLhouL worryíng abouL Lhe boaL as a whole.
1hís ís how Kíshore Mahbubaní ol Lhe NaLíonal
ÜníversíLy ol Síngapore, one ol Lhe lílLeen LhoughL
leaders ínLervíewed lor Lhís paper, sees Lhe world
Loday.
I. Present Crises and Borrowing from the Future
WhaL are Lhe Lhree nosL ínporLanL global críses
hunaníLy ís currenLly lacíng. 1hís was Lhe quesLíon
lornulaLed ín díllerenL ways LhaL was asked Lo
each one ol Lhen. ¦L ís ínLeresLíng Lo revíew Lheír
responses. Whíle clear responses are gíven Lo Lhís
quesLíon, Lhere are sone who expressed reserva
Líons Lo Lhís node ol askíng Lhe relevanL quesLíon.
!erone C. Clenn ol 1he Míllenníun Pro|ecL, lor
exanple, draws aLLenLíon Lo Lhe lacL LhaL ín Lheír
Míllenníun Pro|ecL an aLLenpL has been nade Lo lísL
lílLeen global challenges LhaL províde a ‘lranework’
Lo assess Lhe prospecLs lor hunaníLy. AnLhony
!udge, lornerly ol Üníon ol ¦nLernaLíonal Assocía
Líons, sees Lhe danger ol lísLíng challenges, lor Lhen
íL ís possíble Lo lose síghL ol Lhe conLexL wíLhín
whích a challenge ís Lo be consídered. 1he key ís Lo
see Lhe ínLerconnecLíon beLween Lhe elenenLs ol
Lhe seL. 1he poínL ol ínLerconnecLíon ís enphasízed
by oLhers as well. 1hus, lor exanple, MarLín Lees ol
Lhe Club ol kone says LhaL lron Lhe poínL ol víew
ol Lhe Club Lhe challenges are ínLerrelaLed. He pre
lers Lo Lalk ol ‘blocks’ raLher Lhan ‘bíLs’ ol challen
ges. 1he world ís lacíng – accordíng Lo WalLer ¦usL
ol Clobal HunaníLarían ¦orun – ‘a nulLídínensío
nal crísís’ Loday.
We lIve Ih a world IhaI Is devoId oI vIsIohs. EcohomIc growIh over Ihe
lasI IwehIy-IIve years has beeh based oh Ialse promIses. Our educaIIohal
sysIem Is Ioo IragmehIary Io ImparI a broad vIsIoh oI a really beIIer world.
We heed ah IhIegraIed vIew oI Ihe problems IhaI we are Iaced wIIh, Ihe
way Io hahdle Ihem, ahd Ihe dIrecIIoh Ih whIch we wIsh Io move.
1o see Ihe dahger Ih Ihe dIrecIIoh Ih whIch we are movIhg ahd Io wIsh Io
lIve Ih a susIaIhable world Is hoI ehough. We heed Io be uhIIed Ih IhIehIIoh
ahd acIIoh Io move Iorward, makIhg sacrIIIces wheh hecessary. Our ways
oI IhIhkIhg ahd acIIhg heed Io reIlecI Ihe realIIy oI Ihe globalIsIhg world
IhaI we lIve Ih.
1he IollowIhg cohclusIohs cah be drawh Irom a serIes oI IhIervIews wIIh
IhoughI leaders represehIIhg ma|or socIal IhIIIaIIves selecIed Irom dIIIerehI
parIs oI Ihe world IhaI Surehdra MuhshI cohducIed Ih 2oo¤ oh behalI oI Ihe
8erIelsmahh SIIIIuhg. 1he IIhdIhgs oI Ihe IhIervIews are publIshed as
“VoIces Ior Ihe FuIure: Clobal CrIses ahd Ihe Humah PoIehIIal”.
oo61 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
WíLh Lhese qualílícaLíons ín nínd, Lhe crísís LhaL
receíved Lhe greaLesL aLLenLíon was Lhe crísís ol
envíronnenLal degradaLíon, lollowed by Lhe crísís
creaLed by persísLíng poverLy. 1he recenL línancíal
crísís receíved aLLenLíon as well buL íL was noL seen
as |usL as a línancíal crísís. 1he oLher críses LhaL were
noLed relaLed Lo populaLíon, waLer and securíLy.
¦l Lhís ís Lhe range ol our críses, how have we
handled Lhen so lar7 1he general response Lo Lhís
quesLíon ís LhaL gíven Lhe gravíLy ol Lhese críses we
have handled Lhen ínadequaLely, borderíng on, ín
Lhe words ol Carríson (SLaLe ol Lhe World ¦orun),
‘crínínal neglecL’. 1hough sone progress has been
nade wíLh respecL Lo poverLy and local polluLíon
problens ín nany parLs ol Lhe world (¦lavín ol
WorldwaLch ¦nsLíLuLe), Lhe poínL Lo noLe ís LhaL, as
!ohnsLon (Oxlan ¦nLernaLíonal) says, we are basí
cally puLLíng Lhe soluLíon ol Lhe crísís ínLo Lhe lu
Lure, borrowíng lron Lhe luLure. We are, accordíng
Lo Lees, passíng on Lo our chíldren and grand
chíldren noL only vasL línancíal debL buL also vasL
ecologícal debL by overusíng our bíologícal capíLal.
‘1haL neans’, says LíkhoLal (Creen Cross ¦nLernaLío
nal), ‘LhaL we are sínply sLealíng (speakíng openly
and lrankly) lron Lhe pockeLs ol our chíldren’.
1he opLínísLíc voíce cones ouL ol Asía. ¦or
Mahbubaní, ‘hísLory sLarLs a new chapLer every
day’ and he belíeves ‘Lhe world wíll conLínue Lo
nove lorward’, beconíng a beLLer place Lo líve ín.
He sees hope ín Lhe níllíons ol Asíans |oíníng Lhe
níddle class wíLh Lhe pro|ecLíon LhaL by 2o2o Lhere
wíll be 1.6 bíllíon Asíans lívíng ín Lhe níddle class
envíronnenL. ‘And as you know’, he concludes, ‘Lhe
níddle classes Lend Lo be responsíble sLakeholders’.
II. Leadership and Education for Sustainability
Leadershíp ís needed aL díllerenL levels, lron Lhe
víllage Lo Lhe ínLernaLíonal level (¦usL). A new kínd
ol leadershíp LhaL ís ídenLílíed ín Lhe conLexL ol
Lhe knowledge econony ís whaL Clenn calls ‘sell
selecLed leadershíp’. Ünlíke ‘ouLlronL’ políLícal
leaders’, sellselecLed leaders use Lheír knowledge
and possíbílíLíes ollered by Lechnology Lo Lake
índívídual íníLíaLíves Lo deal wíLh pressíng pro
blens.
¦s Lhere any leadershíp delícíL ín our world Loday7
¦or KarlHenrík koberL ol 1he NaLural SLep (1NS),
Lhe key íssue Lo whích all oLher íssues are sub
ordínaLe ís Lhe ínconpeLence ol presenL leadershíp.
He assesses Lhís ínconpeLence noL ín Lerns ol ín
Lellígence or goodness buL as Lhe capacíLy Lo see
Lhe world ín a nanner LhaL Lakes íL Lowards susLaí
nabílíLy. WhaL ís lackíng ís sysLenaLíc Lhínkíng Lo
undersLand conplex sysLens. Speakíng neLaphorí
cally, ‘whaL leaders need Loday ís Lo undersLand Lhe
Lrunk and branches ol Lhe challenges ahead ol us’.
1he Lree neLaphor ís neanL Lo suggesL LhaL Lhe
Lrunk and Lhe branches ol a Lree help Lo connecL
Lhe leaves, Lhe deLaíls. ¦l Lhe Lrunk and Lhe branches
are Laken away Lhen all LhaL one has ís a bíg heap ol
leaves on Lhe ground. ¦l Lhís ís undersLood and sha
red, a possíbílíLy lor ‘llaL leadershíp’ aríses where
people can cone LogeLher, leel engaged, and usíng
Lheír creaLívíLy Lo cone up wíLh Lheír own soluLíons.
On educaLíon. whíle Lhe ínLervíew parLners are
clear abouL how crucíal educaLíon ís, Lhey are also
aware how an undesírable process ol educaLíon ís
Lakíng place. 1elevísíon ís, as Carríson noLes, edu
caLíng an enLíre populaLíon Lo be consuners. 1he
ídea ol línkíng happíness wíLh consunpLíon ís de
sLrucLíve, especíally when goods are produced LhaL
danage our aLnosphere. 1hís poínL ís lurLher ela
boraLed by Oscar MoLonura ol 1he LarLh CharLer
¦níLíaLíve. He cauLíons LhaL counLereducaLíon pro
víded by enLerLaínnenL índusLry, adverLísenenL, Lhe
¦nLerneL, and Lhrough oLher neans ís very powerlul.
No anounL ol engagenenL wíLh Lhe educaLíonal
process can be ellecLíve unless Lhe process ol coun
LereducaLíon whích leads Lo unsusLaínable pracLí
ces ís consídered and counLered ín a sLraLegíc
nanner.
1hís does noL nean Lhe re|ecLíon ol Lhese neans.
As lar as Lhe Lelevísíon and novíes are concerned,
we can counLer Lhen ellecLívely by usíng Lhen.
Clenn suggesLs Lakíng real scíence Lo a novíe líke
WalL Dísney’s 1he 8lack Hole. ‘¦l íL ís Lrue,’ he says,
‘LhaL people geL Lheír news lron conedíans, and
Lheír world allaírs lron LernínaLor novíes, Lhen leL
us Lake Lhose novíes and conedíans seríously. ¦l
Lhís serves Lhe purpose ol educaLíon ín Lhe world,
Lhen Lhís ís Lhe classroon we have Lo locus on’.
oo62 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
1hís bríngs Lo nínd Lhe enphasís gíven by !udge Lo
Lhe ríghL way ol connunícaLíng Lhe nessage. He
asks. why ís Lhere no clínaLe change song7 Why
should unnenorable docunenLs noL be nade
nenorable by puLLíng Lhen Lo lyrícs and nusíc7 Hís
argunenL lor susLaínabílíLy ís LhaL unless Lhe docu
nenLs concerníng Lhen are nade síngable Lhey
renaín unnenorable docunenLs.
1here ís anoLher kínd ol educaLíon LhaL needs Lo be
carríed ouL, and Lhís ís besL íllusLraLed by Lhe íníLía
Líves covered here, lron AnnesLy ¦nLernaLíonal
Lo WorldwaLch ¦nsLíLuLe. 1hís kínd ol educaLíon
ís concerned wíLh creaLíng awareness abouL our
ríghLs and responsíbílíLíes as hunan beíngs, and íL
ís carríed ouL ín díllerenL ways. 1hus, lor exanple,
MoLonura Lells us LhaL Lhere ís a need lor leaders
ín díllerenL secLors Lo becone sensíLíve abouL ‘Lhe
global socíeLy ol all hunan beíngs’. ¦L ís noL enough
Lo Lhínk ol susLaínabílíLy as soneLhíng concerned
wíLh proLecLíng our naLural resources. 1he concepL
ol susLaínabílíLy as conveyed by Lhe LarLh CharLer
goes beyond íL. We puL líle, he says, aL Lhe cenLre ol
everyLhíng. We honor all lorns ol líle. When all
lorns ol líle are honored íL leads Lo ecologícal
ínLegríLy and also Lo econoníc and socíal |usLíce. ¦L
leads Lo concern abouL keepíng díllerenL lorns ol
víolence away lron Lhís world. Lcologícal ínLegríLy,
socíal and econoníc |usLíce and peace – Lhey are all
connecLed wíLh each oLher.
III. Frameworks for Collaborative Action
¦l we learn Lo see connecLíons ín a world lacíng a
nulLídínensíonal crísís, we need Lo Lake Lhe nexL
sLep and undersLand LhaL neíLher ‘one braín’ nor
‘one organízaLíon’ can solve our problens (Lees).
We need Lo cone LogeLher. 1here ís a need Lo work
across díscíplínes, secLors, culLures, and counLríes.
1he pronoLíng lacLor ís Lechnology. 1he revoluLíon
ín connunícaLíon Lechnology nakes íL possíble lor
people Lo connecL ín ways LhaL were ínconceívable
only sone years ago. ¦or Carríson, whíle global
ízaLíon ís weakeníng ínsLíLuLíons, íL ís enpoweríng
volunLary neLworks ol índívíduals. 1hese volunLary
neLworks can be powerlul and harnlul as shown
by Lhe exanple ol AlQaeda. VolunLary neLworks
can also play a very posíLíve role as shown by,
lor ínsLance, AnnesLy ¦nLernaLíonal. 1hrough an
ínexpensíve node ol connunícaLíon, volunLary
neLworks ol conníLLed people can cone LogeLher
and achíeve nuch. ¦L ís possíble Lo buíld Lhe nulLí
sLakeholder approach as well Lhrough Lhese neL
works. NeLworkíng neans servíng Lhe chosen cause
LogeLher. 1hough such neLworks can be sLrong,
we should noL overlook Lhe ínpedínenLs ol pre
|udgnenLs and clíches. Drawíng lron hís experí
ence, ¦usL draws aLLenLíon Lo Lhe nanner ín whích
nany people lron Lhe prívaLe secLor have reserva
Líons abouL governnenL ollícíals and Lhey ín Lurn
PhoLos. www.kubíkloLo.de
Surendra Munshí Alexander LíkhoLal
oo6¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
are hesíLanL Lo Lalk Lo people lron cívíl socíeLy or
loundaLíons, noL LhaL Lhe apaLhy ís noL recíprocaLed.
Havíng noLed Lhese problens, Lhere ís no reason
noL Lo look lorward ... Clenn sees ín Wíkípedía a
nodel lor nakíng íL easy lor people Lo parLícípaLe
globally ín doíng whaL ís good. ¦l we are all ín Lhe
sane boaL, he argues, we have Lo lorn an ídea
abouL Lhe boaL, how bíg íL ís, whaL íL looks líke, and
how Lo nake íL work. ‘How do we nake Lhe LarLh,
wíLh hunans,’ he asks, ‘work as a whole’. A sínílar
quesLíon ís asked by Lknan (1allberg ¦oundaLíon)
and hís loundaLíon. ‘How on earLh can we líve Lo
geLher7’ Wíkípedía has shown LhaL global colla
boraLíon can Lake place cuLLíng across díllerenL
boundaríes. And yeL wíLh all íLs success, lor Clenn,
Wíkípedía ís |usL a poínLer Lo whaL ís possíble ín
Lhe luLure wíLh Lhe power collecLíve ínLellígence.
IV. Global Governance Revisited
Why do we need Lo revísíL Lhe íssue ol global go
vernance7 1he quesLíon ís relaLed ín Lhe lírsL place
wíLh Lhe nanner ín whích Lhe world has changed
sínce Lhe Second World War and Lhe nanner ín
whích Lhe ÜníLed NaLíons sysLens are seen Lo be
luncLíoníng wíLhín Lhe changed global síLuaLíon.
1he world has changed ín so lar as we líve ín a
world ol ínLerdependence and Lhe problens LhaL
we are lacíng are lar beyond Lhe abílíLy ol índíví
dual naLíons Lo handle. ¦or Lees, ‘Lhe naLíonal
ínLernaLíonal ínLerlace’ ís goíng Lo be a crucíal con
cern lor all ol us. Whíle díllerenL people need Lheír
díllerenL senses ol ínvolvenenL and ídenLíLy, Lhe
ínLeresLs ol all Lhe people ol Lhe world consídered
LogeLher need a collecLíve way ol handlíng global
problens. We are also ín Lhe process ol ad|usLíng
our perspecLíve on how Lo approach Lhese pro
blens. As !ohnsLon sees íL, we have had a Lendency
Lo lollow absoluLe soluLíons, lor sone socíalísn was
Lhe answer and lor oLhers Lhe narkeL, and ‘boLh ol
Lhese absoluLes have been lound lundanenLally
wanLíng’. As Lees shows íL ís now clear LhaL Lhe ídea
LhaL Lhe narkeL regulaLes íLsell and governnenLs
should sLep back lron regulaLíons has parLíally cau
sed Lhe currenL línancíal crísís. ‘We have Lo línd a
proper balance’, he says, ‘beLween Lhe role ol Lhe
narkeL and Lhe role ol governnenL whích ís Lhe
cusLodían ol Lhe connon ínLeresL’. 1hís ídeology ol
gívíng Lhe narkeL a lree run and reducíng Lhe role
ol governnenL has had ínplícaLíons lor ínLernaLío
nal ínsLíLuLíons as well. Lees concludes. ‘íL ís Lhís
conbínaLíon ol weakeníng governnenL, ínLerna
Líonal governance, and Lhe exLrene lreedon ol Lhe
narkeL whích has goL us Lo Lhe poínL where we are
Loday’.
1here are oLher aspecLs LhaL need Lo be consídered
ín Lhís respecL. 1he ÜníLed SLaLes, as Carríson
KarlHendrík koberL MarLín Lees
oo6õ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
argues, ís unable Lo play lor a varíeLy ol reasons Lhe
leadershíp role LhaL Lhe world needs. More basí
cally, ín Lhe analysís ol Mahbubaní, we are wíLnes
síng an ínporLanL power shílL ín Lhe world. ‘Lhe end
ol Lhe era ol WesLern donínaLíon ol world hísLory’
and ‘Lhe reLurn ol Asía’ Lo Lhe world scene.
As lar as Lhe ÜníLed NaLíons sysLens are concerned,
Lhey línd Lheír delense ín Lhe voíce ol Clenn. ¦or
one Lhíng, Lhey are evolvíng a ‘global culLure ol
governance’ where people lron díllerenL culLural
backgrounds learn Lo work LogeLher ‘Lryíng Lo nake
Lhe world work lor everybody and noL doíng íL
lor |usL one counLry’. Secondly, íL ís ínporLanL Lo
keep ín nínd LhaL Lhe ÜníLed NaLíons ís noL |usL Lhe
SecuríLy Councíl, lor, whíle Lhere nay be valíd
reasons lor wanLíng Lo bríng changes ín Lhe Secu
ríLy Councíl, íL cannoL be deníed LhaL organízaLíons
such as Lhe World HealLh OrganízaLíon or Lhe
¦nLernaLíonal ALoníc Lnergy Agency are servíng
us well. 1hírdly, Lhe need lor global norns Lo nake
global sysLens work ís neL by Lhe Üníversal Decla
raLíon ol Hunan kíghLs and ÜN LreaLíes LhaL lay ouL
lor all ol us Lhe nanner ín whích we are Lo behave
wíLh each oLher. ¦ínally, Lhe ÜN ís ín a sense líke
‘Lraíníng wheels lor global cívílízaLíon’. We are
learníng how Lo nake íL work, and íl Lhere are
delícíencíes LhaL does noL nean we should Lhrow
ouL Lhe baby wíLh Lhe baLhwaLer.
1he ídea Lhen ís Lo nake Lhe ÜníLed NaLíons nore
represenLaLíve, nore ellícíenL, and nore ellecLíve.
1he nosL persísLenL denand ís Lo broaden Lhe
nenbershíp ol Lhe SecuríLy Councíl. As Lo Lhe ener
gence ol C2o, Lhough íLs energence ís seen as a
good sígn, Lhere are denands LhaL íl C2o wanL
Lo be global leaders Lhey need Lo lead by seLLíng
Lhe ríghL exanple (8rown, AnnesLy ¦nLernaLíonal).
Also, íL ís noL clear wheLher C2o ís sullícíenLly
denocraLíc (¦usL). As Lo ínsLíLuLíonal change, Lees
cauLíons, íL ís ‘a very Lough assígnnenL’. 1here ís a
long honorable LradíLíon ol ellorLs Lo relorn Lhe
ÜníLed NaLíons, buL Lhe resulLs have noL been very
encouragíng. 1here sLíll ís a long way Lo go.
1he overall purpose ol global governance LhaL
needs Lo be díllerenLíaLed lron global governnenL
whích ís noL under díscussíon here ís served by
ínclusíveness, ‘nornaLíve díversíLy’ (¦usL), and a
recogníLíon LhaL global governance ís energíng
Lhrough a varíeLy ol nechanísns.
1he problen ol global governance can be approa
ched lron anoLher end. koberL suggesLs LhaL we
have Lo buíld role nodels on a snaller scale and
Lhen Lry Lo desígn larger ínsLíLuLíons and coopera
Líve uníLs based on Lhese experíences. He nenLíons
here hís experíence wíLh nunícípalíLíes where
people have been able Lo Lranslorn Lhen and wíLh
Lhen Lhe qualíLy ol Lheír own líves Lhrough a shared
nenLal nodel. A shared vísíon ol whaL Lhese
nunícípalíLíes níghL be líke ín Lhe luLure helps
índívíduals Lo work Lowards íL wíLh LrusL ín each
oLher. 1he need lor vísíon ís enphasízed lron yeL
anoLher angle. Lees noLes LhaL lor desígníng or
redesígníng an ínsLíLuLíon íL ís ínporLanL Lo be clear
abouL íLs ob|ecLíve. Whíle Lhe ÜníLed NaLíons
wíll need Lo línd a way ol ‘addressíng sysLenaLíc
problens ín an ínLegraLed way’, we need aL Lhe
sane Líne Lo develop globally a vísíon ol Lhe world
LhaL we wanL, Lhe world whích ís desírable and
hopelully sLíll possíble. We are unable Lo ínLeresL
people ín whaL ís negaLíve or problenaLíc ín Lhe
absence ol a vísíon, lor 'Lhere ís no líre, hope, nor
excíLenenL’.
V. The Next Sensible Step
We need Lo nake a nenLal shílL. We need Lo Lell
our políLícal leaders, as 8rown does, LhaL Lhey
cannoL allord Lo be shorLsíghLed any longer. You
need Lo Lhínk beyond elecLíon Lerns. We need Lo
Lell Lhen, as Clenn would say, Lo connecL Lhe ídeas,
people, and resources. ‘1here are a loL ol good
answers ouL Lhere, buL Lhe world ís so lull ol noíse
LhaL we can’L geL Lhe good answers Lhrough’. Above
all, we need Lo Lell Lhen, lísLeníng Lo ¦usL and our
oLher parLners, please lísLen Lo oLhers, lor Lhere ís
vírLue ín lísLeníng. We need Lo lísLen Lo políLícíans
as well. We need Lo recall whaL Míkhaíl Corbachev
Lold Carríson when he asked hín Lhe reason lor hís
lall alLer Lhe SovíeL Üníon had been dísnanLled.
Corbachev Lold hín. ‘1here were nany políLícal
reasons why ¦ lell, buL ín Lhe end ¦ lell because ¦
was noL analyzíng realíLy ruLhlessly enough’.
oo6s we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Full Paper available at:
hIIp://www.voIces-Ior-Ihe-IuIure.org
> > >
CopyríghL © Níck Pugh, 2o1o
Re-Thinking
Science
oo67 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > phIlosophy, compuIer scIehce, Irahs-dIscIplIhary, scIehce IIcIIoh,
culIural Iheory
Alan N. Shapíro
Alan N. Shapíro ís a Lransdíscíplínary Lhínker who sLudíed Scíence and 1echnology aL M¦1 and Phílosophy, HísLory and LíLeraLure aL
Cornell ÜníversíLy ín ¦Lhaca, New York. He ís Lhe auLhor ol SLar 1rek. 1echnologíes ol Dísappearance (2oo4), wídely recognízed as a
senínal work ín scíence lícLíon sLudíes and Lhe concepLíon ol luLurísLíc Lechnoscíence. He ís Lhe edíLor and LranslaLor ol 1he 1echno
logícal Herbaríun by Cíanna María CaLLí (2o1o), a na|or sLudy ol arL and Lechnology. He ís a pracLícíng solLware developer and ís
Lhe coínvenLor, wíLh Alexís Clancy, ol Lhe New ConpuLer Scíence, whích proníses Lo be soneLhíng líke a new ManhaLLan Pro|ecL.
He ís currenLly loundíng a uLopían conpany called Shapíro 1echnologíes, whích wíll be based on Lhe príncíples ol lríendshíp and
‘noL workíng’. Alan Shapíro ís recognízed as one ol Lhe leadíng experLs on Lhe phílosophy and culLural Lheory ol !ean 8audríllard.
oo68 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
¦nlluenced by MarLín Heídegger’s phílosophícal
essay 1he QuesLíon Concerníng 1echnology, 1heo
dor W. Adorno and Max Horkheíner’s core CríLícal
1heory LexL DíalecLíc ol LnlíghLennenL, and SLanley
Kubríck and ArLhur C. Clarke’s epíc scíence lícLíon
líln 2oo1. A Space Odyssey, ¦ belíeve LhaL we have
cone Lo Lhe end ol Lhe long era ol Lechnology
beíng conceíved and developed as a Lool lor Lhe
‘donínaLíon ol naLure’, regarded as ínanínaLe, and
buílL Lo acL upon whaL are assuned Lo be ‘ínaní
naLe Lhíngs’ ín Lhe socíal and naLural worlds.
1
¦ wanL Lo change our way ol Lhínkíng abouL and de
vísíng Lechnologíes, Lo parLícípaLe ín a quanLun
leap ín evoluLíon aL Lhe begínníng ol Lhe 21
sL
cen
Lury, Lo reconnecL wíLh Lhe orígínal neaníng ol Lhe
Creek word Lechne (whích neans Lhe creaLívíLy ol
cralL, arL, or skíll exercísed as Lhe ínplenenLaLíon
ol LheoreLícal/pracLícal knowledge), Lo LreaL Lech
nologíes as alíve, and as equal parLners wíLh hu
nans ín Lhe nakíng ol new arLílícíalnaLural
socíalíndívídual envíronnenLs lor enablíng greaLer
hunan happíness, índívídual lreedon, enbodíed
exísLence, and Lhe auLononous víLalíLy ol Lechno
enLíLíes and Lechnoob|ecLs. ¦ wanL Lo go beyond
Lhe dualísn or bínary opposíLíon beLween Lhe
naLural and Lhe arLílícíal, and beLween naLure and
culLure. ¦ Lhínk ol Lhe greaL scíenLísL Charles
Darwín’s book 1he Voyage ol Lhe 8eagle, a work
ol boLh scíence and líLeraLure.
2
Duríng hís world
Lravels, Darwín exaníned wíLh Lhe sane keen
observaLíonal eye and coolheadedness Lhe ob|ecLs
ol hís ínvesLígaLíons, regardless ol wheLher Lhey
were phenonena ol anínal wíldlíle behavíor, geo
logy, or hunan socíeLíes.
Knowledge ín Lhe currenL WesLern acadenícuní
versíLy sysLen, ín Lhe naLural scíences, ín engíneer
íng, ín Lhe socíal scíences, ín Lhe arLs and Lhe hu
naníLíes, has been dívíded ínLo separaLe díscíplínes.
Our knowledge ís lragnenLed, and Lhus we are noL
properly posíLíoned Lo lornulaLe Lhe ríghL quesLí
ons abouL whaL we need Lo do as a cívílízaLíon. ¦ líke
Lhe Cernan word WíssenschalL whích ís used boLh
lor Lhe NaLurwíssenschalLen (naLural scíences) and
Lhe CeísLeswíssenschalLen (hunan scíences, huna
níLíes). We need a new unílíed perspecLíve. Scíence,
as Lhe prívíleged perspecLíve and neLhodology lor
gaíníng access Lo and knowledge ol ob|ecLíve rea
líLy, ís over. !ohn Horgan nade Lhís clear nore Lhan
a decade ago ín 1he Lnd ol Scíence.
¯
Scíence goes
lron Lhe 1¯
Lh
Lo Lhe 2o
Lh
cenLury. ¦L’s been a specílíc
paradígn, and Lhís paradígn ís now exhausLed.
1here’s goíng Lo be a paradígn shílL, ín Lhe sense
LhaL 1honas S. Kuhn wroLe abouL ín 1he SLrucLure
ol ScíenLílíc kevoluLíons.
4
A paradígn shílL ís goíng
Lo Lake place. 1he coníng shílL prínaríly has Lo do
wíLh no longer excludíng arL, phílosophy, Lheology,
spíríLualíLy, socíology, languages, poeLry, líLeraLure,
eLc., lron Lhe loundaLíons ol scíence. Many wíll línd
Lhís Lo be a conLroversíal sLaLenenL, buL ín ny víew,
applíed scíence duríng Lhese pasL cenLuríes has
Laken an engíneeríng approach. 1hís ís especíally
Lrue ol conpuLer scíence, whích ís noL yeL a scíence.
ConpuLer scíence nusL paradoxícally go beyond
Lhe snug saLíslacLíon ol beíng an engíneeríng scí
ence Lo lírsL becone a real scíence, aL Lhe lorelronL
ol Lhe new advanced poeLícoLechnoscíenLílíc era
LhaL líes ahead, beyond scíence.
¦ belíeve LhaL Lhe ínvenLíon ol a New ConpuLer
Scíence, one nore powerlul Lhan Lhe one LhaL pre
senLly exísLs, ís possíble, a nore powerlul conpuLer
scíence LhaL olLen goes by Lhe nanes ol ArLílícíal
¦nLellígence, ArLílícíal Líle, and QuanLun Conpu
Líng. 1he goal ol quanLun conpuLíng has been
clearly and explícíLly delíned by conpuLer scíenLísLs,
buL Lhe naLhenaLícs ol how Lo ínplenenL qubíLs
and superposíLíon sLaLes does noL yeL exísL. 1o
geLher wíLh Alexís Clancy, ¦ an workíng on Lhe
archíLecLure, desígn, and codíng ol QuanLun Con
puLíng ín SolLware. A crucíal characLerísLíc ol quan
Lun nechanícs known as enLanglenenL occurs
under cerLaín experínenLal condíLíons. SubaLoníc
parLícles becone ‘ínexLrícably línked’ ín such a way
LhaL a change Lo one ol Lhen ís ínsLanLly ‘rellecLed
ín íLs counLerparL’, no naLLer how physícally sepa
raLed Lhey are. QuanLun Lheory posLulaLes a
‘superposíLíon ol sLaLes’ LhaL desLabílízes Lhe ínLuí
Líve sensoríal noLíon ol spaLíal separaLíon. LnLan
gled parLícles Lranscend space and renoLeness.
1
MarLín Heídegger, 1he QuesLíon Concerníng 1echnology and OLher Lssays (LranslaLed lron Lhe Cernan by Wíllían LovíLL) (New
York. Harper & kow, 1¤¯¯), 1heodor W. Adorno and Max Horkheíner, DíalecLíc ol LnlíghLennenL. Phílosophícal ¦ragnenLs (edíLed
by Cunzelín Schníd Noerr) (LranslaLed lron Lhe Cernan by Ldnund !ephcoLL) (SLanlord, CA. SLanlord ÜníversíLy Press, 2oo2),
2oo1. A Space Odyssey (dírecLed by SLanley Kubríck) (wríLLen by SLanley Kubríck and ArLhur C. Clarke) (MeLroColdwynMayer, 1¤68).
2
Charles Darwín, 1he Voyage ol Lhe 8eagle (ínLroducLíon by Davíd Anígoní) (London. WordsworLh LdíLíons, 1¤¤¯).
¯
!ohn Horgan, 1he Lnd ol Scíence. ¦acíng Lhe LíníLs ol Knowledge ín Lhe 1wílíghL ol Lhe ScíenLílíc Age (New York. 8roadway 8ooks,
1¤¤6).
4
1honas S. Kuhn, 1he SLrucLure ol ScíenLílíc kevoluLíons (Chícago. ÜníversíLy ol Chícago Press, 1¤62).
oo6¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
1hey belong Lo a ‘shared’ sysLen LhaL acLs as a
síngle enLíLy. 1he dísLance LhaL dívídes Lhe parLícles
no longer plays any ínlluencíng role LhaL would
lead Lhen Lo be |udged as havíng dísLíncL ídenLíLíes.
Once Lhe enLanglenenL sLaLe ís esLablíshed, Lhe
subaLoníc duo sLays lorever bonded. 1he Lwo par
Lícles wíll always have eíLher precísely opposíng or
‘eleganLly conplenenLíng’ relaLíve values ol key
quanLun properLíes such as polarízaLíon dírecLíon,
índependenL ol how lar aparL Lhey Lravel lron one
anoLher.
QuanLun physícs ínposes on us Lhe líníLaLíon LhaL
Lhe quanLun ínlornaLíon ín a sysLen ís avaílable Lo
us only wíLh Lhe greaLesL ol díllículLíes. Sínce Lhe
níd2o
Lh
cenLury, physícísLs have díscovered LhaL
Lhere ís a realíLy ol quanLun physícs, buL have had
Lrouble observíng LhaL realíLy. A neasurenenL ol
superposíLíons yíelds only one value, and aL Lhe
sane Líne desLroys all Lhe oLhers. ConpuLer scíen
LísLs workíng on quanLun conpuLers Lherelore rely
heavíly on Lhe ¦ouríer Lranslorn, a naLhenaLícal
operaLíon LhaL Lranslorns one luncLíon ol a real
varíable ínLo anoLher, called Lhe lrequency donaín
represenLaLíon ol Lhe lírsL luncLíon, as Lhe hypo
Lhesízed way Lo solve Lhe problen. 1he quanLun
¦ouríer Lranslorn ís prínaríly LhoughL ol as beíng
ínplenenLed ín hardware. A hypoLheLícal quanLun
conpuLíng devíce would have socalled ‘reversíble
logíc gaLes’ whích conLínuously allow sequences
ol reversíble deconposíLíons ínLo naLhenaLícal
uníLary naLríces. 1here ís líLLle progress ín Lhe con
puLer índusLry ín achíevíng Lhís ínplenenLaLíon.
¦n !anuary 2oo¯, ¦ aLLended Lhe conlerence “Cons
cíousness and QuanLun ConpuLers” ín Lucerne,
SwíLzerland, organízed by Lhe Swíss 8íenníal
on Scíence, 1echnícs & AesLheLícs (S8S1A).
¬
¦n hís
openíng renarks, kene SLeLLler, ¦ounder and Dírec
Lor ol Lhe S8S1A, Lalked abouL Lhe Lransdíscíplínary
work LhaL would be ínvolved ín Lhe pro|ecL ol brín
gíng Lo lruíLíon quanLun conpuLíng. ¦L ís especíally
an expanded undersLandíng ol conscíousness LhaL
would be requíred Lo gaín a real grasp ol quanLun
¬
kelaLed Lo Lhís conlerence ís Lhe publícaLíon Zu eíner neuen QuanLenphysík des 8ewussLseíns Cesprache an den Crenzen der
LrkennLnís (edíLed by kene SLeLLler) (Lucerne. LdíLíon Neue Caleríe Luzern und Schweízer 8íennale zu WíssenschalL, 1echník und
AsLheLík, 2oo¤).
CopyríghL © Níck Pugh, 2o1o
oo7o we¸specIal¸o1o/1
physícs. YeL, as SLeLLler poínLed ouL, uníversíLíes do
noL even seen Lo be sLrívíng lor Lhís Lransdíscíplí
nary knowledge. HansPeLer Durr, lorner execuLíve
DírecLor ol Lhe Max Planck ¦nsLíLuLe lor Physícs and
AsLrophysícs, and lorner collaboraLor ol Werner
Heísenberg, enphasízed ín hís keynoLe address LhaL
physícísLs do noL have Lhe phílosophícal Lraíníng ne
cessary Lo undersLand whaL quanLun physícs really
neans. 1he celebraLed níd2o
Lh
cenLury physícísLs
who díscovered quanLun nechanícs díd noL un
dersLand íL, Lhey only spoke abouL íL ín neLaphors.
1hey seLLled on Lhe pracLíce ol usíng applíed quan
Lun physícs sLaLísLícally wíLhouL undersLandíng
whaL quanLun physícs neans.
8uL quanLun physícs, accordíng Lo Durr, ís Lhe nosL
prolound raLíonal knowledge LhaL we have gaíned
abouL Lhe world. 1he necessary expanded under
sLandíng ol conscíousness and acLíon would have
Lo cone lron engagenenL wíLh phílosophícal
LradíLíons líke phenonenology, 8uddhísn, and
Híndu cosníc perspecLíves líke VedanLa. LxcellenL
Lalks on Lhe relaLíonshíp beLween 8uddhísn and
Lhe phílosophy ol scíence were gíven aL Lhe conle
rence by Ceshe Obsang 1enzín, a 1íbeLan 8uddhísL
psychologísL lívíng ín Aneríca and workíng on
nínd/body nedícíne, and Cernan phílosopher
ChrísLían 1honas Kohl.
Only wíLh an expansíon ol conscíousness does a
proLecLed space open up where Lhe ínpossíbílíLíes
ol quanLun nechanícal observaLíon are suspended
(as an acL ol lríendshíp by Lhe dívíne Lowards us, so
Lo speak). ¦n Lhís proLecLed space, we can do Lrans
lornaLíons ín a díllerenL way. ¦L wíll noL be Lhe
NewLonían Lakíng ol a neasurenenL LhaL desLroys
Lhe sLaLe neasured. 1he presuned way ol neasu
ríng or observíng Lhe ob|ecL (Lhe quesLíon ol Lhe
nedía ol scíenLílíc nensuraLíon) has renaíned
wíLhín classícal NewLonían spaceLíne nechanícs.
Correspondíng Lo a new 21
sL
cenLury posLclassícal
spaceLíne, Lhe lruíLlul way Lo Lake neasurenenLs
on boLh sídes ol a creaLed uníverse, ol Lhe nodel
and íLs phanLon, Lo access all ol Lhe quanLun
ínlornaLíon LhaL ís goíng on ín a sysLen, ís Lo have
a sale, proLecLed space ín beLween where one ís
allowed Lo be, príor Lo ‘beconíng (neasurable)’,
oLher Lhan beíng díscíplíned. Here ís Lhe answer Lo
Lhe ríddle ol quanLun physícs. noL neasure, buL
perceíve. An expansíon ol conscíousness supporLs
an expanded percepLíon. QuanLun behavíor ís a
realíLy. PhysícísLs LhoughL LhaL Lhey could noL
observe or neasure Lhís realíLy wíLhouL desLroyíng
Lhe ínlornaLíon Lhereín. 8uL Lhey concepLualízed
Lhe neLhodology ol observaLíon convenLíonally.
1he space lron whích one can observe Lhe realíLy ol
quanLun behavíor wíLhouL desLroyíng Lhe ínlorna
Líon Lhereín ís also a realíLy, a lacL ol naLure. We do
noL have Lo ínvenL Lhís space, we only have Lo per
ceíve íL. 1hís space ol nondesLrucLíve observaLíon
really exísLs, |usL as quanLun behavíor really exísLs,
and we wíll geL íL workíng ín solLware. 1o perceíve
Lhís space, we have Lo change our conscíousness.
1haL's all LhaL we have Lo do! We have Lo recogníze
as beíng scíenLílíc sone ways ol perceívíng LhaL be
long Lo oLher LradíLíons LhaL WesLern scíence has so
lar snallníndedly regarded as nonscíenLílíc. 1hís
expanded perceívíng íncludes creaLíve naLhena
Lícs, 8uddhísL and HínduísL nedíLaLíon/onLologíes,
AborígínalsacrednysLícalexpanded conscíousness
Lhínkíng, and ConLínenLal seníoLícs/grannaLology.
1he process ol preparíng lor publícaLíon Lhe Lng
lísh edíLíon ol Cíanna María CaLLí’s book 1he 1ech
nologícal Herbaríun led ne Lo rellecL on Lhe need
lor a New HolísLíc 8íology. ¦ LranslaLed Lhe book
lron ¦Lalían ínLo Lnglísh, edíLed íL and added an
noLaLíons, and ínLeracLed ínLensívely wíLh Cíanna
María CaLLí Lo clear up any nísundersLandíngs ol
her ¦Lalían LexL LhaL ¦ nay have had. Duríng Lhe Líne
ol doíng Lhís work, ¦ díscovered Lwo senínal books
whích seen Lo ne Lo be crucíal lor Lhe luLure de
velopnenL ol Lhe New 8íology. One ís Aulbruch der
Lebenslorschung. Der Mensch ín eínen neuen
WelLbíld by Lhe Swíss bíologísL Adoll PorLnann,
whích CaLLí connenLs on poígnanLly.
6
1he oLher
ís kellecLíons on a 1heory ol Organísns. Holísn
ín 8íology by WalLer M. Llsasser.
¯
¦ was Lold abouL
Llsasser’s book by Lhe socíologísL VícLoría Crace
and her husband Lhe scíenLísLenLrepreneur Louís
Arnoux.
Llsasser argues LhaL Lhe Lask ol elaboraLíng a Lruly
scíenLílíc bíology sLíll líes ahead ol us. Physícs and
chenísLry, ín Lheír currenL sLaLes ol knowledge, are
Lruly scíenLílíc, accordíng Lo Llsasser. Physícs, lor
6
Adoll PorLnann, Aulbruch der Lebenslorschung. Der Mensch ín eínen neuen WelLbíld (Zurích. kheínVerlag, 1¤6¬). ¦Lalían Lrans
laLíon. Le lorne vívenLí. Nuove prospeLLíve della bíología (LranslaLed by 8orís Porena) (Mílano. Adelphí, 1¤6¤). 1here exísLs no
Lnglísh LranslaLíon ol PorLnann’s book.
¯
WalLer M. Llsasser, kellecLíons on a 1heory ol Organísns. Holísn ín 8íology (8alLínore, MD. 1he !ohns Hopkíns ÜníversíLy Press,
1¤8¯, 1¤¤8).
oo71 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
CopyríghL © Níck Pugh and Alan N. Shapíro, 2o1o
oo72 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
exanple, reached scíenLílíc sLaLus wíLh Lhe un
loldíng ol Lhe 2o
Lh
cenLury LheoreLícal sysLens ol
quanLun nechanícs and specíal/general relaLívíLy.
8íology, on Lhe oLher hand – nolecular, evolu
Líonary and geneLíc bíology – ís noL scíenLílíc. ¦L ís
reducLíonísL. CurrenL bíologícal paradígns reduce
our undersLandíng ol Lhe lívíng organísn Lo a con
bínaLoríal nodel or lornula such as Lhe geneLíc
code. 8uL Lhe geneLíc nessage ís only a synbol ol
Lhe conpleLe reproducLíve process. “1he nessage
ol Lhe geneLíc code,” wríLes Llsasser, “does noL
anounL Lo a conpleLe and exhausLíve ínlornaLíon
sequence LhaL would be sullícíenL Lo reconsLrucL
Lhe new organísn on Lhe basís ol coded daLa
alone.”
8
1hís reducLíonísn on Lhe parL ol bíologísLs corre
sponds Lo Lhe conpuLaLíonal paradígn ol bínary or
dígíLal conpuLíng LhaL has been avaílable Lo us ín
Lhe 2oLh cenLury. ¦L ís alnosL as íl Lhe bíologísLs de
cíded, sínce Lhís ís Lhe líníL ol Lhe conpuLíng power
LhaL we have, we wíll devíse a bíology LhaL lunc
Líons wíLhín Lhe resLrícLíons ol whaL we can con
puLe. ¦L ís Lhe quesLíon ol how do we deal wíLh
conplexíLy. WíLhín Lhe exísLíng or donínanL con
puLíng paradígn, ín order Lo deal wíLh a conplex
problen, we break down Lhe problen ínLo snaller,
nore nanageable parLs. 1hís ís essenLíally Lhe
CarLesían MeLhod. 8uL íL ís ínpossíble Lo apply Lhe
CarLesían MeLhod Lo quanLunnechanícal gene
ralízed conplenenLaríLíes líke Lhe waveparLícle
dualíLy or Lhe Heísenberg ÜncerLaínLy Príncíple.
Whereas Lhe CarLesían neLhod nay work lor ne
chanícal sysLens, íL cannoL be ol nuch use when
we aspíre Lo Lhe undersLandíng or creaLíon ol
soneLhíng LhaL ís lívíng. 1he nore correcL approach
LhaL would correspond Lo a breakLhrough ínLo 21
sL
cenLury scíence would be Lo ídenLíly relaLíonshíps
ol sínílaríLy, Lo línd sanples or paLLerns LhaL cap
Lure soneLhíng ol Lhe víLalíLy and conplexíLy ol Lhe
whole wíLhouL breakíng íL down ín a reducLíonísL
way.
We need a HolísLíc 8íology where we consíder Lhe
lívíng organísn ín íLs Lrue conplexíLy. 1he sLrucLu
ral conplexíLy ol even a síngle lívíng cell ís ‘Lrans
conpuLaLíonal’. Llsasser wríLes LhaL Lhe conpuLa
Líonal problen ol really scíenLílícally graspíng a
lívíng organísn (or organíc sLrucLure) ís a problen
ol unlaLhonable conplexíLy. 1he síngle lívíng cell
ís ínvolved ín a neLwork ol relaLíonshíps wíLh all líle
on Lhe planeL, wíLh Lhe planeL íLsell, and wíLh Lhe
8
¦bíd., p. 46.
CopyríghL © Níck Pugh and Alan N. Shapíro, 2o1o
¦nages lron 1he Car ol Lhe ¦uLure Pro|ecL,
Shapíro 1echnologíes, ¦uLure Desígner. Níck Pugh
oo7¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
hísLory ol líle. 1he índívídual nenber ol a specíes
decodes ín realLíne, as íL laces each new círcun
sLance, íLs specíesnenory. ¦L creaLívely reLríeves
Lhís specíesnenory Lhrough a process ol ínlorna
Líon Lransler LhaL ís ellecLívely ‘ínvísíble’, and does
noL Lake place vía any ínLernedíaLe sLorage or Lrans
níssíon nedía. HolísLíc ínlornaLíon Lransler happens
over space and Líne, “wíLhouL Lhere beíng any
ínLerveníng nedíun or process LhaL carríes Lhe
ínlornaLíon.”
¤
Whereas Lhe geneLíc code ís nenory
consídered as ‘honogeneous replícaLíon’, holísLíc
nenory ís one ol ‘heLerogeneous reproducLíon’.
We also need a New Socíology – a kínd ol quanLun
physícs socíology. 1he ordínary nacro world also
has a loL ol quanLun properLíes. As !ean 8audríllard
wroLe ín hís book Aneríca, Aneríca ís a sysLen ol
círculaLíon LhaL “precedes Lhe real” – Lhe real nean
íng LhaL classícal socíologícal realíLy ín whích clas
sícal socíologísLs belíeve.
1o
Classícal socíologísLs,
who base Lheír ‘scíenLílíc socíology’ on a 1¤
Lh

cenLury paradígn (LhaL ol AugusLe ConLe) whích
assunes a world ol docíle ob|ecLs waíLíng Lo be ‘ob
|ecLívely’ ínvesLígaLed, a classícal worldvíew LhaL
assunes Lhe exísLence ol a socíal world and socíal
problens raLíonally ordered by Lhe sovereígn Lhín
kíng sub|ecL ol socíal scíence who ís ín conLrol. 1he
New Socíology (ín honour ol !ean 8audríllard) ís
also scíenLílíc – íL ís based on Lhe 2o
Lh
cenLury
scíences ol quanLun physícs, specíal/general rela
LívíLy, and chaos/conplexíLy Lheory. ¦L consíders
nuch sLranger and wíly ob|ecLs ín an unnasLerable
socíal líeld governed by relaLíons ol radícal uncer
LaínLy and paradox. 1he World Lhínks ne, Lhe ¦nhu
nan Lhínks ne. LveryLhíng ís relaLívísLíc, enígnaLíc,
and aleaLory.
11
Socíal realíLy ís nearly a LoLal chaos.
CounLríes, naLíonalíLíes, ínnígraLíon, relígíons,
hybríd languages, ídenLíLíes, gender, sexualíLy. íL ís
alnosL beyond our conprehensíon, laden wíLh
sLrange ellecLs.
Sone uníversíLíes – líke Lhe MassachuseLLs ¦nsLíLuLe
ol 1echnology (M¦1), lor exanple – are Lryíng Lo be
cone nore ínLerdíscíplínary. Well, ínLerdíscíplína
ríLy ísn’L enough. We have Lo lace Lhe lacL LhaL Lhe
exísLíng classílícaLíon ol knowledge ís obsoleLe.
¦nLerdíscíplínaríLy ín íLsell ís nore or less worLhless.
¦L ís only an índícaLíon, a sígn, LhaL soneLhíng ís
very seríously wrong. ¦l, ín order Lo obLaín valuable
knowledge, we need Lo span several díscíplínes,
LhaL only shows LhaL whaL we really need ís a na|or
pro|ecL Lo reLhínk whaL Lhe caLegoríes ol know
ledge should be.
¦L ís noL only necessary Lo broaden scíence, íL ís also
necessary Lo nake scíence nore accessíble, and Lo
íncrease cíLízen parLícípaLíon ín publíc conversa
Líons abouL scíence. kaLher Lhan enLeríng ínLo Lhe
econoníc debaLe abouL wheLher scíence ís a prívaLe
or a publíc good, ¦ locus ín ny work on anoLher
dínensíon ol Lhe socíology ol scíence, ídenLílyíng a
hybríd publíc/prívaLe dynaníc where Lhe ínagína
Líon or ‘collecLíve unconscíous’ ol popular culLure
acLívely allecLs Lechnoscíence. ¦ enphasíze LhaL Lhe
Lrue orígínalíLy ol SLar 1rek sLoríes and lan connu
níLíes engenders a realíLyshapíng ‘scíence lícLíon’
LhaL lornaLívely ínlluences ídeas, Lechnologíes, and
even scíences líke physícs, ínlornaLícs, and bíology.
As parLícípanLs ín LechnoculLure and ín Lhe nedía,
ordínary people are already nakíng scíence. ¦ wísh
Lo augnenL our percepLíon ol Lhís hereLolore over
looked exísLíng socíologícal realíLy as well as Lo
encourage ellorLs Lo enhance and sLrengLhen Lhe
publíc creaLíon ol scíence. WíLh Lhe nílíLary, lor
exanple, Lhere already exísLs a hybríd publíc/prí
vaLe dynaníc ín Lhe díssenínaLíon ol Lechnoscíence
LhaL ís ínsLíLuLíonally operaLíve. 1he publíc lunds
ol Lhe nílíLary are ínvesLed ín Lhe research and
developnenL labs ol prívaLe uníversíLíes and prívaLe
corporaLíons. 1he nílíLary orchesLraLes Lechnologí
cal ínvenLíons, uses Lhen lor essenLíally desLrucLíve
purposes, and Lhen releases Lhen Lo Lhe publíc,
where Lhey Lend Lo be applíed nore benelícíally.
WhaL ¦ draw aLLenLíon Lo ín ny work ís a kínd ol
reversal ol dírecLíonalíLy ol Lhís publíc/prívaLe
hybrídíLy. Lhe orígínaLíon ol new scíenLílíc goods
llowíng lron publíc culLural resources ínLo Lhe core
loundaLíonal asseLs ol Lhe connonwealLh where
Lhey can, ín Lurn, endow prívaLe enLrepreneuríal
venLures. 1he currency ol ínvesLnenL ín Lhe crea
Líon ol new scíence ís noL sLrícLly noneLary, íL ís also
synbolíc. CapíLal and wealLh are noL only none
Lary, Lhey are also synbolíc. 1here ís a nedía cul
Lure publíc sphere whích ís líLerary, ínagínaLíve,
playlul, psychoanalyLícal, creaLíve, ínnovaLíve. 1hís
líLerary ínagínaLíon dríves scíenLílíc ínvenLíon.
¤
¦bíd., p. 148.
1o
!ean 8audríllard, Aneríca (LranslaLed lron Lhe ¦rench by Chrís 1urner) (London. Verso, 1¤88).
11
!ean 8audríllard, ¦npossíble Lxchange (LranslaLed lron Lhe ¦rench by Chrís 1urner) (London. Verso, 2oo1), Aurel SchnídL,
“Only ¦npossíble Lxchange ís Possíble,” ¦nLernaLíonal !ournal ol 8audríllard SLudíes, !anuary 2oo¤ (LranslaLed lron Lhe Cernan
by Alan N. Shapíro).
> >
PhoLo. 8ea Cschwend
How Does
the Educational
System Become
Decentralized?
oo7s we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > cohhecIIvIsm, decehIralIzed, educaIIoh, khowledge, adapIIve
Ceorge Síenens
Ceorge Lags hínsell as “Curíous. ¦’n ínquísíLíve. ¦ líke exploríng. ¦’n exploraLory. ¦ Lhínk ¦’n resísLanL ín Lerns ol exísLíng Lrends and
¦’n always Lryíng Lo línd sone ol Lhe deeper íssues LhaL aríse. ¦ Lhínk connecLed. ¦ enphasíze relaLíng Lo and beíng properly allílíaLed
wíLh oLher índívíduals and workíng LogeLher.”
oo76 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
How has your undersLandíng ol WL changed sínce
Lhe ríse ol Lhe ¦nLerneL7
¦ Lhínk íL has changed, and one way ol showíng Lhís
ís, ¦ acLually grew up ín an area LhaL was noL very
Lechnologícally based. ¦L was acLually quíLe líníLed
and lrowned on Lechnology, lrowned on advance
nenL and progress. 1here was a heavy connuníLy
clusLeríng and a real sense LhaL you receíved your
worldvíew lron lísLeníng Lo your parenLs and your
relígíous sense lron lísLeníng Lo people ín Lhe con
nuníLy ínLeracL. 1here was a relígíous lranework
LhaL guíded you. 8uL Lhís sLrucLure, Lhís LíghLkníL
sense ol connuníLy has, lor nany people been lar
gely lragnenLed sínce Lhe ríse ol nedía. Medía has
a way ol lragnenLíng hunaníLy, aL leasL ín íLs íníLíal
íLeraLíon. 1hrough radío and Lelevísíon, and Lhen
wíLh Lhe advenL ol Lhe ¦nLerneL, suddenly we were
able Lo exísL ín snall socíal subseLs. Where we don’L
know Lhe people we ínLeracL wíLh aL work even
Lhough we are laírly well relaLed Lo people who
we’ve naybe only neL onlíne – Lhrough LexL or
bulleLín board sysLens or blogs or whaLever.
¦ Lhínk whaL WL have now becone has been lor
ned and Lranslorned by socíal nedía so – ín a very
íroníc sense – Lhe íníLíal lragnenLaLíon ol nedía
LhaL McLuhan looks aL as elecLrílícaLíon ís how we
splíL up our varíous ídenLíLíes across díllerenL plaL
lorns and díllerenL sysLens. We acquíre our world
víew noL Lhrough a newspaper only or even noL
Lhrough a newspaper 1V progran. We lorn our
worldvíew really Lhrough weavíng neLworks, lor
níng a narraLíve ol coherence, by ínLeracLíng wíLh
oLhers ín Lhese socíal spaces ín sonewhaL surprí
síng ways. Socíal nedía, as a very loose Lern, has a
resulLed ín a sense ín a ‘bíndíng back’. We’re bín
díng back Lo Lhe snall clusLer ol hunaníLy líke Lhe
very closed connuníLy ¦ nenLíoned ¦ grew up ín.
Only ín Lhís case íL’s occurríng ín nore ol an open
space. We have Lhe sense LhaL we now can be very
well connecLed Lo snall groups ol índívíduals who
guíde us, ínlorn us and províde a sense ol dírecLíon.
¦ Lhínk ín a loL ol ways LhaL sense ol WL ís conLrí
buLíng Lo how we lorn our undersLandíng ol Lhe
world. 1hese índívíduals LhaL we know, líkely global
neLworks, assísL us ín lorníng our undersLandíng.
1hey’re doíng íL prínaríly Lhrough socíal neans,
Lhrough lílLeríng ínlornaLíon, Lhrough anplílyíng
ínlornaLíon, Lhrough ínLroducíng each oLher Lo
Lheír own conLacLs. ¦n LhaL sense, ¦ Lhínk WL as a
concepL has noved lron Lhe connunal hold LhaL
we perhaps had belore Lechnology Lo a lragnenLa
Líon ol Lechnology creaLed by Lhe ríse ol socíal
Lechnologíes, Lo a bíndíng back Lo snall clusLers,
socíal groups.
Do you see any connecLíon beLween Lhís new
undersLandíng ol WL and Lhe lacL LhaL we are
sayíng LhaL educaLíon ís one ol Lhe bíggesL luLure
challenges we are lacíng7
¦ Lhínk so, and Lhís ís one ol Lhe díllículLíes LhaL ¦ be
líeve educaLors lace. NoL |usL Leachers, ínsLrucLors
or prolessors, buL really leaders, parenLs, school
leaders, Lhe lundíng challenges LhaL aríse around
Lhe educaLíon sysLen. 1here’s a sense ín whích edu
caLíon serves several roles. On Lhe one hand, íL
serves Lhe advancenenL and developnenL ol índí
vídual nínds – whaL Ldgar Morín calls ‘Lhe víLal
conbaL lor lucídíLy’. 8uL Lhere ís a secondary sense
as well ín whích íL serves Lo elevaLe Lhe capacíLy ol
a socíeLy Lo neeL íLs own challenges and so, íl an
educaLíon sysLen ísn’L naLched, so Lo speak, Lo Lhe
needs ol a socíeLy or Lhe needs ol a parLícular era,
íL laces írrelevance on nany levels. When we have
LíghLly sLrucLured classroons LhaL aren’L perneable
– as perneable as Lhey need Lo be lor ínnovaLíon
because ínnovaLíon occurs ín clínaLes ol díversíLy.
¦n clínaLes where you geL a loL ol elenenLs bun
píng randonly ínLo each oLher, lorníng novel con
necLíons and novel experíences LhaL cone lron
Lhose connecLíons. 1he educaLíon sysLen we have
Loday ís based on a duplícaLíon nodel ín nany
cases.
DuplícaLíng whaL7
DuplícaLíng whaL’s known. ¦l soneone has decíded
Lhís ís a body ol knowledge and Lhís ís whaL you
nusL learn – LexLbooks are greaL exanples. ¦l sone
we-magazIhe >
we-magazIhe >
we-magazIhe >
Ceorge SIemehs >
Ceorge SIemehs >
Ceorge SIemehs >
oo77 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
one saíd Lhís ís a LexLbook and regardless ol Lhe
experíence and aLLríbuLes ol Lhe índívídual learner,
índívíduals are puL Lo nasLeríng Lhís LexLbook. 8uL
Lhe realíLy ís LhaL even íl we can’L puL a body ol
knowledge ínLo sone kínd ol a sLrucLure ín a
LexLbook, each learner approachíng LhaL LexLbook
cones ouL wíLh a dranaLícally díllerenL seL ol líle
experíences. ¦ Lhínk Lo noL Lo have an adapLíve
approach ís essenLíally a nodel lor renderíng your
sysLen obsoleLe, because Lhe world around you
changes and yeL your educaLíon sysLen ís based on
Lhe generaLíon ol a cerLaín sense ol nornalíLy –
whích íL really ís. LducaLíon nornalízes people, ín
nany ínsLances, Lo a cerLaín sLandard. 1haL’s why
we have sLandardízed LesLíng and Lhíngs líke LhaL. ¦l
we puL Lhose concerns asíde and sLarL Lo say, “How
can we adopL a níndseL ín educaLíon LhaL’s dírecLly
relaLed Lo Lhe needs ol socíeLy7 How can we creaLe
a perneable, loosely coupled sysLen LhaL ís capa
ble ol ínLeracLíng and changíng Lo Lhe needs ol
socíeLy ín Lerns ol Lhe varyíng skílls and experí
ences ol Lhe learners7” – Lhen ¦ Lhínk you have a
sysLen LhaL beLLer neeLs Lhe luLure challenges.
How do you Lhínk we can ínLroduce Lhís kínd ol
ínlornal learníng ínLo exísLíng classroons7
Well, ¦ don’L even know íl íL has Lo be ínlornal lear
níng. ¦ Lhínk lornal learníng ís líne, because really
whaL lornal learníng says ís “Here are a lew goals
we have … Lhese are a lew ouLcones LhaL we wanL
Lo creaLe” and ín nany cases you need LhaL. ParL ol
Lhe reason ís LhaL Lhe educaLíon sysLen servíces
nany sLakeholders. íL serves índívíduals, íL serves
governnenL, aL advanced levels íL begíns Lo serve
índusLry and corporaLe envíronnenLs. 1here’s noLhíng
wrong wíLh sone sense ol sLrucLure. 8uL Lhe díllí
culLy ís LhaL you can’L have sLrucLure leadíng. You
can’L have a LenplaLe creaLed ín advance ol learner
needs, drop learners ínLo LhaL LenplaLe and lorce
Lhen Lhrough Lhe ouLcone. WhaL you wanL ín
sLead, ín ny eyes aL leasL, ís Lo achíeve sLrucLured
clear aíns largely Lhrough a dísLríbuLed decenLral
ízed nodel. ¦níLíally LhaL was very díllículL. When
we sLarLed lragnenLíng nedía Lo a greaLer degree,
when we sLarLed usíng díllerenL Lools and Lechno
logíes, íL becane díllículL because essenLíally whaL
happens when you dísLríbuLe conLrol and power ís
LhaL you also dísLríbuLe responsíbílíLy whích neans
LhaL now you can’L say, ”Well, íL’s Lhe church’s laulL
LhaL we have Lhís problen“ or “¦L’s Lhe govern
nenL’s laulL LhaL we have Lhís problen.” Now sud
denly íL’s líke, “WhaL an ¦ doíng Lo conLríbuLe7”
because Lhere’s a sense ol personal responsíbílíLy
and ownershíp ínvolved. ¦n Lhe sane sense you can
sLíll say, “1hese are Lhe goals LhaL índusLry needs.
1hese are sone ol Lhe skílls and aLLríbuLes ol an
índívídual learner.” – LhaL, ¦ Lhínk, ís perlecLly ac
cepLable. How you choose Lo achíeve LhaL ís where
ny concerns resL and ny concern ís LhaL a sLrucLu
red nodel ís íncapable ol ad|usLíng Lo Lhe índíví
dual needs ol each sLudenL. ¦L always has been buL
ín Lhe pasL we’ve been able Lo ígnore íL and largely
gloss over íL buL, ¦ Lhínk, we’re now lacíng Lhe
realíLy LhaL íL’s |usL noL workíng. ¦L’s noL … even íl
we can package Lhíngs nícely, learners wíll be aL
such a díllerenL skíll level LhaL we won’L be able Lo
neeL Lhose seL ouLcones.
Many people have been workíng on Lhís lor decades
now – why do Lhínk Lhe change wíll happen now7
Well, lírsL ol all, ¦ hope íL wíll happen. ¦ wouldn’L be
quíLe so presunpLuous and say Lhís ís absoluLely
whaL wíll happen, buL you’re absoluLely ríghL.
People have been wríLíng abouL Lhís and Lalkíng
abouL Lhís lor cenLuríes alnosL. People asked how
do we address Lhís íníLíally and lron Lhere you had
índívíduals such as PíageL who pícked up Lhe
enphasís on sone sense ol índívídualízaLíon and
adapLaLíon ín Lhe educaLíon sysLen. More recenLly
we’ve had seen people líke Seynour PaperL who
have sínílarly suggesLed LhaL we need Lo be crea
Lors, we can’L sínply be consuners ol Lhís Lype ol
ínlornaLíon. ¦ Lhínk whaL’s díllerenL Loday – and ¦’n
we-magazIhe >
we-magazIhe >
Ceorge SIemehs >
Ceorge SIemehs >
oo78 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
noL 1oo% convínced íL would be Lhe línal Líppíng
poínL – are several Lhíngs. ¦írsL ol all, currenL eco
noníc concerns are lorcíng a reLhínk ol Lhe nodel
we have. 1here’s a recogníLíon LhaL – and Lhís ís
whaL ¦van ¦llích addressed ín Lhe early ¯os as well –
Lhe educaLíon sysLen, Lhe lundíng cosLs ol Lhe
educaLíon sysLen are so enornous LhaL Lhere has
Lo be a breakíng poínL. We’re now lacíng cerLaínly
íssues around Lhe suíLabílíLy ol lundíng approaches
Lo Lhís kínd ol sysLen and we realíze LhaL íL’s
perhaps noL workíng as well íL could be – especíally
consíderíng Lhe ouLcones we’re generaLíng. 1here’s
LhaL sense ol a clínaLe ol change. 1here’s lerLíle soíl
lor change ríghL now LhaL we dídn’L have ín Lhe ‘8os
when everyLhíng was goíng well. We dídn’L have
LhaL sane sense ol need lor change, LhaL urgency.
Are you sayíng íL has sLarLed Lo hurL7
Well, ¦’ve heard íL saíd LhaL we change when íL hurLs
less Lo change Lhan íL does Lo sLay Lhe sane. So ¦’n
noL sure íl LhaL’s quíLe where we’re aL. 8uL ¦ Lhínk ín
sone conbínaLíon – línancíal ís one. 1he globalí
zaLíon overall. 1he ríse ol oLher counLríes, Lhey’re
íncreasíngly conpeLíLíve wíLh whaL we aL one poínL
largely held Lo be Lhe donaín ol WesLern socíeLy.
We’re sLarLíng Lo see LhaL oLher counLríes are beíng
ínnovaLíve and aggressíve and conpeLíng and LhaL
we need Lo change our approaches. Agaín, ¦’n sLar
Líng Lo becone alnosL a Lechnologícal deLernínísL.
My víew ís LhaL ín nany regards Lhe developnenL
ol Lechnology, especíally Lhose Lechnologíes LhaL
enable us Lo connecL wíLh, Lo be socíal wíLh oLhers,
Lechnologíes LhaL can parLly creaLe and recreaLe
sone ol Lhe experíences we have ín physícal
envíronnenLs – Lhe ínclusíon ol hapLíc devíces,
Louchbased conpuLíng, generaLíon ol analyLícs
parLícularly around vísualízaLíon – all Lhese do ín
deed change Lhe educaLíonal process. We have a
uníque condíLíon where we have very lerLíle soíl. ¦n
oLher períods we’ve had lerLíle soíl lor relorn, buL
we haven’L necessaríly had Lhe Lools Lo enacL Lhe
change we conceíved. 8uL now, as ¦ sLaLed earlíer,
we’ve dísLríbuLed conLrol Lo a neLwork luncLíon.
WíLh LhaL dísLríbuLíon ol conLrol, responsíbílíLy has
been dísLríbuLed as well. ¦ Lhínk LhaL a conbínaLíon
ol lacLors nay prove Lo be sígnílícanL lor relorn.
Should access Lo Lhe ¦nLerneL, neaníng access Lo
educaLíon, be a hunan ríghL7
LducaLíon ís a hunan ríghL. LducaLíon ís an equalí
zer, addressíng Lhe ínequalíLíes LhaL oLher socíeLal
sysLens and pressures generaLe.
Sínce Lhe ¦nLerneL ís a growíng poínL ol ínlornaLíon
access and connunícaLíon, provídíng new allor
dances and opporLuníLíes, yes, ¦nLerneL access
ís quíckly novíng ínLo Lhe realn ol basíc ríghLs.
1hís raíses ínporLanL concerns abouL LhreesLríkes
laws lor píracy where ¦nLerneL províders can cuL
people oll lron ¦nLerneL access. 1he rule ol law
surroundíng hunan ríghLs should noL be adníní
sLered by corporaLíons. ¦l Lhe ¦nLerneL ís equaLed
wíLh educaLíon, and Lhereby hunan ríghLs, Lhe
currenL legal sysLen around Lhís “basíc ríghL“ ís
Lerríbly ínadequaLe.
How can WL nake sure, LhaL people ín developíng
counLríes don’L nake Lhe sane nísLakes we’ve
nade when Lhey esLablísh Lheír educaLíon sysLen.
How can Lhey learn lron our nísLakes7
1haL’s a conplex quesLíon. 1he educaLíon sysLen ín
developed counLry has done nany Lhíngs well. 1he
now sLandard ol uníversal educaLíonal access lor all
chíldren ín a developed counLríes has seL ín play Lhe
opporLuníLíes lor Lechnologícal ínnovaLíon LhaL so
cíeLy Loday en|oys. 1he real problen, ín ny víew, ís
concerned wíLh creaLíng an educaLíon sysLen LhaL
ís nísnaLched lor a parLícular era. ¦or exanple, Lhe
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educaLíon nodel ín Lhe developed world was crea
Led Lo serve Lhe needs ol anoLher era. 1he pressu
res and concerns Lhe educaLíon sysLen laces ín
Lhese counLríes ís one ol relevance – í.e. producíng
learners wíLh críLícal níndseLs and skílls LhaL enable
Lhen Lo parLícípaLe ín Loday’s socíeLy, recognízíng
whole person learníng, lílelong and líle wíde lear
níng, eLc. LducaLíon should nap Lhe realíLy ol Lhe
socíeLy íL seeks Lo serve. ¦or developíng counLríes,
Lhe sane íssue exísLs. relevance ol approach, pro
cess, and nodel ol educaLíon ís Lhe key.
WhaL kínd ol ínpacL do you see Lhe ¦nLerneL and all
Lhese socíal neLwork kínd ol Lhíngs ís havíng on kíds
– on Lheír socíal behavíor and Lheír envíronnenL7
1he ínpacL, ¦ Lhínk, ís up ín Lhe aír. We know – and
Pew ¦nLerneL kesearch has puL ouL sLaLenenLs on
Lhe nunber ol hours LhaL an average young nen
ber ol socíeLy Lhrough Lhe 8 Lo 18 level spends on
Lhese Lools – and íL’s enornous. LssenLíally, íl a
chíld ís awake, Lhey’re onlíne. 1he sane goes lor
ne Loo, and ¦ Lhínk lor nany people. !usL walkíng
down Lhe sLreeLs ol New York, coníng here, ¦ was
waLchíng people wíLh Lheír nobíle devíces. 1hey’re
consLanLly connecLed. 1hey’re checkíng enaíl,
Lhey’re lookíng lor dírecLíons, Lhey’re searchíng lor
ínlornaLíon, Lhey’re ínLeracLíng wíLh oLhers, so no
doubL Lhís noLíon ol Lhe ubíquíLy ol connecLíveness
ís very close, ¦ Lhínk, Lo beíng realízed. Kíds Loday
are experíencíng LhaL and ¦ Lhínk LhaL ínlluences
how Lhey víew ínlornaLíon. 8uL Lhey don’L víew
ínlornaLíon as ¦ díd growíng up. You go Lo a place
Lo línd ínlornaLíon líke you go Lo a líbrary, or you
have Lo línd Lhe ríghL |ournal arLícle and you díg
Lhrough uníversíLy |ournal archíves Lo línd LhaL
arLícle. 1here ís a sense where índívíduals Loday –
and ¦ see Lhís ín ny own Lhínkíng aL leasL – no
longer expecL Lo go ínlornaLíon. ¦ expecL ínlorna
Líon Lo know ne. ¦ expecL íL Lo cone Lo ne and ¦
expecL – and Coogle does Lhís quíLe well – based
on ny ínLeracLíons wíLh ínlornaLíon LhaL Lhe
sysLens LhaL ¦ ínLeracL wíLh sLarL Lo províde ne wíLh
conLexLsensíLíve and relevanL resources.
Now, Lhere are bíg prívacy íssues around Lhís wíLh
Coogle LaLíLude, lor exanple, aL ¦oursquare and
oLher servíces líke LhaL. 8uL LhaL’s parL ol whaL’s
changíng and whaL’s norphíng. How does LhaL ín
pacL on youLh ín Lhe classroon7 ¦ Lhínk íL’s Loo early
Lo Lell. 1here are delíníLely sone psychologísLs who
have suggesLed LhaL Lhe change ís negaLíve – LhaL
íL’s changíng our abílíLy Lo socíalíze. Vídeo ganes
are changíng how we ínLeracL wíLh oLhers, ín sone
cases desensíLízíng us Lo víolence. 1here are nega
Líves LhaL exísL, buL Lhere’s no such Lhíng as change
wíLhouL a negaLíve dísrupLíon. 1he real quesLíon
ísn’L, “WhaL are Lhe negaLíves7” 1he real quesLíon
ís “WhaL ís possíble wíLh Lhís and Lhen how do we
níníníze Lhe ínpacL ol Lhe negaLíves7” ¦ Lhínk LhaL’s
whaL ¦ nean when ¦ Lhínk ol house Lechnology
changíng, ol how Lhe ¦nLerneL ís changíng. ¦ Lhínk
íL’s creaLíng a global populace ol learners who are
aware ol whaL’s happeníng around Lhe world ín a
nuch beLLer sense Lhan ¦ had growíng up aL leasL.
My counLry consísLed ol where ¦ líved and ny re
gíon and yeL now nosL ol us have colleagues all
over Lhe world and we’ve perhaps only neL vía
¦acebook ínLeracLíon or perhaps on 1wíLLer or on
blogs. ¦n LhaL way Lhere ís a growíng sense ol glo
bal cíLízenshíp LhaL cones lron Lhe Lechnologíes
Lhe kíds are usíng. One ol Lhe drawbacks, ¦ guess,
LhaL need Lo be addressed ís a sense ol dísLracLed
ness – LhaL’s a real concern. SoneLínes deep Lhín
kíng requíres susLaíned períods ol Líne whereas
conLínual dísLracLíons can soneLínes have a nega
Líve ínpacL. So Lhose are Lhe kínds ol challenges an
educaLíon sysLen needs Lo address or nusL Lry Lo
línd a neanínglul way Lo navígaLe around or aL
leasL Lry Lo reduce Lhe ínplícaLíons ol Lhose nega
Líve Lrends.
Would you say LhaL nakíng lríends vía socíal nedía,
noL knowíng each oLher, ís possíble7
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AbsoluLely. ¦L absoluLely ís. ¦n lacL ¦ Lhínk noL only
ís íL possíble buL on sone levels alnosL prelerable
because Lhere ís a sense ín whích when we neeL
people laceLolace – and Lhís ís delíníLely Lhe case
aL díllerenL age levels – we are quíck Lo lorn opín
íons ol people whích are noL based on Lheír nínds.
We can lorn opíníons on Lhe cloLhíng Lhey wear,
Lhe way Lhey accessoríze and so on. All Lhese Lhíngs
play a role and so we can lorn an ínpressíon ol
soneone very quíckly wíLhouL acLually knowíng Lhe
person. ¦ lound índívíduals LhaL ¦’ve neL onlíne, LhaL
¦’ve connecLed wíLh, íl you wíll, on a nenLal level,
on a socíal level. ¦ very nuch en|oyed Lhe lríendshíp
lorned wíLh Lhen and Lhen, when ¦’ve had Lhe
opporLuníLy Lo neeL Lhen laceLolace, quíLe olLen
you’ll línd íL’s Lhe kínd ol person LhaL you níghL noL
nornally – ever – Lake Lhe Líne Lo neeL íl you were
ín díllerenL socíal círcles. ¦L sLríps away sone ol Lhe
superlluous or superlícíal ways ín whích we Lry and
pro|ecL ourselves ínLo Lhe world, and Lechnology
generally perníLs, ¦ Lhínk, an íncreased capacíLy Lo
neeL wíLh people aL an ínLellecLual level.
WhaL socíal skílls do you Lhínk kíds can learn on Lhe
¦nLerneL, on Lhe socíal Web7
¦ would say any skílls LhaL Lhey could learn ín a lace
Lolace seLLíng. You learn how Lo be apaLheLíc, you
learn how Lo be conpassíonaLe, you can learn how
Lo gíve and Lake help. ¦ nean LhaL’s soneLínes a díl
lículL Lhíng Lo do buL you delíníLely can develop Lhose
kínds ol approaches as well. ¦n Lhose kínds ol spa
ces, basícally you learn Lhe way ín whích you lorn
your ídenLíLy, Lhe way ín whích you pro|ecL LhaL
ídenLíLy and Lhe way ín whích you ínLeracL wíLh
oLhers. 1here ís, adníLLedly, soneLhíng abouL Lhe
íníLíal ínpacL ol socíal neLworkíng Lechnologíes –
wheLher íL’s your noL usíng your own prolíle pícLure
or you níghL have an avaLar ínage or soneLhíng.
1here are díllerenL ways LhaL you express yoursell
and sone ol Lhe accessorízíng LhaL we do Lo pro|ecL
ourselves ín physícal seLLíngs occurs onlíne as well.
8uL once you begín Lo ínLeracL wíLh people over a
períod ol Líne, Lhen you begín Lo see paLLerns and
you begín Lo lorn ínpressíons. Much líke you can
lorn a quíck ínpressíon by neeLíng a person lace
Lolace, over a períod ol Líne you can lorn, ¦ Lhínk, a
laírly accuraLe ínpressíon ol a person by ínLeracLíng
wíLh Lheír nulLíple spaces onlíne. ¦L’s noL LhaL Lhey’re
ínLeracLíng |usL ín one area. 1hey’re líkely Lo be on
¦acebook and perhaps 1wíLLer. Perhaps you ínLeracL
wíLh Lhen on Línked¦n naybe on Second Líle. ¦L’s
Lhe aggregaLe ol all ol Lhese nulLíple represenLaL
íons LhaL lorns our abílíLy Lo undersLand a person.
And ¦ Lhínk LhaL’s a very real socíal experíence, and
Lhe skílls LhaL learners need are really noL all LhaL
dranaLícally díllerenL lron a laceLolace seLLíng.
!usL ínagíne you’re a Leacher and you ínLroduce
Lhese socíal Web Lools Lo your kíds. Do you Lhínk
íL’s necessary Lo have a Lheory behínd all Lhís7 How
does a neLwork luncLíon7 How ís íL Lo líve wíLhín a
neLwork7 Do you Lhínk íL’s necessary Lo Leach kíds
Lhís as well7
Well, lírsL ol all, ¦’n bíased Lowards Lheory so ¦
would! ¦ Lhínk Lheory has a very valuable role ín ín
lluencíng pracLíce and drívíng pracLíce so yes abso
luLely ¦ do Lhínk LhaL’s ínporLanL. 1o whaL degree ís
LhaL críLícal7 ¦ guess íL varíes. ¦ cane lron a con
nuníLy where índívíduals acquíred conpeLence noL
by abídíng by Lheory buL by doíng, and so íl you
could líx a LracLor or a conbíne harvesLer, íL dídn’L
naLLer íl you knew Lhe Lheory. 1he only poínL ol
evaluaLíon was whaL was Lhe ouLcone, whaL was
Lhe end producL7 ¦ Lhínk Lheory has a parLícular role
ín cerLaín acadeníc seLLíngs buL perhaps íL has a
less ol a role ín oLher seLLíngs. Lven Lhough íL’s
worLh noLíng LhaL all Lechnology ís, ín a sense, en
bedded phílosophy. So wheLher you acknowledge
Lhe Lheory LhaL exísLs or noL, íL’s sLíll goíng Lo exísL
because íL can be an underlyíng sLrand LhaL runs
Lhrough Lhe enLíre experíence. ¦ |usL wanL Lo bríelly
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address Lhís noLíon ol neLworks because we Lalk a
loL abouL neLworks and we hear a loL abouL neL
works. ¦ Lhínk LhaL’s Lhe wrong locus acLually.
Why7
1he real locus has Lo be on connecLíons because
neLworks are paLLerns ol connecLíons. We can’L
ínLeracL wíLh neLworks ín Lhe sane way LhaL we ín
LeracL wíLh Lhe connecLíon. 1o gíve you an exanple,
leL’s say soneone says, “When you Lake a group ol
índívíduals on varíous boards ol díllerenL corpora
Líons, you sLarL Lo realíze Lhere are cerLaín paLLerns
LhaL exísL here”. 1haL paLLern ís uselul buL a neLwork
ís a híghlevel absLracLíon LhaL you can’L dírecLly
ínLeracL wíLh. When you reduce íL down Lo a uníL ol
change LhaL we can conLrol, íL’s a connecLíon.
1wo years ago LogeLher wíLh SLephen Downes you
sLarLed connecLívísn and connecLíve knowledge.
WhaL’s LhaL abouL7
8asícally we wanLed Lo apply sone ol Lhe príncíples
LhaL we’ve been wríLíng abouL really sínce 2ooo and
sone ol Lhe víews LhaL we have developed as a
resulL ol parLícípaLíng ín Lhese onlíne dísLríbuLed
sysLens. 1hese socíal sysLens where we were ínLer
acLíng wíLh people lron around Lhe world. We
wanLed Lo really push Lhe líníLs ol whaL does íL
nean Lo learn ín an era where – and agaín ¦ keep
reLurníng Lo Lhe lragnenLaLíon ol ínlornaLíon –
where ínlornaLíon ís lragnenLed, conversaLíons are
lragnenLed we’re receívíng ínpuL lron nulLíple
sources – we were Lryíng Lo nake sense ol íL all,
And we LhoughL LhaL Lhe role ol a Leacher would be
dranaLícally díllerenL ín Lhe luLure. A Leacher
wouldn’L be Lhe person who would creaLe Lhe lírsL
sLrucLure ol Lhe course anynore and you would
sLarL Lo nove ínLo nore ol a parLícípaLíve pedagogy
kínd ol requírenenL. 1haL’s whaL we Lríed Lo creaLe.
We also Lríed Lo duplícaLe Lhe sense ol hígh ínlor
naLíon abundance. 1here’s Lhís sense ín whích we
|usL can’L nanage íL all so we wanLed Lo creaLe a
course sysLen LhaL duplícaLed, or aL leasL creaLed,
LhaL sense ol beíng overwhelned so Lhe ínlorna
Líon llow was really quíLe hecLíc. 1he lírsL year we
had around 22–2¯ hundred people sígn up. NoL
everyone parLícípaLed, ol course. 8uL we had Lhe
sane nunber on Lhe naílíng lísL Líll Lhe end ol Lhe
course so ¦’n assuníng Lhere was sone level ol
ínLeresL – unless, ol course Lhey |usL couldn’L clíck
Lhe ‘unsubscríbe’ buLLon aL Lhe boLLon ol Lhe
enaíl! We had a conbínaLíon ol Lryíng Lo lragnenL
Lhe course and Lhe conLenL and Lhe conversaLíons.
1hen we were experínenLíng wíLh díllerenL ways
ol weavíng LhaL lragnenLaLíon LogeLher agaín. One
was Lhrough a daíly newsleLLer we senL ouL. Second
was Lhrough, basícally, a sysLen ol naLchíng and
Lryíng Lo group sínílar Lopícs and Lhenes ín regular
enaíl exchanges LhaL people would receíve. 1here
was a groupíng ol Lhese Lopícs or aggregaLíon
around Lhenes. We Lríed Lo look aL Lags. as on
1wíLLer or Lhrough Del.ícío.us or Lhrough alerLs. And
Lhen we Lríed Lo look aL socíal sysLens as a neans
ol havíng learners lorn connecLíons and gaín a
sense ol whaL was happeníng. WíLh a conbínaLíon
ol Lhe ínsLrucLor sLíll weavíng Lhe lragnenLaLíon
ínLo a unílíed whole, Lhe Lechnology sysLens LhaL
we were usíng Lryíng Lo weave sone level ol whole
ness Lo Lhís lragnenLaLíon and Lhe learners,
Lhrough Lheír socíal engagenenL wíLh each oLher
sínílarly lorníng and weavíng sone kínd ol a uní
líed whole, we Lríed Lo duplícaLe Lhís sense ol, or aL
leasL Lo dísrupL Lhís noLíon ol whaL a course ís and
whaL Lhe role ol a Leacher ís and, nosL ol all, whaL
a sLudenL ís. 1haL’s why – based on Lhe connenLs
and reacLíons we’ve had – ¦ belíeve íL was a success
lul experínenL and, obvíously we’ll conLínue lor Lhe
Lhírd year so LhaL probably says quíLe a bíL as well.
Any surpríses7
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¦írsL ol all, ¦ was surprísed aL Lhe sheer anounL ol
naLural energy people have and Lhe lacL LhaL íL
doesn’L Lake long belore you, as Lhe educaLor, sLarL
Lo becone less ínporLanL Lhan you LhoughL you
were. And LhaL íL doesn’L Lake long lor people Lo
lorn relaLíonshíps wíLh each oLher and Lo sLarL
Lo use Lhose relaLíonshíps Lo lílLer ínlornaLíon. 1o
nake sense ol conplex ídeas, Lo bríng díverse
perspecLíves ínLo an ídea LhaL we, as educaLors, per
haps seL ouL as beíng “1hís ís how íL ís” and Lhen
we geL pícked away aL and we geL díssecLed and
analyzed. ¦ was genuínely surprísed aL Lhe level ol
energy people broughL ín and Lhe real value ol Lhe
díversíLy. People ínvesLed enornous Líne, índí
víduals creaLed spaces ín Second Líle Lo conLínue
díssecLíng Lhe conversaLíon and Lhere were Lrans
laLíons ol Lhe course ínLo líve díllerenL languages,
ol Lhe course ouLlíne. 1he sense ín whích índíví
duals are eager Lo parLícípaLe ín soneLhíng LhaL
ís neanínglul Lo Lhen was very evídenL. ¦L cones
back Lo Lhís concepL LhaL because we dísLríbuLed
conLrol, we have Lo dísLríbuLe responsíbílíLy lor
Lhe ouLcones and LhaL was very nuch evídenL. ¦n
dívíduals ín a course would really aggressívely
Lake on responsíbílíLy by helpíng pull LogeLher
Lhese elenenLs and we sLarLed Lo see groups clusL
eríng ín díllerenL ways. Croups ol people based on
díllerenL ways ol Lhínkíng or shared ways ol Lhín
kíng. We sLarLed seeíng LhaL our roles as Lhe
ínsLrucLors were conLínually nínínízed Lo sone de
gree. We would sLíll connenL and oller ínpuL, buL
sLudenLs were begínníng Lo lílLer and address
Lhíngs Lhrough Lhe sysLens LhaL Lhey had lorned
as a neans ol nakíng sense ol Lhís abundance ol
ínlornaLíon.
Do you Lhínk you’re now workíng wíLh Lhe ríghL
kínd ol nodel7
¦ don’L know íl íL’s quíLe Lhe ríghL nodel yeL. ¦L’s a
sLarL ol a nodel Lhough. 1here are a lew Lhíngs
wrong wíLh íL. ScalabílíLy ís perhaps one. You need
a cerLaín conbínaLíon ol skílls as an ínsLrucLor, Lech
nícal and lacílíLaLíonwíse. You also need híghly
Lechnícal skílls ín ínsLallíng equípnenL and workíng
ouL Lhe progran – líke lor Lhe way Lhe newsleLLer
was handled. 1he way LhaL Lhe leeds were pulled ín
LhaL’s sLíll Loo Lechnícal ríghL now lor an average
educaLor. When ¦ see cerLaín resources líke víral
heaL, lor exanple, LhaL are capable ol lookíng aL
Lhís nassíve conversaLíon ol voíces LhaL ís ongoíng
on all ol Lhese díllerenL servíces and all Lhese dílle
renL plaLlorns and Lhey’re able Lo presenL a paLLern
ol whaL’s happeníng. 1hey’re able Lo say, “1hese are
Lrendíng Lopícs. 1hese Lopícs are reducíng. 1hese
are dornanL Lhenes and poínLs ol víew LhaL are
rísíng.” ¦ Lhínk LhaL’s delíníLely a nodel LhaL wíLh Lhe
CCK nodel once we begín Lo use a líLLle bíL nore ol
LhaL as ¦ nenLíoned earlíer, Lechnology ís a neans
lor ne Lo nanage Lhe ínlornaLíon. Once we geL
beLLer Lools lor vísualízíng whaL’s happeníng, beLLer
Lools lor creaLíng a sense ol how Lhe language
paLLerns are changíng, as learners begín Lo learn
how does one parLícular ínLeracLíon wíLh anoLher
sLudenL ínlluence Lhe lornaLíon ol a concepLual
undersLandíng. Once we geL beLLer aL personalízíng
Lhe sysLen, Lhe neLwork, ín Lhe sense LhaL Coogle ís
able Lo personalíze íLs olleríngs based on prevíous
ínLeracLíons, Lhen ¦ Lhínk we’ll geL closer Lo a nodel
LhaL has longLern poLenLíal.
Are physícal places líke schools sLíll needed Lhen7
Physícal spaces are very ínporLanL. When ¦ was
aL Lhe ÜníversíLy ol ManíLoba, one ol Lhe busíesL
places on canpus was Lhe líbrary. 1he líbrary was
busy because íL had SLarbucks. ¦L was busy because
íL was a conlorLable socíal space where people
could connecL. ¦ Lhínk any neans by whích we con
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necL wíLh oLhers lor socíal or ínLellecLual ínlorna
Líon purposes wíll always be ínporLanL. So Lhere ís
a role lor physícal space, and Lhere’s a role lor on
líne spaces. 1he challenge becones how Lo balance
Lhe varíous opLíons you have avaílable. Should
schools be Lhe kínd ol lacílíLíes Lhey now are wíLh
cubícles desígned and closed ín7 Or should we have
nore open spaces LhaL are dríven lor socíalízaLíon
and ínLeracLíons around conplex ídeas7 How do we
sLríke a balance7 Should sLudenLs go Lo school líve
days a week ín a physícal space7 Or should Lhey
go lor líve or eíghL hours a day7 Or should Lhey be
goíng Lwíce a week and Lhen Lhree days a week Lo
varíous onlíne socíal spaces or vírLual worlds or
whaLever else. ¦ Lhínk Lhese quesLíons haven’L been
addressed yeL. Sone educaLors are sLarLíng Lo ask
Lhen buL our educaLíon sysLen ís – líke any ol Lhe
bíg sysLens ol socíeLy are governnenL, educaLíon,
or healLhcare – LíghLly ínLegraLed. ¦nLegraLed wíLh
lundíng. ¦nLegraLed wíLh legal guídelínes. ¦nLegra
Led wíLh Lhe expecLaLíons ol socíeLy. 1hey’re ín
LegraLed wíLh soneLhíng as sínple as boLh parenLs
beíng able Lo work wíLh chíldren ol a young age.
You send your chíldren Lo school so boLh parenLs
can work. 1hese sysLens are so ínLegraLed LhaL you
can’L change one wíLhouL causíng a rípple or cas
cadíng ellecL on Lhe oLhers. ¦n LhaL regard Lhe po
LenLíal ol relorn ís currenLly sonewhaL líníLed
by Lhe díllículLíes LhaL we have wíLh Lhe exísLíng
sysLens we’ve creaLed.
How do Lhese decenLralízed sLrucLures LhaL we’re
Lalkíng abouL líL ín wíLh Lhe LradíLíonal educaLíonal
sysLen7
Perhaps a beLLer quesLíon ís Lo ask how do Lhe
educaLíonal sysLens líL ínLo Lhís dísLríbuLed decen
Lralízed world LhaL we líve ín. 8ecause as Leachers ¦
know we always líke Lo squeeze Lhe world ínLo our
classroons. ¦ Lhínk we’re aL a poínL where we have
Lo squeeze our classroon ínLo Lhe world. Well, noL
squeeze! We have Lo open up our classroon ínLo
Lhe world raLher Lhan Lryíng Lo push Lhíngs ín. 1haL
has ¦ Lhínk poLenLíal lor LranslornaLíve ínpacL ín
Lerns ol how people wíll creaLe currículuns. How
people wíll learn, how people wíll ínLeracL wíLh
each oLher. So Lhere’s poLenLíally a lundanenLal
shílL LhaL could aríse ouL ol LhaL decenLralízed sLruc
Lure. As ¦ nenLíoned earlíer, Lhe Leacher Lypícally
lorns a narraLíve coherence ín a classroon, buL
when we go ínLo dísLríbuLed envíronnenLs, lear
ners also lorn a narraLíve coherence. 1hey under
sLand Lhe díscíplíne by how Lhey connecL Lo each
oLher, by how Lhey relaLe Lo each oLher, by Lhe
sígnals Lhey send oll, by Lhe anplílícaLíon ol ínlor
naLíon Lhrough Lhese socíal sLrucLures. And Lhey
begín Lo undersLand Lhe world Lhrough weavíng
and sLíLchíng LogeLher Lhese lragnenLed enLíLíes.
1he quesLíon ís, okay LhaL’s whaL’s goíng on ín
Lhe world as a whole, líLerally. How do we Lhen
nake our classroon conpaLíble wíLh LhaL kínd
ol envíronnenL7 1he skílls requíred Lo do so are
críLícal and LhaL’s whaL our sLudenLs should be
acquíríng as Lhey nove lorward.
we-magazIhe >
Ceorge SIemehs >
Peter Spiegel
I IIhd II absoluIely ouIrageous IhaI we cah accepI
a world Ih whIch ohe Io Iwo IhIrds oI all people
lIve Ih IoIally degradIhg cohdIIIohs. We draw up
loIIy declaraIIohs oI humah rIghIs whIle IramplIhg
Ihe same rIghIs Ih Ihe dIrI!
>
PhoLo. 8ea Cschwend
What the
East Can Teach
the West
oo87 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > cuIIIhg edge, shIII Ihdex, AsIa, WesIerh, Web2.o
!ohn Hagel ¦¦¦
!ohn Hagel ¦¦¦ ís an auLhor and lorner McKínsey consulLanL who specíalízes ín Lhe ínLersecLíon ol busíness sLraLegy and ínlornaLíon
Lechnology. ¦n 2oo¯, Hagel, along wíLh !ohn Seely 8rown and Lang Davíson, lounded Lhe DeloíLLe CenLer lor Ldge ¦nnovaLíon.
Hagel ís also ínvolved wíLh a nunber ol oLher organízaLíons, íncludíng Lhe World Lcononíc ¦orun, ¦nnovaLíon Lxchange wíLh
!ohn Seely 8rown and Henry Chesbrough, Lhe ¦nLernaLíonal Acadeny ol ManagenenL, and Lhe Aspen ¦nsLíLuLe. He ís credíLed wíLh
ínvenLíng Lhe Lern “ínlonedíary” ín hís book, NeLWorLh. wíLh Marc Sínger, publíshed by Lhe Harvard 8usíness School Press ín 1¤¤¤.
oo88 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
WhaL ís Lhe drívíng lorce LhaL nakes you work on
Lhe cuLLíng edge7
!ohh Hagel >
WhaL ínLeresLs ne ís Lhe noLíon LhaL Lechnology
ís conLínuíng Lo evolve aL an exponenLíal raLe and ís
lar exceedíng our capacíLy Lo acLually absorb Lhe
Lechnology and Lhe poLenLíal LhaL íL ollers. 1he
consLanL Lensíon beLween conLínuíng Lechnology
ínnovaLíon and our capacíLy Lo harness íL and use íL
Lo help us becone nore producLíve and prosperous
cíLízens ís a real passíon ol níne.
we-magazIhe >
WíLhouL any doubL we are lívíng ín a nunber ol
críses. WhaL are Lhe na|or índícaLors LhaL we have
lallen ínLo Lhese críses7
!ohh Hagel >
We publíshed a research reporL lasL year called
“1he ShílL ¦ndex” whích was largely dríven by Lhe
lacL LhaL busíness leaders have generally becone
very locused on Lhe shorLLern econoníc cycle.
Over Lhe pasL couple ol years we have been ín Lhe
nídsL ol a na|or econoníc downLurn on a global
scale. 8usíness leaders are undersLandably locused
on LhaL and Lryíng Lo cope wíLh íL. 8uL aL Lhe sane
Líne Lhere ís a nuch longerLern Lrend LhaL has
been playíng ouL, and íL has Lo do wíLh Lhe declíne
ol prolíLabílíLy ol conpaníes over nany decades.
¦n “1he ShílL ¦ndex” we looked aL Lhe prolíLabílíLy
ol all publíc conpaníes ín Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes sínce
1¤6¬. WhaL we lound was a very sígnílícanL and
susLaíned erosíon ín prolíLabílíLy. ProlíLabílíLy has
cone down ¯¬% over LhaL Líne períod.
we-magazIhe >
Due Lo whaL reasons7
!ohh Hagel >
¦L has Lo do wíLh Lhe energence ol Lhe new Lech
nology ínlrasLrucLures, dígíLal Lechnology ínlra
sLrucLures LhaL help us Lo connecL and connunícaLe
nuch nore ellecLívely on a global scale, conbíned
wíLh a broad publíc polícy shílL Lowards nore
econoníc líberalízaLíon on a global scale. ¦l you
conbíne Lhe ellecLs ol Lhose Lwo Lrends, we are
reducíng – on a global scale – barríers Lo enLry and
barríers Lo novenenL. 1haL ínLensílíes conpeLíLíon.
1ypícally, íl you accepL LhaL narkeLs are ellecLíve ín
dealíng wíLh new, unanLícípaLed Lrends, Lhe lacL
LhaL conpaníes over lour or nore decades have noL
been able Lo ellecLívely respond Lo Lhís ínLensílyíng
conpeLíLíon ís revealíng.
¦L suggesLs Lo us LhaL conpaníes are locked ín
Lo an old way ol doíng Lhíngs, approaches LhaL are
basícally broken. We are workíng harder and
harder and yeL we produce less and less reLurn on
our ellorLs.
we-magazIhe >
Your reporLs say LhaL Asía ís a good place Lo look
aL. WhaL can Aneríca learn lron sone Asían con
paníes7
!ohh Hagel >
¦l you Lhínk abouL Lhe challenge lor conpaníes ín
general, íL has Lo do wíLh how do you connecL ínLo
a larger seL ol relaLíonshíps and parLnershíps LhaL
can gíve you access Lo new knowledge ín a nuch
nore rapíd and ellecLíve way. Sone enLrepreneu
ríal conpaníes ín boLh Chína and ¦ndía are way
ahead ol nosL WesLern conpaníes ín Lerns ol
nanagenenL Lechníques needed Lo buíld scalable
neLworks. We are Lalkíng abouL neLworks ol Lhou
sands ol parLners and relaLíonshíps, noL |usL Lhe lew
key parLners ín your supply chaín or dísLríbuLíon
channels. 1hey have nasLered a Lechníque Lo do a
nuch broader and nore díverse seL ol relaLíonshíps
Lhan nosL WesLern conpaníes would ever be able
Lo aLLenpL.
we-magazIhe >
How cone7
!ohh Hagel >
A loL ol íL has Lo do wíLh Lhe íssues LhaL WesLern
execuLíves víewed as na|or challenges lor Lhese
conpaníes. When ¦ Lalked Lo a WesLern execuLíves
1o or 1¬ years ago, Lhey conlídenLly saíd abouL
Chína. “don’L worry. Chína ís noL goíng Lo be seríous
oo8¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
conpeLíLíon lor Lwo reasons. ¦írsL, Lhey don’L have
a well developed línancíal sysLen, so Lhey don'L
have access Lo loans and noney Lo lund Lheír
growLh. Secondly, Lhere ís no proLecLíon lor ínLel
lecLual properLy. So any ínnovaLíon Lhey cone up
wíLh wíll be rapídly copíed and Lherelore Lhere
are no real íncenLíves Lo ínnovaLe.” WhaL Chínese
conpaníes have done ís Lo Lake Lhose challenges
and Lurn Lhen ínLo opporLuníLíes.
¦l Lhey don’L have access Lo a loL ol línancíal
resources, Lhey have been lorced Lo locus on how
Lhey can very aggressívely and creaLívely connecL
Lo as nany conpaníes as possíble Lo leverage Lheír
capabílíLíes, and |usL locus on Lhe Lhíngs Lhey do
besL, and rely on oLhers Lo províde Lhe resL.
we-magazIhe >
When you are Lalkíng abouL Lhese WesLern nana
gers, whaL ís WesLern lor you7
!ohh Hagel >
WesLern ín Lhís conLexL ís Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes and
WesLern Lurope, and poLenLíally even !apan. 1hey
adopLed a seL ol nanagenenL Lechníques LhaL are
very nuch dríven by our WesLern Lhínkíng. !apa
nese execuLíves were very nuch ínlluenced by Lhe
qualíLy novenenL LhaL acLually orígínaLed wíLh a
varíeLy ol WesLern Lhínkers. So ¦ Lhínk LhaL !apanese
conpaníes lace as nuch ol a challenge as conpa
níes ín Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL ís Lhís WesLern Lhínkíng abouL7 ¦s íL a kínd ol
value paLLern7
!ohh Hagel >
1he key assunpLíon LhaL dríves WesLern conpaníes
and creaLed enornous wealLh ín Lhe 2oLh cenLury
ís Lhe noLíon LhaL econoníc value ís largely con
cenLraLed ín knowledge sLocks. 1hís víew holds
LhaL your abílíLy Lo creaLe value depends on whaL
you know Loday, how well you proLecL Lhose
knowledge sLocks and Lhen how ellícíenLly you
exLracL value lron Lhen. ¦l you look aL all Lhe suc
cesslul conpaníes ín Lhe 2oLh cenLury LhaL energed
ín Lhe ÜS and Lurope, Lhey were locused on deve
lopíng propríeLary knowledge LhaL Lhey aggressí
vely proLecLed and buílL scale Lo exploíL. WhaL
we are lacíng now ís a world where knowledge
sLocks deprecíaLe ín value very quíckly because
our surroundíngs are changíng so rapídly. ¦l all you
are locused on ís proLecLíng whaL you know Loday,
you are goíng Lo end up very challenged very
quíckly. 1he opporLuníLy ís Lo connecL ínLo a broa
der range ol nore díverse and relevanL knowledge
llows and nore acLívely relresh whaL we know aL
any one poínL ín Líne.
1haL’s a very díllerenL way ol Lhínkíng. ¦l you are
goíng Lo parLícípaLe ín knowledge llows, you have
Lo be wíllíng Lo share sone ol your knowledge. ¦l
your níndseL ís all abouL proLecLíng whaL you know
and noL leLLíng anyone else geL íL, íL ís very hard
Lo nake Lhe LransíLíon.
we-magazIhe >
¦l you Lransler Lhís Lo políLícal Lhínkíng on Lhe
governnenL level, whaL challenges do you see wíLh
Lhe ríse ol Chína7 ¦s Lhe WesLern world ready lor
such a powerlul nunber one LasLern counLry7
!ohh Hagel >
¦ don'L Lhínk we are ready lor íL yeL. We sLíll belíeve
LhaL Chína ís noL an ínnovaLíve counLry, LhaL Lhere
ís noL nuch econoníc ínnovaLíon LhaL we can learn
lron. So Lhere ís a Lendency Lo dínínísh or under
esLínaLe Lhe power ol whaL ís beíng creaLed Lhere.
On Lhe oLher hand Lhere ís an opporLuníLy Lo learn.
1here ís no reason LhaL we cannoL adopL nany ol
Lhe pracLíces LhaL are energíng ín Chína LhaL wíll
relresh and reínvígoraLe our econoníc acLívíLy as
well.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL do you see personally as Lhe na|or challenges
LhaL conpaníes and governnenLs ín Lhe socalled
WesLern world are lacíng7
!ohh Hagel >
1he bíggesL challenge ís Lhís noLíon ol shílLíng our
níndseL, Lhe key assunpLíons we have abouL where
econoníc value ís, and how Lo nore acLívely and
producLívely parLícípaLe ín a global econony. 1he
successlul Chínese conpaníes LhaL we have sLudíed
are really locused on how Lo conpeLe ellecLívely
we¸specIal¸o1o/1 oo¤o
ín Lhe global econony. 1hey are noL |usL locused on
Lhe local narkeLs. 1hey sLarLed wíLh a global per
specLíve ol Lhe opporLuníLíes Lo conpeLe ín a global
narkeL.
we-magazIhe >
When Lechnology cones ín, and 2.o Lhínkíng wíLh
values líke Lransparency, repuLaLíon, openness,
whaL kínd ol roles does Lhís kínd ol Lhínkíng play
ín Lhe way we are dealíng wíLh Lhese challenges7
!ohh Hagel >
¦L has a cenLral role. Web2.o aL one level ís all abouL
how do you connecL ín Lo a broader seL ol neLworks
and leverage Lhose neLworks Lo creaLe nore value
lor Lhe narkeLs and cusLoners you are servíng. 1haL
ís a cenLral assunpLíon LhaL we need Lo enbrace
and pursue. A loL ol Web2.o Lhínkíng Lends Lo locus
on daLa and ínlornaLíon, raLher Lhan knowledge,
because íL Lends Lo be developed by LechnologísLs.
¦ron ny víewpoínL Lhe opporLuníLy ís Lo Lake
Web2.o Lhínkíng and locus íL on how Lo buíld a
personal relaLíonshíps ín a nuch nore scalable way,
usíng Lechnology. ÜlLínaLely, Lhe nosL valuable
neLworks are neLworks ol people relaLíonshíps, as
opposed Lo |usL connecLíng ínLo daLa or ínlorna
Líon servíces ol varíous Lypes. 1haL Lo ne ís Lhe bíg
opporLuníLy.
we-magazIhe >
¦l you would have Lo nane one exanple, one con
pany ín Asía LhaL ís doíng really well, whích con
pany would íL be and where are Lhey really
excepLíonal7
!ohh Hagel >
Lí & ¦ung ín Chína, whích ís noL really well known
ín Lhe WesL. 1hey energed over nany decades as
one ol Lhe leadíng players ín Lhe cloLhíng índusLry.
1hey organíze cusLonízed supply neLworks lor We
sLern apparel desígners. WhaL ís parLícularly ínLer
esLíng ís Lhey have developed a global neLwork ol
nore Lhan 1o,ooo busíness parLners, híghly specía
lízed conpaníes, LhaL Lhey bríng ínLo índívídual sup
ply neLworks on an asneeded bases. One exanple
ís LhaL ín Lhe ínnedíaLe períod alLer ¤/11 Lhey had
a loL ol Lheír acLívíLy ín PakísLan. ¦l aL Lhe Líne you
had LínesensíLíve supply neLwork operaLíons, you
dídn'L wanL Lo be ín PakísLan. ¦L was very ínsecure.
WíLhín Lhree weeks, Lí & ¦ung had noved all ol íLs
producLíon acLívíLíes ouL ol PakísLan and ínLo oLher
counLríes LhaL were nore secure. 1haL's a degree ol
llexíbílíLy LhaL ís noL leasíble lor WesLern conpaníes
wíLh LradíLíonal supply chaíns. ¦ron our perspec
Líve, Lhe nosL ínpressíve aspecL ís Lhe degree Lo
whích Lí & ¦ung ís locused on creaLíng a neLwork
where Lhe parLícípanLs are learníng lron each oLher
nuch nore rapídly Lhan Lhey could on Lheír own.
So Lhe value ol parLícípaLíng ín Lhe Lí & ¦ung neL
work ís LhaL, as a parLner, you are able Lo ínprove
your perlornance nuch nore rapídly Lhan íl you
were operaLíng on your own.
we-magazIhe >
People who are llexíble líke Lhís, who are neLwork
savvy, have Lo be educaLed sone place. Would you
say our educaLíon sysLens are ready lor Lhís7 Do
our kíds learn Lhe ríghL Lhíngs aL school Lo be pre
pared lor Lhís7
!ohh Hagel >
¦n a shorL answer. no. ¦ Lhínk our educaLíon sysLens
are lar behínd Lhe pracLíces LhaL are energíng ín
varíous parLs ol Lhe world. So Lhere ís a huge op
porLuníLy Lo really reLhínk noL |usL whaL we are con
nunícaLíng, whaL we are educaLíng our sLudenLs
wíLh, buL even how we educaLe. One ol Lhe Lrends
LhaL we belíeve ís playíng ouL ís novíng lron a
world ol push Lo a world ol pull. ¦n Lhe educaLíon
sysLen we are sLíll very nuch ín a world ol push.
1he noLíon ís LhaL we can anLícípaLe lor Lhe enLíre
educaLíonal progran ol a sLudenL, lron Lhe day
Lhey born, whaL Lhey wíll need Lo learn when. Pus
híng knowledge based on a predícLíon, a lorecasL
ol whaL Lhey are goíng Lo need Lo know. We belíeve
Lhere ís Lrenendous need Lo reLhínk educaLíon as a
pull sysLen, where nore and nore ol Lhe learníng
occurs on an asneeded basís. 1hís ínvolves con
sLrucLíng Lhe plaLlorns and Lools Lo help sLudenLs
connecL Lo people and knowledge when Lhey need
íL based on Lheír specílíc síLuaLíon. ¦L ís a very dílle
renL educaLíonal phílosophy Lhan nosL ol our edu
caLíonal ínsLíLuLíons are currenLly pursuíng.
oo¤1 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
When wíll we geL Lhere7 1here ís sone kínd ol
urgency, ísn’L íL7
!ohh Hagel >
1here ís a huge sense ol urgency. ¦l you go back Lo
Lhe “1he ShílL ¦ndex” and declíníng prolíLabílíLy,
Lhe Lrend ís longLern and íL ís susLaíned. A loL ol
ínsLíLuLíonal leaders have Lhe víew LhaL we are ín
Lhe níddle ol greaL econoníc downLurn, buL LhaL
íL ís Lenporary and we wíll evenLually recover. 1he
key resulL ol our research ís LhaL lor nore Lhan lour
decades Lhere has a longLern Lrend LhaL shows no
sígn ol Lurníng around, so Lhe pressure ís nounLíng
lor us Lo cone up wíLh ínnovaLíons and soluLíons
LhaL are quíLe díllerenL lron Lhe pracLíces we are
currenLly pursuíng. 1he urgency ís only íncreasíng
and íL ís well beyond Lhe currenL econoníc down
Lurn.
PhoLo. 8ea Cschwend
Hans Rosling
DaIa does reach Ihe publIc, II goes IhIo IheIr eyes,
hIIs Ihe reIIha, buI Ihe problem Is II doesh’I go
IhIo IheIr braIhs! Ih huIrIIIoh we have a rule IhaI
Iood hoI swallowed has ho huIrIIIohal value. You
cah chew II ahd spII II ouI – ahd IhaI’s whaI we do.
oo¤õ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Future
Engage
– IrahslaIe Ideas IhIo acIIoh!
Challenges
we¸specIal¸o1o/1
> > > >
PhoLo. buLLerllyworks
To Engage
Means to
Create!
Lner 8eaner
Lner 8eaner ís a socíal desígner and concepLor who lounded Naíro8íLs and 8uLLerlly
Works LogeLher wíLh HesLer Lzra and ¦neke Aquaríus. Her currenL posL ís research and
developnenL dírecLor aL 8uLLerlly Works, socíal desígn sLudío, NeLherlands.
tags > co-creaIe, susIaIhable, desIgh, lIberaIe, maker
oo¤8 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
WhaL’s LhaL7 AL 8uLLerlly Works we (as ¦ hope you
wíll be by Lhe end ol Lhís píece) are avíd belíevers ín
Lhe acL ol creaLíon (nakíng, doíng, concepLíng) Lo
enpower and líberaLe people (íncludíng ourselves)
ín all kínds ol círcunsLances. We also have LoLal
laíLh ín Lhe abílíLy ol every chíld and person Lo
creaLe, nake, desígn and conceíve, we |usL need
Lo lacílíLaLe openíng Lhe door Lo an índívídual’s
creaLíve LalenLs and abílíLíes. 1hís perhaps naíve
approach has allowed us Lo work and nake pro
gress ín Lhe nosL unlíkely círcunsLances wíLh all
kínds ol Lopícs and people, even wíLh Lhose wíLh
whon we share no connon language.
LíberaLíon ís nore conplícaLed. LíberaLíon lron
whaL7 ¦n our case we work wíLh people Lo help
Lhen escape lron powerlessness and lron poverLy,
whích olLen go hand ín hand. PoverLy ís a círcun
sLance buL íL ís also a sLaLe ol nínd, a culLure, sup
porLed by a class sysLen, whích olLenLínes holds
people capLíve due as nuch Lo a seL ol belíels abouL
Lheír posíLíon ín socíeLy as Lo lacLual realíLy.
LíberaLíon ís only possíble when an índívídual
can see and leel an achíevable oLher sLaLe ol beíng
Lo Lhe currenL one. 1hrough doíng, nakíng and
conceívíng, one begíns Lo leel sLronger and sLarLs
owníng Lhe soluLíon, Lhrough seeíng oLhers who
have gone belore you who have nade a successlul
choíce or lílesLyle, one ís encouraged LhaL íL ís pos
síble. CreaLíng Lhese lírsL role nodels ís essenLíal
Lo encourage oLhers Lo lollow.
So whaI does IhaI meah Ih pracIIce
ahd how does II work. Here are Ihree
examples Iromvery dIIIerehI programs
whIch hopeIully IllusIraIe how IhIs
cah work:
1hahks Io WE Ior gIvIhg us Ihe opporIuhIIy ahd Ihe challehge Io Ialk abouI
Ihe way we Ehgage IhdIvIduals, commuhIIIes ahd orgahIsaIIohs Io provIde
susIaIhable ahswers Io IhIerhaIIohal socIal Issues. OIIeh we are so deep
Ih doIhg, IhaI we doh’I geI arouhd Io documehIIhg our approach, so here
goes ah aIIempI Io do |usI IhaI.
Ohe oI Ihe ma|or challehges Ihe IuIure Is brIhgIhg us, ahd Ihdeed a chal-
lehge already much presehI, Is uhderuIIlIsaIIoh oI Ihe IalehIs oI mIllIohs
oI youhg people oh Ihe plaheI. 1hIs Is a hIce way oI sayIhg IhaI Ihere are
way Ioo mahy people lIvIhg Ih sIark, IoIally uhaccepIable, Ihhumahe poverIy
ahd IhaI Ihey Ieel real bad abouI II.
8uIIerIly Works Is ohe WE, craIIIhg ahd recraIIIhg ah approach wIIh Ihe
aIm oI developIhg programs Ior people Io move ouI oI IhIs poverIy. SIhce
2ooo Ihe we oI 8uIIerIly Works has, wIIh users, co-creaIed some 1s programs,
how ruhhIhg or sIarIIhg up Ih 2s couhIrIes. 1he work may hoI appear Io
have a commoh approach, IhcludIhg as II does, desIgh educaIIoh Ior youIh
Irom Ihe slums; haIIohal peace campaIghs; HIV/aIds school programs; IIh-
kerIhg IesIIvals Ih AIrIca; arIIsahs producI exporI programs ahd co-desIgh
processes leadIhg Io hew brahded producIs. 1here are, however, commoh
IhgredIehIs ahd meIhods Ihvolved, whIch I aIm Io uhpack here. 1he Ierm
we use Is ‘LIberaIe Ihe CreaIIve’.
Liberate the Creative
oo¤¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Example : NairoBits community
Naíro8íLs, whích we lounded ín 2ooo líberaLes
Lhe creaLíve ín youLhs lron Lhe sluns ol Naírobí
whereby Lhey geL |obs, nove Lhenselves and Lheír
lanílíes ouL ol Lhe sluns, ínspíre oLhers, creaLe cool
WebsíLes and seL up all kínds ol youLh íníLíaLíves lor
Lheír peers. 1hese are young people who LhoughL
Lheír only opLíon was Lo becone a crínínal, a drunk
or boLh. Now Lhey are novers and shakers. Naíro
8íLs has sínce spawned Addís8íLs ín LLhíopía, Zanzí
8íLs ín 1anzanía, Kílínan|aro ¦íln School ín 1anzanía
and currenLly ín Lhe nake are Kanpa8íLs ín Üganda
and 8eí|íng8íLs ín Chína. All Lhese schools are buílL
on Lhe sane eLhos.
1he essence ol Lhe progran ís a one year Lraíníng ín
desígn, personal developnenL and Alrícan culLure.
Workíng ín Leans and on índívídual pro|ecLs, choo
síng Lheír own Lopícs Lo desígn and creaLe WebsíLes
abouL, each sLudenL ís challenged Lo choose, Lhen
desígn and progran Lheír ídeas. 1hey learn Lo pre
senL and delend Lheír work. All sLudenLs are selecLed
on Lhe basís ol noLívaLíon lron a group ol ¯o con
nuníLy based organísaLíons. 1here ís no lee lor parLí
cípaLíon, buL a Lough selecLíon procedure ensures
LhaL only Lhose who are really noLívaLed and genuí
nely have no oLher opporLuníLy lor lurLher educa
Líon geL Lhe chance.
WhaL’s ínLeresLíng ín Lhís process, whích alLer 1o
years can now conlorLably be called a novenenL
(wíLh 1ooo plus graduaLes) ís LhaL whíle nany, buL
noL all ol Lhenbecone enployed as Webdesígners,
Lhey do all carve ouL Lheír own paLhs, be íL D!,
seLLíng up a youLh NCO, Leachíng, lurLher sLudy
aL uníversíLy, seLLíng up Lheír own busíness, you
nane íL.
1he oLher lascínaLíng parL ís Lhe sense ol connuníLy
LhaL has arísen anongsL sLudenLs and graduaLes,
young people lron díllerenL Lríbes and parLs ol
Lhe cíLy are now uníLed ín an ínlornal neLwork
whích lreelances LogeLher, shares codíng Líps, |ob
opporLuníLíes and sLrong lríendshíps. 1hey are
bound by Lhe new culLure whích ís noL ‘we are
poor’ and noL ‘we are rích’ buL ‘we are creaLíve,
we can creaLe whaL we need’
buLLerllyworks
oo1oo we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Example : The World starts with Me
1he World SLarLs wíLh Me ís an elearníng progran
on H¦V/A¦DS prevenLíon and general Leenager líle
skílls, developed lírsLly lor Ügandan Leenagers and
now runníng Ügandawíde and happíly, adapLed
and ínplenenLed ín VíeLnan, ¦ndonesía and 1haí
land. 8uLLerlly Works was asked Lo develop an
approach lor H¦V/Aíds prevenLíon by Lhe World
PopulaLíon ¦oundaLíon. 1o do Lhís we lorned a
díverse group ol arLísLs, youLhs, Leachers and Lopíc
experLs, who LogeLher developed Lhe lranework
and depícLed Lhe príoríLíes lor Lhe dígíLal currícu
lun ol 1he World SLarLs wíLh Me, Lhrough a seríes
ol braínsLorníng and cocreaLíon sessíons.
Lach lesson begíns wíLh Lwo vírLual peer educaLors
who díscuss Lhenes such as ‘lríendshíp’. Lach par
LícípanL Lhen draws a nap ol Lheír lríends, revealíng
Lhe closeness, level ol supporL and Lype ol ínlluence
each one has on Lheír líves. 1hís exercíse geLs
people beyond Lalkíng and ínLo rellecLíve space
Lhrough doíng. (8y Lhe way, íL’s also lun Lo do Lhís
exercíse as an adulL and can be quíLe revealíng.)
1he currículun Lhen Lakes Lhe índívídual on a |our
ney ol sell díscovery, encouragíng Lhen all Lhe Líne
Lo geL Lhe lacLs and Lhen nake Lheír own ínlorned
choíces lor Lheír líves on Lopícs such as ídenLíLy,
socíeLy, gender roles, hunan ríghLs, sexualíLy,
sexual abuse and H¦V/aíds. A lour year sLudy has
shown posíLíve ínpacL on parLícípanLs and Lhe pro
gran has been earnarked as besL pracLíce aL Lhe
World Aíds conlerence ín Mexíco and by ÜNLSCO.
On a nore índívídual level whaL we have seen ís
young people nakíng soneLínes very díllículL
choíces, such as sLeppíng lorward lor help wíLh
cases ol abuse aL hone, gírls denandíng Lo be
allowed Lo conLínue school despíLe beíng pregnanL
(usually one ís expelled), boys reassessíng Lheír
role ín sexual relaLíonshíps, young people seLLíng
up groups Lo advocaLe lor Lheír ríghLs. ¦L seens
Lhrough creaLíng and pracLícíng soluLíons Lo Lhe
problens ín Lheír líves young people belíeve ín Lheír
ríghL Lo choose whaL’s good lor Lhen.
Example : Return to Sender
‘keLurn Lo Sender’ selecLs nanulacLurers ín develo
píng counLríes, and ín cooperaLíon wíLh Lhe HLMA,
a large deparLnenL sLore ín Lhe NeLherlands ensures
a narkeL lor Lheír producLs. 1he resulLíng prolíLs
are channeled back Lo Lhe regíon ol orígín Lhrough
pro|ecLs desígned Lo ínprove Lhe local econony.
‘keLurn Lo Sender’ ís also a Lelevísíon progran pre
senLed by KaL|a Schuurnan, Lhe lounder and well
known acLress, whích gíves a wíndow Lo víewers on
Lhe sLory behínd Lhese specíal producLs.
¦n Lhe sLarLup Lwo years 8uLLerlly Works was
responsíble lor selecLíng Lhe parLícípaLíng counLríes
and producíng parLners and nanagíng boLh prolíL
expendíLure and Lhe lollowup lor Lhose ínvolved
locally.
Sourcíng Lhese snall local nakers wíLh poLenLíal
was an exhílaraLíng challenge and a rísky busíness,
Lhey had Lo be snall enough Lo knowyou were really
helpíng a snall producer Lo grow and Lake people
ouL ol poverLy yeL Lhey also had Lo be able Lo ríse Lo
Lhe denand ol delíveríng large quanLíLíes ol qua
líLy goods Lo saLísly Lhe needs ol a large sLore chaín
(¯¬o ouLleLs) ín Lurope. We were also lookíng lor
producLs LhaL cheríshed sone local culLure or Lech
níc wíLhouL beíng sLereoLypícally eLhníc lookíng.
1he producers ín 8razíl, lor exanple, dídn’L have a
shared workíng space, Lhey all worked lron hone
nakíng Lhese beauLílul lelL and enbroídered íLens.
1hey have sínce gone on Lo lorn a cooperaLíve,
renL a decenL workíng space and delíver Lwo col
lecLíons ol ChrísLnas Lree decoraLíons usíng Lheír
orígínal cralLwork. Lveryone ol Lhe ladíes and Lheír
lanílíes ín Lhe cooperaLíve has benelíLed greaLly.
Sínílarly Lhe progran ínporLs goods lron weavers
ín CuaLenala, coLLon producers ín Madagascar,
ceraníc nakers ín 1haíland and Loy nakers ín Srí
Lanka. 1he lorprolíL HLMA has conníLLed íLsell Lo
longLern connercíal relaLíons wíLh a nunber ol
Lhe producers groups wíLh a percenLage ol Lhe pro
líLs conLínually llowíng back Lo Lhe connuníLíes.
As nuch as Lhe ínporLance Lhís progran has had
lor índívídual producers, Lhe lacL LhaL íL has been
possíble Lo Lurn a prolíL wíLh goods produced by
such snall groups whíle honoríng each conLríbuLor
ín Lhe value chaín, ís, we hope, a source ol ínspíra
Líon LhaL socíal busíness nodels can work.
oo1o1 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Needless Lo say, we are noL Lhe only organísaLíon
LhaL sees and lacílíLaLes Lhe creaLíve resources ol
younger and older people. Croups such as PLNYA
who lacílíLaLe buddíng nusíc arLísLs, HoL Sun ¦ílns,
who work wíLh young líln nakers, Caranundo,
One MínuLe ¦ílns, KNN Kíds news neLwork, Young
desígners and ¦ndusLry, Voíces ol Alríca, Kwaní7,
SLoryno|a, CreaLíve Canbodía, 1heaLer Lnbassy,
Musíc Mayday do Loo and Lhese are |usL Lhe ones ¦
can nane oll Lhe Lop ol ny head.
¦n lacL ¦ would be wíllíng Lo beL LhaL Lhere ís a whole
new Líde ol socíal enLrepreneurs ouL Lhere who are
seeíng Lhe creaLíve poLenLíal ín people and addíng
sone resources Lo Lhe níx conLríbuLíng Lo a bubblíng
novenenL ol ‘creaLívíLy ouL ol poverLy’ prograns.
Ahd yes, IhIs Is all ohly a drop Ih Ihe
oceah oI whaI’s heeded, a drop how-
ever IhaI meahs a huge amouhI Io
each oI Ihe IhdIvIduals Ihvolved plus
Ihere’s a meIhod here IhaI could
apply Io every humah beIhg. Wheh
we Iap IhIo Ihe creaIIve resources oI
people, you hever khow where II wIll
lead.
p.s Warning: II Ihvolves hard work
ahd plehIy oI moral dIlemmas ahd
a cohIIhual recohsIderaIIoh oI Ihe
choseh paIh.
p.p.s we deeply co-creaIe all Ihe acII-
vIIIes wIIh Ihe ehd users.
p.p.p.s 1hIs Is raIher urgehI, Ihere are
mIllIohs oI youhg people ouI Ihere,
Iull oI ehergy, revved up Io go, yeI
sIuck Ih poverIy. Every IhdIvIdual who
‘gIves up’ who bows IheIr head or
Iurhs Io desIrucIIve measures gIveh
Ihe lack oI possIbIlIIy Io Iorward
Ihemselves Ih lIIe, Is a huge loss Io all
oI us. WE, Ihe bIg WE – IhaI Is
everyohe oh Ihe plaheI ahd Ihdeed
Ihe plaheI IIselI – all mIss ouI oh Ihe
uhIque creaIIve cohIrIbuIIoh Ihey
could have made.
RelaIed WebsIIes
www.buIIerIlyworks.org
www.IheworldsIarIs.org
www.haIrobIIs.com
www.reIurhIosehder.hl
www.Isyou.com
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> > >
PhoLo. 8í|an Kalí
Challenging
Invisible
Boundaries in
War and Peace
SocIal MedIa Ih CeorgIa
oo1o¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > CeorgIa, corrupIIoh, 1bIlIsI, RussIa
8í|an Kalí
8í|an Kalí ís a consulLanL on connunícaLíon lor cívíl socíeLy íníLíaLíves and has worked ín ínLernaLíonal developnenL aíd ín counLríes
íncludíng LgypL, CenLral Alríca, and Ceorgía. He currenLly líves ín 8erlín.
oo1oõ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Zurab 1chíaberashvílí nay well have expecLed hís
|ob would noL be easy when he becane Lhe lírsL
nayor ol posLShevardnadze era 1bílísí. However,
he alnosL cerLaínly dídn’L anLícípaLe whaL íL would
nean Lo adhere Lo Lhe príncíples he had chosen Lo
pursue ín ollíce. Lo rooL ouL corrupLíon ín publíc
adnínísLraLíon.
When 1chíaberashvílí was presenLed wíLh a valuable
gílL by a nunícípal execuLíve ín 2oo4, he resorLed
Lo drasLíc neasures. AL a publíclyLelevísed evenL
only one day laLer he conlronLed Lhe colleague wíLh
whaL he consídered as an aLLenpL aL bríbery, Lhus
ínLendíng Lo ínlorn Lhe publíc LhaL he would noL
LoleraLe corrupLíon.
8y hís own sLandards 1chíaberashvílí LhoughL he
had done well. 1he publíc, however, LhoughL díl
lerenLly. WíLhín days alLer Lhe evenL Lhe boards ol
Ceorgía’s nosL lrequenLed onlíne lorun ¦orun.ge
were llooded wíLh connenLs, Lhe na|oríLy ol whích
were críLícal ol Lhe nayor’s publícíLy sLunL. Lven
Lhough 1chíaberashvílí laLer chose Lo líníL Lhe da
nage by engagíng Lhe publíc lron wíLhín Lhe new
nedíun, ín Lhe eyes ol Lhe publíc hís ínage had
Laken a beaLíng.
1o hís surpríse Lhe nood ol a snall buL growíng
parL ol hís consLíLuency – Lhe Lechsavvy and well
connecLed – had Lurned agaínsL hín. 1chíaberashvílí
had unknowíngly Lríggered a crísís and Lhe people
íL allecLed had lound a nedíun, relaLívely new aL
Lhe Líne, Lo nake Lheír voíces heard quíckly and
ellícíenLly.
Trackback to Tbilisi
Líke Zurab 1chíaberashvílí, 2¬year old Sían Davíes,
Lhen a charíLy worker lron Wales, díd noL anLící
paLe Lhe crísís she was Lo wíLness only nonLhs alLer
her arríval ín 1bílísí ín Lhe sunner ol 2oo8.
When, lollowíng clashes wíLh Ceorgían lorces ín
1skhínvalí, Lhe kussían arny crossed Lhe border ol
SouLh OsseLía and ínLo Ceorgía ín early AugusL,
Davíes was ín 1bílísí. She was workíng lor a local
NCO Lo avoíd precísely Lhe sorL ol crísís LhaL was
unloldíng sone Lwo hundred kíloneLers away.
¦n whaL Lurned ouL over Lhe lollowíng days Lo be a
lullblown arned conllícL, Davíes becane an ínvo
lunLary cíLízen war reporLer, naínly Lhanks Lo Lhe
new nedía.
DurIhg AugusI 2oo8 wheh Ihe “IhIormaIIoh war” was ragIhg hIgh Ih CeorgIa
people Iurhed Io ohlIhe medIa Io IIhd desperaIely heeded IhIormaIIoh.
ExperIehce shows IhaI ohlIhe medIa may become a way Io help brIdge Ihe
bouhdarIes beIweeh dIvIded peoples.
oo1os we¸specIal¸o1o/1
AlLer connenLíng on a 88C WebsíLe and on her
blog LhaL, conLrary Lo CNN reporLs, 1bílísí had ín lacL
noL been bonbed, ínLernaLíonal nedía pícked up
on Lhe lacL LhaL she seened Lo be one ol Lhe lew
relíable sources ín an unusual ínlornaLíon vacuun.
“1he conLrasL was sLarLlíng. ¦n a world ol nass ín
lornaLíon you suddenly línd yoursell ín Lhe níddle
ol an ínlornaLíon voíd and people scranblíng lor
Lhe LíníesL bíLs ol ínlornaLíon regardless ol wheL
her Lhey are conlírned or noL,” Davíes renenbers.
1he exLensíve local neLwork ol conLacLs she nana
ges by nobíle phone, SMS, enaíl and blogs enabled
Davíes Lo sLay abreasL ol evenLs as Lhey were unlol
díng, aL a Líne when connercíal broadcasLíng sLa
Líons had lelL lor Lheír AugusL holídays. NoL only
were nosL enbassíes closed, buL nany na|or 1V
and radío sLaLíons had no reporLers on Lhe ground.
WíLhín 6o hours Lhe nedía LhaL had pícked up her
reporLs had lorwarded Lhe sLoríes Lo oLher sLaLíons
and news agencíes. 1hese ín Lurn were copíed by
oLhers. 1hey soon conLacLed Davíes vía phone,
enaíl, and even Skype Lo quench Lheír LhírsL lor
breakíng news. ¦n Lhe lollowíng days she gave 1¬
ínLervíews lor 8ríLísh naLíonal and local radío sLaLí
ons, answered quesLíons by enaíl, and gave ínLer
víews on Skype Lo AssocíaLed Press. She esLínaLes
LhaL abouL hall a dozen arLícles have been wríLLen
abouL her, culnínaLíng ín a radío ínLervíew on Lhe
88C early eveníng news.
1he ínlornaLíon Davíes and her lríends receíved
lron Lheír lríends reached Lhe global publíc vía
blog, enaíl and convenLíonal nedía. Much ol íL was
lurLher relayed Lhrough 1wíLLer, a servíce Lhen líLLle
known ín Ceorgía. ¦oreígn nedía gladly pícked up
Lhese bíLs ol ínlornaLíon, lrequenLly wíLhouL que
sLíoníng Lheír relíabílíLy. Lven Lhough Lhe relevance
ol índívídual reporLíng díníníshed as soon as sLaLí
ons broughL ín Lheír own sLall, nuch ínlornaLíon
conLínued Lo be díssenínaLed Lhrough Lhe chaín ol
índívídual relaLíonshíps nosLly vía nobíle phones
by progressíve índívíduals noníLoríng sources and
redísLríbuLíng ínlornaLíon.
In the information age, conflicts are
information crises
Duríng Lhe conllícL Ceorgíans Lurned Lo Lhe ¦nLer
neL, |usL as Lhey díd when Zurab 1chíaberashvílí
chose Lo publícíze íncídenLs ol corrupLíon. ¦nlor
naLíon was eíLher scarce, as íL was duríng Lhe con
llícL, or overabundanL e.g. alLer 1chíaberashvílí’s
announcenenL. 1hís was onlíne nedía’s línesL hour.
As Cíga PaíLchadze, a Ceorgían lawyer workíng ín
|udícíal relorn and an avíd blogger under Lhe pseu
donynDvorsky, belíeves. “¦L all sLarLed wíLh Lhe war”.
8logs nay have played a sígnílícanL role ín chan
nellíng scarce news duríng Lhe nílíLary crísís, buL
Ceorgíans sLíll nosLly Lurned Lo onlíne loruns. 1hís
ís where Lhey seen Lo leel nosL conlorLable.
WíLh ¬o,ooo users ¦orun.ge ís Lhe nosL popular
place lor Ceorgíans Lo díscuss Lopícs such as cars,
sporLs, or políLícs. Sone nedía have gaíned rele
vance sínce Lhe crísís, buL places líke ¦orun.ge
are sLíll Lhe prelerred neans lor gaLheríng and
exchangíng news because Lhey besL neeL people’s
ínlornaLíon needs and prelerred node ol conver
saLíon. ¦orun.ge consísLenLly proves íL ís an exLra
ordínaríly socíally powerlul ínsLíLuLíon, as noL only
1bílísí’s lorner nayor had Lo learn. ¦Ls ínlluence
exLends Lo daíly líle. search lor a Ceorgían Lern on
Coogle Ceorgía and an enLry on ¦orun.ge ís líkely
Lo spríng up, dírecLíng ordínary Lrallíc Lo íLs boards.
Duríng Lhe críses Lhe loruns helped Lo dísLínguísh
Lhe lalse lron Lhe Lrue ín Lhe ínlornaLíon quíckly
and ellecLívely díssenínaLed by all parLíes. Many
Ceorgíans were lanílíar wíLh Lhe servíces, could
easíly ídenLíly relevanL lorun boards and were Lhus
able Lo línd ín one place ínlornaLíon lron any
where ín Lhe counLry. ¦oruns were ellícíenL Lools,
as Lhey requíre líLLle hardware, are lully webbased
and easy Lo navígaLe. Cíven Lhe suspecL relevance
ol socíal neLworks líke Odnoklassníkí.ru ín Lhe
recenL Moldova crísís, Lhe relevance ol Lechnícally
LradíLíonal buL socíally wellaccepLed neLworks
should noL be underesLínaLed. Duríng críses Lhey
serve Lo conpensaLe lor Lhe ínbalances ín ínlor
naLíon generaLíon, dísLríbuLíon, and consunpLíon
Lypícal ol such síLuaLíons. 1radíLíonal nedía are
noLoríously íncapable ol respondíng adequaLely.
hourly 1¬nínuLe 1V shows leave people cravíng lor
nore news ol loved ones, oller no ínLeracLívíLy,
and rely on a snall nunber ol sources LhaL cannoL
be pooled.
1he loruns enabled people lron crísís areas Lo
reporL on Lheír síLuaLíons ín ways convenLíonal
nedía were unable Lo delíver. 1hey were also able
Lo bypass aL leasL sone ol Lhe lallouL Lhe propa
gandadríven ínlornaLíon warlare had unleashed –
no wonder LhaL, wíLh such a subversíve poLenLíal,
¦orun.ge was quíckly Laken down duríng Lhe hoL
days ol LhaL AugusL.
oo1o6 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
No network to attract them all
More resílíenL Lhan locally nanaged servers are ín
LernaLíonal servíces LhaL are beconíng íncreasíngly
popular anong Ceorgíans. Socíal neLworks líke
¦acebook expand on Lhe concepL ol Lhe lorun.
¦n Ceorgía, however, Lhe narkeL lor socíal nedía
ís nore díverse wíLh specílíc servíces seeníngly
appealíng Lo specílíc socíal groups.
A 2oo8 sLudy by AC1, a Ceorgían narkeLíng research
lírn, ídenLílíed Lhe na|or players. Odnoklassníkí.ru
leads Lhe pack. ¤1% ol Ceorgían socíal neLwork
users have an accounL. 1he servíce ís only avaílable
ín kussían and ís saíd Lo appeal nosLly Lo older
Ceorgíans, who experíenced Lhe laLe days ol Lhe
SovíeL schoolíng sysLen and so are usually lluenL ín
kussían, a language less popular anong youngs
Lers. Odnoklassníkí.ru clearly nínícs Lhe SovíeL
educaLíon sysLen Lhrough a sLrícL híerarchícal order
ol clearly ídenLílíable ínsLíLuLíons and grades dí
sLínguíshed by geographícal locaLíon. 1o conpleLe
Lhe wínníng níxLure, íL ís also very easy Lo use even
lor Lhose wíLh líLLle conpuLer experíence.
Whíle Hí¬ seens Lo en|oy a loyal lollowíng anong
Lhe 1¬andbelow age cohorL, ¦acebook cerLaínly ís
Lhe second nosL popular lísh ín Lhe pond, alLhough
íLs user nunbers ol only 6% pale ín conparíson
wíLh Odnoklassníkí.ru. ¦L ís prelerred naínly by pro
WesLern youLh, aLLracLed by íLs progressíve ínage,
sophísLícaLed ínLerlace, and exLensívely neLworked
brand.
“Odnoklassníkí.ru has successlully Lapped ínLo Lhe
local culLural leaLures. ¦L ís organízed along old
SovíeLera línes LhaL everyone who experíenced
Lhose days knows by hearL,” says Cíga PaíLchadze,
lounder ol Lhe CeorgíanLsLonían |oínL venLure
¦ace.ge, whích ís currenLly lílLh ín Lhe rankíng. 1he
relaLívely new servíce wíLh íLs conparaLívely lew
users has chosen a díllerenL prolíle by beíng only
avaílable ín Ceorgían and Lhus aLLracLíve nosLly Lo
Lhose wíLh líLLle knowledge ol a loreígn language.
Overall 4¯% ol all Ceorgían ¦nLerneL users are nen
bers ol a socíal neLwork, says AC1, and íL ís sígnílí
canL LhaL 84% ol Lhese resíde ín 1bílísí.
PolíLícs are anong Lhe íssues wídely díscussed on
¦orun.ge, as Lhey are on Odnoklassníkí.ru and
oLher síLes lrequenLed by boLh kussíans and Ceor
gíans. ¦n Lhe hoL days lollowíng Lhe AugusL war,
Lhe aLnosphere on sone servíce boards becane
íncreasíngly Lense. AnonyníLy nade íL easíer lor
kussíans and Ceorgíans Lo connunícaLe. Lven ín
Línes ol crísís, over long dísLances or where oLher
líníLaLíons would be a híndrance Lo dírecL conver
saLíon, Lhe loruns nade íL possíble Lo overcone
Lhese obsLacles. 8uL íL proved Lo be dangerous,
Loo, when íL lowered Lhe Lhresholds lor hoLheads
Lo clash.
Using networks to change the mood
A group ol Ceorgían sLudenLs Lríed Lo overcone Lhe
líníLaLíons by usíng Lhe servíces ín nore producLíve
ways. On AugusL 18 Líka 8akurídze and Luíza
Korídze, |ournalísn sLudenLs aL 8aLuní ShoLa
kusLavelí SLaLe ÜníversíLy, opened a noderaLed
lorun usíng lacílíLíes aL a ÜSA¦Dlunded publíc
LelecenLre. 1hey díd so on Odnoklassníkí.ru.
¦n Lhe lollowíng weeks oLhers began Lo use Lhe
lorun Lo express Lheír víews, share ínlornaLíon
on evenLs Lakíng place around Lhen, and díscuss
Lhe expecLed consequences ol Lhe war. 1he lorun
exLended Lhe índívídual’s opLíons lor díssenínaLíng
ínages and personal opíníon. “¦ Lhínk Lhe aín
ol Lhe lorun, Lhe spreadíng ol ínlornaLíon and
evídence ol Lhe war (…) ís achíeved”, Líka Lhínks.
1he sLudenLs reserved Lhe ríghL Lo deleLe posLs
deened ínappropríaLe. However, Lhe vírLual space
showed how Lhe ¦nLerneL ís beconíng a nedíun
LhaL naLLers lor Lhose who Lake Lhe íníLíaLíve. 1¤
yearold Zaza Mgaloblíshvílí lron 8aLuní posLed
Lhe línk ol a vídeo docunenLíng Lhe desLrucLíon
ol eLhníc Ceorgían hones and an ínLervíew wíLh a
represenLaLíve lron Hunan kíghLs WaLch. NuLsa
Mchedlíshvílí, 26, conLríbuLed a línk Lo a vídeo
depícLíng kussían aLLacks on Ceorgían nílíLary
bases. ¦ellow Aní 1síLlídze creaLed a board naned
“8lood” where parLícípanLs posLed daLa on Lhe sup
ply ol, and denand lor, blood Lranslusíons and Lheír
locaLíons. 1hese daLa íncluded Lhe prolíle ol a 12
yearold wíLh a rare blood Lype and lorwarded her
conLacL ínlornaLíon. OLhers conLríbuLed addresses
where people wíllíng Lo donaLe blood would be
welcone. VísíLors líke sLudenLs ¦lía Dzneladze and
Coga Kalíhava also used Lhe lorun Lo posL pícLures
vísually docunenLíng Ceorgían uníLy.
¦n Lhe lollowíng weeks Lhe conLroversíal lorun
logged over 42o posLs and Lhe creaLíon ol ¯o
subloruns. ¦L has dírecLly connecLed nenbers ol
Odnoklassníkí.ru wíLh ¯48 parLícípanLs and ínnu
nerable passíve readers lron nore Lhan 1o dílle
renL counLríes.
oo1o7 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Georgia’s blogosphere
Whíle debaLe was ragíng hígh on Lhe loruns, Lhe
Ceorgían blogosphere renaíned relaLívely sílenL.
keaders were aLLracLed by sone lew cenLral blogs
líke LhaL ol Sían Davíes, ÜSbased Anna Dolídze,
Lhe wellknown SOS Ceorgía nenLíoned below,
or Lhe occasíonal kussíanlanguage connenLaLor.
8logs orígínaLíng lron wíLhín Ceorgía sprang up
ín greaLer nunbers Lhan ever belore and nany
renaíned acLíve alLer Lhe AugusL evenLs. However,
íL ís sale Lo assune LhaL blogs as índívídualízed
channels lor ínlornaLíon dísLríbuLíon and sharíng
ol opíníon were noL ol na|or relevance as a neans
ol cíLízens’ sellenpowernenL belore Lhe conllícL.
1hís cerLaínly has íLs rooL ín Lechnícal reasons, as
AC1’s líndíng LhaL 81% ol socíal neLwork users are
concenLraLed ín 1bílísí shows. ¦nLerneL access ín Lhe
counLrysíde ís sLíll low. An esLínaLed 2¬% ol Lhe
populaLíon have ¦nLerneL access ín 1bílísí, buL ouL
síde Ceorgía’s largesL neLropolís Lhe lígure drops
Lo only 1o%.
OLher reasons níghL be econoníc. Ceorgían índe
pendenL nedía have lound íL díllículL Lo realíze
anbíLíous pro|ecLs Lhrough adverLísenenLbased
busíness nodels lor prolessíonal onlíne publíshíng.
MarkeLs lor onlíne ads renaín snall and líLLle open
ness ís exhíbíLed by busínesses keen on reachíng
Lhe nasses Lo use ínnovaLíve channels. Adgenera
Led revenue aL Ceorgía’s largesL índependenL polí
Lícal onlíne newspaper, Cívíl.ge, ís sLíll sLuck below
1% ol íLs budgeL – and LhaL’s alLer alnosL 1o years
ol donordríven lundíng.
CulLural íssues nay play a role, Loo. ¦oruns allow
lor lasLer, nore dírecL ínLeracLíon, whereas blogs
requíre índívídual auLhors Lo wríLe down Lheír
LhoughLs wíLhouL knowíng Lheír poLenLíal reader
shíp and ín a place where íL níghL never geL noLí
ced. ¦oruns províde noL only a LhenaLíc lrane lor
Lhe índívídual sLaLenenL, buL also a usually well
known neeLíng place wíLh poLenLíally greaL poLen
Líal lor aLLracLíveness anong a gíven ínLeresL group
LhaL ís usually sLíll open enough Lo allow laLeco
ners Lo Lhe debaLe. 8logs are essenLíally nore sLa
Líc and less conducíve Lo Lhe dírecLness and speed
ol ínLeracLíons LhaL loruns encourage. “Ceorgíans
líke Lo díscuss”, says Cíga PaíLchadze who has also
wríLLen Lhe chapLer on Lhe lreedon ol ¦nLerneL ac
cess ín Ceorgía lor ¦reedon House sLudy “¦reedon
on Lhe NeL”. “Lven when Lhey are unenployed and
have noLhíng Lo do, Ceorgíans always gaLher ín Lhe
sLreeLs, Lalk abouL Lhíngs Lhey líke, snoke, or play
looLball. Publíc líle ín Ceorgía ís a lundanenLally
socíal Lhíng.”
Sowing the seeds of love
1haL seened Lo be conlírned by Lhe 18o parLící
panLs LhaL |oíned PaíLchadze lor Lhe lírsL “8arcanp
Caucasus” organísed wíLh supporL lron Lhe Open
SocíeLy Ceorgía ¦oundaLíon, a na|or lunder ol
nedíarelaLed íníLíaLíves ín Lhe Caucasus and Lura
sía. MosL ol Lhe parLícípanLs ín Lhe evenL ín Sunner
2oo8 were lron oLher counLríes, wíLh sígnílícanL
aLLendance lron Arnenía and Azerbaí|an. Only a
dozen or so bloggers cane lron Ceorgía íLsell,
esLínaLes PaíLchadze. “ParLícípaLíon lron Ceorgía
was raLher weak, and noL so nuch has cone ouL ol
íL,” he adds. “We had done sone Lraíníng even lor
publíc agencíes belore, líke Lhe Ceorgían ¦nsLíLuLe
lor Publíc AdnínísLraLíon (C¦PA), on bloggíng and
Web 2.o, buL only Lo líLLle ellecL. Sonebody once
Lríed Lo esLablísh bloggíng aL schools, buL LhaL
dídn’L succeed, eíLher.”
NeverLheless, Lhe Open SocíeLy Ceorgía ¦oundaLíon
lunded 8arcanps ín Lhe enLíre regíon and has
been a sLaunch supporLer ol nedía Lraíníng lor cívíc
engagenenL. 8arcanps have also been organízed
ín CenLral Asía, lor exanple ín KazakhsLan and
KyrgysLan. AddíLíonal supporL by ínLernaLíonal do
nors has been snall. Lhe Luropean Üníon as a na|or
lunder only realízed íLs poLenLíal ín 2oo¤, agaín
wíLhín Lhe lranework ol an íníLíaLíve lor denocra
LízaLíon and hunan ríghLs.
¦L ís Lhus díllículL Lo predícL íl Lhe ellecLs ol senínal
íníLíaLíves líke Lhe Ceorgían 8arcanp wíll lasL ín
Línes ol peace. ¦oruns and socíal neLworks cane
Lo líle duríng Lhe war because ol whaL was essenLí
ally a crísís ol ínlornaLíon. ParLísan propaganda
resulLed ín lake, slow, or no ínlornaLíon aL all and
posed real LhreaLs Lo Lhe avaílabílíLy and accuracy
ol news ínnedíaLely allecLíng Lhe líves ol índíví
duals. Web2.o Lools províded a neans Lo líll Lhe
voíd and a “pressure valve” lor sharíng news, whose
sources had becone íncreasíngly índívídual Lhanks
Lo Lechnology.
AlLer Lhe war, líle lor ordínary Ceorgíans has ín
nany ways becone nore conplícaLed, especíally
ín Lhe area ol ínLereLhníc relaLíons, Lravel and vísa
resLrícLíons, ínporL and exporL quoLas and closed
borders beLween kussía and Ceorgía. Ceorgíans
nay |usL línd LhaL Lhís síLuaLíon presenLs Lhe new
oo1o8 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
nedía wíLh an opporLuníLy ín peaceLíne Loo. 1he
anonyníLy LhaL nakes íL easy lor people Lo enLer
llane wars (as hosLíle ínLeracLíons on Lhe ¦nLerneL
are called) also enables Lhen Lo engage wíLh one
anoLher ín Lhe lírsL place – across nany kínds ol
boundaríes. 1hís need has only íncreased alLer Lhe
war and, índeed, ¦orun.ge ís once nore as víbranL
as íL always was.
However, Lhere are sígns ol lasLíng nonenLun.
Sínce Lhe war blogs, Loo, have sprung up by Lhe
dozen. Sone connenLaLors have been able Lo keep
up acLívíLy, buíld credíbílíLy, and acL as anchors lor
lurLher developnenL. One ol Lhese ís Anna Dolídze,
a Ceorgían lawyer who connenLs on develop
nenLs on her popular kesísLance Ceorgía blog,
already a source ol índependenL connenL belore
Lhe war. kecenL addíLíons ínclude 1he 1bílísí 8lues
and 1hís ís 1bílísí Callíng. Lven ¦orun.ge has con
peLíLíon lron such síLes as ¦oruncaucasus.con,
a prívaLe íníLíaLíve aíned aL bríngíng Lhe counLríes
ad|oíníng Lhe Ceorgíankussían border closer Lo
geLher, íl only vírLually.
1he 8arcanp íLsell, Loo, ís saíd Lo have led Lo Lhe
developnenL ol nore regularly updaLed blogs.
1here are allegedly even plans lor a Ceorgían blog
gíng engíne. Plus, 8arcanp Arnenía and 8arcanp
Caspían (Azerbaí|an) held ín Yerevan and 8aku ín
Apríl and March 2oo¤ quíckly lollowed due Lo po
pular denand and ín OcLober 2oo¤ Lhe Ceorgía
New Medía ¦orun sLíll saw sLrong ínLeresL lron
bloggers, socíal nedía acLívísLs, and |ournalísLs
alíke. CuesLs íncluded renowned personalíLíes
lron Lhe ÜS, Lurope, and Lhe Caucasus líke Onník
Kríkorían (Arnenía) or Lnín Huseynzade (Azerbaí
|an). 1he lorun also leaLured Lhe launch ol Lhe
Ceorgían blog caLalog blogroll.ge. AnoLher evenL,
Lhe Socíal ¦nnovaLíon Canp Caucasus, wíll be held
ín 1bílísí ín Apríl 2o1o.
1he políLícal crísís lollowíng Lhe denonsLraLíons ol
Apríl 2oo¤ showed how nuch creaLívíLy and expe
ríence ín nedía usage had developed wíLhín |usL ¤
nonLhs. SLudenLs ol Lhe Ceorgían School ol Publíc
Allaírs seL up blogs wíLh Lhe supporL ol ÜS nedía
Lraíners. 1hey covered evenLs as Lhey unlolded and
receíved wídespread ínLernaLíonal acclaín. 1wíLLer
usage exploded Loo. ínLernaLíonal connenLaLors,
cíLízens and nedía prolessíonals experínenLed wíLh
nobíle Lechnologíes and collaboraLed wíLh greaLer
ease and nore ellecLívely Lhan belore. LvenLually,
even Lhe Ceorgían governnenL realízed Lhe need
Lo noníLor Lhe 1wíLLersphere ín a nore proacLíve
way. ¦L opened íLs own 1wíLLer accounL (OgovLol
georgía) and was able Lo lollow several ol Lhe nosL
acLíve connenLaLors lron ínsíde and ouLsíde Lhe
counLry.
Voice is no guarantee for independence
1he varíous íníLíaLíves by índívíduals LhaL seen Lo
begín Lo lorn críLícal nass show LhaL onlíne nedía
do play a role ín encouragíng debaLe anong díví
ded parLíes and nay oller one seL ol Lools Lo Lackle
one ol Lhe key challenges ol Lhe 21sL cenLury.
dívíded people and díasporas.
CerLaínly índívídual voíces “lron Lhe líeld” do
noL oller auLonaLíc proLecLíon agaínsL Lhe LhreaL ol
propaganda. 1hey are Lhenselves lrequenLly Loo
uncríLícal ín Lheír reporLíng or are olLen accepLed
aL lace value by ouLsíde connenLaLors because
ollícíal news ís eíLher unavaílable or unrelíable. As
renowned blogger LLhan Zuckernan lírsL noLíced,
Lhís was a parLícular concern wíLh boLh kussían and
Ceorgían bloggers reporLíng lron Ceorgía, kussía,
or even Lhe regíons ol SouLh OsseLía and Abkhazía.
CredíbílíLy ín onlíne envíronnenLs can also be aL
sLake ín less conlronLaLíonal seLLíngs, ínpacLíng
dírecLly on Lhe legíLínacy ol elecLed represenL
aLíves. When 1bílísí’s nayor aLLenpLed Lo address
proacLívely Lhe críLícísn voíced by Lhe publíc on
¦orun.ge, nany íníLíally quesLíoned hís ídenLíLy.
“People sínply dídn’L belíeve hín, Lhey LhoughL he
was a lake, LhaL íL was noL Lhe nayor speakíng Lo
Lhen,” says Cíví Ordenídze. “He Lríed Lo address
LhaL íssue, buL whaL opLíons do you have ín a world
LhaL ís enLírely vírLual7”
Sone íssues, however, nay be peculíar Lo crísís
síLuaLíons resulLíng ín repressíve rule under narLíal
law and delíberaLe propaganda or oLher líníLaLíons
Lo cívíl líberLíes. 1hey also pose challengíng quesLí
ons lor lurLher research. Duríng Lhe war Lhe Lhen
lanous bloggíng plaLlorn SOSCeorgía.org, íníLíally
lounded by Lwo Luropean nedía prolessíonals
workíng ín Lhe counLry, goL línancíal supporL and
was quíckly “ínproved” by a Luropean Pk lírn also
servíng Lhe governnenL. WíLh prolessíonal help íLs
Lean was able Lo spend Lhousands ol donaLed
dollars on olllíne acLívíLíes such as Lhe producLíon
ol “SOS Ceorgía” 1ShírLs and Lhe organízaLíon ol
proLesL narches. However, Lhe growíng ínlluence
ol Lhe prívaLe consulLanLs neanL LhaL whaL began
as a wellínLenLíoned Lechnícal upgrade resulLed ín
Lhe evenLual dísíllusíonnenL ol íLs lounders.
oo1o¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Future Challenges
SLíll, Lhe new socíal nedía províde “conversaLíon
space” Lo venL díscord ín less desLrucLíve ways. 1hey
can do so íl Lhe channels Lhey províde are pícked
up by people and Lheír grassrooLs íníLíaLíves who
perceíve a benelíL ín Lheír ínlornaLíon and uLílíLy
Lhey are unable Lo receíve elsewhere.
Such benelíL ís naLurally dependenL on Lhe síLuaLíon
and Lhe users. SLíll, lunders Loo olLen rely on gene
ral assunpLíons abouL Lhese benelíLs when nakíng
lundíng decísíons. Cíví Ordenídze ís a lorner pro
|ecL nanager ol Open SocíeLy Ceorgía ¦oundaLíon’s
Cívíl SocíeLy and Medía SupporL Progranne and a
nenber ol Lhe subconníLLee on Cívíl SocíeLy and
Medía SupporL. ¦n hís opíníon íL was íníLíally Lhe
WesL Luropean headquarLers ol Lhe ¦oundaLíon
LhaL were nore ínLeresLed ín lundíng Lhan Lhe local
Ceorgía ollíce as Lhey nay have been ínlluenced
by Lhe hype surroundíng Lhe alleged denocraLízíng
ellecLs ol Web2.o. “8uL you can’L conpare Ceorgía
wíLh counLríes where bloggíng ís possíbly Lhe only
source ol índependenL news líke, say, ¦ran”, Orden
ídze adds.
¦unders and supporLers could learn lron LhaL.
1here ís no general benelíL ol a Lechnology wíLhouL
a specílíc conLexL and people nakíng use ol íL – ín
ways LhaL are olLen unínLended by Lheír desígners.
¦L requíres a deep undersLandíng ol whaL purpose
cerLaín ínsLrunenLs serve ín a gíven síLuaLíon and
connuníLy ol acLívísLs. Such analyses have Lo
ínclude culLural, econoníc, socíal, and políLícal
lacLors. 1hey cannoL rely on assuned benelíLs and
conparíson sLudíes only. 1hey also have Lo pay
aLLenLíon Lo poLenLíal drawbacks such as resísLance
lron local workers who níghL loose Lheír lívelí
hoods due Lo, lor ínsLance, Lhe “benelíLs” ol cloud
conpuLíng.
1he evenLdríven príncíples ol nodern develop
nenL aíd nay noL help eíLher. LxLernal ínlluences
can syphon oll lundíng aL any Líne, líke Lhe deve
lopnenLs ín ¦ran or AlghanísLan. Mark Skogen, pro
|ecL nanager lor Lhe ÜSA¦Dlunded ¦kLX agency
ínplenenLíng Lhe ¦nLerneL Access and 1raíníng
Progranne (¦A1P) ín Ceorgía, suspecLs as nuch.
“[¦L] nay ín parL have soneLhíng Lo do wíLh geo
graphíc príoríLíes. […] We had nore LelecenLers ín
Lhe pasL, buL are now down Lo líve ín Lhe na|or
cíLíes.”
1he socíal nedía hold Lhe poLenLíal Lo help Lo deal
wíLh one ol Lhe na|or challenges ol our Líne. Lhe
plíghL ol dísplaced people and Lheír díasporas
Lryíng Lo connecL and Lhe need lor nuLual under
sLandíng anong dívíded parLíes. 1heír vírLualíLy –
or beíng “less real” – ís a lesser problen. WhaL ís
needed ís nore research ínLo how Lhey acLually
“work ouL” lor a gíven group ol people whíle
renenberíng LhaL ís ís sLíll Lhe people who bríng
abouL lasLíng change. When Zurab 1chíaberashvílí
was nayor ol 1bílísí, Lhís was precísely whaL he díd.
When Lhe Lechnologícal líníLs becane apparenL,
1chíaberashvílí díd whaL any Ceorgían would do.
he ínvíLed hís críLícs lor dínner.
MosI oI Ihe IIme IhIs Is how crIses are
sIIll eIIecIIvely solved Ih CeorgIa. II
IhaI works ouI Ior Ihe people Ihvol-
ved, Iheh hoIhIhg cah be saId agaIhsI
II. II says a greaI deal abouI boIh Ihe
possIbIlIIIes ahd Ihe lImIIaIIohs oI
Iechhology. II may |usI sIay lIke IhaI
Ior some IIme Io come, eveh Ihough
WesIerh dohors mIghI wIsh oIher-
wIse.
> > > >
PhoLo. ¦ranzíska Holz
The
Urban
Revolution
oo111 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > urbahIzaIIoh, demographIc chahge, clImaIe chahge, gehIrIIIcaIIoh,
ehergy, grassrooIs polIIIcs
Níels 8oeíng
Níels 8oeíng ís a |ournalísL ín Hanburg. 1ravels Lhrough Asía and Alríca spawned hís ínLeresL ín globalízaLíon buL also convínced hín
LhaL every change lor Lhe beLLer has Lo sLarL locally. He ís a nenber ol Lhe group “LOMÜ – local organízed nulLíLude” (www.lonu.neL)
LhaL organíses socíal experínenLs ín publíc space and ís also acLíve ín Hanburg’s neLwork “kechL aul SLadL” (www.rechLaulsLadL.neL).
He lully agrees wíLh !ohn Holloway LhaL Lhe new challenge ís Lo “change Lhe world wíLhouL Lakíng power”.
1he bIg cIIy has always beeh boIh
dream ahd hIghImare. 1he dream:
II you cah make II Ihere, you’ll make
II ahywhere. 1he hIghImare: II you
doh’I make II Ihere, you’re “dowh ahd
ouI” as Ceorge Orwell descrIbed so
poIghahIly Ih hIs epohymous hovel
Irom 1¤¯¯. YeI Ior mIllIohs oI urbah
dwellers Ihe hIghImare looms ever
larger as a cohorI oI Irehds make
cIIIes IhcreasIhgly uhsusIaIhable Ih
every sehse – socIally, ecohomIcally
ahd ehvIrohmehIally. Now, Ior Ihe
IIrsI IIme Ih hIsIory, more Ihah halI oI
Ihe world’s populaIIoh lIves Ih cIIIes.
Ih 2oso abouI 7o percehI oI Ihem
wIll spehd IheIr lIves Ih urbah agglo-
meraIIohs, accordIhg Io a UN IorecasI.
WhaI kIhd oI lIves wIll Ihey lead II
IhIhgs go oh repeaIIhg Ihe paIIerh oI
Ihe pasI7
We have Lo do soneLhíng, we nusL change our
cíLíes – ís a claríon call resonaLíng round nany cíLíes
across Lhe world Loday. 1hís ís noL |usL a call Lo
acLíon because people are already acLíng and say
íng “we have a ríghL Lo Lhe cíLy”. 1ake, lor ínsLance,
Hanburg ín Cernany.
1hís níghL seen an unlíkely cradle lor Lhe new
unresL. AlLer all, ísn’L íL one ol Lhe ríchesL cíLíes ín
Lurope7 A víbranL and excíLíng place Lo be7 And
dídn’L íL kícksLarL Lhe 8eaLles’ career when Lhey
played ín Lhe red líghL and clubbíng dísLrícL LhaL
aLLracLs counLless LourísLs each year7 1he porL ol
Hanburg, Lhe second largesL ín Lurope, goes lron
sLrengLh Lo sLrengLh whíle Hanburg íLsell brísLles
wíLh snarL new nedía and adverLísíng and ís now
hone Lo one ol Lurope’s largesL consLrucLíon síLes,
Lhe HalencíLy, where a conpleLely new llagshíp
porLsíde neíghborhood ís rísíng lron scraLch.
8uL all LhaL’s Lhe víew lron Lhe ouLsíde. checked
lron Lhe ínsíde, Hanburg seens rollíng down Lhe
sane wrong Lrack as nany oLher cíLíes now.
CerLaínly, Lhe problens ol cíLíes ín Lhe global SouLh
are nuch dírer Lhan Lhose ol Lheír NorLhern coun
LerparLs. 8uL norLh or souLh, Lhe dynanícs ol un
healLhy Lrends renaín Lhe sane.
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The issues: urban sell-out and the energy crisis
LeL’s sLarL wíLh housíng. ¦n Lhe pasL 1¯ years publíc
housíng ín Hanburg has dropped by over ¬o%
(lron around 21o,ooo uníLs Lo |usL over 1oo,ooo).
AL Lhe sane Líne renLs have rockeLed, especíally ín
lorner workíngclass or derelícL ínner cíLy areas.
And Lhe nunber ol oneperson households has
shoL up dranaLícally – one ol Lhe key denographíc
changes ín índusLríalízed counLríes ín Lhe pasL
decades whích puLs lurLher pressure on renLs as
lívíng space becones ín íncreasíngly shorL supply.
1he ellecLs ol such Lrends are relerred Lo as
“genLrílícaLíon”, a Lern coíned by Lhe 8ríLísh socío
logísL kuLh Class ín Lhe early 1¤6os. CenLrílícaLíon
neans a process ín whích people are lorced ouL
ol Lheír neíghborhoods by a bullísh unregulaLed
real esLaLe narkeL and replaced by “genLry”, a Lern
whích used Lo nean Lhe lesser landed Lnglísh
nobílíLy buL whích ín Lhís conLexL relers Lo Lhe
young urban prolessíonals who can allord Lo pay
Lhe prohíbíLíve renLs.
Orígínally endeníc Lo New York and London,
genLrílícaLíon has long sínce spread Lo oLher cíLíes
around Lhe world. 8uL ín Lhe pasL 1¬ years sone
Lhíng lundanenLal has changed as noL only Lhe
enLerpríse secLor buL cíLíes Loo sLarL Lo leel Lhe heaL
lron globalízaLíon and |oín Lhe conpeLíLíon lor
ínvesLors and socalled “hígh poLenLíals”. How do
you nake your nark on Lhe global playíng líeld7
8y developíng your cíLy and nakíng íL írresísLíble
lor ínvesLors and Lhe wellLodo. As Hanburg has
done.
Hanburg sold oll large swaLhes ol urban real esLaLe
Lo Lhe híghesL bídder ín a nove Lo buílL nore shíny
ollíce Lowers and luxury aparLnenL blocks, prínLíng
buíldíng lícenses lor prívaLe owners wíLh sínílar
ínLenLíons, parLícularly ín dísadvanLaged ínner cíLy
areas. 1he resulLs were sellevídenL as cíLycenLer
renLs rose Lo asLrononícal new levels.
CíLíes are noLoríous energyguzzlers and growíng
cíLíes have an even greaLer need lor power. So íL’s
noL surprísíng LhaL “boonLown Hanburg” – as one
Cernan nagazíne puL íL ín 2oo6 – also Lurned
Lo Lackle íLs energy supply problen. YeL Lhe sell
sLyled “Crowíng CíLy” opLed lor lossíl luel energy
aL a Líne when íL was already apparenL LhaL lossíl
oo11õ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
luels – wíLh Lheír hígh CO2 eníssíons – were no
reasonable luLure opLíon lor a world lacíng clínaLe
change. Lven so, plans lor a na|or new coallíred
planL were sLíll announced.
¦or greaLer ellícíency íL was planned Lo use Lhe
excess heaL lron operaLíons lor dísLrícL heaLíng and
a pípelíne Lhrough Lwo ínner cíLy dísLrícLs was
conníssíoned LhaL cuL a publíc park ín Lwo. New
housíng was also planned lor densílícaLíon ol
exísLíng resídenLíal areas ín a nove LhaL díd noLhíng
Lo níLígaLe Lhe problen ol soaríng renLs. AL Lhís
poínL, when exísLíng urban green space ís lurLher
díníníshed and renewable energy sources are
dísregarded ouL ol hand, Lhe energy problen
cones lull círcle and Louches on boLh Lhe housíng
íssue and Lhe clínaLe change problen.
The idea: a right to the city
¦or a whíle Lhese developnenLs wenL largely un
challenged. 1here were sígns ol paLchy dísgrunLle
nenL as varíous cíLízens’ groups sLarLed Lo Lake
acLíon ín Lheír neíghborhoods agaínsL varíous
na|or pro|ecLs. YeL Lhís díd noL resulL ín a nove
nenL ín LhaL capLured publíc aLLenLíon. LasL year,
however, Lhíngs changed.
¦n Apríl 2oo¤ a neno ol secreL negoLíaLíons
beLween local políLícíans and an ínvesLor was
leaked LhaL revealed plans Lo denolísh períod
houses ín a poor neíghborhood near Lhe Hanburg
porL Lo nake way lor yeL anoLher aparLnenL block.
1hís was noL |usL any old neíghborhood buL one
wíLh a long hísLory ol urban resísLance. And íLs
resídenLs reacLed by nakíng Lhe plans publíc and
nobílízíng proLesL. Soon Lhe area was lluLLeríng
wíLh yellow “NO 8NQ” pennanLs (8NQ ís Lhe acro
nyn ol Lhe ínvesLnenL pro|ecL).
¦n !une varíous íníLíaLíves lron across Lhe cíLy
organízed a |oínL denonsLraLíon LhaL broughL 1,¬oo
people onLo Lhe sLreeLs. 1haL was only Lhe begín
níng. One week laLer Lhey convened ín Lhe newly
lounded “CenLro Socíale”, a socíal cooperaLíve LhaL
gíves space lor nonconnercíal neíghborhood
acLívíLíes (ín noLably shorL supply ín Hanburg),
under Lhe banner ol “kechL aul SLadL” – a ríghL Lo
Lhe cíLy.
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PhoLo. 1heo 8runs
oo11s we¸specIal¸o1o/1
“A ríghL Lo Lhe cíLy” ís a concepL developed by Lhe
¦rench socíologísL Henrí Lelebvre ín Lhe laLe 1¤6os
when he lornulaLed hís críLíque ol posLwar urba
nísn, íLs ubíquíLous consunerísn, and Lhe nuLa
Líon ol Lhe publíc spaces ol sLreeLs ínLo a “seríes ol
shop wíndows”. Lelebvre saw urbanízaLíon as an ín
exorable, ínevíLable process whích could be Lurned
ínLo soneLhíng Lruly líberaLíng by granLíng Lhe
“ríghL Lo Lhe cíLy” Lo all íLs denízens. 8y Lhís Lelebvre
neanL Lhe ríghL Lo appropríaLíon, access, díllerence
and cenLralíLy. Ürban elíLes can exercíse such ríghLs
ellorLlessly as Lhey are assocíaLed wíLh a level ol
dísposable noney whích renaíns beyond Lhe reach
ol Lhe na|oríLy ol people. Should such a sLaLe ol
allaírs be LoleraLed7
Responses: taking action
1he ídea ol a ríghL Lo Lhe cíLy caughL on wíLh Lhe
grassrooLs íníLíaLíves. 1wo nonLhs laLer íL línally
energed ínLo Lhe publíc eye. On a líne sunner’s
day ín laLe AugusL, sone 2oo arLísLs and acLívísLs
Look Lhe ríghL Lo access ínLo Lheír own hands by
occupyíng Lhe lasL renaíníng buíldíngs ín Lhe
“CangevíerLel”, Hanburg’s 1¤Lh cenLury workíng
class dísLrícL close Lo Lhe cíLy cenLer. 1hís cíLy pro
perLy – vacanL lor years and ín a seríously dílapída
Led condíLíon – had been sold Lo a DuLch ínvesLor
and was scheduled lor denolíLíon Lo nake way lor
Lhe sLandard brand ol upnarkeL archíLecLure.
1he acLívísLs opened a gíanL arL exhíbíLíon ín Lhe
buíldíngs and denanded LhaL Lhe cíLy councíl wíLh
draw lron Lhe sellouL. ¦anous personalíLíes lron
Hanburg’s culLure and arL scene cane ín supporL
ol Lhe proLesL squaL whích caused quíLe a sLír ín Lhe
cíLy’s press. SígnílícanLly enough, no políce squads
were senL ín Lo vacaLe Lhe buíldíngs as had ín
lanously happened ín Lhe wave ol squaLLíng ín Lhe
1¤8os.
1hís was because Lhe publíc were largely synpa
LheLíc Lo Lhe arLísLsquaLLers’ sLance sínce Lhe
lundanenLal quesLíon behínd Lhe squaLLíng – ís Lhís
cíLy on Lhe ríghL Lrack7 – nade solíd sense. People
were índeed askíng Lhenselves whích was prelera
ble – a cíLy ol car parks and ever nore glíLz or a cíLy
ol allordable urban spaces. WíLhouL Lhe econoníc
crísís, general publíc reacLíon níghL have been
díllerenL, buL Lhe recessíon had deeply unseLLled
nany people. 1hís ís now noL Lhe besL Líne lor
urban vísíons ol yesLerday LhaL províde no saLíslyíng
soluLíons lor Lhe susLaínable cíLy ol Lonorrow.
PhoLo. 1heo 8runs
PhoLo. 1heo 8runs / kAS¸parade
PhoLo. 1obías 8oeíng / CenLropoly
Sínce LhaL Líne nuch has happened ín Hanburg.
2¬ íníLíaLíves have seL up Lhe “kechL aul SLadL” neL
work LhaL spans noL |usL varíous cíLy neíghborhoods
buL a varíeLy ol socíal envíronnenLs well lron
anarchísL Lo workíng and níddle class. 1hís ís sone
Lhíng dísLíncLly new whích cannoL be dísníssed as
nerely a case ol “Lhe usual suspecLs”. 1he neLwork
has organízed publíc “dísLrícL assenblíes” and
sLreeL parades, and also Laken sone dírecL acLíon
all ol whích ís reporLed ín Lhe nedía ín unexpec
Ledly apprecíaLíve Lones.
Snall wonder Lhen LhaL Hanburg’s políLícs are
buzzíng, aL leasL lor Lhe nonenL. 1he cíLy has reac
quíred Lhe hísLoríc “CangevíerLel” lron Lhe DuLch
ínvesLor and ís negoLíaLíng a new concepL wíLh Lhe
arLísLs ín a nove LhaL would have been unLhínkable
a year ago. 1he pípelíne ol Lhe coal power planL has
been sLopped by courL order alLer one ol Lhe
íníLíaLíves and an envíronnenLal organízaLíon líled
an acLíon agaínsL íL. DísLrícLs are planníng aL leasL
parLíal regulaLíon ol renL híkes whíle – íncredu
lously enough – urban developnenL experLs and
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críLícal genLrílícaLíon researchers are suddenly
beíng ínvíLed Lo speak belore nunícípal parlíanenL
sessíons. 1he políLícal class Loo has Laken up Lhe
“ríghL Lo Lhe cíLy” as a díscussíon Lopíc, albeíL ín a
raLher less seríous node.
New urban unrest: a global theme
On Lhe ínLernaLíonal level all Lhís níghL noL be Loo
specLacular as Hanburg ís a laLeconer Lhere, even
Lhough Lhe cíLy ís consídered as a lorerunner ín Cer
nany íLsell. However, íL does repeaL a paLLern LhaL
can be seen ín oLher cíLíes, líke 1el Avív, lor ínsLance,
where Lhe ¦r Lekulanu (“A cíLy lor all”) novenenL
bríngs LogeLher people lron radícally opposíLe po
síLíons ín Lhe políLícal specLrun – lron connunísLs
Lo nenbers ol Lhe Líkud – who seL asíde Lhe ¦srael
PalesLíne conllícL Lo locus on pressíng urban íssues
líke Lruly allordable housíng, educaLíon, Lrans
porLaLíon lor all and LransparenL líscal políLícs.
¦r Lekulanu also organízes políLícal debaLes ín
neíghborhood loruns and íLs lírsL na|or break
Lhrough was Lruly specLacular when ín laLe 2oo8
íL won 2o percenL ol Lhe seaLs ín Lhe 1el Avív parlía
nenL.
¦n Lhe ÜS Lhe “kíghL Lo Lhe CíLy” novenenL
(Lelebvre once agaín) ís acLíve ín seven neLro
políLan areas, raísíng such denands as speculaLíon
lree housíng, and Lhe ríghL Lo connuníLy conLrol
ol políLícs and econoníc and envíronnenLal |usLíce.
Across 8razíl Lhe “Sen 1eLo” novenenL ol hone
less workers has addressed sínílar íssues ol nís
guíded urban polícynakíng sínce Lhe laLe 1¤¤os.
¦n an íncreasíng nunber ol cíLíes people are no
longer prepared Lo accepL LopdownpolíLícs.
1he connon Lhenes shared by all Lhese nove
nenLs are Lhe call lor Lrue selldeLernínaLíon,
a deep dísLrusL ol Lhe urban políLícal class and Lhe
desíre lor a qualíLy ol líle LhaL ís noL dícLaLed by
lossílluelled neolíberalísn. ¦L ís Lhe drean ol a new
cíLy LhaL aspíres Lo conpacL díllerence noL hono
geneíLy and líberaLíon noL conLrol.
¦l and how Lhe problens ol denographícs, eco
noníc críses, clínaLe change and unsusLaínable
energy sysLens can be solved, nobody can say lor
cerLaín. However, whaL we can be sure ol ís LhaL any
soluLíons nusL cone lron Lhe cíLíes and LhaL íL’s a
quesLíon ol denocracy. ¦n hís book “1he Ürban
kevoluLíon” Henrí Lelebvre wroLe. “1he passívíLy ol
Lhose ínvolved, Lheír sílence, Lheír reLícenL prudence
are an índícaLíon ol Lhe absence ol urban deno
cracy, LhaL ís, concreLe denocracy. Ürban revoluLíon
and concreLe (developed) denocracy coíncíde.”
1hese words were wríLLen ín 1¤¯o. ¦n 2o1o nore
Lhan ever we can clearly hear Lhe sound ol Lhíngs
Lo cone.
> >
PhoLo. ChrísLíne Crau
When
Media and
Citizen Media
Meet
oo11¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > global voIces, cIIIzeh medIa, medIa, |ourhalIsm, 88C
Solana Larsen
Solana Larsen ís Lhe nanagíng edíLor ol Clobal Voíces Onlíne. 8elore LhaL she was an edíLor wíLh Lhe global políLícs WebsíLe
openDenocracy.neL lor nearly líve years. She has an MA ín ínLernaLíonal |ournalísn lron CíLy ÜníversíLy ín London, and LaughL
a posLgraduaLe |ournalísn class abouL íllegal ínnígraLíon aL New York ÜníversíLy ín 2oo¬. She ís DaníshPuerLo kícan and líves
ín New York.
oo12o we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Ahyohe who sIIll doubIs wheIher Ihe maIhsIream medIa Is Ih crIsIs, has hever
beeh Io a medIa IhdusIry cohIerehce. ParIIcIpahIs always Ilock Ih droves Io
sessIohs oh how hew medIa mIghI help maIhsIream medIa regaIh IrusI ahd
audIehce ahd develop hew revehue sIreams. I’m Ihe mahagIhg edIIor oI a
WebsIIe hamed Clobal VoIces IhaI Iracks whaI bloggers are IalkIhg abouI
worldwIde. My colleagues ahd I are oIIeh IhvIIed Io Ihese cohIerehces Io share
our perspecIIves oh whaI lIes beyohd Ihe lahd oI ‘old medIa’.
oo121 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Perhaps Lhe lacL LhaL naínsLrean nedía corpora
Líons are lookíng Lo a nonprolíL organízaLíon wíLh
no physícal address lor ínspíraLíon should gíve you
an índícaLíon ol how deep Lhe crísís ís. 8uL íL can’L
all be bad news. ¦’n one ol Lhose people who ís
opLínísLíc abouL whaL níghL cone ouL ol Lhís shake
up ol Lhe nedía índusLry, and ¦ belíeve naínsLrean
nedía ís Lhínkíng nore and nore creaLívely abouL
how Lo use Lhe Web because Lhey have línally been
convínced LhaL íL’s uselul and rewardíng raLher Lhan
ouL ol sone kínd ol desperaLíon. AL leasL LhaL ís
whaL íL seens líke lookíng aL our own experíences
ol lookíng lor ways Lo conbíne cíLízen nedía wíLh
naínsLrean nedía.
¦ don’L need Lo Lell you abouL how ¦ranían bloggers
used 1wíLLer duríng posLelecLíon proLesLs, or how
HaíLíans used Lhe ¦nLerneL ín Lhe alLernaLh ol Lhe
earLhquake. You’ve probably heard íL belore. 8uL
íl you Lhínk ol all Lhe dranaLíc evenLs Lakíng place
ín Lhe world ríghL now, you níghL wonder why we
don’L hear sLoríes líke Lhís nore olLen lron oLher
parLs ol Lhe world Loo. Wíll Lhe balance Líp away
lron naínsLrean nedía when íL cones Lo seLLíng
Lhe agenda7 ALLracLíng a nass global audíence nay
soon becone less dependenL on gaíníng naín
sLrean nedía coverage lírsL.
Clobal Voíces locuses naínly on developíng world
cíLízen nedía and one ol our goals ís Lo seek ways
Lo ínLegraLe whaL bloggers are sayíng ín places líke
1haíland or Madagascar ínLo ínLernaLíonal loreígn
sLoríes. 1here ís a loL Lo say abouL how local cíLízen
nedía can ínpacL boLh naLíonal and loreígn news
reporLíng. 8uL Lhe poínL ¦’d líke Lo nake ís LhaL Lhe
success sLoríes ín less developed parLs ol Lhe world
should be índícaLíve ol whaL níghL work lor nedía
ín rícher parLs ol Lhe world Loo.
Mobilizing online citizen media
AL Clobal Voíces, ¦ help nanage a vírLual newsroon
ol bloggers who reporL on world evenLs by quoLíng
and LranslaLíng lron blogs and cíLízen nedía world
wíde. Clobal Voíces was creaLed líve years ago aL
Harvard ÜníversíLy’s 8erknan CenLer lor ¦nLerneL
research as a response Lo Lhe lacL LhaL even Lhough
Lhe world wíde Web connecLs alnosL everyone on
Lhe planeL, nosL people sLíll seen preler Lo read
and wríLe abouL Lheír own local íssues. We’re
Lryíng Lo help losLer a global conversaLíon, and
supporL lree speech lor all. As our slogan goes,
“1he world ís Lalkíng. Are you lísLeníng7”
Over Lhe years, we’ve creaLed a global connuníLy
ol nore Lhan 2oo volunLeer bloggers and Lransla
Lors who all work wíLh ouL parLLíne edíLors. We
reporL on Lhe acLívíLíes and Lhe Lopícs LhaL concern
bloggers and cíLízen |ournalísLs worldwíde – wíLh
specíal enphasís on developíng counLríes and
nargínalízed voíces. ¦or ínsLance, whaL do gay
bloggers ín Üganda Lhínk abouL Lheír governnenL’s
sLance on honosexualíLy7 Or how are 1haí bloggers
preparíng lor a cíLywíde 8angkok proLesL ol cíLízens
dressed ín red LshírLs7
So Lhís ís cíLízen |ournalísn ol a kínd LhaL begíns on
Lhe personal WebsíLes ol a lew índívíduals, and ís
adapLed ínLo an arLícle LhaL Lells a broader sLory.
Over Lhe líve years sínce Clobal Voíces was lounded
we’ve experínenLed wíLh nunerous approaches
Lo ínLegraLíng Lhese kínd ol global cíLízen perspec
Líves ínLo naínsLrean nedía.
¦n March ¦ spenL Lwo weeks workíng wíLh 88C News
WebsíLe edíLors ín London. 1he goal ol our pro|ecL
was Lo explore how cíLízen nedía could help ínlorn
Lheír loreígn news coverage and více versa. We
added línks Lo Clobal Voíces dírecLly lron 88C news
sLoríes when íL could help add conLexL and we also
publíshed lree sLandíng sLoríes. One exanple ol
when Lhís worked well was duríng an exLrenely
heaLed políLícal debaLe ín Lhe upper house ol par
líanenL ín ¦ndía abouL a bíll Lo íncrease Lhe nunber
ol lenale lawnakers across Lhe counLry, spílled
over ínLo onlíne díscussíon ín ¦ndían blogs and on
1wíLLer. 1he sLraíghL news sLory lelL you wíLh alnosL
a black and whíLe víew ol Lhe conLroversy, whíle
Lhe ¦ndían bloggers shared perspecLíves LhaL
showed why even lenínísLs níghL be agaínsL Lhe
bíll.
Anong our weaknesses were ínperlecLíons ín arLí
cle lornaL, and relaLíve lack ol speed conpared Lo
a 24/¯ news organízaLíon líke Lhe 88C. 1he colla
boraLíon was very uselul ín poínLíng ouL sone ol
Lhe Lhíngs Clobal Voíces could do beLLer, íncludíng
lorward planníng. On Lhe oLher hand íL renewed ny
leelíng LhaL whaL we do ís valuable because íL’s díl
lerenL lron whaL Lhey do – especíally because we
are nore ínclusíve ol sLoríes LhaL world cíLízens
Lhenselves Lell us are ínporLanL. We don’L belíeve
LhaL cíLízen nedía exísLs ín opposíLíon Lo naín
sLrean |ournalísn. 1he Lwo need Lo work LogeLher.
oo122 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Challenging old working methods
Anong several íníLíaLíves Lo spríng ouL ol Lhe
Clobal Voíces connuníLy ís an ouLreach pro|ecL
called kísíng Voíces LhaL has províded nícrogranL
lundíng lor new bloggíng pro|ecLs ín nargínalízed
connuníLíes Lo help address Lhe dígíLal dívíde LhaL
exísLs even ín our own global connuníLy. We have
helped launch 22 pro|ecLs (ol whích 1¬ are sLíll
acLíve) ín places líke ín Líbería, Yenen, Colonbía,
and Ükraíne.
One kísíng Voíces pro|ecL ís ín Madgascar. Lhe
¦OKO Madagascar 8log Club. 1hís was a group ol
socíally nínded young people lron Madagascar
LhaL lírsL goL LogeLher Lo Lraín youLh ín bloggíng ín
2oo¯. Much ol Lhe Leachíng was done lron abroad
over ínsLanL nessenger wíLh Malagasy díaspora
bloggers ín Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes. 1he young people
sLarLed doíng cool Lhíngs. A lírsL breakLhrough no
nenL was when one ol Lhe bloggers neL a young
wonan who’s baby was ín desperaLe need ol an
operaLíon and decíded Lo use her blog lor lundraí
síng. 1hey raísed Lhe noney, and were able Lo help.
Many nonLhs laLer, políLícal evenLs ín Madagascar
led Lo ríoLíng and kíllíng ín Lhe sLreeLs. ¦L was never
ínLended lor Lhe bloggers Lo acL as a kínd ol news
servíce, buL Lhey had Lhe newly learned skílls Lo do
íL. ¦n Lhose days ol Lurbulence, nany Malagasy ouL
síde Lhe counLry relíed on blogger reporLs Lo know
whaL was goíng on. As ínLernaLíonal ínLeresL ín Lhe
sLory grew, Lhe bloggers ended up ín newspapers,
Lelevísíon and radío ín boLh Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes,
¦rance, and worldwíde. 1hey províded a conbína
Líon ol lírsLhand reporLíng and analysís aL a Líne
when naínsLrean ín Madagascar nedía was based,
LhreaLened, and scared ol LhreaLs lron boLh arny
and políLícal supporLers.
¦L was a lullblown coup, buL once Lhíngs calned
down, Lhe bloggers hosLed a neeLíng Lo díscuss
Lheír acLívíLíes. ¦L was aLLended by several |ourna
lísLs, lorner |ournalísLs, and even a lorner nínísLer
ol culLure. A spíríL ol collaboraLíon was losLered,
and Lheír ínlluence was cenenLed. ¦n ¦ebruary ol
Lhís year, bloggers lron ¦OKO organízed a work
shop ín bloggíng and 1wíLLer lor |ournalísLs and
socíal workers.
¦ Lhínk Lhís exanple shows how cíLízens can geL
ínvolved ín helpíng Lo change Lhe nedía agenda
boLh locally and ínLernaLíonally. A loL ol Lhe Líne íL’s
Lhe bloggers who are ahead ol naínsLrean nedía
and need Lo Leach Lhe value ol engagíng wíLh
onlíne connuníLíes. We have seen nunerous
exanples ol bloggers Lakíng on Lhís leadershíp role
ín Lheír own counLríes, and also ol nedía ínLegra
Líng Lhe words or perspecLíves ol bloggers Lo Lry
and Lap ínLo Lhe energy and new conversaLíons LhaL
líve on Lhe ¦nLerneL.
As an ínLernaLíonal connuníLy Clobal Voíces Lends
Lo locus nosLly on ínsLances where bloggers and
onlíne connuníLíes are heard ín ínLernaLíonal
nedía. One ol our earlíesL lunders was Lhe news
agency keuLers, and our colounder was Lhe lorner
8eí|íng bureau chíel lor CNN. However, Lhís ís noL
Lhe only críLería ol success lor cíLízen |ournalísn –
nor ís íL usually Lhe end goal lor Lhe people ínvolved
ín Lhe pro|ecLs. 1hey are local cíLízens and wíll usu
ally have Lhe besL ínLeresLs ol Lheír connuníLy aL
Lhe cenLer ol Lheír concerns.
Connecting with communities
¦n a developíng world conLexL where íL can be con
plícaLed Lo deal wíLh lack ol elecLrícíLy, slow ¦nLer
neL, and olLen long Lravel – people need a very
sLrong sense ol purpose Lo keep goíng. ¦ soneLínes
leel LhaL evangelísLs ol cíLízen |ournalísn geL car
ríed away and ínagíne LhaL people |usL do cíLízen
|ournalísn lor Lhe sake ol doíng íL. Or LhaL íl you
have a newspaper or a WebsíLe, a whole bunch ol
people wíll subníL loLs ol lree conLenL and phoLos
íl you ask Lhen Lo. NoL Lo nenLíon LhaL íL wíll be
ínLeresLíng Lo read.
We need Lo be conpleLely honesL LhaL cíLízen
nedía pro|ecLs soneLínes do noL produce Lhe nosL
excíLíng sLoríes. You can Lraín a dozen people how
Lo blog and only one or Lwo ol Lhen wíll be really
good. You can even have a clear goal lor your cíLí
zen nedía pro|ecL, buL you can’L expecL LhaL people
wíll always wríLe whaL you Lhínk Lhey wíll. 1here ís
noLhíng nagícal abouL a blog. MosL ol Lhe people
we work wíLh aL Clobal Voíces don'L Lhínk ol Lhen
selves ín Lerns ol |ournalísn. ParL ol Lhe ídea ís
lor people Lo línd a venue lor sellexpressíon and
Lo gíve Lhen Lhe Lools and llexíbílíLy Lo ríse Lo a
challenge when Lhe occasíon calls lor íL – wheLher
íL’s lor Lhe world cup, a culLural evenL, or a naLíonal
crísís. WhaL people nay lack ín Lechnícal skílls or
wríLíng línesse, Lhey usually nore Lhan readíly nake
up lor wíLh passíon and ínLegríLy.
One way LhaL onlíne cíLízen nedía ís really coníng
ínLo locus ín Lhe developíng world ís Lhrough ín
íLíaLíves LhaL aín Lo íncrease cíLízen engagenenL ín
oo12¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Lheír own socíeLíes. kísíng Voíces has creaLed a
new WebsíLe and research Lean LhaL ís nappíng
Lhese pro|ecLs called 1echnology lor 1ransparency.
¦n CuaLenala, represenLaLíves lron nore Lhan 41
organízaLíons puL Lhe spoLlíghL on Lhe selecLíon
process ol nonínees lor key publíc ollíces. ¦n
Chana, an onlíne ínlornaLíon porLal ís coveríng
and noníLoríng elecLíons ín Len Alrícan counLríes
and ín Lhree languages. ¦n ¦srael, cíLízens have con
verLed Lhe 1el Avív nunícípal budgeL lron PD¦ Lo a
spreadsheeL lornaL wíLh vísualízaLíons. ¦s íL cíLízen
|ournalísn7 ¦L's cerLaínly powerlul publíc ínlorna
Líon ol a kínd LhaL prevíously requíred |ournalísLs
Lo help Lell Lhe sLory. ¦n Lhís regard cíLízens and |our
nalísLs can do a loL ol good by workíng LogeLher.
¦n seekíng soluLíons Lo a naínsLrean nedía crísís,
íL would be sílly Lo Lhínk LhaL Lhe sane soluLíons wíll
work lor everyone. One Lhíng worLh noLíng ín Lhe
nedía landscape ol Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes ís LhaL Lhere
ís one secLor ol Lhe nedía índusLry LhaL ís less
allecLed by Lhe econoníc crísís and nedía closures.
A survey ol eLhníc nedía ín Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes con
níssíoned by New Aneríca Medía ín 2oo¤ (LhaL
neans Lhe Chínese, Spanísh, AlrícanAnerícan
newspapers, broadcasL eLc) showed sígnílícanL
growLh sínce 2oo¬. New Aneríca Medía aLLríbuLe
íL Lo Lhe lacL LhaL Lhese publícaLíons are acLívely
servíng and represenLíng specílíc connuníLíes,
have snall budgeLs, and don’L rely on bíg corpora
Líons lor adverLísenenLs. AlLogeLher Lhe eLhníc
nedía reach ¬o níllíon cíLízens ín Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes,
so íL’s noL an ínsígnílícanL secLor ín a populaLíon ol
¯o¤ níllíon.
Have Ü.S. newspapers lílled wíLh newswíre sLoríes
and syndícaLed colunns sLrayed Loo lar lron Lhe
LradíLíonal ‘old nedía’ píllar ol publíc servíce7 My
poínL ís ol course noL LhaL all news nedía should
be dívíded along eLhníc or geographíc línes, buL
LhaL |ournalísLs and edíLors really need Lo ask Lhen
selves who Lhey are servíng lor whaL purpose, and
wheLher Lhey are delíveríng Lrue value lor Lheír
audíence or connuníLy. One way Lo ídenLíly Lhís ís
Lo engage and reconnecL openly wíLh readers ín
neanínglul ways over Lhe ¦nLerneL. Chances are
LhaL noníLoríng how cíLízens are engagíng wíLh
each oLher abouL ínporLanL publíc ínLeresL íssues
on Lhe Web wíll províde ínspíraLíon lor whaL a
prolessíonal nedía organízaLíon nay be able Lo
help do even beLLer.
¦OKO 8log Club bloggers ín Madagascar celebraLíng Lheír one year anníversary ín 2oo8. Several were ínspíred Lo sLarL bloggíng Lo
correcL Lhe ouLsíde ínpressíon LhaL Madagascar ís anyLhíng líke a Dísney novíe ol Lhe sane nane. PhoLo. by ¦OKO Madagascar
> > > >
!enín relugee cano / CopyríghL C!
It’s all about
People
CIhema !ehIh
oo12s we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > Ismael KhaIeeb, HearI oI !ehIh, CIhema !ehIh, Marcus VeIIer,
NormalIzaIIoh, CulIural IhIIIada
Marcus VeLLer
Marcus VeLLer ís one ol Lhe lounder ol Cínena !enín. 8orn ín 1¤6¯, dírecLor and producer. Marcus sLudíed ‘Luropean 8usíness SLudíes’
ín Worns, 8uenos Aíres and Madríd. AlLer a work placenenL aL ‘8avaría ¦íln’ he decíded Lo sLarL anoLher degree ín ‘Medía Scíences’
aL Lhe ÜníversíLy ol 1ubíngen. Sínce 1¤¤4 he has worked as a lreelance edíLor, wríLer and dírecLor nosLly lor Lhe Cernan SWk 1V
channel. He has dírecLed nunerous príneLíne docunenLaríes whích show regularly aL ínLernaLíonal lesLívals.
we-magazIhe >
Marcus, your lasL líln was lor Ak1L. ¦L’s called
“HearL ol !enín”. Can you gíve us a shorL ínLroduc
Líon Lo íL7
Marcus VeIIer >
¦ was asked by a producLíon conpany Lo nake Lhís
líln – íL was noL ny own ídea. And íL was noL aL all
whaL ¦ expecLed. 1he líln ís abouL a laLher – ¦snael
KhaLíb – whose son was kílled by Lhe ¦sraelí arny ín
!enín, a relugee canp, and who decíded Lo donaLe
hís son’s organs Lo ¦sraelí chíldren.
Workíng LogeLher wíLh an ¦sraelí dírecLor on a
PalesLínían íssue was a very ínLeresLíng challenge.
When ¦ lírsL cane Lo ¦srael Lo work on Lhe líln,
everyone Lold ne LhaL !enín ís a nogo area! All
¦sraelís are scared Lo deaLh abouL Lhís cíLy. !usL
nenLíon !enín on a bus or sonewhere and people
wíll Lurn Lheír heads – and you can see and acLually
leel Lheír lear. People saíd ¦ would be kílled or kíd
napped íl ¦ wenL Lo !enín because Lhere were oLher
|ournalísLs kídnapped ín Caza aL Lhe Líne. So we
waíLed Lwo weeks. 8uL Lhen ¦ decíded Lo go. ¦ shoL
ín !enín wíLh ny PalesLínían Lean wíLhouL ny
¦sraelían codírecLor.
And whaL ¦ saw Lhere was LoLally díllerenL lron
whaL Lhe news clíps were showíng or whaL people
had Lold ne abouL íL.
we-magazIhe >
8elore we go on Lo Lalk abouL !enín, perhaps you
could Lell us why Lhe sLory ol “HearL ol !enín” ís so
specíal7
Marcus VeIIer >
1he sLory’s so specíal because Lhere’s such a loL ol
haLred beLween ¦sraelís and PalesLíníans. A laLher
loses hís son who’s shoL down by Lhe ¦sraelí arny,
and he decídes Lhrough hís son’s organs Lo reach
ouL Lo ¦sraelí chíldren. 1hís reach ouL ís soneLhíng
very specíal and íL really echoed all around Lhe
world. Lven ín ¦srael Lhe sLory nade íL ínLo Lhe news
progran.
Such Lhíngs can happen ín specíal nonenLs when
hunan beíngs lorgeL Lheír haLreds. ¦L was a sígn –
a hand reached ouL Lo Lhe oLher síde.
Chíld playíng ín Lhe relugee canp / CopyríghL C!
we-magazIhe >
WhaL díd Lhe ¦sraelían people say7
Marcus VeIIer >
¦írsL ol all people ín ¦srael dídn’L expecL soneLhíng
líke Lhís Lo happen. 8uL whaL Lhey saíd ¦n ¦srael was
LhaL Lhís was |usL one síngle nan and íl only
everyone ín PalesLíne could be nore líke ¦snael
KhaLíd, ready Lo reach ouL Lheír hand, Lhen Lhere
would be no problen.
8uL LhaL’s sínply noL Lrue! 1hís ís whaL ¦ díscovered
when ¦ wenL Lo !enín. 1hey’re very welconíng,
warnhearLed people – lírsL and lorenosL Lhey’re
people.
we-magazIhe >
WhaL kínd ol challenges do you see ín Lhís area7
Marcus VeIIer >
On Lhe one hand, ¦srael has nade a loL ol nísLakes.
1hey are loosíng Lheír solídaríLy ín Lhe world. When
¦ screened Lhe “HearL ol !enín” lasL year, belore Lhe
Caza war, people líked íL a loL. 1he líln was lucky
enough Lo nake íLs way Lhrough all Lhese díllerenL
lobbíes and appeal dírecLly Lo Lhe people. 1here
were sone people ín Lhe audíence who saíd per
haps íL’s a bíL onesíded and Lakes up Lhe PalesLí
nían cause Loo nuch. 8uL nowadays nobody would
dare Lo say anyLhíng negaLíve abouL Lhe líln. 1hís
neans LhaL one ol Lhe challenges now ís Lhe
waníng ol synpaLhy lor Lhe ¦sraelí people. 1hís puLs
¦srael ín a síLuaLíon where íL’s vulnerable.
And on Lhe oLher síde Lhere are PalesLíníans who
see LhaL ¦srael ís weak. And Lhís ís dangerous be
cause íl Lhey see LhaL ¦srael ís weak, suddenly Lhey
leel LhaL Lhey can solve Lhe síLuaLíon and so Lend
nore Lowards lundanenLalísn. 1hís ís whaL ¦ have
seen – buL noL wíLh Lhe na|oríLy ol people ín Pale
sLíne. No, Lhe na|oríLy ol people – and Lhís ís ny
deep leelíng – don’L wanL a Lhírd ¦nLílada. kíghL
now Lhey’re sLandíng ín Lhe níddle.
So Lhe bíg challenge lor Lhís regíon ís Lo handle
Lhís síLuaLíon – luelled by Lhe nísLakes ol Lhe ¦srae
lían governnenL íLsell – and by Lhe sane Loken Lhe
growíng poLenLíal ol lundanenLalísn on Lhe Pale
sLíne síde. ¦srael wíll never ever excepL a second
HolocausL. And Lhís nakes lor a dangerous and
híghly explosíve síLuaLíon.
oo128 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
So why díd you go Lo !enín even Lhough everybody
reconnended you Lo sLay away7
Marcus VeIIer >
¦ wenL Lo !enín because ¦’n a docunenLary lílnna
ker and íl ¦’n nakíng a líln abouL soneone who
cones lron !enín, Lhen ¦ have Lo go Lo !enín or ¦
sínply don’L do Lhe líln. ¦ wíll noL do ínLervíews by
phone líke ¦ was reconnended Lo do!
we-magazIhe >
WhaL happened when you goL Lhere7
Marcus VeIIer >
¦ neL a greaL nunber ol exLraordínaríly welconíng,
warnhearLed people. ¦ was LoLally asLoníshed aL
how “naíve” Lhey were – ¦ was asLoníshed LhaL ¦
could Lake a Laxí wíLhouL beíng cheaLed – unlíke ín
1el Avív or Caíro. ¦L’s a very ínnocenL cíLy because
Lhere ísn’L LhaL nuch Lourísn.
8uL laLer on ¦ also díscovered sone problenaLíc ís
sues ín Lhís socíeLy caused by Lhe círcunsLances
whích Lhey are lorced Lo líve ín. ¦L's hard Lo gaín
LrusL where Lhere ísn'L nuch LrusL aL all. And as ¦ see
íL, Lhere’s noL nuch lríendshíp. People are very
quíck Lo use Lhe word “lríendshíp” buL Lrue lríend
shíp ís very rare ín ny experíence. 1hey’re also very
aLonísed because Lhere ís so líLLle noney LhaL
everyone wanLs whaL Lhe oLher person has. ¦l you
have a good posíLíon, you níghL be blacknaíled
and replaced.
Only Lhe people and Lheír way ol beíng, Lheír warn
hearLs, ¦ really líked a loL. And ¦ lell ín love wíLh
!enín and whaL ¦ wanL Lo nake clear wíLh our pro
|ecL Cínena !enín ís LhaL !enín ís noL a place you
should be scared ol. ¦Ls people are noL LerrorísLs!
we-magazIhe >
8uL LhaL’s whaL Lhe place ís known lor, LhaL’s whaL
Lhe news delívers!
Marcus VeIIer >
LxacLly!
we-magazIhe >
You saíd aL Lhe begínníng LhaL “HearL ol !enín” had
LoLally changed your líle. 8uL usually when you
nake a líln, you go and shooL and produce Lhe
novíe, and íL’s a success or noL, and you lollow up
a bíL and Lhen nove on Lo Lhe nexL pro|ecL. 8uL
you’re now Lryíng Lo esLablísh soneLhíng down
Lhere. So whaL happened Lo you alLer you shoL Lhe
novíe7
Marcus VeIIer >
¦’d neL sone people and ¦ could see by lookíng ín
Lheír eyes LhaL Lhey needed a helpíng hand. ¦ dídn’L
wanL Lo leave Lhís place wíLhouL gívíng Lhen ny
hand.
we-magazIhe >
So how do you reach ouL7
Marcus VeIIer >
1he key poínL lor ne was, ís and wíll be ¦snael’s de
císíon Lo donaLe hís son’s organs Lo ¦sraelí chíldren.
When you see Lhe líln you wíll undersLand LhaL íL
wasn’L solely hís own decísíon. Many people were
ínvolved! And LhaL’s key! ¦L was Lhe nurse who
Lalked Lo hín so well abouL whaL íL neans Lo do
naLe organs. 1hen he asked Zakaría Zbeídy ol Lhe
Al Akza brígade, íl he accepLed, and he díd even
Lhough he ís soneone who líghLs wíLh arns.
Zbeídy saíd íl Lhís ís your way you should lollow íL
and go íL wíLh Cod, ¦ wíll accepL íL. 1hís was a very
brave decísíon on hís parL sínce oLher LerrorísLs or
lreedon líghLer groups could easíly have saíd
“WhaL are you doíng7” ¦urLher on he asked Lhe
MulLí ol !enín who ínLerpreLed Lhe whole Lhíng ín a
lavourable líghL ol Lhe Koran.
So Lhe lacL LhaL Lhís would never have happened íl
everyone ínvolved ín Lhís chaín hadn’L each Laken a
brave decísíon was also preLLy asLoníshíng lor ne.
1hís wasn’L a síngle nan’s decísíon whích ís Lhe
good Lhíng abouL íL because one síngle hero ís noL
enough. We don’L need |usL one hero. 1hís ís a
na|or problen ol our Líne.
oo12¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
!erusalen, laníly Levínson / CopyríghL L¦KON
oo1¯o we¸specIal¸o1o/1
!enín CíLy, SLore / CopyríghL C!
oo1¯1 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
we-magazIhe >
1ell us, whaL Lhe pro|ecL Cínena !enín ís abouL
and how does íL handle Lhe challenges you’ve |usL
descríbed7
Marcus VeIIer >
WhaL we díd was Lo reopen an old cínena closed
down ín 1¤8¯ and gíve Lhe kíds ín Lhe sLreeLs a
vísíon and soneLhíng Lo belíeve ín. Cínena neans
a loL, neans a reLurn Lo nornalíLy whích people
need. 1he kíds on Lhe sLreeLs, ín Lhe relugee canps
need a vísíon. 8uL íL’s noL |usL a cínena lor kíds,
íL’s lor Lheír parenLs and grownups as well.
Cínena ísn’L |usL abouL sLoryLellíng, íL neans
Lhe elecLrícíans, workers, cralLsnen who buíld íL.
Cínena neans LranslaLíon, lílnnakíng, producíng,
synchronísaLíon – Lhere’s hardly any skíll whích ís
noL ínvolved ín cínena. And Lhe good Lhíng abouL
a cínena ís LhaL íL has an acLual place you can see.
¦L’s noL anonynous líke a 1V sLaLíon. ¦L’s a place
you can vísíL. ¦ Lhínk Lhere ís noLhíng beLLer Lhan a
cínena lor creaLíng Lhe |obs, dreans, vísíons whích
are whaL Lhe people need.
8uL whaL ís also |usL as ínporLanL ís LhaL ínLerna
Líonal people – “we” – and PalesLínían people –
“Lhey” – wanL Lo cone LogeLher ín a |oínL venLure Lo
buíld a plaLlorn where people can express Lhen
selves. Why cone LogeLher7 8ecause Lhís regíon ís
LoLally dívíded. Lhe Arab world ís LoLally splínLered,
Lhe ¦sraelís who are cousíns Lo Lhe Arabs are LoLally
splínLered. So we need Lo begín wíLh ourselves and
noL |usL punp noney ínLo Lhe regíon and leave. We
need Lo creaLe soneLhíng susLaínable, ín our case
Lhís plaLlorn Cínena !enín.
we-magazIhe >
¦l ¦ goL you ríghL Marcus, Cínena !enín ís all abouL
LrusL. Cíve LrusL, sLep back and gíve Lhe oLher a
chance by sLeppíng back yoursell. So your drean
ís LhaL ís whaL Lhe whole cíLy has Lo do. ¦l we can
persuade Lhe whole cíLy ...
Marcus VeIIer >
¦l you can persuade Lhese people wíLh Lhe sLory LhaL
happened ín !enín wíLh ¦snael where Lhe whole cíLy
lenL a hand Lo say “OK, we’ll be snarLer now. We’ll
sLep back Lhís Líne and do soneLhíng even Lhough
Lhe occupaLíon arny ís sLíll ín !enín!” – you can’L
ínagíne how nuch Lhe whole world would be ín
synpaLhy wíLh such a nove.
Our aín ís Lo cone LogeLher and sLíck LogeLher.
lírsL PalesLíníans and ínLernaLíonals ín !enín, Lhen ...
A lew days ago we goL a phone call lron an esLa
blíshed líln school, Lhe esLablíshed San Spíegel
¦íln School ín !erusalen. ¦akhrí Hanad and Lhe
dírecLor neL up aL Lhe Cínena lor Peace Cala when
we won Lhe Cínena lor Peace Award ín 8erlín. And
sonehow Lhey goL on wíLh each oLher, íL was
alnosL líke a lríendshíp. And Lhey were here ín
!enín and Lhey spenL Lhe níghL...
we-magazIhe >
1he ¦sraelís7
Marcus VeIIer >
Yes, Lhe ¦sraelís. ¦L was Lhe lírsL Líne, íL’s so seldon
LhaL anyone dares Lo cone Lo !enín. And now we’ve
had a phone call lron Lhe dírecLor who asked íl
he could cone Lo !enín on 16Lh Apríl and bríng 6o
sLudenLs wíLh hín!
we-magazIhe >
1haL’s a huge sLep!
Marcus VeIIer >
1haL neans LhaL now Lhey have LrusL ín us, ín
Cínena !enín, ín Lhe cíLy. ¦l Lhe cíLy would accepL,
Lhen íL’s a huge sLep because íL neans LhaL Lhe cíLy
wíll Lake care LhaL noLhíng happens Lo 6o ¦sraelís
coníng Lo !enín.
1he whole cíLy would gíve íLs consenL and noL |usL
one person. 1hís neans a loL. 1hen Lhere’s no hero
anynore, íL’s all Lhe people, and LhaL nakes a bíg
díllerence. ¦ hope íL wíll happen sone day ...
hIIp://www.cIhema|ehIh.org
> > >
PhoLo. www.wíred.con
On a
Mission to
End Oil
oo1¯¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > beIIer place, ehd oI oIl, ehvIrohmehI, ho baIIerIes,
hew busIhess model
Shaí Agassí
Shaí Agassí ís Lhe lounder and CLO ol 8eLLer Place. He ís locused on one ol Lhís cenLury’s bíggesL challenges, novíng Lhe world lron
oílbased Lo susLaínable LransporLaLíon. Agassí works wíLh governnenL leaders, auLo nanulacLurers, energy conpaníes and oLhers Lo
nake hís vísíon – zeroeníssíon vehícles powered by elecLrícíLy lron renewable sources – a realíLy ín counLríes around Lhe globe.
oo1¯õ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
¦ heard Shaí Agassí’s sLory lor Lhe lírsL Líne ín
!anuary 2oo¯. ¦L was aL DLD Conlerence ín Muních.
Sínce Lhen ¦’ve wondered abouL all Lhe people he
has already hooked up wíLh. nayors, CLOs, ínvesLors,
sLaLesnen, car dealers ... íncredíble carbon looL
prínLs ... AL one poínL, everybody narveled abouL
Shaí’s abílíLy Lo convínce you LhaL Lhe answers Lo
Lhe nosL challengíng problens are easy and ob
víous. He Lells you Lhe sLory, and íL sounds so sínple.
Why don’L we have íL Loday7 Why ísn’L íL here
already7
1hree years laLer, ín Lhe begínníng ol 2o1o, Agassí’s
vísíon can show íLs lírsL resulLs.
8uL leL’s sLarL wíLh Shaí Agassí, lornerly known as
Lhe nexL SAP CLO. 1he Lopíc. green LransporLaLíon.
Agassí ís Lhe lounder and CLO ol 8eLLer Palce PLC,
a new ínlrasLrucLure creaLor and operaLor lor Lhe
nanagenenL ol counLrywíde elecLríc vehícle lleeLs.
8eLLer Place PLC works wíLh governnenLs, car na
kers, and línancíal ínsLíLuLes creaLíng a large scale
lranework lor rapíd LranslornaLíon ol LransporL
sysLens away lron lossíl based energy Lo nonpol
luLíng oíl lree soluLíons. Creen LransporLaLíon lor a
8eLLer Place called earLh! 8eLLer Place ís noL ín lacL
anoLher V¦P goíng green. No, íL ís Lhe asLoníshíng
busíness nodel behínd Lhe ídea and Lhe sínple lacL
LhaL baLLeríes are noL íncluded!
Batteries are not included!
LlecLríc cars have long been a leLísh ob|ecL lor
envíronnenLalísLs. elecLrícíLy can be produced lron
wínd, solar or nuclear sources wíLh líLLle or no CO2.
YeL all Lhese alLernaLíves suller lron a connon pro
blen. reluelíng. 1he nosL advanced elecLríc car cur
renLly lor sale, Lhe 1esla koadsLer, runs lor no nore
Lhan 2¬o níles on a charge, and oLhers can do only
¬o níles or so belore Lhey need Lwo or nore hours
ol plugín Líne Lo recharge. 1he problen ol relu
elíng loons so large LhaL lans ol elecLríc cars have
a phrase lor íL. range anxíeLy, Lhe naggíng lear LhaL
you’ll run ouL ol |uíce and be sLranded aL Lhe síde ol
Lhe road belore you can línd a charge spoL. ¦L ís Lhe
naín reason why nosL people, even whíle Lhey
cheer on Lhe developnenL ol low or noeníssíons
vehícles, are leery ol acLually buyíng one. And íl
people won’L buy Lhen, carnakers won’L nake
Lhen.
Agassí's soluLíon ís a dual sysLen. 8eLLer Place aíns
Lo consLrucL a worldwíde neLwork ol níllíons ol
snallscale “chargíng spoLs,” parkíngneLerlíke
posLs scaLLered around downLown areas and along
híghways. 8uL crucíally, 8eLLer Place ís also buíldíng
roadsíde roboLízed baLLeryswap sLaLíons LhaL
províde lresh, lully charged baLLeríes wíLhouL
havíng Lo waíL hours lor a charge. You dríve by and
a roboL wíll change your baLLery quíckly. Agassí
says. “¦l we can’L do Lhís ín less Líne Lhan íL Lakes Lo
líll your gasolíne Lank, we don’L have a conpany.”
1he roboL ís desígned Lo reach under Lhe chassís ol
an elecLríc car, pluck íLs baLLery ouL and replace íL
wíLh a new one, ín nuch Lhe sane way as you’d puL
new baLLeríes ín a chíld’s Loy. AL a presenLaLíon ín
lronL ol a group ol ínvesLors and enployees Lhe
roboL – a squaL plaLlorn LhaL noves on lour dínner
plaLesíze whíLe wheels – scuLLled back and lorLh
along a 2olooL long seL ol neLal raíls. AL one end
ol Lhe raíls, a huge blue baLLery, Lhe síze ol a large
suíLcase, saL suspended ín a lrane. As we waLched,
Lhe roboL zípped up Lo Lhe baLLery, nade a nearly
ínaudíble clíck, and pulled Lhe baLLery downward.
¦L lerríed Lhe baLLery over Lo Lhe oLher end ol Lhe
raíls, dropped íL oll, pícked up a new baLLery, híssed
back over Lo Lhe lrane and, ín one delL novenenL,
snapped Lhe new baLLery ín Lhe place ol Lhe old
one. 1he LoLal Líne. 4¬ seconds.
The Business Model
“¦l ¦ can gíve you níles ín a nore conveníenL, chea
per way Lhan gasolíne, you wíll Lake Lhen,” Agassí
says. “¦l your neíghbor ís drívíng an elecLríc car and
payíng ne only S¯o a week lor Lhe elecLrícíLy, you’re
goíng Lo buy an elecLríc car, Loo. ¦l ¦ do íL wíLhouL
kíllíng your kíds and Lhe planeL, Lhen íL won’L even
naLLer íl íL’s cheaper or noL, you wíll |usL do íL.”
8eLLer Place cane up wíLh an asLoníshíng busíness
nodel, a nodel whích ís acLually borrowed lron
Lhe nobíle phone índusLry. ¦n Lhe sane way LhaL
wíreless operaLors deploy a neLwork ol cell Lowers
Lo províde an area ol nobíle phone coverage,
8eLLer Place wíll esLablísh a neLwork ol chargíng
spoLs and baLLery exchange sLaLíons Lo províde
ubíquíLous access Lo elecLrícíLy Lo power elecLríc
vehícles. 1he conpany wíll parLner wíLh car nakers
and source baLLeríes so LhaL consuners who sub
scríbe Lo Lhe neLwork can geL subsídízed vehícles
whích are cheaper Lo buy and operaLe Lhan Loday’s
luelbased cars. Consuners wíll sLíll own Lheír cars
and wíll have nulLíple car nodels Lo choose lron.
WhaL does Lhís nean ín nunbers7 Can a conpany
becone prolíLable based on Lhís nodel7 No doubL
oo1¯s we¸specIal¸o1o/1
abouL LhaL. Poweríng a car by elecLrícíLy — even
relaLívely expensíve “clean” energy líke wínd or
solar — cosLs lar less Lhan poweríng íL by gasolíne.
And wíLh Lhe ÜníLed SLaLes narkeL lor auLonobíle
gas aL roughly S2¯¬ bíllíon, Agassí lígured LhaL a
conpany conLrollíng a world neLwork ol chargíng
sLaLíons would becone so prolíLable so quíckly LhaL
íL could subsídíze íLs cusLoners’ elecLríc cars, nuch
Lhe way nobíle conpaníes gíve ouL lree phones Lo
people who sígn Lwoyear conLracLs ... e.g. 1o ÜSD
lor 1ooo níles, 2o ÜSD lor ¯ooo níles ... car nodel
A. 1ooo ÜSD, car nodel 8 2ooo ÜSD, nodel C o ÜSD.
Dream on or translate into action?
You can call íL exLraordínaríly bold, requíríng car
nakers Lo lundanenLally reLhínk Lhe way Lhey buíld
cars. 8uL Lhe Líne níghL be |usL ríghL! 1hey are
collapsíng anyway ... so Agassí’s soluLíon níghL be
a huge opporLuníLy ín críses lor Lhen.
¦n barely Lwo years, Agassí has persuaded ínvesLors
Lo conLríbuLe S4oo níllíon, and several cíLíes,
counLríes and sLaLes – íncludíng ¦srael, Dennark,
AusLralía, 1okyo. 1he ¦rench auLonaker kenaulL ís
spendíng S6oo níllíon over Lhree years Lo develop
a car wíLh swappable baLLeríes, Lo be released ín
2o11. ¦n ¦srael, where 8eLLer Place has already ín
sLalled hundreds ol íLs sígnaLure blue carchargíng
sLaLíons, Agassí ís credíLed wíLh convíncíng Lhe
naLíon’s |aded políLícal class LhaL Lhey have an
opporLuníLy Lo acLually wean Lheír counLry oll oíl.
And now Agassí ís LargeLíng Chína – Lhe largesL
car counLry ín Lhe world – lor a very good reason,
he says. “¦l Chína goes elecLríc, Lhe world wíll go
elecLríc! ¦L ís as sínple as Lhís. 1he Chínese govern
nenL ís greaL ín execuLíng such ídeas, Lhey are very
lasL ín deployíng nass ínlrasLrucLure. And Lhey have
Lhe noney Lo do so. 1hey puL a ¤ooo ÜSDíncenLíve
on every elecLríc car ín parLícular locussed on
governnenL vehícles and Laxís, Lhey are creaLíng
a new cíLy lor elecLríc cars beLween 8eí|íng and
1íang|íng – Lhe new DeLroíL íl you wanL, Lhey’ve
puL down Lhe budgeLs lor all ol Lhe 1¯ na|or cíLíes
Lo puL Lhe ríghL ínlrasLrucLure ín place, Lhey ban
gasolíne cars lron Lhe cíLíes. 1hey are delíníLely
Lakíng Lhese ídeas seríously. All ol LhaL ís dríven Lop
down. 8uL Lhey are also creaLíng a car índusLry boL
Lonup. And when Lhe Chínese have a consuner
producL ... nobody can beaL Lhen ín príce! So once
Lhe Chínese MarkeL goes elecLríc, Lhe ÜS has Lo go
elecLríc, Lurope has Lo go elecLríc ... 1he Chínese
Loday have Lhe abílíLy Lo be Lhe rísk Lakers and
leaders and Lhen Lhe resL ol Lhe world wíll lollow
Lhen!”
P
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> > >
PhoLo. !ochí ¦Lo
We Share.
We Do Not
Censor!
oo1¯7 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > sharIsm, ChIha, cehsorshIp, ehvIrohmehI, clImaIe chahge,
socIal medIa Iools
¦saac Mao
¦saac Mao ís a blogger lron Lhe People’s kepublíc ol Chína. He ís colounder ol CN8log.org and a coorganízer ol Lhe Chínese 8logger
Conlerence. ¦n 2oo¬, he sLarLed Lhe novenenL lor adopLíng Chínese bloggers on overseas servers. He dívídes hís Líne beLween
research, socíal works, busíness and Lechnology. He was a 8erknan ¦ellow 2oo8/2oo¤.
oo1¯8 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Chína ís ín nany ways a huge luLure challenge – lor
íLsell, íLs people and Lhe world. 1ake a worldvíew ol
Chína and Lhe lírsL Lhíng LhaL sLríkes you ís Lhe sheer
nagníLude ol Lhe new econoníc super power.
1here ís no doubL LhaL Chína ís ready Lo acL as a glo
bal LrendseLLer and leader (see p. 1¯¬ ol Lhís íssue
where Shaí Agassí nakes Lhe sane poínL wíLh rele
rence Lo Chína’s role ín Lhe elecLríc car índusLry).
1he Chínese governnenL well knows how Lo exe
cuLe sweepíng ídeas and rapídly nobílíse nass
ínlrasLrucLure. All Lhe sígns ín Chína are seL lor rapíd
relenLless growLh. 8uL whaL ís Lhe príce Lo be paíd
lor Lhís7 And who wíll píck up Lhe Lab7
¦saac Mao argues LhaL every Chínese cíLízen –
regardless ol wheLher Lhey are nenbers ol Lhe
ConnunísL ParLy or noL – wíll pay Lhe príce and LhaL
everyone wíll be called on Lo nake huge sacrílíces.
8uL Lhe quesLíon ¦saac asks ís wheLher such sacrílí
ces are really necessary – wheLher Lhere aren’L any
beLLer ways Lo succeed. And hís answer ís yes Lhere
are – wíLh Sharísn!
¦saac Look an early leadershíp role ín Lhe Chínese
onlíne connuníLy. Hís sínple buL larreachíng nís
síon ís Lo nake Chína a beLLer place Lo líve ín by sha
ríng worldwíde knowledge! ¦or hín knowledge ís
Lhe key Lo a susLaínable luLure ol all Lhe people ol
Chína. ¦n pursuíL ol Lhís goal, he advocaLes proví
díng people wíLh uncensored access Lo Lhe ¦nLerneL
and he also wanLs Lo nake Lhen aware LhaL Lhe
governnenL ís censoríng Lhe neL. Hís ídea ol
Sharísn ís Lhus a críLícal Lool lor abolíshíng Lhe
CreaL ¦írewall ol Chína.
¦saac Mao lírsL ínLroduced Lhe Lern lour years ago
Lo descríbe a way ol sharíng your work (everyLhíng)
wíLhín your socíal neLwork (or publíc donaín) whíle
sLíll reLaíníng all Lhe ríghLs you wísh Lo reLaín. Sha
rísn can be pracLíced easíly and aL any Líne when
connunícaLíng wíLh oLhers – wríLíng blogs, po
sLíng phoLos or organízíng olllíne neeLups lor
group díscussíons, eLc. And íl you don’L wanL Lo
pracLíce íL, you sínply don’L share because Sharísn
ís based on a person’s own índívídual decísíon. Sha
rísn ís acLually a very sínple ídea and parL ol our
hunan naLure. ¦L should be pracLísed on a daíly
basís. Sharísn ís noL an assaulL on oLher people’s
ríghLs. ¦L’s a very personalízed níndseL and pracLícal
spíríL. When you pracLíse Sharísn you can gradually
leel Lhe change operaLíng as you becone nore
opennínded, nore knowledgeable, and as your
socíal capíLal íncreases. 8ecause Lhe nore you share
Lhe nore you receíve.
1o LranslaLe Lhe Lheory ol Sharísn ínLo acLíon, lree
access Lo Lhe ¦nLerneL ís ol Lhe essence. Sharísn
íLsell ís críLícal lor overconíng censorshíp ín Chína.
As ¦saac Mao says, “1here ís a rídículous race goíng
on abouL censorshíp ín Chína. 1hose ín power Lry
Lo geL Lheír hands on Lhe very besL Lechnology
avaílable. 8uL Lhose líghLíng censorshíp are acLually
Lhe ones wíLh Lhís Lechnology and Lhey are Lhe very
ones who nake íL avaílable Lo underníne Lhe CreaL
¦írewall ol Chína. 1he very ones who share!”
1haL Sharísn ís índeed an ellecLíve lorce can be
seen lron Lhe lollowíng exanple. even Lhough
1wíLLer ís ollícíally banned ín Chína each Sunday
alLernoon wíLhouL laíl Lhe hash Lag #C¦W (= CreaL
¦írewall ol Chína) reaches Lhe No.1 sloL ín Lhe
Chínese 1wíLLer charLs – charLs LhaL are based on
Chínese ¦Paddresses. 1he Chínese “LwíLLersphere”
ís a vívíd denonsLraLíon ol how “easy” íL ís Lo by
pass Lhe sysLen by sharíng. A group ol people wor
kíng on Lechnology Lools shares Lhen and Lheír
ídeas Lo gíve people uncensored access Lo Lhe neL.
YeL bypassíng or helpíng Lo do so Lhe CreaL ¦írewall
ol Chína ís acLually a very dangerous enLerpríse
LhaL can easíly land people ín príson or seríously
resLrícL Lhe líves Lhey lead. 1he governnenL ís
LíghLeníng Lhe screws on Lhís LargeL group. So whaL
sLíll leads Lhen Lo conbaL censorshíp7 ¦saac Mao’s
víew ís LhaL “¦or Chína as a whole íL ís very ínpor
LanL LhaL all people have access Lo knowledge.
Knowledge ís Lhe key Lo a beLLer líle. ¦l people know
and undersLand, Lhey can sLarL Lo acL! And ¦ an NO1
Lalkíng abouL a revoluLíon, ¦ an NO1 Lalkíng abouL
overLhrowíng Lhe governnenL. ¦ an Lalkíng abouL
access Lo basíc knowledge lor Lhe average Chínese
cíLízen. People should know abouL Lhe envíron
nenLal danage Lhe íncredíble raLe ol econoníc
growLh ís bríngíng wíLh íL. 1hey should know how
Lo deal wíLh breasL cancer. 1hey should know abouL
Lhe deaLh ol naLural resources and Lhe danage
done Lo naLure. Chínese people need Lo becone
aware ol Lhese problens. 1hey need Lo know LhaL
Lhey exísL. 1hey need Lo know LhaL censorshíp
exísLs. 1hey need Lo gaín awareness. 8ecause íl Lhey
know Lhey wíll undersLand. And íl Lhey undersLand
– Lhey wíll acL! And Lhe nore people acL, Lhe
greaLer ís Lhe probabílíLy LhaL change lor Lhe beLLer
oo1¯¤ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
wíll happen. ¦l Lhey don’L know, noLhíng wíll
happen.” So how can change really be achíeved7
“Look,” Mao poínLs ouL, “Loday only 2¯% ol all
Chínese people have access Lo Lhe ¦nLerneL. And
Lhey’re naínly on Lhe easL coasL, Lhe lurLher you go
ínland Lhe rarer ¦nLerneL access becones. Lven so,
Chína sLíll ís Lhe world’s preníer ¦nLerneL counLry –
ín Lerns ol Lhe absoluLe nunbers ol people wíLh
access. Chínese ís Lhe nosL wríLLen language on Lhe
neL. YeL all Lhís ís |usL wíLh a nere 2¯% ol Lhe
people. So ínagíne whaL would happen íl Lhe ídea
ol Sharísn reaches |usL 1o% ol our onlíne connu
níLy – íL wíll nake Lhen a lorce Lo be reckoned wíLh
pracLícally overníghL!”
1he ídea ol Sharísn spreads by Lhe nouLhLo nouLh
connunícaLíon – onlíne and olllíne. And íL has now
caughL Lhe ínLeresL ol enLrepreneurs and busíness
angels as young successlul Chínese busíness nen
operaLíng naínly ouL ol 1aíwan and Hong Kong are
planníng Lo ínplenenL Sharísn ín Lheír solLware,
hardware and busíness applícaLíons. Sharísn solL
ware ís preLLy easy Lo ínage – íL neans Lhíngs
líke Wíkípedía or socíal LranslaLíon plaLlorns líke
yeeyan.con. 8uL whaL abouL Lhe hardware7 ¦saac
Mao sníles and explaíns, “We wanL Lo desígn a
credíL sysLen ín hardware so LhaL people can easíly
generaLe credíLs based on Lheír sharíng acLívíLíes –
neaníng you gaín poínLs by sharíng. And Lhen
people can change Lheír credíL poínLs ínLo real cur
rency. PayPal and adverLs, Lo gíve buL Lwo exanples,
can be enbedded ín hardware – and Lhís ís whaL
nakes a busíness applícaLíon based on an índíví
dual decísíon Lo share or noL Lo share. ¦nagíne LhaL
índívíduals can share vía ¦acebook, 1wíLLer and all
Lhe oLher socíal nedía Lools. 1hís gíves a huge
poLenLíal lor íncreasíng Lhe capíLal ol Sharísn. And
Lhís ís Lhe sorL ol pípelíne we are now planníng ...”
1agcloud by ¦saac Mao. Chínese Censorshíp SysLen and SocíeLy
Milagro
tags > MIlagro, ArgehIIha, 1upac Amaru, leadershIp, IrusI
Nícolas 1ereschuk
Nícolas 1ereschuk ís an ArgenLínean políLícal scíenLísL
and |ournalísL. He ís edíLor ol a personal blog ol políLí
cal díscussíon (hLLp.//vídabínaría.blogspoL.con) and
coedíLor ol Lhe collecLíve blog hLLp.//arLepolíLíca.con.
SebasLían Míquel
SebasLían Míquel ís an ArgenLínean phoLographer and
políLícal scíenLísL. Works as a lreelance phoLographer.
Has developed Lhe seríes “Abya Yala, Sons ol 1he Land,
DocunenLal PhoLography abouL 1upac Anaru”, expo
sed aL Lhe Palaís de Clace, ín 8uenos Aíres.
All phoLographs copyrígL by SebasLían Míquel.
> > >
oo1õ2 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
“Mílagro” ís Spanísh lor “níracle” whích ís whaL
nany Lhínk Mílagro Sala has acconplíshed. Líke
oLher |obless groups ín ArgenLína her organízaLíon,
1unac Anaru (naned alLer a revoluLíonary 18Lh
cenLury ¦nca), receíved noney lronLhe governnenL.
8uL unlíke nosL ol Lhen, Lhe organízaLíon ol Lhís
dínínuLíve ¦ndían wonan has gaíned Lhe love and
respecL ol her people.
AlLer Lhe ArgenLíne econony recovered, Lhe govern
nenL channeled noney lor lood and housíng Lo
socíal groups ín poor regíons ol Lhe counLry. 1upac
Anaru Look a decísíon whích proved Lo be Lhe ríghL
one. Lo enpower all íLs nenbers and nake wíse ín
vesLnenL. 1hey buílL Lwo lacLoríes lor brícks and
sLeel Lo reduce Lhe cosL ol buíldíng new housíng.
And Lheír nove paíd dívídends. ¦n Lhe norLhern
!u|uy provínce Lhe governnenL spends over S¯o,ooo
Lo buíld a laníly house whereas íL cosLs 1upac Anaru
|usL S2o,ooo and Lheír houses are buílL aL lour Línes
Lhe speeds ol sLaLeconLracLed consLrucLíon con
paníes. 1heír logíc ol auLonony and ínLellígenL
spendíng also ensures susLaínabílíLy lor Lhe pro|ecLs.
AnoLher key aspecL ol Lhe 1upac Anaru “phílosophy”
ís Lhe way íL seeks Lo gíve people Lrue hunan ríghLs,
Lo nake Lhenleel Lhey can do as well ín líle as rícher
people. ¦or ínsLance, Lhey decíded Lo buíld an aqua
Líc park ín a neíghborhood where people never
even dreaned ol havíng a swínníng pool. Or a park
lor kíds, wíLh bíg dínosaurs and carLoon characLers
lígures LhaL seens líke Dísney World Lo Lhe boys
and gírls ol neíghborhoods LhaL were shanLy Lowns
only a lew years back. As Lhey say, “1he poor have
a ríghL Lo lun”.
Many lives in one
Who ís Mílagro Sala7 And why does she go agaínsL
Lhe graín ol LradíLíonal políLícs ín NorLh ArgenLína7
A naLíve Anerícan Kolla, Mílagro grew up ín a
“whíLe” laníly unLíl she was 14. ¦ron LhaL Líne on
she renenbers beíng segregaLed lron Lhe híghly
sLraLílíed and LradíLíonal !u|uy socíeLy where Lhe
color ol her skín was enough Lo keep her ouL ol Lhe
publíc pool where rích whíLe kíds played ín Lhe hoL
norLhern sunners. Her líle was played ouL on Lhe
sLreeLs where she quíckly developed a lanílíaríLy
wíLh drugs, poverLy, víolence and políce harass
nenL. ¦L was also Lhe Líne when she realízed LhaL
she would never neeL her bíologícal noLher, one
ol her abídíng dreans.
Sínce her lírsL acLíve ínvolvenenL ín políLícs, Sala
knew Lhe LruLh ol !uan Peron dícLun LhaL “organíza
Líon beaLs Líne”. She organízed a proLesL lor beLLer
lood and was arresLed duríng a scullle wíLh local
políce. LaLer on she becane a publíc servíce ollícíal
and becane ínvolved ín Lhe Lrade uníon where she
loughL agaínsL neolíberal relorns ín !u|uy.
1he ArgenLínean crash ol 2oo1 – a lall ol over 1o
poínLs on CNP – lelL Lhe poor regíons ol Lhe coun
Lry clanoríng lor lood and shelLer and sLrengLhened
solídaríLy beLween people ín poor neíghborhoods.
¦n Lhe shanLy Lowns around 8uenos Aíres and
Lhe even poorer areas ín Lhe norLh, noLhers were
desperaLe Lo leed Lheír chíldren and looked Lo
nuLual sellhelp, governnenL handouLs and oLher
new ways, nakíng íL easíer lor leaders líke Mílagro
Lo bríng people LogeLher. She was “Lraíned” ín Lhe
1¤¤os when varíous secLíons proLesLed agaínsL Lhe
neolíberal relorns – prívaLízaLíon, Lhe open eco
nony and Lhe donínance ol Lhe línancíal secLor –
whích caused a Lríplíng ol unenploynenL and ín a
nere Len years a wídeníng ol Lhe gap beLween Lhe
ríchesL and pooresL secLíons ol socíeLy lron a lacLor
ol 1¬ Lo a lacLor ol 26. 1he Lhen presídenL Carlos
Menen was Lhe “besL díscíple” ol ¦M¦ polícíes and
prívaLízaLíon boosLed Lhe lorLunes ol loreígn capíLal
conpaníes whíle Lhousands ol snall busínesses
wenL broke. ÜnenploynenL, ínequalíLy and Lhe
corrupLíon ol publíc servíces (educaLíon, healLh,
|usLíce) lor Lhe poor peaked ín 2oo1. WíLh Lhe eco
nony ín deep recessíon, LhaL year’s nídLern
elecLíons were a deleaL noL only lor Lhe parLy ol Lhe
lorner presídenL ¦ernando de la kua buL lor Lhe
whole ol Lhe políLícal class as large swaLhes ol
voLers proLesLed agaínsL LradíLíonal políLícal parLíes
by voLíng lor Honer Sínpson or oLher carLoon cha
racLers over acLual candídaLes. When Lhe govern
nenL lell ín Lhe níddle ol a na|or línancíal, políLícal
and socíal crísís, Lhe sLreeLs resounded wíLh Lhe cry
“All ol Lhen, go hone!!”. 1he níddle classes saw
Lheír savíngs gobbled by bankers who were baíled
ouL by Lhe sLaLe. Workers sullered as Lheír salaríes
were weakened by devaluaLíon and ínllaLíon. And
Lhe unenployed could noL even nake a lívíng by
workíng ín Lhe ínlornal “grey” econony.
oo1õõ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Tupac Amaru
1upac Anaru Look oll when Mílagro Sala sLarLed Lo
organíze her neíghbors Lo leed Lhe chíldren ol
sLarvíng lanílíes. “When we wenL on Lhe sLreeLs Lo
denonsLraLe, we had good 1V coverage buL we sLíll
had noLhíng Lo eaL”, she renenbers, *¸speakíng aL
a local 1V show.¸*
When Lhe políLícal Lurnoíl ol 2oo1 passed, alLer an
econoníc recovery based on devaluaLíon ol Lhe
peso and a boon ín exporLs, Lhe pooresL people
sLarLed Lo receíve governnenL help whích cane ín
a varíeLy ol channels buL naínly lron Lhe rulíng
!usLícíalísLa parLy. 1hís was Lhe Líne when Lhe ídea
ol leLLíng people buíld Lheír own houses was lírsL
lloaLed. “We wenL Lo 8uenos Aíres Lo ask lor noney.
1he governnenL relused because we weren’L able
Lo show Lhen any experíence ín Lhís líeld – whích
was acLually Lrue, we had none! We loughL hard lor
Lhe lundíng Lhough. We Lold Lhen we had coope
raLíve groups already lorned, Lhe skílls needed and
Lhe land”. Once Lhe noney was secured, a whole
organízaLíon was seL up Lhrough Lhe índelaLígable
leadershíp ol Lhís Kolla naLíve wonan wíLh ¬o buíl
der groups delíned and ready Lo receíve naLeríals
Lo sLarL Lheír |ob. 1híngs wenL nuch beLLer Lhan
Lhey would have done under a prívaLe conLracLor.
Mílagro Sala led her people Lo a beLLer use ol publíc
lundíng and also Lackled alcohol and drugs – Lwo
íssues whích were endeníc problens lor Lhe people
ol Lhe Aríd Puna regíon. One ol Lhe oblígaLíons lor
people |oíníng 1upac Anaru ís Lo avoíd addícLíon
Lo alcohol and drugs and Lhe besL way ol doíng Lhís,
as Sala says, ís Lo gíve Lhen sLable enploynenL.
Delínquency, unenploynenL and a lack ol personal
pro|ecLs were also na|or íssues ín Lhe poor neígh
borhoods ol San Salvador de !u|uy yeL Lhrough íLs
acLívíLíes 1upac Anaru has acLually lowered críne
lígures ín Lhe regíon. 1o Lackle Lhe hígh school
dropouL raLe, 1upac Anaru nenbers nusL noL
oo1õs we¸specIal¸o1o/1
only go Lo school and learn Lo read and wríLe buL
are also encouraged Lo sLríve lor Lhe hígher levels ol
Lhe educaLíve sysLen. “We need prolessíonals Lo
serve ín Lheír own neíghborhoods”, Mílagro says
¸*ín a local docunenLary abouL her líle*.¸ And ín
Lerns ol donesLíc víolence, 1upac Anaru enpo
wers wonen ín Lheír neíghborhoods Lo seek help
and denounce víolence agaínsL Lhen. ¦n a LradíLío
nal socíeLy líke !u|uy, víolence agaínsL wonen goes
largely unpuníshed. Lven Lhough naLíonal laws
do proLecL chíldren and wonen, local ollícíals are
lrequenLly unwíllíng Lo apply Lhen. 1oday 1upac
Anara ís abouL nuch nore Lhan lood and housíng.
¦L has also seL up healLh and educaLíon servíces and
Lhrough íLs agencíes poor NaLíve Anerícan boys
and gírls can now play sporLs líke hockey or waLer
polo whích were once Lhe exclusíve preserve ol Lhe
rích.
1upac Anaru ís díllerenL lron oLher socíal organí
zaLíons ín ArgenLína because íLs naín locus ís on
concreLe achíevenenLs líke enploynenL, housíng,
and lood. “Sone políLícal secLors ín !u|uy are very
upseL wíLh us because Lhey also receíve noney lor
housíng, buL Lheír noney always goes níssíng”,
Mílagro Sala has repeaLedly Lold Lhe naLíonal press.
8íg nedía groups ín 8uenos Aíres accuse Sala ol
usíng “víolenL” neLhods, buL she says LhaL whaL
Lhey really lear ís Lhe collecLíve power ol Lhe ¯o,ooo
people who nake up 1upac Anaru.
Traditional politics
How do LradíLíonal políLícíans reacL Lo an organíza
Líon líke 1upac7 Maínly wíLh lear and dísLrusL. Local
políLícal parLíes don’L líke an organízaLíon whích
spends less Líne Lalkíng and nore doíng hard work.
Mílagro Sala does noL have Lo spend noney, Líne
and ellorL ín políLícal canpaígníng, even Lhough
she nay be Lhe nosL powerlul wonan ín Lhe norLh
ol ArgenLína. 1he kínd ol power she has ís based
on provídíng Lhe people wíLh Lhose housíng, healLh
and lood soluLíons whích Lhe sLaLe, ín a híghly un
equal socíeLy, has proved íncapable ol delíveríng.
1hese soluLíons are nade possíble Lhrough Lhe use
ol publíc ínvesLnenL whích ís neíLher adnínísLered
by Lhe sLaLe nor by Lhe prívaLe secLor buL by Lhe
Lhírd parLy ol an organízaLíon wíLh íLs own seL ol
rules Lo delíne íLs own ob|ecLíves and ellícíency
sLandards.
Mílagro ís accused ol beíng víolenL. ¦s she7 ¦nagíne
¯o,ooo people ready Lo go on a denonsLraLíon íl
Lheír leader, Lhe person who has shown Lhen how
Lo cooperaLe and buíld a beLLer luLure lor Lheír
chíldren, asks Lhen Lo. 1hey nay be descríbed as
“víolenL” buL are Lhey7 As Mílagro Sala says, “We
can show resulLs ín Lerns ol houses, and lacLoríes.
1he políLícal leaders who accuse us ol beíng “vío
lenL” sínply can’L”. 1he leader ol Lhe old radícal
parLy ín !u|uy, Cerardo Morales, called 1upac Anaru
a “nob”. And Lhe sane nessage ís senL ouL by Lhe
bíg nedía groups. A “nob” ís cerLaínly an organí
zaLíon whích develops acLívíLíes índependenLly
lron Lhe sLaLe. 8uL, does LhaL nake 1upac Anaru
nenbers a nob ol gangsLers7
Milestones
Mílagro Sala has lounded Lwo schools lor 2,¬oo
sLudenLs and 1upac Anaru pays Lhe salaríes ol 1¬o
Leachers. 1here’s noL nuch ín connon here wíLh
Lhe gangsLer acLívíLíes ol a “Cosa NosLra” nob!
kíghLs and opporLuníLíes lor all could well be Lhe
slogan lor 1upac Anaru. ¦l Lhey buíld a neíghbor
hood, íL won’L look líke a “second besL” lor a shanLy
Lown buL wíll cone conpleLe wíLh parks lor chíl
dren, access Lo schools and a good servíce ínlra
sLrucLure. ¦l Lhey buíld a school, íL wíll look líke Lhe
ones ín 8uenos Aíres. wíLh líbraríes, and scíence
and conpuLer roons. ¦n a counLry where a chíld
lron a poor background ís nore líkely Lo do badly
ín school exans, pro|ecLs ol Lhís kínd are a valuable
conLríbuLíon Lowards equalíLy ol opporLuníLy.
¦nagíne a regíon wíLh a hígh chíld norLalíLy raLe
líke !u|uy. 1upac Anaru has adnínísLered govern
nenL noney and íLs own resources Lo buíld Lwo
snall hospíLals sLalled by over 4o docLors and
nurses. MedícaLíon, Xrays and blood LesLs are lree
lor Lhe nenbers ol Lhe organízaLíon. 1hese poor
people – sone ol Lhe pooresL ol ArgenLína’s poor –
have grouped LogeLher and boughL a conpuLer
Lonography and nanography sysLen lor Lhe pre
venLíon and cure ol a range ol leLhal díseases. And
Lhey are now planníng Lo buíld a rehabílíLaLíon cen
Ler lor Lhe dísabled. Medícal servíces ín Lhe AlLo
Conedero neíghborhood, once Lhe pooresL ín San
Salvador de !u|uy, are so good LhaL 1upac Anaru
hospíLals now oller Lheír help Lo sLaLe hospíLals ín
an ellorL Lo shorLen Lheír noLoríously long waíLíng
lísLs.
DenLal care ís Lhe nosL recenL nedícal servíce olle
red by Lhe organízaLíon. ¦n 2oo¯, 1upac Anaru
sLarLed Lo educaLe íLs nenbers abouL Lhe ínpor
Lance ol denLal care, and develop prevenLíve can
paígns. A nere Lwo years laLer and Lhey opened
a denLal healLhcare cenLer.
Participation, empowerment and sustainability
Mílagro Sala ís noL Lhe “one and only” leader. she
asks all nenbers ol Lhe organízaLíon Lo parLícípaLe
and enpowers Lhen Lo nake decísíons. ¦n ex
change, Lhey receíve concreLe benelíLs and have Lhe
ríghL Lo debaLe and decíde ín assenblíes on how Lo
use resources and whích plan Lo lollow. A weekly
“congress” ol ¤oo delegaLes nakes Lhe línal decísí
ons. Workíng wíLhín Lhís sLrucLure, Lhey have prío
ríLízed Lhe buíldíng ol síx lacLoríes línanced wíLh
publíc resources.
SusLaínabílíLy ís anoLher characLerísLíc ol 1upac
Anaru pro|ecLs. ¦acLoríes supply naLeríals Lo buíld
houses. A LexLíle lacLory produces aprons lor kíds
and docLors. kecenLly, Lhey have díversílíed pro
ducLíon and are now sellíng Lhe MínísLry ol Socíal
DevelopnenL 1shírLs and shorLs kíL lor naLíonal
level sporLs. 1hís lorwardlookíng proacLíve Lhínkíng
ís whaL nakes 1upac Anaru díllerenL lron Lhe
“passíve” nodel ol organízaLíons lor poor or un
enployed people.
1he neolíberal ArgenLína ol Lhe 1¤¤os saw Lhe
energence ol / píqueLeros / – groups ol organízed
unenployed who denonsLraLed Lo gaín Lhe go
vernnenL’s aLLenLíon. 1he lírsL na|or socíal plan
Lo help Lhe unenployed was puL LogeLher ín 2oo2.
¦L províded nosL poor lanílíes wíLh ¬o dollars a
nonLh. 8y 2oo4 largescale proLesLs and unresL had
abaLed by 2oo4 buL Lhere were sLíll nany/píqueLe
ros/groups askíng Lhe governnenL lor noney. Lven
Lhough sone ol Lhese groups could show specílíc
advances lor Lheír people, nosL depended on a líle
líne ol publíc supporL lor Lheír survíval and sone
lound Lheír power ebbíng away as nenbers sLarLed
Lo línd |obs. NoLhíng ol Lhís kínd has happened Lo
1upac Anaru wíLh íLs close culLural allílíaLíon Lo
norLhern Kollas.
Native Americans
ÜnLíl Lhe lasL na|or econoníc crísís ín 2oo1, Argen
Lína had consídered íLsell as Lhe nosL “Luropean”
counLry ín LaLín Aneríca ín a sellundersLandíng
LhaL orígínaLed ín Lhe 1¤Lh cenLury when hundreds
ol Lhousands ol Luropeans arríved ín Lhe counLry ín
search ol a beLLer líle. 1he rích owners ol Lhe “esLan
cías”, Lhe “powerlul” ol Lhe Líne, encouraged ín
nígraLíon as Lhey belíeved íL neanL people lron
norLhern Lurope. 8uL Lhíngs díd noL happen accor
díng Lo plan and ínsLead a wave ol nosLly íllíLeraLe
Spanísh and ¦Lalían lanílíes arríved ín 8uenos Aíres.
1he “Luropean” ínage ol ArgenLína asserLed íLs
donínance reínlorced by an exLensíve educaLíon
progran guaranLeeíng access Lo publíc and lree
schools lor nosL ol Lhe populaLíon. 1he educaLíon
sysLen neglecLed díversíLy and ínculcaLed an un
dersLandíng ol ArgenLína noL as a nulLículLural,
nulLíeLhníc counLry buL raLher as a naLíon whose
orígíns were Lo be lound ín a “crucíble ol races”.
1hís consLrucLed ínage, ín whích racíal conllícLs
were absenL lron Lhe publíc eye, Lended Lo híde Lhe
realíLy ol díscrínínaLíon, prívaLe víolence and ex
ploíLaLíon LhaL Lhe NaLíve Anerícans ol ArgenLína
were sub|ecL Lo.
1he políLícal vísíon nurLured by 1upac Anaru Lends
Lo break Lhís ínage. DíversíLy has línally been
recognízed, and as Max Quíspe, a nenber ol Lhe
naLíonal board ol 1upac Anaru puLs íL, “Lvery poor
person has a bad Líne, buL Lhe color ol your skín ís
an exLra nark agaínsL you”. Quíspe says LhaL “1upac
has a naLíve Anerícan vísíon by rísíng Lhe Whípala
(Lhe llag ol Lhe Aynara Quíshwa people). You learn
LhaL 1upac Anaru exísLs. You learn nore abouL con
llícLs you were only vaguely aware ol. You realíze
you are a son ol Lhe land. We have a greaL chal
lenge now whích ís Lo cone LogeLher wíLh, neeL
and grow sLronger wíLh Mapuches, Quon, Kollas,
Cuaraníes, and every race ol people. We nusL re
cover our ídenLíLy, our land, our languages. NaLíve
Anerícan have now woken up! Our Líne has
cone!”
1he spread ol such ídeas has been encouraged
by Lhe 8olívían presídenL Lvo Morales who becane
Lhe conLínenL’s lírsL NaLíve Anerícan head ol sLaLe.
¦n a recenL neeLíng wíLh díllerenL eLhníc groups,
Mílagro Sala expressed a leelíng LhaL ís growíng
across Lhe Andean regíon, “1hey wanLed Lo dívíde
us, buL we are showíng Lhen LhaL we are closer
Lhan ever. 1hey could noL conquer us. Conrade Lvo
Morales shows us Lhe sLrengLh LhaL líes ín us. We
lollow hís exanple”.
Avoiding isolation
1he 1upac Anaru posíLíon ís noL based ín a sLraLegy
ol políLícal or socíal ísolaLíon. Mílagro Sala ís parL
ol one ol Lhe Lwo Lrade uníons lederaLíons ol Ar
oo1õ8 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
genLína, Lhe lelLleaníng CenLral de los 1raba|adores
ArgenLínos (C1A). She has an exLrenely lluenL rela
Líonshíp wíLh Lhe nosL pronínenL políLícal and
socíal leaders ín Lhe counLry. kecenLly she appeared
aL Lhe NaLíonal Congress ín supporL ol Lhe heLero
dox econonísL Mercedes Marcó del PonL as presí
denL ol Lhe CenLral 8ank ol ArgenLína.
1hís wonan, who was abandoned as a baby ín a
cardboard box by her parenLs, has becone a Lrue
leader by enpoweríng her own people. ¦or her
power ísn’L a naLLer ol connand and conLrol buL ol
servíng people’s needs and ol goíng Lhe exLra níle.
¦or exanple, a lew weeks ago she had a neeLíng
wíLh Scíence and 1echnology MínísLer, Líno 8arañao,
Lo Lalk abouL lundíng a CenLer ol ¦nnovaLíve 1ech
nologíes ín new lorn ol governnenL – 1upac
parLnershíp.
YeL all Lhe work ol Mílagro Sala and Lhe 1upac
Anaru, as specLacular and ínpressíve as íL níghL
be, unlolds agaínsL Lhe backdrop ol a seríes ol deep
endeníc líssures ín ArgenLínean socíeLy. ¦írsL and
lorenosL Lhere ís Lhe paLLern ol growíng ínequalíLy
whích reached record levels alLer nore Lhan 2¬
years ol denocraLíc governance. ¦n Lhe wake ol Lhe
sLaLe Lerrorísn ol Lhe lasL dícLaLorshíp and lollo
wíng Lhe breakup ol Lhe pseudo wellare sLaLe
nodel whích had prevaíled sínce Lhe 1¤4os, políLí
cíans díd exLrenely badly ín sone líelds, especíally
when íL cane Lo íncone dísLríbuLíon polícíes. CríLí
cízed lor adherence Lo ¦M¦ polícíes, kadícal and
PeronísL governnenLs were noL able Lo sLrengLhen
sovereígn polícíes lor Lhe na|oríLy ol Lhe people.
Only alLer Lhe 2oo1 crash and Lhe boon ín conno
díLy exporLs díd governnenLs sLarL Lo Lhínk abouL
acLíng ín an auLononous way and ínLroduce specí
líc polícíes Lo conbaL poverLy, líke Lhe ¬o dollar per
chíld nonLhly benelíL lor all unenployed lanílíes.
1upac Anaru acLs agaínsL a lurLher delícíency ín
ArgenLína whích ís parLícularly noLable ín íLs norL
hern regíon – Lhe lack ol sLaLe ínvesLnenL ín ínlra
sLrucLure and basíc servíces. “¦l we exísL as a socíal
organízaLíon ís because Lhe políLícíans goL íL
wrong”, says Mílagro Sala. AlLhough Lhe organíza
Líon llaunLs “revoluLíonary” ícons – 1upac Anaru ¦¦,
LrnesLo “Che” Cuevara, and Lva Perón – aL all íLs
publíc denonsLraLíons, causíng lear and dísLrusL
anong conservaLíve políLícal leaders, íLs slogans are
lar lron subversíve. “Who are we7” shouLs Mílagro
Sala. “1upac Anaru”, nenbers ol Lhe organízaLíon
roar ín answer. “WhaL do we wanL7” “Work, Ldu
caLíon and HealLh!”. 1hey chanL. ¦n ArgenLína Lhese
are consLíLuLíonal ríghLs lor every cíLízen. Lven so,
nany poor lanílíes have noL been able Lo líve
decenL líves lor generaLíons now.
The future
WhaL could Lhe ríghL paLh ínLo Lhe luLure be lor an
organízaLíon líke 1upac Anaru7 Should íL replace
sLaLe polícynakíng ín cerLaín regíons7 Wíll íL be
possíble Lo naínLaín coordínaLed acLívíLíes (sLaLe
lundíng and conLrol and 1upac work)7 Should
Mílagro Sala sLep ínLo políLícs and open up her pro
posals lor Lhe whole ol !u|uy socíeLy7 ¦s íL a ríghL
nove when “socíal” organízaLíons becone “políLí
cal”7
1hís kínd ol sLraLegy has been successlully pursued
ín 8olívía by Lvo Morales. As has 8razílían presídenL
Lula Da Sílva, once a local Lrade uníon leader buL
now Lhe nosL ínporLanL políLícían ol one ol Lhe
bíggesL counLríes ín Lhe world. 1he dílenna ís
clear. how can an organízaLíon líke 1upac Anaru
sLrengLhen íLs capacíLíes and exLend íLs acLívíLíes
beyond Lhe norLhern provínces ol ArgenLína
wíLhouL beconíng “|usL one ol Lhe oLhers”, |usL
anoLher políLícal parLy conpeLíng anong Lhe resL7
As Mílagro Sala explaíns, 1upac “does noL conpeLe
wíLh Lhe sLaLe, íL píLches ín where Lhe sLaLe has
laíled”. 8uL whaL wíll happen íl íLs own nenbers
sLarL Lo acL políLícally, and canvas lor voLes and sup
porL lar beyond 1upac’s presenL neíghborhoods7
1hese are íssues LhaL have already allecLed presídenL
Lvo Morales ín 8olívía. 1he síLuaLíon ís conplícaLed
because Lhese are noL sínple “non governnenL
organízaLíons”, Lheír sLrengLh ís based upon Lhe
parLícípaLíon ol people who have been neglecLed
by governnenLs lor generaLíons, on Lhe parLícípa
Líon ol poor people, NaLíve Anerícans who only
recenLly – alLer Lhe crísís ol neolíberal polícíes ín
Lhe 1¤¤os and wíLh Lhe help ol híghly LalenLed and
orígínal leaders – have sLarLed Lo leel LhaL Lheír
ríghLs are real. ¦L was wíLh Lheír supporL LhaL Lvo
Morales could Lake a crucíal sLep and becone a
políLícal leader lor Lhe na|oríLy ol 8olívía, leavíng
represenLaLíon ol cocagrowíng larners behínd
hín.
Mílagro Sala renaíns a NaLíve Anerícan lron
ArgenLína’s norLhern regíon, only now she ís a well
known lígure ín 8uenos Aíres. Whíle only LradíLío
nal and ríghLwíng políLícal leaders leared her, she
could work paLíenLly Lo counLer Lhe “víolenL” ínage
ín whích Lhe bíg nedía groups porLrayed her.
8uL can she geL her nessage across Lo Lhe broad
na|oríLy7 1he nexL lew years nay gíve us an ans
wer. ÜnLíl Lhen, Mílagro Sala wíll conLínue Lellíng
everyone who asks her LhaL she ís |usL “Lhe expres
síon ol Lhe nany who dreanL Lhey could líve a
beLLer líle by organízíng Lhenselves”.
> > >
PhoLo. Alexander kausch
Helping People
to Help
Themselves
IhIervIew by AsIrId Ramge
oo1s1 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
tags > 8ehIh, developmehI aId, selI-orgahIzaIIoh, WesI-AIrIca, Aled|o
AsLríd kange
AsLríd kange was ín charge ol CorporaLe
ConnunícaLíons aL MeLaDesígn ín 8erlín,
Cernanys leadíng CorporaLe ¦denLíy and
8randíng agency, duríng Lhe lasL Len years.
Now she ís geLLíng ínvolved ín varíous
pro|ecLs concerníng Web 2.o and políLícal,
culLural and busíness changes.
Alexander kausch
Alexander kausch works as a consulLanL
and sysLen coach. Hís noLLo ís Lo help
people Lo help Lhenselves no naLLer íl Lhe
problens are prívaLe or busíness relaLed.
He serves a wíde range ol people wíLhín
our socíeLy – unenployed poor lanílíes as
well as succeslull busíness people.
Ülríke keínhard
Ülríke keínhard, lounder ol wenagazíne.
1raíned as an econonísL. Sínce she lelL
uníversíLy, she has been sellenployed ín
varíous líelds. 1¤8¯ she had her lírsL
enaíl accounL aL 1he Well. 1he pasL Len
years she has Lravelled Lhe world exLensí
vely, always lookíng lor beLLer ways Lo
Lhínk and acL. She ís deeply conníLLed Lo
Lhe neLwork she ínhabíLs.
oo1s2 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Alexahder >
8enín ís one ol Lhe pooresL counLríes on earLh. 1he
cíLíes are Leeníng wíLh people who’ve escaped
lron Lhe counLrysíde ín search ol a beLLer luLure. ¦n
Lhe rural areas you línd Lhose Lypícal Alrícan round
huLs wíLh sLraw rools and víllage wells. 1here’s no
kínd ol ínlrasLrucLure. 1hen you have Lhe snaller
Lowns nosL ol whích have an ¦nLerneL Cale and a
power supply. 1he bígger víllages líke Aled|o have
aL leasL a rudínenLary ínlrasLrucLure wíLh a lew
publíc Lelephones buL elecLrícíLy only lor a nunber
ol houses or huLs and Lhen only aL cerLaín Línes ol
day. WaLer cones ín a buckeL lron a well. And
¦nLerneL access – when íL’s Lhere – ís conparable Lo
Lhe Líne ol Lhe lírsL nodens ín Lurope.
Schools ín rural areas are lew and lar beLween so
Lhe only chíldren who go Lo school are Lhose whose
parenLs can allord Lo pay bus lares. Or chíldren who
can walk around 1o kn a day Lo school and back.
1hís neans LhaL educaLíon ís a luxury beyond Lhe
reach ol nosL people. 1he level ol educaLíon
LhroughouL Lhe counLry ís very low and Lhe na|o
ríLy ol people can neíLher read nor wríLe.
Language ís anoLher bíg problen. A legacy ol Lhe
long períod ol ¦rench coloníalízaLíon ís LhaL ¦rench
ís Lhe ollícíal language ol Lhe counLry. YeL Lhe rural
areas and víllages have a greaL nunber ol very díl
lerenL díalecLs whích olLen creaLes na|or language
barríers.
“We supporI 8ehIh” (We8ehIh) seeks Io provIde uhbureaucraIIc eIIecIIve
assIsIahce Io people ahd IhIIIaIIves Ih 8ehIh, helpIhg Ihem Io empowermehI
or selI-respohsIbIlIIy ahd selI-deIermIhaIIoh. WE spoke wIIh Ihe IhIIIaIors
oI We8ehIh, UlrIke ReIhhard, Ireesoul ahd Iouhder oI we-magazIhe, ahd
Alexahder Rausch, creaIIve coach ahd IraIher, always oh Ihe look-ouI Ior hew
Iorms oI moderaIIoh ahd group work, abouI IheIr experIehces ahd Ihe lessohs
learhed Irom IhIs pro|ecI whIch Ihey sIarIed Ih 2oo8. 1he Iwo oI Ihem hII oh
8ehIh because II’s ohe oI Ihe pooresI couhIrIes Ih AIrIca buI also because oI
Ihe persohal bohds IyIhg Ihem Io Ihe lahd: Ihe laIe IaIher oI UlrIke’s soh came
Irom 8ehIh. We8ehIh Is hoI ah assocIaIIoh or IouhdaIIoh buI has cohscIously
choseh a “Iormless” kIhd oI ouIreach IhaI relIes oh voluhIary helpers, IrusI,
dohaIIohs, ahd campaIghs ahd harhesses Ihe power oI heIworks.
Ih 2oo8 wheh you sIarIed your IhIIIaIIve you spehI Iwo weeks Ih 8ehIh ahd
you reIurhed Ihere agaIh Ih 2oo¤. WhaI are cohdIIIohs oI lIIe lIke Ihere ahd
whaI challehges do you meeI Ih 8ehIh7
oo1s¯ we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Wheh you sIarIed your We8ehIh pro|ecI Ih 2oo8,
your heIworks here Ih Europe begah collecIIhg
compuIers, cell phohes ahd mohey Io pass Ihem
oh Io people ahd IhIIIaIIves Ih 8ehIh. All IhIs was
uhder Ihe slogah “Help people Io help Ihemselves”.
How has your pro|ecIed shaped up Io presehI ahd
whaI kIhd oI experIehces have you made7
Alexahder >
Our vísíon ís Lo neLwork Lhe people ín Lhe counLry
so Lhey can gíve one anoLher nuLual supporL and
assísLance and develop Lheír OWN problensolvíng
skílls and abílíLíes, and Lheír OWN ídeas and pro
|ecLs whích Lhey can Lhen share and pass on yeL
lurLher. So LhaL Lhe counLry can awaken Lo new líle
lron Lhe ínsíde and under íLs own sLean, and so
LhaL Lhe people Lhenselves can líve auLononous
líves ol Lhe kínd Lhey wanL, ol Lhe kínds LhaL naLch
Lheír own realíLy.
Lven so, Lhe lack ol ínlrasLrucLure ¦’ve |usL Lalked
abouL neanL LhaL an ¦nLerneLbased pro|ecL ol Lhe
Lype we’d orígínally LhoughL abouL was realízable
only on a very snall scale. AnoLher lacLor we had
Lo Lake ínLo accounL was Lhe very hígh íllíLeracy raLe
ín Lhe counLry whích neanL LhaL any ¦nLerneL work
would have Lo be líníLed Lo vídeos or podcasLs.
8uL vídeos and podcasLs need laírly hígh daLa Lrans
níssíon raLes – and Lhey’re sínply noL around!!
All Lhís wasn’L whaL we’d ínagíned and íL cerLaínly
wasn’L whaL we’d been hopíng lor. ¦L would have
been greaL, lor ínsLance, Lo seL up sone lorn
ol parLnershíp beLween schools ín Cernany and
classes ín 8enín. 8uL íL was ínnedíaLely obvíous
LhaL Lhís kínd ol opLíon was a conpleLe nogo. And
íL’s lor sínílar sorLs ol reasons LhaL we’ve had Lo puL
oLher ínLernaLíonal pro|ecLs whích we’d have loved
Lo realíze wíLh Lhe ¦nLerneL on íce lor Lhe Líne beíng
– líke exchanges wíLh people ín oLher poor parLs
ol Lhe world.
8uL cell phones are connon ín 8enín as Lhey
are LhroughouL Lhe whole ol Alríca. And wíLh Lhe
varíous díllerenL neLworks operaLíng ín Lhe regíons,
people ín 8enín very olLen have several phones. We
had no díllículLy ín dísLríbuLíng our cell phones
even Lhough our phone canpaígn was only a drop
ín Lhe ocean! 8uL íL’s sLíll Lrue LhaL Lhe cell phone ín
Alríca does índeed oller a víable – and very olLen
Lhe only – alLernaLíve lor ínplenenLíng e.g. educa
Líonal pro|ecLs.
And we díd have our lírsL snall successes. ¦n Aled|o
we were able Lo seL up a conpuLer roon where
chíldren, young people and adulLs Loo could nake
Lheír lírsL sLeps Lowards conpuLer prolícíency. And
we could also esLablísh Lhe ¦nLerneL Lo a cerLaín
exLenL Lhrough “nobíle sLícks”. We’re opLínísL LhaL
Lhe ¦nLerneL problen can be solved – developnenL
conLínues apace and Lhe sLícks are only Lhe begín
níng.
AnoLher nílesLone was Lhe supporL we were able
Lo oller Lhrough our donaLíons Lo Lhe wonen’s
organízaLíon ADk¦A ín Aled|o ín seLLíng up a regío
nal pro|ecL. We boughL a quanLíLy ol sacks ol lerLí
lízer whích ADk¦A Lhen dísLríbuLed ín Lhe regíons
usíng a sysLen ol nícroloans. AnoLher ídea we had
was Lo Lransler ADk¦A’s nícrolínancíng nodel Lo
Lhe neíghboríng localíLy ol Massí. So waLch Lhís
space!
PhoLos. Alexander kausch
¦n líne wíLh our guídíng príncíple “Help people Lo
help Lhenselves” íL’s paranounL lor us Lo geL
people ín 8enín Lo províde nuLual supporL and
assísLance lor one anoLher. No naLLer wheLher íL’s
Lhe wonen ol ADk¦A who pass on Lheír knowledge
Lo oLher wonen, or índívídual conpuLer experLs
líke Lhe “víllage adnín” who develop Lheír own
skílls and abílíLíes and Lraín oLhers, Lhe ínporLanL
Lhíng ís Lo have a nulLíplícaLíon ellecL ín Lhe ouL
reach.
Cenerally speakíng, our greaLesL challenge was and
sLíll ís educaLíon and buíldíng up neLworks and Lhe
¦nLerneL ín a counLry where Lhe condíLíons on Lhe
ground aren’L parLícularly auspícíous. YeL 8enín
does have Lhe greaL advanLage ol beíng a políLícally
sLable counLry wíLh a governnenL whích ís very
recepLíve Lo receívíng ouLsíde help. ¦n Lhís sense we
see greaL opporLuníLíes lor drívíng our pro|ecL lor
wards Lhrough conLínuous developnenL ol Lhe
Lechnology and parLnershíps wíLh oLher pro|ecLs
whích have dealL wíLh sínílar seLs ol círcunsLances.
UlrIke >
¦ron Lhe word go we dídn’L wanL Lo adopL any “Lop
down” approach and appear as Lhe clever knowíL
alls. WhaL we wanLed Lo do was Lo lísLen, Lo ídenLíly
Lhe acLual pressíng problens and Lhen noLívaLe
people Lo use Lheír own sLean and Lheír own sense
ol personal responsíbílíLy Lo help Lhenselves.
¦n sunner 2oo¤ our íníLíaLíve was able Lo place Lwo
volunLeers lron Cernany ín Aled|o, Lwo young
wonen who alLer graduaLíng lron hígh school Look
a year oll lor volunLary socíal work. ¦ broughL Lhe
Lwo ol Lhen Lo Aled|o lasL sunner and helped Lhen
geL Lheír bearíngs. 1hey are now supporLíng Mne
Abíbaí on Lhe nícrocredíLs progran and workíng
as Cernan and ¦rench Leachers aL local Lhe school.
ÜnlorLunaLely íL quíckly becane apparenL here LhaL
íL’s noL aL all easy Lo lanílíaríze volunLeers and
Luropeans wíLh |usL whaL “Help people Lo help
Lhenselves” acLually ínvolves. Lven volunLeers have
a very híghly íngraíned sense ol securíLy and a híer
archícal way ol Lhínkíng. So, on Lheír own íníLíaLíve,
Lhese Lwo young wonen soughL ouL Lhe local
branch ol Lhe Cernan DevelopnenL Servíce (DLD)
ín an ellorL, as íL were, Lo geL Lhe ollícíal blessíng
and auLhorízaLíon on Lheír currenL posíLíons. 1hís
was a nove LhaL we cerLaínly hadn’L planned lor
and whích wíll probably lead Lo Lhe pro|ecLs we’ve
sLarLed ín Aled|o beíng sLalled ín luLure by DLD
volunLeers – whích wíll lorce us eíLher Lo becone
enLangled ín bureaucracy and Lake us assocíaLíon
sLaLus or Lo sLríke ouL ín new dírecLíons. 1hís ís a
raLher unlorLunaLe síLuaLíon lor us buL íL does serve
Lo show once nore how Lhínkíng on boLh sídes –
boLh people ín poor regíons and aíd volunLeers –
sLíll renaíns deeply colored by Lhe dualísn ol
“You’re rích and have go Lo help us” versus “We
know whaL’s besL lor you”. We need Lo do a greaL
deal nore work Lo persuade people ouL ol Lhese
ruLs.
Persohal relaIIohs, persohal IhIIIaIIves ahd
persohal relaIIohshIps are very much aI Ihe
IoreIrohI oI your pro|ecI. Cah’I IhaI someIImes
also be ah ImpedImehI wheh you’re IryIhg Io
supporI people ahd IryIhg Io acI Ih ah equIIable
ahd ImparIIal mahher7
Alexahder >
WL wanLed Lo do soneLhíng ín Alríca and we chose
8enín because LhaL was where Lhe laLher ol Ülríke’
son 1ín cane lron. So ríghL lron Lhe begínníng we
had a personal connecLíon wíLh Lhe counLry. And
we also ínvolved Lhe laníly ín 8enín – 1ín’s uncle
acconpaníed us lor Lhe nosL parL ol our Lravels.
1hen as now, whaL we wanLed Lo do enbody and
líve ouL our príncíple “help people Lo help Lhen
selves” Lhrough our own personal relaLíons so LhaL
Lhe people on Lhe ground would undersLand Lhís
spíríL and carry íL lorward.
Obvíously |usLíce ís a very díllículL Lhíng Lo guaran
Lee buL íL’s goL noLhíng Lo do wíLh personal relaLíon
shíps. 1he bíg NCOs can’L guaranLee |usLíce eíLher.
8uL our pro|ecL had Lhe vísíon LhaL personal bonds
and neLwork buíldíng would sonehow resulL ín
nore |usLíce. 8ecause when a neLwork wídens,
nore and nore people have Lhe chance Lo Lake
parL ín íL so LhaL ulLínaLely everybody can benelíL.
Powered by sellresponsíbílíLy and people’s own
acLíons, íL wíll have an ínpacL over and beyond
local boundaríes and ínspíre people Lo Lake Lheír
own luLures ín Lheír hands. LsLablíshed NCOs olLen
exporL Lheír own víew ol Lhíngs wíLh whaL Lhey
belíeve are Lhe proper courses ol acLíon Lo be Laken.
WL on Lhe oLher hand wanL Lo geL Lo know Lhe per
sonal connecLíons, Lhe índívídual worlds ín whích
people líve, and work lron ínsíde Lo noLívaLe Lhen
Lo auLononous acLíon.
P
h
o
L
o
.
A
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x
a
n
d
e
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k
a
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s
c
h
WhaI have you learhI abouI Ihe heeds oI people
Ih 8ehIh7 Ih Ihe lIghI oI your presehI experIehce,
whaI Is Ihe besI way Io supporI Ihem7
UlrIke >
Cíven Lhe sLaggeríng poverLy Lhere, íL’s quíLe cerLaín
LhaL 8o% ol Lhe populaLíon are ínvolved ín a bare
sLruggle |usL Lo survíve lron day Lo day. ¦or wonen
every day aL sunríse Lhís neans Lrudgíng Lhe long
way Lo Lhe líelds wíLh a chíld on Lheír back, anoL
her ín Lheír hand and a heavy weíghL ol “baggage”
balanced on Lheír head. Day ín day ouL wíLhouL Lhe
slíghLesL hope ol change or ínprovenenL.
¦L wasn’L Lhe poverLy LhaL shocked ne ín our Lravels
Lhrough Lhe counLry. No, Lhe people níghL be chro
nícally poor buL Lhey have a Lrenendous zesL lor
líle – soneLhíng LhaL ís lackíng ín us here. WhaL
depressed ne and whaL depresses ne sLíll ís LhaL
Lhere are counLless nunbers ol people Lhere who
sínply don’L see any chance ol a beLLer luLure.
1hey’ve alnosL resígned and accepLed Lheír líves as
Lhey are wíLhouL Lhe slíghLesL hope lor Lhe luLure.
We’ve been ínLo schools and gazed ínLo laces LhaL
¦ shall never lorgeL lor as long as ¦ líve. enpLíness,
enpLíness, sheer enpLíness. NoL a Lrace ol príde or
dígníLy. Possíbly |usL Lhe hope LhaL when whíLes ap
pear Lhey níghL be gíven a handouL. 8uL LhaL ís pre
císely noL Lhe way Lo do íL! 1hese people don’L need
handouLs and Lhey don’L need soneone Lo show
Lhen or Lell Lhen how Lhey can besL survíve ín Lheír
own counLry. 1hey know LhaL already!
We have Lo reawaken Lo new líle everyLhíng LhaL
has been desLroyed by long decades ol develop
nenL work and Lhe behavíor ol Lhe lorner coloníal
nasLers. We have Lo resLore Lhese people Lo Lheír
dígníLy and recogníze Lhen and víew Lhen as our
equals ín Lhe ecosysLen ol Lhe earLh. We can help
Lhen susLaínably and lor Lhe long Lern – íl we only
leL Lhen be Lhenselves.
My drean ís Lo hear nore people ín 8enín sayíng
“Yes, we can!” and Lo see nore people líke Mne.
Abíba Lake conLrol ol Lhíngs wíLh her own Lwo
hands and geL Lhen done. You can help Lhen Lo
línd Lheír own way buL Lhen you have Lo leL Lhen
go íL alone. And LhaL wíll only happen on a broad
basís íl WL say Lo Lhen “Yes you can do íL!” ¦l we
gíve Lhen back Lheír dígníLy and LreaL Lhen wíLh
respecL and are wíllíng Lo learn lron Lhen Lhe
whole hosL ol Lhíngs LhaL Lhey can do and we can’L!
oo1s6 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
And íL ís ínporLanL – even íl íL’s very hard when you
look ínLo Lhe enpLy laces ol Lhe pooresL ol Lhe poor
as an allluenL Luropean – íL’s ínporLanL Lo say Lo
Lhen “We haven’L goL any handouLs lor you. You
have Lo do íL by yourselves – and you can do íL!”
1haL’s Lhe only way we’re goíng Lo nake a perna
nenL change lor Lhe beLLer!
From Ihe very begIhhIhg you’ve relIed heavIly
oh Ihe mechahIsms oI Ihe heIwork, boIh Ior
Ihose gIvIhg ahd Ihose receIvIhg. Calls Ior
dohaIIohs oh Ihe Web, Ih blogs ahd so oh. How
Is your heIwork how shapIhg up oh boIh sIdes7
UlrIke >
¦or us Lhe ¦nLerneL ís Lhe key ínsLrunenL, on Lhe one
hand lor enablíng educaLíon and on Lhe oLher lor
pronoLíng and buíldíng up Lhe neLworks ínLernal
Lo 8enín across Lhe world. 1haL ís a víLal basíc
requírenenL LhaL’s needed íl Lhe people ín all Lhe
counLríes ol Lhís world are Lo gradually buíld a lorn
ol líle LhaL nakes líle lívable lor all. 1hís ís a deve
lopnenL LhaL Lhe governnenLs ol Lhe world are
goíng Lo have Lo cone Lo Lerns wíLh over Lhe nexL
lew years. 1he ¦nLerneL has Lurned Lhe world ínLo a
global víllage.
¦n 8enín we’ve creaLed Lhe lírsL node. How Lhís wíll
develop ín luLure depends solely on Lhe people
Lhere and how relevanL neLwork conLenL ís Lo Lheír
daíly líves. 1he neLwork ís Lrenendously uselul lor
our work ín Lerns ol donaLíons and ínlornaLíon,
and íL also bríngs us ínLo conLacL wíLh sínílar kínds
ol pro|ecLs. As we’ve learnL, íL luncLíons exLrenely
well!
Ahd whaI does Ihe IuIure look lIke Ior We8ehIh7
WhaI’s Ihe hexI sIep you’re plahhIhg7
UlrIke >
¦ ínLend Lo reLurn Lo 8enín ín early AugusL. WíLh Lwo
naín Lhíngs on Lhe agenda. lírsLly, we wanL Lo línd
ouL how we can use Lhe ¦ree kadío NeLwork Lhere
Lo buíld a neLwork ínlrasLrucLure, and secondly we
wanL Lo sLarL preparaLíons lor buíldíng our líbrary
ín Aled|o aL long lasL. ¦l everyLhíng goes accordíng
Lo plan, Lhe archíLecLs !ohannes Hucke and 8arbara
QuenLín wíll be coníng wíLh ne and we’re goíng
Lo Lalk wíLh Lhe people on Lhe ground on how Lo
Lake lurLher neasures Lo pronoLe readíng and wrí
Líng ín Lhe regíon. 1he ídea ís Lo sLarL wíLh a group
ol abouL 2o wonen ín Aled|o and Lo work ouL a way
wíLh Lhen how Lhey can besL Leach Lhe oLher ínha
bíLanLs ol Lheír víllages Lo read and wríLe.
Do you have ahy cohhecIIohs how Io sImIlar
pro|ecIs Ih oIher couhIrIes7
UlrIke >
No, Lhís sorL ol connecLíon doesn’L exísL ín any phy
sícal sense even Lhough íL’s soneLhíng we’re very
nuch Lhínkíng abouL. We do Lhínk LhaL pro|ecLs LhaL
have been successlul ín oLher counLríes – íncludíng
counLríes ouLsíde ol Alríca – could be Lranslerred
Lo 8enín. We don’L nean classícal developnenL pro
|ecLs buL raLher Lhose íníLíaLíves naínly sponsored
by prívaLe índívíduals whích sLarL ouL on a nodesL
snall scale and whích líke we do subscríbe Lo Lhe
“help people Lo help Lhenselves” príncíple. Pro|ecLs
whích nake people sLrong ín Lheír dígníLy and
whích puL Lhen ínLo a posíLíon where Lhey’re able
Lo buíld soneLhíng Lhenselves – pro|ecLs LhaL ¦ call
“enablers”.
¦n parLícular, ¦’n Lhínkíng abouL Lhe Cínena !enín
pro|ecL whích ís also díscussed ín Lhís edíLíon ol we
nagazíne. So why noL buíld a cínena wíLh a nedía
square ín PorLo Nuovo or NaíLLíngou7 1hís would
have Lhe advanLage LhaL Lhe parLners ín !enín cer
Laínly have all Lhe knowhow needed Lo seL up a
pro|ecL ol Lhís kínd ín 8enín and we can sínply learn
Lhe lessons ol whaL Lhey’ve done ín !enín. ¦íln ín
Alríca ís a huge Lopíc.
We’ve also been lollowíng a pro|ecL ín Wínneba,
Chana wíLh very keen ínLeresL. Wínneba ís a Lown
abouL 1oo kn wesL ol Accra on Lhe coasL where
whaL ís known as a N¦C or NeLwork¦nproved
ConnuníLíes was seL up wíLh help lron Lhe ¦ree
kadío NeLwork lron 8erlín and an íníLíaLíve lron
1aíwan. 1he Lechnícal ínlrasLrucLure cones lron
8erlín whíle on Lhe local level people are schooled
ín usíng PCs and neLworks by 1aíwanese sLudenLs.
1he people who’ve had Lheír Lraíníng Lhen go on Lo
Lraín oLhers so Lhere’s a snowball ellecL.
1he ¦ree kadío NeLwork enables nany snall uníLs
Lo share Lhe low neLwork cosLs whích neans Lhey
can be connecLed Lo Lhe NeL. Such a sLrucLure could
be applíed Lo Aled|o and enable connunícaLíon
beLween varíous localíLíes wíLhouL any ol Lhen
beíng línked Lo Lhe ¦nLerneL backbone. When you
Lhínk how hard íL ís lor nosL people |usL Lo cover
oo1s7 we¸specIal¸o1o/1
Lhe 2o kn Lo Lhe nexL víllage, íL’s easy Lo see whaL
kínd ol benelíLs such a sysLen would bríng wíLh íL.
8oLh Wínneba and Nígería Loo – ín places where
Lhese N¦Cs are now parL ol everyday líle – have seen
a consíderable ríse ín Lhe lívíng sLandards ol Lhe
sLakeholders ín Lerns ol educaLíonal level and
íncone.
People everywhere are how seIzIhg IhIIIaIIves
oII Ihe beaIeh Irack ahd IIghIIhg Ior a beIIer ahd
more lIvable world. 1here’s ah uprIsIhg amohg
Ihe culIurally creaIIve. Would you label your-
selves as such7
Ahd do you see ahy sIghs oI ah emergIhg hew
Irehd or movemehI comparable wIIh Ihe ehvIroh-
mehIal movemehI7
UlrIke >
¦ don’L líke beíng puL ín boxes! 8uL ¦ do índeed Lhínk
LhaL you can speak ol Lhe lornaLíon ol a novenenL
LhaL bypasses Lhe LradíLíonal channels ol develop
nenL aíd. ¦n ny víew íL’s exacLly Lhe sane pheno
nenon we can see ín políLícs, educaLíon or ín enLer
príses. íl soneLhíng can’L nake a breakLhrough ín
íLs proper sysLen or |usL Lakes an íncredíbly anounL
ol Líne abouL íL, íL goes ahead and buílds íLs own
sysLen. And LhaL’s nuch easíer Lo do nowadays
Lhan íL was 1o years ago, Lhanks ín greaL parL Lo Lhe
advenL ol Lhe ¦nLerneL. On Lhe one hand havíng
access Lo Lhe ¦nLerneL neans LhaL people can now
clearly see and hear Lhose prevíously unknown and
“ohsorenoLe places”, whíle on Lhe oLher new
nedía also enable Lhe rapíd and ellecLíve neLwor
kíng ol all Lhose who wanL Lo geL acLíve.
1o whaI exIehI has Ihe We8ehIh pro|ecI chahged
your ouIlook or your realIIy7 Do you vIew Ihe
world dIIIerehIly how Io Ihe way you vIewed II
Iwo years ago7
Alexahder >
¦or ne personally ny víew ol Lhíngs has changed
because ¦ now know whaL íL neans Lo have líved
ouL Marshall McLuhan’s dícLun “Lhe world ís a glo
bal víllage” ín ny own person. 1he ¦nLerneL and Lhe
neLwork have shown us LhaL Lhere are a greaL nun
ber ol people ouL Lhere ready and wíllíng Lo gíve
ínnedíaLe and “easy” help and supporL. 1he blogs
dídn’L |usL ask lor donaLíons, Lhey also spread Lhe
news abouL us and Lhís aLLracLed nore and nore
new “helpers” Lo swell our ranks. Ülríke Loo has had
a loL ol ínsLanLaneous supporL and leedback per
1wíLLer lron Los Angeles and oLher parLs ol Lhe
world. 1o keep íL shorL, Lhís ís Lhe lírsL Líne LhaL ¦’ve
really undersLood Lhe neLwork príncíple on such a
huge scale and ¦’ve really “caughL Lhe bug”. NeLwork
connunícaLíon ís ulLínaLely Lhe very besL neans ol
helpíng people and ol hopelully creaLíng a beLLer
world.
¦ always used Lo be aware LhaL ¦ nysell bore sole
responsíbílíLy lor Lhe kínd ol líle ¦ wanLed Lo lead.
Webenín has now shown ne LhaL we can reach Lhe
whole world wíLh Lhe ¦nLerneL and LhaL by workíng
LogeLher ín neLworks we can slowly buL surely Lake
nore conLrol over whaL our líves should look líke.
1he opporLuníLíes íL ollers are breaLhLakíng! Many
nany people are now usíng Lhen and Lheír nun
bers are conLínually growíng. Sínce 8enín, all ny
Lhínkíng ís along Lhe “open Lracks” ol sellorganí
zaLíon, neLworks, Lhe global víllage. So We8enín
has changed ny líle as a whole by changíng ny way
ol Lhínkíng. ¦L’s a wonderlul leelíng even Lhough íL
does gíve you a very sLark víew ol Lhe degree ol
(personal) responsíbílíLy you bear lor Lhe whole!
PhoLo. Alexander kausch

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