THE ORIGIN OF MENTAL DISORDERS

BY THE MISDIRECTED MENTAL FUNCTIONS

The Origin of Mental Disorders by the Misdirected Mental Functions
Contents Abstract Introduction: 1. The Three-Branch Structural Theory 1.1. The Five Factors 1.1.1. The Gender Factors 1.1.1.1. Social Role: Bond and Systemization 1.1.1.2. Social Relationship: Wellbeing and Achievement 1.1.1.3. Social Unit: Collectiveness and Individual 1.1.2. The Non-Gender Factors 1.1.2.1. Intragroup Contact: Passive and Dynamic 1.1.2.2. Social Flexibility: Rigid and Flexible 1.2. The Social Lives 1.2.1. Yin and Yang Social Lives in Social Group 1.2.2. Group Social Relationship: Expressive and Domination 1.2.3. The Property of Yin and Yang Social Lives 1.2.4. The Property of Harmonious Social Life 1.2.4.1. The Origin of Harmonious Social Life 1.2.4.2. Cooperation - The Hyper Bond Instinct 1.2.4.3. Detection – The Detective Instinct 1.2.4.4. The Conscience Instinct 2. Mental Disorders 2.1. Mental Overreactions 2.1.1. Hyper Stress Response Mental Overreactions 2.1.2. Delusional Mental Overreactions 2.1.3. Hyper Pleasure Response Mental Overreactions 2.1.4. Psychological Counseling and Psychotherapy 2.2. Mental Disorders 2.2.1. Hyper Stress Response Mental Disorders 2.2.1.1. Unipolar Depression Subtype 2.2.1.2. Paranoid Subtype 2.2.1.3. Anxiety Subtype 2.2.1.4. Mania Subtype 2.2.2. Delusional Mental Disorders 2.2.2.1. Schizophrenia 2.2.2.2. Autism 2.2.3. Hyper Pleasure Response Mental Disorders 2.2.3.1. Bond Addiction Subtype 2.2.3.2. Expressive Addiction Subtype 2.2.3.3. Systemization Addiction Subtype 2.2.3.4. Domination Addiction Subtype 2.2.4. Religions and Mental Disorders 2.2.4.1. Mental Health of Religious Group 4 7 9 9 10 11 12 13 15 15 16 17 17 18 20 23 23 26 27 29 31 31 35 37 43 45 45 47 47 48 50 51 52 53 55 55 55 56 56 57 58 58

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2.2.4.2. Mental Disorders and Religious Community 3. Summary 4. Reference Email address: Website (download all books): Books list:

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einsnewt@yahoo.com http://sites.google.com/site/einsnewt/ http://www.scribd.com/einsnewt

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Abstract
Mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and the misdirected mental functions. The combination of the hyper pleasure response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected addiction instincts results in the hyper pleasure mental disorders, including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, whose lives are controlled by the addiction of pleasure. The combination of the hyper stress response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected defensive survival instincts (fightflight-freeze-obsession) results in the hyper stress response mental disorders, including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, whose lives are controlled by the struggle for survival. The combination of the hyper immune response genes, the chronic adverse infection, and the misdirected mental process during sleep brings about the delusional mental disorders, including schizophrenia and autism, whose lives are controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. The pleasure responses are the responses to the four mental enhancers: bond, expressive, systemization, and domination corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. The corresponding stress responses are the responses to the four corresponding mental stressors: disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression, respectively. The four subtypes of the hyper pleasure response mental disorders result from the four enhancers, the four subtypes of the hyper stress response mental disorders result from the four stressors, and the four subtypes of the delusional mental disorders result from the four stressors. All mental disorders can be categorized by these 12 subtypes. Many mental disorders are the combinations of the subtypes. Normal mental state is explained by the three-branch structural theory, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives (interactions). The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to minimize conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. All people have the three social lives in different proportions. Social life is developed by the five factors from the prenatal period to early adulthood. Social role (Bond-Systemization), social relationship (WellbeingAchievement) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) are developed during prenatal period and childhood for gender differentiation. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) is developed during adolescence for the size of core social group. Social flexibility (Rigid-Flexible) achieves maturity during early adulthood for social responsibility. The five factors are similar to the factors in the popular Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Big Five personality theories. Different social lives are the different combinations of the five factors. The results of the combinations for yin and yang social lives are bond, expressive, systemization, domination social lives corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life

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The Three-Branch Structural Theory
THE FIVE FACTORS IN SOCIAL LIFE
social role social relationship social unit intragroup Social flexibility (Wellbeing(Bond(Collectiveness- interaction (Rigid-Flexible) (Passive-Dynamic) Systemization Achievement) individual)

• •

yin (Bond-Wellbeing-Collectiveness = collective wellbeing for social bond) and yang (Systemization-Achievement-Individual = individualistic achievement for systemization) Passive – Dynamic intragroup interaction harmony = high Flexible to minimize conflicts in social interactions

SOCIAL LIFE

yin passive social life (amiable)
bond

yin dynamic social life (expressive)
expressive

harmonious social life

yang dynamic social life (driver)

yang passive social life (analytical)
systemization

hyper bond + detection domination

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective collective society society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the loose individualistic society

The Development of Mental Disorder
hyper response gene chronic adverse environment

maladaptive nervous system chronic maladaptive nervous system misdirected mental function

mental overreaction chronic mental overreaction mental disorder (disordered nervous system)

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Mental Disorders
Yin Merrill-Reid enhancer stressor stress response hyper stress response mental disorder defensive survival instinct hyper stress response mental disorder (example) subtype of mental disorders delusional mental disorder delusional mental disorder (example) hyper pleasure response mental disorder hyper pleasure response mental disorders (example) Passive amiable bond disconnection despair depression flight-freeze major depression Dynamic expressive expressive injustice paranoid manipulation manipulative BPD Yang Passive analytical systemization disorganization anxiety obsession obsessive panic, phobias, OCD, PTSD anxiety delusional obsession autism addictive systemization Asperger Symptom Dynamic driver domination repression unfulfillment mania rage manic depression mania delusional mania delusional mania addictive domination psychopath

unipolar depression delusional depression catatonic schizophrenia addictive bond

paranoid delusional manipulation paranoid schizophrenia addictive attention

nymphomania

histrionic personality disorder

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Introduction
In Chapter 1, Normal mental state is explained by the three-branch structural theory, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives (interactions). The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to minimize conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. All people have the three social lives in different proportions. Social life is developed by the five factors from the prenatal period to early adulthood. Social role (Bond-Systemization), social relationship (WellbeingAchievement) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) are developed during prenatal period and childhood for gender differentiation. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) is developed during adolescence for the size of core social group. Social flexibility (Rigid-Flexible) achieves maturity during early adulthood for social responsibility. The five factors are similar to the factors in the popular Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Big Five personality theories. Different social lives are the different combinations of the five factors. The results of the combinations for yin and yang social lives are bond, expressive, systemization, domination social lives corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life For yin and yang social lives, social-life enhancer (bond, expressive, systemization, or domination) enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life enhancer that enhances social life is social-life pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer. Social-life stressor (disconnection, injustice, disorganization, or repression) that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with urgently. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life, and exists only in human. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie. The yin, the yang, and the harmonious social lives result in the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies, respectively. In Chapter 2, mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and the misdirected mental functions. The hyper response genes include the hyper pleasure response genes, the hyper stress response genes, and the hyper immune response genes. The chronic adverse environments include chronic adverse experiences and chronic adverse infection. The misdirected mental functions include the addiction instincts, the defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freezeobsession), and the mental process during sleep. The combination of the hyper pleasure response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected addiction instincts results in the hyper pleasure mental disorders. The combination of the hyper stress response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected defensive survival instincts

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results in the hyper stress response mental disorders. The combination of the hyper immune response genes, the chronic adverse infection, and the misdirected mental process during sleep results in the delusional mental disorders. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by the addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. The pleasure responses are the responses to the four mental enhancers: bond, expressive, systemization, and domination corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. The corresponding stress responses are the responses to the four corresponding mental stressors: disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression, respectively. The four subtypes of the hyper pleasure response mental disorders result from the four enhancers, the four subtypes of the hyper stress response mental disorders result from the four stressors, and the four subtypes of the delusional mental disorders result from the four stressors. All mental disorders can be categorized from these 12 subtypes. Many mental disorders are the combinations of the subtypes.

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1. The Three-Branch Structural Theory
In Chapter 1, normal social life (interaction) is explained by the three-branch structural theory, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives (interactions). The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to minimize conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. All people have the three social lives in different proportions. Social life is developed by the five factors from the prenatal period to early adulthood. Social role (Bond-Systemization), social relationship (WellbeingAchievement) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) are developed during prenatal period and childhood for gender differentiation. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) is developed during adolescence for the size of core social group. Social flexibility (Rigid-Flexible) achieves maturity during early adulthood for social responsibility. The five factors are similar to the factors in the popular Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Big Five personality theories. Different social lives are the different combinations of the five factors. The results of the combinations for yin and yang social lives are bond, expressive, systemization, domination social lives corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life For yin and yang social lives, social-life enhancer (bond, expressive, systemization, or domination) enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life enhancer that enhances social life is social-life pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer. Social-life stressor (disconnection, injustice, disorganization, or repression) that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with urgently. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life, and exists only in human. The instinct for the harmonious social life (harmonious) is the conscience instinct that is the combination of the hyper friendly instinct and the detective instinct, resulting in maximum eager cooperation without lie. The yin, the yang, and the harmonious social lives result in the collective, the individualistic, and the harmonious societies, respectively. 1.1. The Five Factors in Social Life The three-branch structural theory consists of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives (interactions). The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human

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evolution to minimize conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. The human society with the harmonious social life is a highly efficient low-conflict smallgroup society. Social life is developed by the five factors, including three gender factors and two non-gender factors. Social role (Bond-Systemization), social relationship (WellbeingAchievement) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) are developed during prenatal period and childhood for gender differentiation. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) is developed during adolescence for the size of core social group. Social flexibility (Rigid-Flexible) matures during early adulthood for social responsibility. The development of social life by the five factors is described in Louann Brizendine’s books, “The Female Brain”1 and “The Male Brain,”2. All five factors are listed in the table below, and compare them with the factors in the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the Big Five personality theories. The Five Factors in Social Life
Social Life Gender factors social role social relation social unit Non-gender factors intragroup interaction social flexibility bond (B) systemization (S) wellbeing (W) achievement (A) collectiveness (C) individual (I) passive (P) dynamic (D) rigid (R) flexible (F) Personality Type (MBTI) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) intuition (N) sense (S) introvert (I) extrovert (E) judging (J) perceiving (P) The Big Five Agreeable (A) Neuroticism (N)

Consciousness (C)

Extrovert (E) Openness (O)

1.1.1. Social Life: The Three Gender Factors The three gender factors that differentiate male and female are social role, social relationship, and social unit. Humans have forty-six chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes, XX in females and XY in males. After eight weeks, all children's fetal brains appear exactly the same: female. Female is nature's default setting. Starting 8 weeks, a surge of testosterone masculinizes the fetal brain for males. For males, high testosterone is maintained from 1 month to 12 months after the birth. For females, estrogen is secreted in massive amount from age 6 to 24 months. After the surges of the hormones, the hormone levels remain low until puberty for both males and females. 1.1.1.1. Social Role: Bond and Systemization
Social Life social role Bond (B) Systemization (S) Personality Type (MBTI) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) The Big Five Agreeable (A)

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According to Simon Baron-Cohen3, the essential difference between the female brain and the male brain is that the average female brain favors slightly empathy, and the average male brain favors slightly in non-social information. The average female brain prefers to form social bond. Instead of social bond, the average male brain finds pleasure in systematization of non-social information. The overlapping of the male brain and the female brain is significant. Social role is divided into Bond (B) for females and Systemization (S) for males. To form social bond is important for females to improve care of children and female social network which helps in various ways with the caring of children and the protection from the aggression of physically stronger males. On the other hand, systemization helps males become good hunters and increase their social status by improving spatial navigation and the making and use of tools. The differences in social role come from the hormones and the brain structures for processing information. Hormones One day old boys look longer at a mechanical mobile while girls longer at a face. This is due to the effects of fetal hormones. Simon Baron-Cohen4 found that the higher the child's fetal testosterone, the less eye contact the child makes at 12 months of age and the slower it is to develop language at 18 months old. The same children have been followed up at 4 years old. The higher the fetal testosterone, the more social difficulty the child was having at school and the narrower the child's interests. It relates to some relationship between systemization and bond, because narrow interests could be related to systemization that needs to zero in on small details, and social bond relates to social skill. The finding shows that social bond and systemization relate to fetal testosterone. The brain structures for processing information In male brains, men have six and a half times more gray matter than women do. Gray matter is partly responsible for information processing. Women have as much as 10 times as much white matter - the part of the brain partially responsible for connecting information processing centers. Women are such good multi-taskers. In general, female brains tend to employ both sides of their brain to process information while male brains tend to rely primarily on their dominant or language side to process. As the dominant hemisphere tends to be analytic, problem solving, task oriented, detailed, and verbal this helps to explain male behavior. A female brain can also process in this manner, but the non-dominant hemisphere that can process emotion, meaning without words, empathy, tone, and disposition is also engaged by the female. Mirror neuron system (MNS) that gets in sync with others’ emotions by reading facial expressions and interpreting tone of voice and other nonverbal emotional cues is larger and more active in female brain. Temporal parietal junction (TPJ) that gets in sync with others’ cognitive problems is activated earlier and more active in the male brain. Therefore, males appear to be less empathetic by less understanding of others’ emotion through MNS, and activating “cognitive problem solving” too early through TPJ. MBTI does not have specific social role. Social role for MDTI is incorporated in Feeling-Thinking. Bond is a part of Feeling for relating to people, while Systemization a part of Thinking for relating to things. Another part of Feeling-Thinking is social

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relationship. In the Big Five, Agreeable (tendency to be compassionate and cooperation rather than suspicious to others) corresponds to Bond. 1.1.1.2. Social Relationship: Wellbeing and Achievement
Social Life social relation Wellbeing (W) Achievement (A) Personality Type (MBTI) a part of feeling (F) a part of thinking (T) The Big Five Neuroticism (N)

Social relationship is divided into Wellbeing for females and Achievement for males. For males, Achievement is a way to determine social hierarchy. Achievers are on the top of social hierarchy, and underachievers are on the bottom of social hierarchy. Men typically identify with their jobs that show their achievements. Females have flatter social hierarchy. Females are competitive, but the wellbeing of social relationship is more important than achievement. Women typically identify with their families that show the wellbeing of social relationship. Little girls like to play games of social gathering to establish the wellbeing of social relationship, while little boys like to play games of fighting to establish achievement in terms of winning. Childhood is a training period for adulthood. For male adults, to achieve the top of social hierarchy by high achievement is a way to gain wealth and power. For female adults, the wellbeing of social relationship allows the sharing of wealth and power. During mating, Achievement allows a single-minded determination to mate, while Wellbeing allows the emergence of courtship for selecting the best option for the wellbeing of relationship. Courtship allows a female to express her preference in male suitors. During courtship, a female is hesitant to decide what to do, and heightens her sensitivity (emotion) what she likes and dislikes. A male is decisive to what to do, and reduces his sensitivity (emotion) what he likes and dislikes in order to follow what she likes and dislikes. During the courtship, a male peacock suitor shows off his beautiful feather fan to attract a female at a great personal risk to attract predators at the same time. (For a female, her personal risk occurs after the mating process to protect her unborn and born children.) In the mating process, a male and a female require opposite durations of time and opposite sensitivities. Wellbeing and Achievement are complementary. The differences in social relationship come from the hormones and the brain structures for processing social relationship. Hormones For females, the hormones for social relationship are estrogen and oxytocin. Estrogen is sometimes all business, and sometimes an aggressive seductress. The increase of estrogen stimulates the increase in oxytocin as the “cuddle chemical” that builds bonds between mates, mother-child, and social members. When men were given a single high dose of oxytocin, it increased their ability to resonance with other people’s feelings. For males, the hormones for social relationship are testosterone and vasopressin. Testosterone is dominant, aggressive, all-powerful, focused, and goal-oriented to outrank other males in social hierarchy. Vasopressin is for gallantry, monogamy, and protecting and defending turf, mate, and children. Prairie voles have strong male-female pair

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bonding, while montane voles are promiscuous without strong bonding male-female pair bonding. When the release of vasopressin is blocked, prairie voles become like montane voles. The brain structures for processing social relationship Women, on average, had more activity in the newer and more complex parts of the limbic system, which are involved in feelings5 to allow women more in touch with their feelings to prioritize all possible options for the wellbeing of social relationship. The hypothalamus, which is a tiny structure at the base of the brain, regulates many basic functions, such as eating, sleeping, temperature control, and reproduction. One part of the hypothalamus responsible for sexual behavior is larger in male brains than in female brains, in human and non-human animals. The male amygdala, which also controls sexual thought, is twice as large as that of females. Dorsal premammillary nucleus (DPN) that is a primitive part of the brain for territorial defense is larger for males than females. Ventral tegmental area (VTA) that is the motivation area to produce dopamine, a neurotransmitter required for initiating movement, motivation, and reward is more active in males. Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) that is the worry-wart to weight options, detect conflicts, and motivates decisions is larger in females. In terms of personality, Achievement and Systemization identify with male, and Wellbeing and Bond identify with female. In MBTI, the combination of Achievement and Systemization is the Thinking type (T), and the combination of Wellbeing and Bond is the Feeling type (F). According to MBTI, The thinking type (T) has characteristics of theoretical, rational, analytical, purposive, logic, and unconcerned with people's feeling. According to MBTI, the feeling type (F) has characteristics of passionate, warm, personal, artistic, and concerned with people's feelings. The research in MBTI shows that there are much more women with F than men. In the Big Five, Context corresponds to Neuroticism (N) (a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily). The research in the Big Five also shows that more women with Agreeable (A) and Neuroticism (N) than men. 1. 1.1.3. Social Unit: Collectiveness and Individual
Social Life Social Unit collectiveness (C) individual (I) Personality Type (MBTI) intuition (N) sense (S) The Big Five Consciousness (C)

For a male adult, it is possible for him to act as individual with any social connection. For a female adult, the caring of offspring forces her to think social unit of collectiveness. Social unit is divided into Collectiveness (C) for female and Individual (I) for male. The differences in social unit come from the hormones and the brain structures for processing social unit. Hormones The hormones for social unit are the same as the hormones for social relationship. For females, the hormones for Collectiveness as social unit are estrogen and oxytocin. During menstrual cycle, the hormones fluctuate, and women are talkative and friendly at
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the peak of the estrogen-oxytocin level around the time of ovulation. Talkativeness and friendliness allow Collectiveness as social unit. Women are not talkative and friendly at the bottom of the estrogen-oxytocin level before menstruation. For males, the hormones for Individual as social unit are aggressive testosterone and defensive vasopressin. Aggression and defensiveness keep Individual as social unit. The brain structures for processing social unit Collectiveness requires multi-task to deal with many people at the same time, good communication with people, and good reading of emotion. The female brain is wired to be proficient in multi-task, good communication, and good reading emotion. In male brains, men have six and a half times more gray matter than women do. Gray matter is partly responsible for narrow information processing suitable for Individual as social unit. Women have as much as 10 times as much white matter - the part of the brain partially responsible for connecting information processing centers. Women are such good multi-taskers suitable for Collectiveness as social unit. The mothers of young children have the brains of even better multi-task. Women often excel at language-based tasks for two reasons: two brain areas that deal with language are larger in females, and females process language in both hemispheres while males favor a single brain half. Little girls are much better in verbal expression than little boys. Since women use both the left brain and the right brain that can process emotion, meaning without words, empathy, tone, and disposition, women can read emotion better than males. There are three different ways to use Individual and Collectiveness: (1) information processing, (2) focused attention, and (3) social unit. (1) Information Processing (MBTI): Some tasks, such as languages, fine motor skill, and repetitive work, require Individual for proficiency in handling small details. Some tasks, such as space orientation, unrelated new information, and the central principle among different details, require Collectiveness to make sense of broad information. These two tasks are complementary. In MBTI, Sense (S) (trust information that is in the present, tangible and concrete) and Intuition (N) (trust information that is more abstract or theoretical) are about information processing. Individual corresponds to Sense (S) for the way to manipulate related details, and Collectiveness corresponds to Intuition (N) for the way to find relationship among many initially unrelated details. (2) Focused Attention (the Big Five): Focused attention is an efficient way to carry out a task. However, unfocused attention can be an advantage in an unfamiliar environment that hides many unexpected dangers. In the Big Five, Consciousness (C) is about focus in carrying out a task, corresponding to Individual for being focused. MBTI does not check Consciousness in the Big Five, while the Big Five does not check Sense-Intuition in MBTI. (3) Social unit (Social Life): In human social evolution, some people place Individuals more important than social group, and some people place social group more important than Individuals. Neither MBTI nor the Big Five checks social unit. As a gender factor, social unit is not an independent factor. Social unit overlaps with social role and social relationship. Individual is equivalent to Systemization + Achievement, while Collectiveness is equivalent to Bond + Wellbeing. Therefore, the set of Bond-Systemization and Wellbeing-Achievement or the set of CollectivenessIndividual is sufficient to describe genders in terms social interactions.

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1.1.2. The Non-Gender Factors The two non-gender factors for a large social group outside of family are intragroup contact and social flexibility. 1.1.2.1. Intragroup Interaction: Passive and Dynamic
Social Life intragroup interaction passive (P) dynamic (D) Personality Type (MBTI) introvert (I) extrovert (E) The Big Five

Extrovert (E)

For primates, the basic social subgroups can be single female and her offspring, monogamous family, polyandrous family (one-female-several-male group), polygynous family (one-male-several-female group), and multimale-multifemale group (noncommittal male-female). The intragroup interaction among the subgroups can be Passive (P) or Dynamic (D). The passive intragroup interaction leads to a small core social group in a loose social group where the intragroup interaction in not active. The dynamic intragroup interaction leads to a large core social group in a tight social group. The tight social group helps to provide protection against predators. It also helps to protect scarce food resources. This is especially true for non-human primates when the food is fruit. Leaf-eaters, such as colobus monkeys and langurs, tend to form smaller loose social groupings since there is little competition for their food. The very few nocturnal species of primates are mostly small, relatively solitary hunters. In general, a social group under the condition of sufficiency resource and security leads typically to a loose social group, while a social group under the condition of insufficient resource and insecurity results typically in a tight social group. In terms of evolution, Passive and Dynamic relate to the suitable size of social group. Dynamic about social interaction allows high frequency of social contacts within a relatively large social group, while Passive about social interaction can allow only low frequency of social contacts in a relatively small social group. In a relatively poor and dangerous environment, a large social group is necessary for finding food and protection, while in a relatively rich and safe environment, a small social group exists comfortably without wasting energy and time in frequent social contacts. Since both environments exist, the coexistence of Assertiveness and Sensitivity becomes complementary. The person of Dynamic has a low dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. The person of Passive has high dose of stimulus for each encounter of stimulation source. To maintain an optimal level of stimulation, the person of Dynamic requires numerous sources of stimulation sources. According to H. J. Eysenck6 , extroverts have persistently low cortical arousal and seek stimulation. For humans and many other advanced animals, the time to involve actively in social interaction outside of family is adolescence after puberty. It will be discussed the section about group social relationship. The personality of Dynamic is the social life of extrovert as described in MBTI. On the other hand, the social life of Passive is introvert in MBTI. Introverts have

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persistently high arousal and avoid stimulation. Passive corresponds to Introvert (I) in MBTI, and Dynamic corresponds to Extrovert (E) in MBTI and Extrovert (E) (to seek the company of others) in the Big Five. 1.1.2.2. Social Flexibility: Flexible and Rigid
Social Life Personality Type (MBTI) The Big Five Social flexibility Rigid (R) Flexible (F) judging (J) perceiving (P)

Openness (O)

In intragroup and intergroup social interactions, social flexibility is divided into Flexible and Rigid. Flexible involves manipulation of several sets of information, including old sets of information, possible new sets of information, and the final set of information. The manipulation of several sets of information requires the involvement of the prefrontal cortex. The prefrontal cortex has multiple components: working memory buffers and a “central executive,” the manager that manipulates and coordinates information stored in the buffers for updating. Working memory is a “blackboard memory” operating over mere seconds. The process includes moving information into working memory, updating what is already there, and using it to select a final updating. The whole Flexible involves both the prefrontal cortex and the rest of the cortex. The prefrontal cortex has extensive connections to various parts of the brain. Neuroscientist Edmund Rolls found that the prefrontal cortex in a monkey had fired strongly immediately before the monkey changed the behavior in behavior to a changing circumstance. The prefrontal cortex allows a quick switch of strategy in behavior to a change of circumstance. The reason for such a quick switch of strategy is that the prefrontal cortex has ample free neuron network which provides the space to construct a new strategy one after another free of previous experience and memory. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex cannot construct a new strategy one right after another. They tend to construct one strategy, and stay with the same strategy over and over again even there is a need for another strategy. They fail to select the most current strategy for their action. The people with damage in the prefrontal cortex may also persistently follow whatever command given to them without change. The damage in the prefrontal cortex is the example for the extreme case of rigidity. The prefrontal cortex matures in early adulthood just in time for parenthood which requires social responsibility to take care of family. Females have larger prefrontal cortex than males, because females have direct responsibility to take care of family. Marmosets are the 22 New World monkey species. Some Marmoset fathers are the most involved fathers, holding their newborn more than fifteen hours a day every day for one month. In the brains of devoted marmoset fathers, the prefrontal cortex has more cells and connections than in the non-father marmosets. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that has expanded the most in primates. The large human prefrontal cortex provides human a very large space to construct new strategy in terms of new combination and arrangement of information. The large prefrontal cortex in human also provides an area to construct strategy overcoming salient and concrete experiences. In terms of human evolution, Flexible is particularly important for the evolution of the harmonious social life that is to minimize conflicts in

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social interactions. The instinct to minimize conflicts is in conflict with other instincts for reproduction and survival, so the unusual large human prefrontal cortex in comparison with other apes allows the instinct for the harmonious social life to control the instincts for reproduction and survival. It will be discussed in the section for the harmonious social life. According to MBTI, the judging type has characteristics of planned, orderly way, settled, organized, decisive, closeness, and finishing things. The judging type matches Rigid. The perceiving type has characteristics of flexible, spontaneous, tolerant, open option, understand life rather than control it. This perceiving type matches Flexible. Flexible corresponds to Openness to experience (appreciation for unusual ideas, imagination, and curiosity) in the Big Five. 1.2. The Social Lives The human social lives are the combination of the five factors in social life. 1.2.1. Yin Social Life and Yang Social Life in Social Group In a small social group such as family, the feminine yin social life is the combination of Bond, Wellbeing, and Collectiveness, resulting in collective wellbeing mostly for personal task. The masculine yang social life is the combination of Systemization, Achievement, and Individual, resulting in individualistic achievement mostly for impersonal task. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) represents social interaction in a social group outside of family during adolescence after puberty. In terms of evolution, Passive and Dynamic relate to the suitable size of social group. Dynamic about social interaction allows high frequency of social contacts within a relatively large core social group in a tight social group, while Passive about social interaction can allow only low frequency of social contacts in a relatively small core social group in a loose social group. The loose collective society and the tight collective society come from the yin passive and the yin dynamic social lives, respectively, while the loose individualistic society and the tight individualistic society come from the yang passive and yang dynamic social lives, respectively. In the tight collective society, the dynamic intragroup interaction produces the group wellbeing that promotes care about all members of the group and the group identity in addition to basic collective wellbeing. In the tight individualistic society, the dynamic intragroup interaction produces the group hierarchy that promotes individual strength and effort as well as the submission to the leader of group in addition to basic individualistic achievement. The tight collective society is more egalitarian than the tight individualistic society. In general, the tight individualistic society is under the condition of less sufficient resource and security than the tight collective society. The reason is that the competitive hierarchy social structure, like an army, is more suitable to overcome the difficulties in insufficient resource and insecurity than the group wellbeing social structure. A typical example in ape is the different social structures of chimpanzees and bonobos. Bonobos live in the tropical rain forests with relatively sufficient food and security. Chimpanzees live in the tropical woodland savannah around the equatorial portion of Africa. Chimpanzees travel around 3 miles a day for food and water, whereas bonobos have hardly been noted to travel more than 1.5 or 2 miles a day. Bonobos have the female-

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centered collective society with the group wellbeing, while chimpanzees have the malecentered individualistic society with the competitive hierarchy. A primate society has typically more than one type of society. For example, the society of female mouse lemurs found in the Island of Madagascar as described by Robert Russell7 is the tight collective society, and solitary male mouse lemurs have the loose individualistic society. Six to twenty female mouse lemurs form a lifelong social group. The basic lifelong unit of the social group is mother-daughter, so there are several units of mother-daughter from the same neighborhood. Mother and daughter have mutual growth relation. Mother takes care of daughter, and teaches her all skill of life. Daughter stays with her mother. About three to ten pairs of mother-daughter form a social group. They have a centrally located communal sleeping hollow for their daytime rest. The social group provides lifelong warmth, stimulation, shared experiences, and warning system for protection from the intrusion of predators. This form of social group increases greatly the chance of survival for female mouse lemurs. The ratio of adult females to adult males exceeds four females for every one male. For orangutans, there are the loose collective society for single female and her offspring and the loose individualistic society for solitary males. For chimpanzees, male chimpanzees have the tight individualistic society, while female chimpanzees have loose individualistic society. Female bonobos, on the other hand, have the tight collective society, while male bonobos have the loose individualistic society. Female bonobos as a group overpower male bonobos. 1.2.2. Group Social Relationship: Expressive and Domination For humans and many other advanced animals, the time to involve actively in social interaction outside of family is adolescence after puberty. At puberty, there is again an explosion of hormones. For boys, there is 20-fold increase in aggressive testosterone and defensive vasopressin. For girls, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone (in low amount) increase. Girls’ brains develop two years earlier than boys. Sex circuits start to develop. In terms of gender factors, social role (Bond-Systemization) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) remain unchanged. Social relationship (WellbeingAchievement) changes from family social relationship to group social relationship. When a girl actively seeks intragroup interaction, the combination of Wellbeing and Dynamic brings about Expressive. When a boy actively seeks intragroup interaction, the combination of Achievement and Dynamic brings about Domination. Passive intragroup interaction produces low degrees of Expressive and Domination. In a social group, Expressive is to attract attention by maintaining wellbeing of relationship, appearance, and communication. The surge of estrogen can trigger teen girls' need to become sexually desirable to boys. Through Expressive, a girl can be in the in-group to attract friends, allies, and boys. Domination is to show force by achievement and posturing of strength. Flooded with testosterone, many become absorbed in sexual fantasies. Through Domination, a boy can be on the top of social hierarchy to attract allies and girls. The mature rostral cingulate zone (RCZ) that registers social approval and disapproval to avoid costly social mistakes matures makes boys highly sensitive to criticism.

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The social life system for yin and yang is similar to the Merrill-Reid social style theory , consisting of amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social lives. Expressive and Domination correspond to expressive and driver, respectively, in the popular MerrillReid social style theory. Amiable and analytical in the Merrill-Reid social style theory correspond to Bond and Systemization for Passive with low degrees of Expressive and Domination. In a social group outside of family, the combination of yin-yang social lives and intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) results in yin passive (bond), yin dynamic (expressive), yang passive (systemization), and yang dynamic (domination), corresponding to Amiable, Expressive, Analytical, and Drive in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory.
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Merrill-Reid Social lives control emotion analytical ask amiable expressive driver tell

The Yin Yang Social life yang yang passive yang dynamic systemization domination passive dynamic yin passive yin dynamic bond expressive yin

emote

• • •

According to the Merrill-Reid theory, the four social lives are described below. Amiable: Place a high priority on friendships, close relationships, and cooperative behavior. They appear to get involved in feelings and relations between people. Expressive: Appear communicative, warm approachable and competitive. They involve other people with their feelings and thoughts. Analytical: Live life according to facts, principles, logic and consistency. Often viewed as cold and detached but appear to be cooperative in their actions as long as they can have some freedom to organize their own efforts. Driver: Give the impression that they know what they want, where they are going, and how to get there quickly.

Amiable and Expressive have yin (female type) characteristic for collective wellbeing, while Analytical and Driver have yang (male type) characteristic for individualistic achievement. Expressive and Driver are more active in interpersonal relations than Amiable and Driver. Merrill-Reid Social lives do not include harmonious cooperation. The amiable in the Merrill-Rein theory corresponds to the yin passive social life (bond) that involves and is keenly interested in the close relationship with people for collective wellbeing. The expressive corresponds to the yin dynamic social life (expressive) that involves in both close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group wellbeing in addition to basic collective wellbeing. The analytical corresponds to the yang passive social life (systemization) that involves

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and is keenly interested in only systemizing task for individualistic achievement. The driver corresponds to the yang dynamic social life (domination) that involves both the close relationships with people in the basic social unit and the intragroup in terms of group hierarchy in addition to basic individualistic achievement. 1.2.3. The Properties of the Yin and Yang Social Lives As mentioned before, yin and yang genders can be defined by either the set of social role (Bond-Systemization) and social relationship (Wellbeing-Achievement) or the set of social unit (Collectiveness-Individual), so the discussion below will use only social role and social relationship. The discussion is mainly about adult males and females, and after adolescence, and all adults have various degrees of Dynamic, so the characteristics of yin and yang social lives include bond and expressive (Dynamic Wellbeing) for adult yin social life, and systemization and domination (Dynamic Achievement) for adult yang social life. These characteristics can be expressed in terms of enhancers, stressors, stress responses, and sins as follows. Life has many parts. Each specific part has specific enhancer and stressor. Enhancer enhances life, and stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to enhancer that enhances life is pleasure response to continue the enhancer. Stressor that disrupts enhancer is the loss of the function of certain adaptive life part. The instinctive reaction to stressor is stress response to prompt attention to stressor, so stressor can be dealt with urgently. Stress response is expressed as the feelings of stress, anxiety, and pain. For an example, a woman who has a good digest system enjoys digesting food. When the damage in her digest system induces the loss of the function of her digest system, she instinctively suffers from pain that prompts attention to the damage in her digest system, so she can deal with the damage urgently. The healing of stress response is the adoption of enhancer to replace stressor. The healthy life allows all parts of life working together constructively rather than destructively. There are three social lives: yin, yang, and harmony. Each social life has specific social-life enhancer and social-life stressor. Social-life enhancer enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life enhancer that enhances social life is social-life pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer, so the enhancers enhance social life with pleasure response. Social-life stressor that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with urgently. The symptom of social-life stress response is the feeling of stress and anxiety, so the stressors disrupt social life with stress response. The action of social-life stressor is social-life sin. The healing of social-life stress response is the adoption of social-life enhancer to replace social-life stressor. The healthy social life allows all three of social lives working together constructively rather than destructively. The social-life enhancers for adult feminine social life are bond and expressive. The instinctive reaction to bond and expressive that enhance collective social life is collective social-life pleasure response to continue collective wellbeing. Collective social-life stressor that disrupts collective social life consists of disconnection and injustice that cause the losses of bond and expressive, respectively. The instinctive reaction to collective social-life stressor is collective social-life stress response, consisting of despair and paranoid

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to prompt attention to the social-life stressors of disconnection and injustice, respectively, so the social-life stressors can be dealt with urgently. The action of collective social-life stressor is collective social-life sin, consisting of disconnection sin and injustice sin. The fundamental social unit is collective social group. A person who has the collective social life is a collective lifer. For an example, a woman who is a collective lifer enjoys collective wellbeing. When injustice induces the loss of her collective wellbeing, she suffers instinctively from paranoid that prompt attention to the injustice, so she can deal with the injustice immediately. When she induces injustice, she commits injustice sin that causes paranoid. The social-life enhancers for adult masculine social life are systemization and domination. The instinctive reaction to systemization and domination that enhance individualistic social life is individualistic social-life pleasure response to continue individualistic achievement. Individualistic social-life stressor that disrupts individualistic social life consists of disorganization and repression that cause the losses of systemization and domination, respectively. The instinctive reaction to individualistic social-life stressor is individualistic social-life stress response, consisting of anxiety and unfulfillment to prompt attention to the social-life stressors of disorganization and repression, respectively, so the social-life stressors can be dealt with urgently. The action of individualistic social-life stressor is individualistic social-life sin, consisting of disorganization sin and repression sin. A person who has the individualistic social life is an individualistic lifer. For an example, a man who is an individualistic lifer enjoys individualistic achievement. When repression induces his loss of individualistic achievement, he suffers instinctively from unfulfillment that prompts attention to the repression, so he can deals with the repression urgently. When he induces repression, he commits repression sin that causes unfulfillment. The Properties of Yin and Yang Social Lives
Yin (Collective) Social Life Symbol Social-life enhancers/pleasure response Social-life stressors Sins Stress responses Fundamental Social Unit Lifer (Person) Society bond expressive disconnection injustice disconnection sin injustice sin despair paranoid collective social group collective collective Yang (Individualistic) Social Life systemization domination disorganization repression disorganization sin repression sin anxiety unfulfillment individual individualistic individualistic

The yin and yang social lives in terms of enhancer can be compared with the Merrill-Reid social style as follows.

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The Yin Yang Social Lives
Social life Description Merrill-Reid enhancer Behavior Role Idealized SelfImage Yin collective wellbeing in mostly people Passive Dynamic amiable expressive bond expressive kindness expressive friend communicator loyalist peacemaker Yang individual achievement in mostly task Passive Dynamic analytical driver systemization domination discipline strength systemizer driver idealist leader

The yin passive social life (amiable) involves and is keenly interested in close relationships with people, so the enhancer is the bond. The corresponding behavior is kindness toward people. The role for the yin passive social life is friend. A person with the role of friend can idealize (exaggerate) the role as loyalist. The yin dynamic social life (expressive) involves in both basic social unit and intragroup. The enhancer is the expressive in addition to the bond. The expressive involvement is socially active and broad. The role for the yin dynamic social life is communicator. A person with the role of communicator can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as peacemaker to provide the peaceful environment for expressive all love ones. The yang passive social life (analytical) involves and is keenly interested in only task. The enhancer is the systemization for the intrinsic human capability and desire to make a system out of various objects. The corresponding behavior is discipline to follow a well-developed system. The role for the yang passive social life is systemizer. A person with the role of systemizer can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as idealist to have the idealistic system. The yang dynamic social life (driver) involves in the basic social unit and intragroup. The enhancer is the domination in addition to the systemization. The domination involvement is socially active and broad. The corresponding behavior is mental and physical strength. The role for the yang dynamic social life is driver to provide the best (dominating) condition to survive and prosper. A person with the role of driver can idealize in terms of exaggeration the role as leader who will fight for survival and prosperity. 1.2.4. The Properties of the Harmonious Social Life The additional social life is the harmonious social life for harmonious cooperation that exists only in human that has the much larger prefrontal cortex responsible for the high Flexible in terms of social flexibility in social life. The high Flexible allows the harmonious social life to minimize conflicts in social interaction. Consequently, the society with the harmonious social life maximizes acquisition, and minimizes the cost for individuals in the intragroup interaction, resulting in the most successful society. However, the harmonious social group size has to be small. The description and the evolution of harmonious cooperation social life and harmonious society will be discussed in details in the next sections.

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The social life system consists of five different combinations of the factors in the personality system as in the following table. The Social Life System for Primates
Social lives yin (BWC ) –yang passive-dynamic (SAI) or harmonious (introvert-extrovert) or cooperation (high flexible Intragroup openness) interaction among basic social units Yin Passive society social life Merrill-Reid social style

Yang

Passive

Yin

Dynamic

the loose collective society the loose individualistic society the tight collective society the tight individualistic society the harmonious society

bond

Amiable

systemization

Analytical

expressive

Expressive

Yang

Dynamic

domination

Driver

Harmonious cooperation

flexible

harmony

1.2.4.1. The Origin of the Harmonious Social Life The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to minimize conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. The human society with the harmonious social life is a highly efficient low-conflict small-group society. The minimization of conflicts in social interaction enhances cooperation. Cooperation is important in survival strategies as described by Axelrod and Hamilton's evolution of cooperation9. To find different strategies for cooperation, they devised the prisoner's dilemma. The prisoner's dilemma refers to an imaginary situation in which two individuals are imprisoned and are accused of having cooperated to perform some crime. The two prisoners are held separately, and attempts are made to induce each one to implicate the other. If neither one does, both are set free. This is the cooperative strategy available to both prisoners. In order to tempt one or both to defect, each is told that a confession implicating the other will lead to his or her release and, as an added incentive, to a small reward. If both confess, each one is imprisoned. But if one individual implicated the other and not vice versa, then the implicated partner receives a harsher sentence than if each had implicated the other. Among all strategies, TIT FOR TAT is the best strategy. On the first move cooperate. On each succeeding move do what your opponent did the previous move. Thus, TIT FOR TAT was a strategy of cooperation based on reciprocity. From the further analysis of TIT FOR TAT, four features of TIT FOR TAT emerged: 1. Never be the first to defect: indicate eager cooperate

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2. Retaliate only after your partner has defected: important to detect defection 3. Be prepared to forgive after carrying out just one act of retaliation: minimum social memory 4. Adopt this strategy only if the probability of meeting the same player again exceeds 2/3: essentially a strategy for a small social group. A distinctive character in TIT FOR TAT is eager cooperation as in the first feature above. It always cooperates first. Such eager cooperation has minimum social memory to forgive the past defection as in the third feature above. Such eager cooperation generates a large cohesive domain, resulting in the best strategy. However, if defection has no consequence as in a large group, TIT FOR TAT does not work as in the fourth feature above. TIT FOR TAT works only in a small group. In the yin and yang social lives, the high social barrier from long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy excludes eager cooperation in TIT FOR TAT strategy. To carry out TIT FOR TAT strategy, the evolution of human social life produced two additional new instincts for enhancer. The two additional new instincts are the hyper bond instinct and the detective instinct. The hyper bond instinct allows human to cooperate eagerly, while the detective instinct allows human to detect defection. The combination of the hyper bond instinct and the detective instinct brings about the conscience instinct. The conscience instinct is the base for the harmonious social life. The hyper bond instinct, the detective instinct, and the conscience instinct will be described in details later. The Harmonious Social Life
Social life Description HARMONIOUS COOPERATION maximum eager cooperation without lie: harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment) hyper bond Detective Instinct eager cooperation theory of mind Behavior Harmonist Idealized Self-Image

The social-life enhancer for harmonious social life is harmonious cooperation that lowers the conflicts in social interaction produces highly productive cooperation among all individuals in only a small social group, and exists only in human. Harmonious cooperation consists of hyper bond and detection. (Detection as theory of mind is the enhancer for the detection of lie within both self and other people.) The instinctive reaction to hyper bond and detection that enhance harmonious cooperation is harmonious social-life pleasure response to continue harmonious cooperation. Harmonious social-life stressor that disrupts harmonious social-life enhancer consists of estrangement and enlargement that cause the losses of hyper bond and detection, respectively. Enlargement from a small social group to a large social group causes the disruption of detection, because in a large social group, a cheater is more difficult to be detected, and is able to avoid the repetition of cheating to the same person. The instinctive reaction to harmonious social-life stressor is harmonious social-life stress response, as alienation to prompt attention to the social-life stressors of estrangement and enlargement, respectively, so the social-life stressors can be dealt with urgently. The actions of estrangement and enlargement are estrangement sin and enlargement sin that cause the social-life stress responses of alienation.

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A person who has the harmonious social life is a harmonious lifer. For an example, a man who is a harmonious lifer enjoys harmonious cooperation. When estrangement and enlargement induce the loss of his harmonious cooperation, he suffers instinctively from alienation that prompts attention to the estrangement and enlargement, so he can deal with the estrangement and enlargement urgently. When he induces estrangement and enlargement, he commits estrangement sin and enlargement sin that cause alienation. Alienation is not a typical mental disorder. Alienation is an existential problem for an individual to exist in a large and non-harmonious society. There is no distinctive defensive survival instinct as the mental overreaction to the stressors of estrangement and enlargement. The reaction is simply changing from the harmonious social life to the yin or yang social life. The table below describes all three social lives. The Three-Branch Structural Theory
Yin (Collective) Social Life Symbol Social-life enhancer Social-life enhancer components Social-life stressor collective wellbeing bond expressive disconnection injustice disconnection sin injustice sin despair paranoid collective social group collective collective Yang (Individualistic) Social Life individualistic achievement systemization domination disorganization repression disorganization sin repression sin anxiety unfulfillment individual individualistic individualistic Harmonious Social Life

Sin Stress response Fundamental Social Unit Lifer (Person) Society

harmonious cooperation hyper bond detection estrangement antagonism estrangement enlargement estrangement sin enlargement sin alienation one-to-one relation harmonious harmonious

Different social lives have different rules, so social-life sin as the violation of rules from a different society is inevitable. To all pigs, eating pork is a sin, and to most humans, eating pork is not a sin. The human society has different social lives (collective, individualistic, and harmonious social lives), which have different rules, so social-life sins are inevitable. The severity of social-life sins decreases with increasing communication and checks and balances among social lives. 1.2.4.2. Eager Cooperation - The Hyper Bond instinct Long social memory, dominance hierarchy, and gender dichotomy are important to maintain a social structure, but they form the social barrier that hinders the free eager cooperation among the members of society. To promote eager social cooperation, it is necessary to minimize such social barrier. One way for the minimization is the hyper bond instinct. Through the hyper bond instinct, the hyper friendly act minimizes the social barrier. One example of the hyper bond instinct is the frequent sexual activities among all members of bonobo social group 10 . The sexual activities can be between couples regardless of ages and genders. They do sexual contacts to greet, to avoid social conflicts, and to reconcile after conflicts. The hyper friendly act minimizes the social
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barrier, and enhances social cooperation. For an example, bonobos engage in sexual activities before eating to avoid conflict during eating. Comparing to chimpanzees, bonobos are much more peaceful and egalitarian because of this hyper bond instinct. Another example of the hyper bond instinct is expressed in very enthusiastic greeting from dogs. This hyper bond instinct is inherited from wolfs that form highly cooperative society. The domestication of dog for thousands years has enhanced the hyper bond instinct, resulting in the high cooperation between dog and human. In human, the hyper bond instinct is expressed as language. Language as an instinct was proposed by experimental psychologist Steven Pinker 11 . The verbal communication minimizes effectively social barrier. Human learns language quickly and early. The human brain encourages language by rewarding language. For an example, the extremely hyper friendly people are the people with Williams Syndrome, which has unusually cheerful talkative demeanor and ease with strangers. They have excellent verbal skills, superior and precocious musical ability, perfect pitch and a good memory for names and faces. Individuals with Williams Syndrome, however, have higher amount of fear with non-social encounter. The highly developed human language instinct indicates the highly developed human hyper bond instinct. The bond nervous system is described by Simon Baron-Cohen as empathy circuit 12 , consisting of medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) orbito-frontal cortex (OFC) frontal operculum (FO) inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) caudate anterior cingulate cortex (cACC),anterior insula (AI) right-side temporal–parietal junction (RTPJ) superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) somatosensory cortex (SMC), inferior parietal lobule (IPL) amygdala (Amyg). The hyper bond nervous system is hyper active empathy circuit. The medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) is highlighted as a hub for social information, and the area in which our own perspective on events can be compared to that of others. The orbito-frontal cortex judges social behavior. The frontal operculum is also a part of the language circuit, and is involved in coding the intentions of others. The inferior frontal gyrus is involved in the visual recognition of emotions. The caudate anterior cingulate cortex is involved in the experience of pain in oneself and in others, while the anterior insula is connected to empathy via awareness of the body. The right-side temporal – parietal junction judge someone else’s intentions and beliefs in terms of cognitive empathy. The superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) monitors the direction of someone else’s gaze. The somatosensory cortex (SMC) is involved in coding a tactile experience of yourself and someone else. The FO/IFG connects to the inferior parietal lobe, and are part of the mirror neuron system, which reacts when observing actions in both ourselves and others. The mirror neuron system is emotional empathy. The amygdala is involved in emotional learning and recognition. Lesion data suggest that the right anterior temporal lobe and inferior frontal cortex are regions associated with real-life loss of empathy13. 1.2.4.3. Detection – The Detective instinct In the advanced stage of verbal communication, a verbal statement can express an event occurred elsewhere. Since the event occurs elsewhere, a listener has to determine if the expressed statement is a truth or a lie. The detective instinct for detecting a lie in a verbal statement is necessary for the advanced stage of verbal communication. The detective instinct is for subtle lie instead of conspicuous lie, which can be detected easily

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without the new detective instinct. The neural network for the detective instinct is called the lie detection neural network. The neural network has been described by Hiram Brownell and Richard Griffin14 as the neural network for theory of mind. The network consists of the left brain, the right brain, and the prefrontal cortex as follows. The Lie Detection Neural Network left brain right brain internal alternative statement 1

expression

statement 1

questionable statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 questionable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex repeat or conclusion

When a speaker expresses a statement, which describes an event occurred elsewhere, the statement is registered in the right brain and the left brain. The left brain has greater cell density and the more gray nonmyelinated fibers for short distant neural messages, so the left brain can have a good copy of the statement consciously from the speaker. The right brain, in contrast, has more areas of "associative" with more white myelinated fibers for long distant neural message. In the right brain, instead of the exact copy, the statement becomes a questionable statement waiting to be verified. The questionable statement triggers automatically an internal alternative statement that relates the event occurred elsewhere. The association of the original statement and the alternative statement can be very weak. In the right brain, the questionable statement and the alternative statement coexist. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements along with other information to determine the correct statement. The correct statement is realized by the left brain consciously as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo lie detection again or can become the conclusion. The reverse of the lie detection neural network is the lie making neural network as below.

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The Lie Making Neural Network left brain right brain internal alternative statement 1

statement 1

changeable statement 1

prefrontal cortex statement 2 Changeable statement 2 internal alternative statement 2

prefrontal cortex expression repeat or conclusion

In the lie making network, the statement 1 appears consciously in the left brain. The statement 1 becomes the changeable statement 1 in the right brain. The changeable statement in the right brain triggers automatically the internal alternative statement 1. The prefrontal cortex examines the coexisting statements in the right brain to determine the appropriate statement, which is realized consciously in the left brain as the statement 2. The statement 2 can undergo another lie making process or be the conclusion. The conclusion is then expressed. The lie detection neural network is for a subtle lie, and it is not needed for a conspicuous lie, which contradicts immediate observable evidences. Equally, a lie making neural network is for making a subtle lie, and it is not needed for making a conspicuous lie. Conspicuous lie can be detected and made in the left brain. The combination of the lie detection neural network and the lie making neural network brings about theory of mind that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. Automatic triggering of alternative statements in the right brain becomes the base for holistic thinking that requires a broad and non-obvious thinking. Automatic triggering of alternative statement in the left brain becomes the logical thinking that requires a narrow sequential thinking. The principle of humor is that subtlety in humor can be figured out by the right brain, not the left brain. When the subtlety is explained completely and logically by the left brain, the humor is no longer funny. 1.2.4.4. The Conscience Instinct

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Theory of mind derived from the detective instinct is that a person believes that the other people have the mind to lie and to detect a lie that the person makes. The combination of the hyper bond instinct and theory of mind derived from the detective instinct brings about the conscience instinct that is the instinct for maximum eager cooperation without lie that takes advantage of cooperation for selfish reason. People feel guilty about cooperation with lie, and feel other people should feel guilty about cooperation with lie. The conscience instinct as the self-regulation of cooperation results in maximum eager cooperation without lie, leading to harmonious cooperation (mutual empathy and empowerment). Mutual empathy is love, while mutual empowerment is diligence. The result is the harmonious social life. The people with the harmonious social life are harmonists. The society with the harmonious social life is the harmonious society. This harmonious social life as the innate goodness was described by Mencius, the second most important saint in Confucianism. Mencius said: .... Everyone has the heart of sympathy, everyone has the heart of knowing shame, everyone has the heart of respect, and everyone has the heart of knowing right and wrong. The heart of sympathy is a benevolent, the heart of knowing shame is righteousness, the heart of respect is propriety, and the heart of knowing right and wrong is wisdom. Benevolent, righteousness, propriety, and wisdom that are not injected from outside were in us originally. Only we have not comprehended them. Thus, we can get them through search, and we can lose them through abandonment....” (Mengzi, chapter: human innate goodness) Benevolent and propriety come from the hyper bond instinct of the conscience instinct, while righteousness and wisdom come from the detective instinct (theory of mind) of the conscience instinct. The chart for the summary of the relationship between psychology in terms of the five factors, social life, and social structure is as below.

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The Three-Branch Structural Theory
THE FIVE FACTORS IN SOCIAL LIFE
social role social relationship social unit intragroup Social flexibility (Wellbeing(Bond(Collectiveness- interaction (Rigid-Flexible) (Passive-Dynamic) Systemization Achievement) individual)

• •

yin (Bond-Wellbeing-Collectiveness = collective wellbeing for social bond) and yang (Systemization-Achievement-Individual = individualistic achievement for systemization) Passive – Dynamic intragroup interaction harmony = high Flexible to minimize conflicts in social interactions

SOCIAL LIFE

yin passive social life (amiable)
bond

yin dynamic social life (expressive)
expressive

harmonious social life
hyper bond + detection

yang dynamic social life (driver)
domination

yang passive social life (analytical)
systemization

SOCIAL STRUCTURES
the loose the tight collective collective society society the harmonious society the tight individualistic society the loose individualistic society

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2. Mental Disorders
In Chapter 2, mental disorders are derived from the combinations of the hyper response genes, the chronic adverse environments, and the misdirected mental functions. The hyper response genes include the hyper pleasure response genes, the hyper stress response genes, and the hyper immune response genes. The chronic adverse environments include chronic adverse experiences and chronic adverse infection. The misdirected mental functions include the addiction instincts, the defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freezeobsession), and the mental process during sleep. The combination of the hyper pleasure response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected addiction instincts results in the hyper pleasure mental disorders. The combination of the hyper stress response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected defensive survival instincts results in the hyper stress response mental disorders. The combination of the hyper immune response genes, the chronic adverse infection, and the misdirected mental process during sleep results in the delusional mental disorders. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by the addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. The pleasure responses are the responses to the four mental enhancers: bond, expressive, systemization, and domination corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. The corresponding stress responses are the responses to the four corresponding mental stressors: disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression, respectively. The four subtypes of the hyper pleasure response mental disorders result from the four enhancers, the four subtypes of the hyper stress response mental disorders result from the four stressors, and the four subtypes of the delusional mental disorders result from the four stressors. All mental disorders can be categorized by these 12 subtypes. Many mental disorders are the combinations of the subtypes. 2.1. Mental Overreaction How do normal social lives turn into mental disorders? The causes of mental disorders are complex. If it were simply, human evolution would have eliminated mental disorders. Each cause by itself is relatively harmless, but the combination of a number of harmless causes can result in harmful mental disorders. Social-life enhancer enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life enhancer that enhances social life is social-life pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer, so the enhancers enhance social life with the response of pleasure. Social-life stressor that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with urgently. For adult yin and yang social lives, the social-life enhancers are bond, expressive, systemization, and domination with the corresponding social-life stressor: disconnection, injustice, disorganization, and repression, respectively.

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Genes provide proper controls of pleasure response or stress response to continue the repetition of the enhancers or to the avoidance of the stressors, and then the social lives can return to normal. Through evolution, genes provide optimal normal pleasure response and stress response for normal environment, so majority of people have normal genes that are most suitable for normal environment. Most people have optimal normal pleasure response and normal stress response. At the same time, variant genes exist. The variant as hypo pleasure response that result in low enhancer or hypo stress response that results in high stressor are less adaptive than the variant as hyper pleasure response or hyper stress response. Hyper pleasure response allows the high repetition of the enhancers at the expense of safety, and hyper stress response allows high repetition of avoidance of the stressors at the expense of internal energy reservoir. In normal environment, such variant genes are adaptive, even though they are not optimal. For normal environment, few people have the adaptive variant gene with adaptive level of hyper pleasure response or hyper stress response, while most people have the genes with optimal normal genes with optimal normal levels of pleasure and stress. The immune system participates in the development of the nervous system. Immune system too has optimal normal immune response gene for normal condition and adaptive hyper immune response gene as a variant. For normal environment, most people have the genes with optimal normal immune response, and few people have the genes with adaptive hyper immune response. Different environments cause genes to express differently. The normal adjustment for genetic expression to adjust to different environments is epigenetic adjustment 15 by which environments alter heritable gene expression via methods other than altering the underlying DNA sequence. Under epigenetic adjustment, genetic expression become more pleasure response to adjust to more chronic pleasurable environment, genetic expression become more stress response to adjust to more chronic stressful environment, and genetic expression become more immune response to adjust to more chronic infective environment. To genes, chronic environmental effects become norms to which genetic expressions are adjusted. The chronic adverse environments for the hyper pleasure response and the hyper stress response nervous systems come mostly from childhood experiences, such as indulgence, physical illness, abuse, and neglect, during the development of the nervous system. The chronic adverse environments for the hyper immune nervous system come mostly from infections in mother during the fetal brain development. The infection triggers the response of maternal immune system whose immune molecules enter in the fetal brain to trigger the hyper immune response to interference the brain development, resulting in the underconnectivity of neural cells. Normal response genes have more room for adverse epigenetic adjustment before the genetic expression becomes severely maladaptive for normal environment. In some cases, severely chronic adverse epigenetic adjustment can make even normal genes to produce maladaptive genetic expression. In the threefold typology by C. Robert Cloninger16, the three types are novelty seeking, harm avoidance, and reward dependence. The threefold typology has been used to diagnose mental disorders. The person high in novelty seeking is impulsive and exploratory, and eager to take up new interests, but neglects details and quickly becomes distracted and bored. Novelty seeking corresponds to the hyper pleasure response nervous system. People high in harm avoidance are cautious, tense, inhibited, easily fatigable,

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shy and apprehensive worriers. Harm avoidance corresponds to the hyper stress response nervous system. The individual high in reward dependence is eager to please and help others, is warm, sympathetic and sensitive to social cues. The person low in reward dependence are tough minded, emotionally independent, and socially detached. Low in reward dependence corresponds to the hyper immune nervous system with the underconnectivity of neural cells that have problems to deal with complex reality in society. In the final step, when the chronic maladaptive hyper nervous systems reach the critical high maladaptive levels, mental overreactions are formed by triggering the misdirected mental functions. The chronic maladaptive hyper pleasure response nervous system triggers the misdirected addiction instincts, resulting in hyper pleasure response mental overreaction, when the chronic enhancer is transformed in the addiction. The chronic maladaptive hyper stress response nervous system triggers the misdirected defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freeze-obsession), resulting in the hyper stress response mental overreaction, when the chronic stressor is transformed into the predator. The chronic maladaptive hyper immune nervous with underconnectivity of the nervous connection triggers the misdirected mental process during sleep, resulting in delusional mental overreaction, when the mental process of wakefulness is transformed into the mental process of sleep. People with mental overreactions have socially acceptable behaviors. Many people with mental overreactions are highly successful in society because of mental overreaction that normal people do not have. People with mental overreactions with the maladaptive nervous system are maladaptive in normal environment, but society sometimes provides abnormal environment for people with mental overreaction to thrive. Mental overreactions are like autoimmune disorders where misdirected immune function to normal body tissues is harmful to body. In mental overreactions, misdirected mental functions to normal mental state of wakefulness are harmful to the mind. Mental overreactions caused by defensive survival instincts are posited by Stephen Porges in the Polyvagal theory17. The intrusion of the mental process during sleep into wakefulness in people with mental disorder was described by Claude Gottesmann who finds remarkable similarity between schizophrenia and REM sleep in the brain activities and behaviors18. Chronic mental overreaction causes the extensive reconstruction of the brain to reflect the usage and under-usage of neural connections by mental overreaction, resulting in the disordered nervous system, which is mental disorder. People with the maladaptive nervous system attempt to adapt, and people with the disordered nervous system fail to attempt to adapt. The development of mental disorder is described by the diagram below.

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The Development of Mental Disorder hyper response gene chronic adverse environment

maladaptive nervous system chronic maladaptive nervous system misdirected mental function

mental overreaction chronic mental overreaction mental disorder (disordered nervous system)

Mental disorders are derived from the combinations of three causes: the hyper pleasure, stress, or immune response genes, the chronic adverse environments (experiences or infections), and the misdirected addiction instincts, defensive survival instincts (fight-flight-freeze-obsession), or mental process during sleep. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. Mental overreactions are described in the table as follows.

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Mental Overreaction
Yin Merrill-Reid enhancers/ pleasure response Stressor Stress response Role Idealized SelfImage Hyper stress response mental overreaction Defensive survival instinct Role Idealized SelfImage delusional mental overreaction Role Idealized SelfImage hyper pleasure response mental overreaction Role Idealized SelfImage Passive amiable bond Dynamic expressive expressive Passive analytical systemization Yang Dynamic driver domination

disconnection despair friend loyalist depression

injustice paranoid communicator peacemaker manipulation

disorganization anxiety systemizer idealist obsession

repression unfulfillment driver leader mania

flight-freeze sufferer loner delusional depression delusional sufferer imaginative loner bond addiction

manipulative manipulator strategist delusional manipulation delusional manipulator imaginative strategist expressive addiction expressive addict celebrity

obsessive sectarian devotee delusional obsession

rage rebel hero delusional mania

delusional sectarian imaginative devotee systemization addiction systemization addict super geek

delusional rebel imaginative hero domination addiction

bond addict super lover

domination addict adventurer

As in the table above, the three types of mental overreactions are the hyper stress response, the delusional, and the hyper pleasure response mental overreactions. There are four enhancers-stressors, so there are total 12 subtypes of mental overreactions, including four hyper stress response mental overreactions (depression, manipulation, obsession, and mania), four delusional mental overreactions (delusional depression, delusional manipulation, delusional obsession, and delusional mania), and four hyper pleasure response mental overreactions (bond addiction, expressive addiction, systemization addiction, and domination addiction). 2.1.1. Hyper Stress Response Mental Overreactions Social-life stressor that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with

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urgently. Stress response is in the following order: 1) the limbic system, 2) the hypothalamus, 3) the pituitary gland, and 4) the adrenal glands. The four systems constitute the LHPA axis. Under normal stress response, the LHPA axis has a negative feedback loop to minimize the glucocorticoid stress hormones produced by the LHPA axis. Under chronic stress response, the glucocorticoid stress hormones increase. The level of stress response as the level of the glucocorticoid stress hormones decreases with the increasing numbers of the hippocampal glucocoricoid receptors, which are affected by the serotonin 1a receptor (5-HT1a), the serotonin 2a receptor (5-HT2a), and the reuptake of serotonin. The numbers of the receptors are controlled by the epigenetic adjustment that is affected by chronic stress, resulting in the high stress response nervous system triggered by chronic stressful environment. The adverse epigenetic adjustment occurs mostly during childhood that is the time for the brain development. The childhood adverse environments include physical illness, abuse, and neglect. In experiments by Michael Meaney19, the offspring of female rats displaying less nurturing behavior (low licking and grooming compared to high licking and grooming) had fewer hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors, resulting in higher anxiety-related behavior. The best-known hyper stress response gene involves a variant gene in the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR). The short allele of 5-HTTLPR has been associated with decreased serotonin transporter availability, resulting in lower reuptake of serotonin. In several studies, individuals carrying this short allele have shown greater risk for depression in the face of adverse life events, including childhood maltreatment, although recent meta-analyses have questioned these findings20. Another hyper stress response gene is the "A" (adenine) variant of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR gene)21. The "G" (guanine) variant is the normal stress response OXTR gene. Oxytocin is a hormone that increases in response to stress and is associated with good social skills such as empathy and enjoying the company of others. People with the 'A' variant scored substantially higher on depression. The combination of hyper stress response gene and chronic adverse environment results in maladaptive hyper nervous system. In the final step, when the chronic maladaptive hyper nervous systems reaches the critical high maladaptive levels, the hyper stress response mental overreactions are formed by triggering the misdirected defensive survival instincts22, when the chronic stressor is transformed into the predator. In human and many other animals, the defensive survival instincts are developed to deal with real or potential predators. For real predators, the defensive survival instincts are the freeze, flight, and fight instincts. The freeze instinct is to instinctively immobilize to fake death under attack by predator. The flight instinct is to run away from predator. The fight instinct is to fight against predator. The fight instinct also includes the maternal fight instinct to fight against predator in order to protect the children. For potential predator, the defensive survival instinct is the obsessive instinct to focus intensively and obsessively potential predator, and ignore all other nonessential objects. The triggering of the defensive survival instincts changes stressors into predators. The result is the mental overreaction to stressor. Initially, people with mental overreaction are within socially acceptable range. People with mental overreaction can be quite successful in society, sometimes because of the acceptable mental overreaction. The stressor in the yin passive social life (bond) is disconnection to disrupt bond as the enhancer. The instinctive reaction to disconnection is despair as the stress response

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to prompt attention to disconnection, so disconnection can be dealt with urgently. Chronic stress response triggers the flight-freeze instinct, which is the defensive survival instinct of a helpless prey to the attack from a predator. The corresponding behavior is flightfreeze as depression for withdrawn behavior (flight) and inactivity (freeze). Depression is the mental overreaction to disconnection as the stressor. For human, depression can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally depression. The role for people with the mental overreaction of depression is sufferer. A person with the role of sufferer can rationalize the role as loner to avoid detestable people. The stressor in yin dynamic social life (expressive) is injustice to disrupt expressive as the enhancer. The instinctive reaction to injustice is paranoid as the stress response to prompt attention to injustice, so injustice can be dealt with urgently. Chronic stress response triggers the manipulative instinct, which relates to the maternal fight instinct as the defensive survival instinct to deceive and attack stealthily a predator, such as the broken wing trick that a mother bird plays to lead a predator away from the baby birds. It is the origin of the asymmetrical warfare. The corresponding behavior is manipulation. Manipulation is the mental overreaction to injustice as the stressor. For human, manipulation can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally manipulation. The role for people with the mental overreaction of manipulation is manipulator. A person with the role of manipulator can rationalize the role as strategist to protect the person and the love ones from strong opponents. The stressor in the yang passive social life (systemization) is disorganization to disrupt systemization as the enhancer. The instinctive reaction to disorganization is anxiety as the stress response to prompt attention to disorganization, so disorganization can be dealt with urgently. With disorganization, systemization suffers from anxiety. Chronic stress response triggers the obsessive instinct as the defensive survival instinct, which focuses in only one critically important potential predator, and ignores all other objects in a highly uncertain and competitive environment. The corresponding behavior is obsession. Obsession is the mental overreaction to disorganization as the stressor. For human, obsession can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally obsession. The role for people with the mental overreaction of obsession is sectarian. A person with the role of sectarian rationalizes the role as devotee. The stressor of the yang dynamic social life (domination) is repression to disrupt domination as the enhancer. The instinctive reaction to repression is unfulfillment as the stress response to prompt attention to repression, so repression can be dealt with urgently. Chronic stress response triggers the rage instinct, which relates to the fight instinct as the defensive survival instinct to fight manically against a predator. The corresponding behavior is mania. Mania is the mental overreaction to repression as the stressor. For human, mania can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally mania. The role for people with the mental overreaction of mania is rebel. A person with the role of rebel can rationalize the role as hero. 2.1.2. Delusional Mental Overreactions The hyper immune response nervous system as the underconnective nervous system for mental disorders is derived from dysfunctional immune system in the nervous system as proposed by A. Kimberley McAllister23. The immune and nervous systems are

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in a complicated relationship. During healthy development independent of immune and inflammatory processes, immune molecules, such as cytokines and MHCI, play integral roles in the central nervous system by mediating essential nervous system function of connectivity such as activity-dependent refinement of connections, synaptic transmission, synaptic plasticity, and homeostasis. The immune system appears to influence the nervous system during typical functioning and in disease. Chronic infection or severe illness may disrupt the balance of normal neural–immune cross-talk, resulting in permanent underconnectivie nervous system in the brain during development, and/or contributing to pathology later in life. The underconnective nervous system does not have full connectivity in the nervous system because of the dysfunctional inflammatory immune system that cannot function normally to mediate essential nervous system function of connectivity. The participations of different immune molecules in the development of connectivity in the nervous system are different for different parts of the brain and at different stages of the nervous development, so different disorders of underconnectivity affect different parts of the brain and occur at different ages. Gender also plays a role in some disorders of the dysfunctional immune system largely due to gender-related hormones. For an example, multiple sclerosis (MS) is two to three times as common in females as in males, so gender can also play a role in some mental disorders from underconnectivity derived from the dysfunctional immune system. In addition to environmental factor, such as infection during the prenatal period24, the hyper immune response gene25 is an important factor. The underconnective nervous system derived from the dysfunctional immune system in the brain is shown in the mouse model by Limin Shi26. Adult offspring of pregnant mice given intra-nasal influenza virus on embryonic day 9.5 exhibit behavioral abnormalities including a deficit in social interaction, reluctance to interact with a novel object, deficient prepulse inhibition and increased anxiety under mildly stressful conditions. Such abnormal withdrawn behavior is similar to those associated with autism and schizophrenia. Because the virus was not detected in the fetus in this mouse model, it is the maternal immune response to influenza infection that causes these behavioral abnormalities. The combination of hyper immune response gene and chronic adverse environment (infection) results in the maladaptive hyper immune response nervous system. The chronic maladaptive hyper immune response nervous system triggers the mental process of sleep. For humans, the wakefulness-sleep boundary is porous. The broken wakefulnesssleep boundary allows the excessive intrusion of the mental state of sleep into the mental state of wakefulness. Sleep is a natural state of rest seen in mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. Daily life consists of wakefulness and sleep. In all mammals and birds, sleep has two phases: REM (rapid eye movement) sleep and NREM (non-rapid eye movement) sleep. Each phase has its own physiological, neurological and psychological features. They flow together to form sleep cycles. It is likely that sleep fulfills multiple functions. One of the functions is memory consolidation. Numerous studies have suggested that REM sleep is important for the consolidation of procedural memory for skill and spatial memory27. NREM sleep appears to be important for the consolidation of declarative memory for facts and knowledge 28, 29.

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During wakefulness, the thinking process is the control-reality process. The prefrontal cortex is the control center for concentration, motivation and focus. The prefrontal cortex involves differentiation and comparison among conflicting thoughts, determination of future consequences of current activities, definition of a goal and course of action, and prediction of outcomes and expectation. The reason for such function of control is that the prefrontal cortex is highly interconnected with much of the brain, including extensive connections with other cortical regions, as well as subcortical areas for cognition, emotion, and instinct. The information collected from different areas is stored in short-term working memory, and the prefrontal cortex integrates the information in working memory. In contrast to the control-reality process during the wakefulness, the thinking process during sleep is the uncontrol-metaphor process. The mental state is uncontrolled, because during NREM sleep, the prefrontal cortex and most other mental functions are hypoactive, and during REM sleep, the prefrontal cortex is inactivated. Since the primary sensual functions are hypoactive or inactivated, the mind has no direct contact with immediate reality as sense input. The reality that is stored in memory cannot be processed fully by the hypoactive or inactivated working memory in the prefrontal cortex that collects all relevant items in memory. The result of thinking during sleep is metaphor instead of reality. Metaphor is defined as the unreal combination of real items due to the lack of or insufficient working memory. The result is the uncontrol-metaphor process. Reality is processed through the primary sensual cortex such as primary visual cortex region in the occipital lobe. During wakefulness, the thinking process is busy solving various problems from sense input and unconscious input. The mind is preoccupied consciously and unconsciously by challenging tasks in exploratory activity and unsettling emotion. During sleep, the mind continues to be preoccupied by challenging task and unsettling emotion as during wakefulness. Such continuation of mental activities during wakefulness and during sleep is posited the cognitive theory of dream 30 by William Domhoff for challenging tasks and in the expectation fulfillment theory of dreaming by Joe Griffin 31 for unsettling emotion. In the cognitive theory of dream, dream content is for the most part coherent, consistent, and continuous with waking concerns, and dreams are the quintessential cognitive simulation because they are experienced as real while they are happening. In the expectation fulfillment theory of dream, all arousals of the autonomic nervous system — the generation of an emotion, however slight — are the expectations that require fulfillment to de-arousal, and dreams metaphorically fulfill the expectations that are not fulfilled during wakefulness to complete the arousal — de-arousal process. The uncontrol-metaphor process in NREM sleep is adapted to work on challenging tasks by consolidating declarative memory. The uncontrol-metaphor process in REM sleep is adapted to relieve temporarily unsettling emotion including the stress during learning procedure to consolidate procedural memory during sleep and during wakefulness. Long-term memory includes procedural memory and declarative memory. Procedural memory is the unconscious memory of skills and how to do things, particularly the use of objects or movements of the body. Procedural memory learning requires repeating a complex activity many times to produce the skill automatically. It is

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encoded and probably stored by the cerebellum and the striatum. Declarative memory is to recall consciously facts and knowledge. Declarative memory includes episodic memory for specific personal experiences and semantic memory for factual information. It is encoded mainly by the hippocampus, and consolidated and stored in the temporal cortex and elsewhere. Because of different areas for procedural memory and declarative memory, people are still able to form new procedural memories (such as playing the piano, for example), but cannot remember the events during which they happened or were learned. Long term memory, unlike short term memory, requires the construction of new proteins. This protein initiates and enhances the new synaptic connection that reinforces the expressive strength between neurons. Memory consolidation is to transform novel memories from a relatively fragile state to a more robust and stable condition. Memory consolidation involves both the strengthening of traces representing new details of experience, and the parallel integration of information extracted from new experiences with previously acquired consolidated memory. Memory consolidation can be done during wakefulness. Sleep accelerates memory consolidation In NREM, the average brain activity decreases. An area such as the reticular activating system which is the area involved in arousal and wakening, is hypoactive. Areas involved in muscle movement are hypoactive. But, regions, such as the hippocampus, involved in the consolidation and retrieval of declarative memory is still active, but the pathways that bring information to and from this region are hypoactive, therefore isolating them. The prefrontal cortex is hypoactive. The thinking process in NREM is the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process. NREM is hypoactive, similar to rest during wakefulness. Rest is important to repair bodily functions. During NREM dream, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is partially reactivated. In such hypoactive state, the limited working memory in the prefrontal cortex can only process the mental challenging task, such as exploration in unfamiliar environment during wakefulness32 as observed in the experiment with rat, resulting in memory consolidation of declarative memory with the active hippocampus. In the experiment by Robert Stickgold33, college students practiced a virtual maze task on a computer, and they were instructed to remember the location of a particular tree in the maze. Afterward, some of students took a nap, and reported the dreams during the NREM sleep. The students who had found the maze task challenging by their poor performances in initial trials had the dreams about the maze task. The dreams were metaphorical, such as seeing people at particular locations in a maze or hearing music that had played in the lab during testing. In the second trials, they found the tree much faster than they had in initial trials. Task-related thoughts during wakefulness, in contrast, did not predict improved performance. The experiment shows that the metaphorical NREM dream focus in challenging task, and accelerates the consolidation of declarative memory. The focus in challenging task during NREM sleep is even better than during wakefulness. Without the full capacity of the prefrontal cortex, NREM sleep is unlikely to solve any difficult problems in exploration. With the limited working memory, all other mental activities are fragmented during NREM sleep. NREM sleep uses the uncontrolmetaphor-hypoactive process for the hypoactive brain. NREM sleep is characterized as focused activity surrounded by fragmented activities in the hypoactive mental state.

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NREM dreams are like thinking about something during the day for a brief period of time. NREM sleep increases with exploratory activity during wakefulness34. After about 90 minutes into NREM sleep, REM sleep occurs. During REM sleep, the brain is activated by the excretion of acetylcholine in the pons. An area of gray matter, located at the occipito-temporo-parital junction is activated. This is where the brain performs the highest level of processing of perceptual information. The emotional brain (the limbic system) and memory and sensory processes connected to simple vision and hearing are activated. However, the primary visual cortex region, the encoding of declarative memory by the hippocampus, and the prefrontal cortex are inactivated 35 . During REM sleep, the right brain that processes image, intuition, and unfamiliar activities is more active than the left brain that processes language, precision, and familiar activities. Without the control of the prefrontal cortex and the space of working memory and with active emotion and processing of perceptual information, the thinking process in REM is the uncontrol-metaphor-active process to produce free and metaphorical expression of unsettling emotion, resulting in the temporary relief of stressanxiety by releasing unhealthy suppressed stress-anxiety. (There is much aggression in REM dreams with the inactivated prefrontal cortex, and much friendliness in NREM dreams with partially reactivated prefrontal cortex.36.) The deprivation of REM sleep results in extreme tiredness, irritability, and even hallucination. The stress-anxiety in complex procedural memory learning process hinders the memory consolidation in procedural memory, so the relaxing and refresh mind accelerates the memory consolidation of procedural memory during REM sleep and during wakefulness after sufficient REM sleep. For a long time it was believed that the consolidation of procedural memories took place solely as a function of time, but some studies suggest that the memory consolidation for certain forms of learning is exclusively enhanced during periods of REM sleep37. The inactivated encoding of declarative memory by the hippocampus does not allow REM sleep to consolidate declarative memory. However, since emotion in the emotion and motivation parts in the limbic system (particularly the amygdale that encodes the emotional part of emotional declarative memory) is activated during REM sleep, some studies support that REM sleep helps consolidate highly emotional declarative memories38. REM sleep uses the uncontrol-metaphor-active process for the active brain. From the perspective of wakefulness, REM sleep is characterized as emotional, active, metaphorical, and uncontrolled mental state. REM dreams are comparable to thinking deeply about something. REM dreams are more likely to occur, and more elaborate, metaphorical, emotional, and motivational, and more involved in visual images than NREM dreams39. REM sleep increases with the preoccupation of unsettling emotion40, because REM sleep allows temporary relief of stress-anxiety. People with major depression often go to REM sleep quickly to rely on REM sleep for relief, resulting in actually worse depression during wakefulness, because the need for the improvement during wakefulness decreases 41 and severe stress-anxiety during wakefulness can be reduced only through the conscious prefrontal cortex during wakefulness. As yang social life and yin social life during wakefulness, yang (male) sleep and yin (female) sleep occur as RNEM sleep and REM sleep, respectively. Males are much more interested in challenging task as in NREM dream, while females have much more

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unsettling emotion as in REM dream. Some parts of the brain are constructed for yin social life and yin sleep, while some parts of the brain are constructed for yang social life and yang sleep. Wakefulness with the control-reality process and sleep with the uncontrolmetaphor process are in very different mental states. There is the waking-sleeping boundary to separate two different mental states. For human, the wakefulness-sleep boundary is much weaker than other animals. Human language communication is much more elaborate than other animals. To detect lie in language communication, a listener must explore all subtle loosely connected details in the language communication from a speaker who may lie. The result is the detective instinct as theory of mind. In theory of mind, a listener must suppress one’s own position, and thinks as the mind of a speaker who may lie. The way to do it is to trigger momentarily the uncontrol-metaphor process in REM sleep by suppressing the control from the prefrontal cortex, encoding declarative memory, and the process of familiar events in the left brain to allow subtle loosely connected details to appear, and then switch back the control-reality process to examine all the subtle details that appear. Theory of mind is the sequential combination of the control-reality process and the uncontrol-metaphor process. For human, the emergence of theory of mind is after the proficiency of language at about four years old. No other animals have theory of mind. The human wakefulness-sleep boundary is porous by this uncontrol-metaphor process in theory of mind. The combination of the control-reality process and the uncontrol-metaphor process brings about the highly imaginative human mind, including humor that is unique to human. Each one of the processes alone cannot bring about the highly imaginative human mind. At the same time, human mind is susceptible to the broken wakefulnesssleep boundary by the underconnective nervous system. Without full connectivity in the nervous system, the underconnective nervous system cannot cope with complex reality. For non-humans and humans as in the mouse model by Limin Shi, a response to complex reality is the abnormal withdrawn behavior. The underconnective nervous system is similar to the uncontrol-metaphor process that has limited capacity to control and connect all items in reality during sleep. Humans have the porous waking-sleeping boundary. The combination of the five factors, the uncontrol-metaphor process during sleep, the underconnective nervous system, the similarity between the underconnective nervous system and the uncontrol-metaphor process during sleep, the porous waking-sleeping boundary, and complex reality, triggers abnormally the uncontrol-metaphor process during wakefulness, resulting in abnormal dreamlike delusional disorganized thinking during wakefulness as described by Claude Gottesmann who finds remarkable similarity between schizophrenia and REM sleep in the brain activities and behaviors42. The two major behaviors for the mental disorders, such autism and schizophrenia, are the withdrawn behavior from the underconnective nervous system and the delusional behavior during wakefulness from the uncontrol-metaphor process. There is no animal model for delusional schizophrenia, because non-humans do not have the porous wakingsleeping boundary. The triggering of the uncontrol-metaphor-active process from REM sleep produces delusional, active, elaborate, and disorganized thinking as REM dream, while the triggering of the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process from NRM sleep produces

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delusional, hypoactive, focused, and disorganized thinking as NREM dream. Delusional behaviors likely bring about stress-anxiety that triggers the defensive survival instincts, so the triggering of the uncontrol-metaphor process and the triggering of the defensive survival instincts occur at the same time. Triggering the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process and the flight-freeze instinct, the delusional yin passive social lifer has delusional depression as the mental overreaction, the role of delusional sufferer, and the idealized self-image of imaginative loner. Triggering the uncontrol-metaphor-active process and the manipulative instinct, the delusional yin dynamic social lifer has delusional manipulation as the mental overreaction, the role of delusional manipulator, and the idealized self-image of imaginative delusional strategist. Triggering the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process and the obsessive instinct, the delusional yang passive social lifer has delusional obsession as the mental overreaction, the role of delusional sectarian, and the idealized self-image of imaginative devotee. Triggering the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process and the rage instinct, the delusional yang dynamic social lifer has delusional mania as the mental overreaction, the role of delusional rebel, and the idealized self-image of imaginative hero. 2.1.3. Hyper Pleasure Response Mental Overreactions Social-life enhancer enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life enhancer that enhances social life is social-life pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer, so the enhancers enhance social life with pleasure response. The major pleasure response system is the medial forebrain bundle as it courses through the lateral hypothalamus to the ventral tegmentum produces the most robust rewarding effects. The major pleasure-neurotransmitter is dopamine in ventral tegmental dopamine system. The adverse environment for pleasure response is chronic pleasure. Chronic pleasure blunts pleasure response, so increasing pleasure is needed to be satisfied. In the experiments for chronic pleasure, chronic usage of addictive drug, such as cocaine that generates dopamine as the pleasure neurotransmitter. In the experiment by Peter Thanos43, chronic use of cocaine depleted the dopamine D2 receptor in rats trained to self-administer cocaine. With the depletion of the dopamine D2 receptors, the pleasure response was blunted. Rats used more self-administered cocaine. The addition of the dopamine D2 receptors by the injection of a special virus can reduce use of cocaine by 75 percent in rats that self-administer cocaine. Chronic pleasure environment changes the adaptive pleasure response nervous system to the maladaptive pleasure response nervous system by the need of very high level of pleasure. The transformation into the hyper pleasure response mental overreaction requires the hyper stress-pleasure connection to bring about the hyper stressinduced pleasure response nervous system 44 . The normal stress-pleasure connection involves the extremely stressful environment in the struggle for survival. During the struggle for survival, the body automatically triggers pleasure response as the secretion of painkillers (opium-like endorphin and enkephalin) to eliminate any pain resulted from injury or insufficient oxygen in the body, so the struggle for survival can continue without the interference of pain.

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The hyper stress-pleasure connection connects the stress response system and the pleasure response system to allow the triggering of pleasure response even under not extremely stressful condition. The hyper stress-pleasure connection brings about the hyper stress-induced pleasure response nervous system. Stress includes novelty and risk. People with the hyper stress-induced pleasure response nervous system prefer novel and risky pleasure, and get tired of old and ordinary pleasure easily. They are low stress, novelty-seeking and risk-seeking people. Novelty-seeking behavior is probably affected by the combination of several variant genes for the hyper stress-induced pleasure response genes, including the DRD4 C-521T45 relating to dopamine and MAOA gene46 relating to norepinephrine, epinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine. The chronic adverse environment is the chronic stress-induced pleasure such as chronic thrill-seeking behavior as predator or as victim. The combination of the hyper stress-induced pleasure response gene and the chronic adverse stress-induced pleasure response environment brings about the maladaptive hyper stressinduced pleasure response nervous system that needs a high level of stress-induced pleasure response. When the chronic maladaptive stress-induced pleasure response nervous system reaches a critical level, addiction instinct is triggered to form the hyper stress-induced pleasure response mental disorder, when the enhancer becomes the addiction. Addiction instinct involves the stress-pleasure connection. The stress-pleasure connection is a double edge connection: pleasure response at the end of stress response and stress response at the end of pleasure response. Stress response at the end of pleasure response is the withdrawal symptom as in a drug addict without drug. This stress response is abnormal, because it is not the response to a stressful environment as normal stress response. Therefore, people with addiction have low normal stress response under normal condition, and has high abnormal stress response during withdrawal symptom. The withdrawn symptom forces an addict to seek pleasure response just to minimize miserable stress in the withdrawal symptom. Addiction instinct adapts to a prolonged surge of food and sex. The withdrawal symptom in addiction instinct is to maintain the behavior that causes a surge of pleasure from the sources such food and sex in order to take the advantage of the surge of food and sex. The enhancer in the yin passive social life (bond) is disconnection to enhance bond. The instinctive reaction to bond is pleasure response to continue bond. Chronic pleasure response of bond triggers the addiction instinct. The corresponding behavior is bond addiction. Bond addiction is the mental overreaction to bond as the enhancer. For human, bond addiction can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally bond addiction. The role for people with the mental overreaction of bond addiction is bond addict. A person with the role of bond addict can rationalize the role as super lover. The enhancer in yin dynamic social life (expressive) is expressive. The instinctive reaction to expressive is pleasure response to continue expressive. Chronic pleasure response of expressive triggers the addiction instinct. The corresponding behavior is expressive addiction. Expressive addiction is the mental overreaction to expressive as the enhancer. For human, expressive addiction can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally expressive addiction. The role for people with the mental

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overreaction of expressive addiction is expressive addict. A person with the role of expressive addict can rationalize the role as celebrity. The enhancer in the yang passive social life (systemization) is systemization. The instinctive reaction to systemization is pleasure response to continue systemization. Chronic pleasure response of systemization triggers the addiction instinct. The corresponding behavior is systemization addiction. Systemization addiction is the mental overreaction to systemization as the enhancer. For human, systemization addiction can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally systemization addiction. The role for people with the mental overreaction of systemization addiction is systemization addict. A person with the role of systemization addict rationalizes the role as super geek. The enhancer of the yang dynamic social life (domination) is domination. The instinctive reaction to domination is pleasure response to continue domination. Chronic pleasure response of domination triggers the addiction instinct. The corresponding behavior is domination addiction. Domination addiction is the mental overreaction to domination as the enhancer. For human, domination addiction can be both instinctive and rational to justify rationally domination addiction. The role for people with the mental overreaction of domination addiction is domination addict. A person with the role of domination addict can rationalize the role as adventurer. 2.1.4. Psychological Counseling and Psychotherapy Initially, the mental overreactions are within the socially acceptable range. A person with the mental overreaction can even be very successful in society. However, people with the mental overreactions typically cause problems in families and close social circles. Since people with the mental overreactions continue function well in society, it is difficult to accept the deep intrapsychic therapies to deliberately change the personality of a person with the mental overreaction, especially, when the mental overreaction is what makes the person with the mental overreaction successful in society. At this point, a suitable therapy is interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) rather than intrapsychic therapy to deal with such interpersonal problems. IPT focuses on the interpersonal context and on building interpersonal skills. IPT aims to change a person's interpersonal behavior by fostering adaptation to current interpersonal roles and situations. Formal and informal psychotherapy for stress-anxiety is still useful to prevent the deterioration of the mental overreactions into mental disorders, and possibly let the brain itself to repair the maladaptive hyper stress response nervous system. Important drugs in the drug-based treatment for the therapy of stress-anxiety are antidepressant drugs to modulate the neurotransmitters (monoamines) in the brain. The most common method to prevent the mental overreactions is from moral and religious teachings. Religions provide the sources of divine power and faith, religious community support, and religious meditation to decrease stress-anxiety and addiction. With reduced stress-anxiety and addiction, people are less likely to have mental overreactions of addiction, delusion and desperate struggle for survival. 2.2. Mental Disorders Mental disorder is the result of the chronic mental overreaction. The chronic mental overreactions lead to mental disorders that are outside of socially acceptable range.

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In people with mental disorders, the brain is reconstructed to reflect the usage and underusage of the mental overreaction, resulting in the disordered nervous system. While the disordered nervous system is difficult to be recovered, psychotherapy can minimize the effects of the system. The three types of mental disorders are the hyper stress response, the delusional, and the hyper pleasure response mental disorders. There are four enhancers-stressors, so there are total 12 subtypes of mental disorders, including four hyper stress response mental disorders (depression, manipulation, obsession, and mania), four delusional mental disorders (delusional depression, delusional manipulation, delusional obsession, and delusional mania), and four hyper pleasure response mental disorders (bond addiction, expressive addiction, systemization addiction, and domination addiction). Each subtype of mental disorders is represented at least one example of the mental disorders. Many mental disorders are the combinations of the subtypes of mental disorders. Mental Disorders
Yin Merrill-Reid enhancer stressor stress response hyper stress response mental disorder defensive survival instinct hyper stress response mental disorder (example) subtype of mental disorders delusional mental disorder delusional mental disorder (example) hyper pleasure response mental disorder hyper pleasure response mental disorders (example) Passive amiable bond disconnection despair depression flight-freeze major depression Dynamic expressive expressive injustice paranoid manipulation manipulative BPD Yang Passive analytical systemization disorganization anxiety obsession obsessive panic, phobias, OCD, PTSD anxiety delusional obsession autism systemization addiction Asperger Symptom Dynamic driver domination repression unfulfillment mania rage manic depression mania delusional mania delusional mania domination addiction psychopath

unipolar depression delusional depression catatonic schizophrenia bond addiction

paranoid delusional manipulation paranoid schizophrenia expressive addiction histrionic personality disorder

nymphomania

According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), An estimated 22.1 percent of Americans ages 18 and older about one in five (or over 44 million) adults - suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year. About 5 percent of adults are affected so seriously by mental illness that it interferes with their ability to function in society. Mental health disorders account for four of the top 10 causes of disability in developed market economies, such as the US, worldwide,

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and include: major depression, manic depression (bipolar disorder), schizophrenia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), representing the unipolar depression, the paranoid, the anxiety, and the mania subtypes, respectively. There are five major psychotherapies 47 : biological therapy, psychodynamic therapy, cognitive-behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and humanistic-experiential therapy for the four subtypes of mental disorders. 2.2.1. Hyper Stress Response Mental Disorders The chronic hyper stress response mental overreactions lead to the hyper stress response mental disorders. The brain is reconstructed to reflect the usage and the underusage of neural structures by chronic mental overreactions, resulting in the disorder hyper stress response nervous system. The four subtypes of the mental disorders are the unipolar depression, paranoid, anxiety, and mania subtypes. 2.2.1.1. Unipolar Depression Subtype The common feature of the mental disorders is depression without other significant symptoms. The unipolar depression subtype includes major depression. Lifetime prevalence for major depression in the general population is 10% to 25% for women and from 5% to 12% for men. In any year, 5% to 9% of women will have this disorder and from 2% to 3% of men will have it. If one of a pair of identical twins has an affective disorder, there is a 60% chance that the other twin will develop a similar condition, compared to only a 15 per cent chance in non-identical twins. For both genders it is most common in those who are 25-44 years of age, and least common for those over the age of 65. For about two-thirds of those individuals who have a major depressive episode they will recover completely. The other one-third may recover only partially or not at all. Major depression is an episodic disorder. That is, it occurs in episodes that come and go. Major depression is characterized by a depressed mood, a lack of interest in activities, changes in weight and sleep, insomnia or excessive sleeping, fatigue, feelings of worthlessness, inappropriate guilt or regret, helplessness, hopelessness, and self-hatred, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death and suicide. If people experience the majority of these symptoms for longer than a two-week period, they may be diagnosed with major depression. Major depression lasts from weeks to a lifelong disorder with recurrent major depressive episodes. Another form of unipolar depression is dysthymia. Dysthymia is a less severe but usually more long-lasting subtype of depression compared to major depression. The three most common treatments for depression are psychotherapy, medication, and electroconvulsive therapy. Psychotherapy is the treatment of choice for people under 18, while electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is only used as a last resort. Hospitalization may be necessary in cases with associated self-neglect or a significant risk of harm to self or others. Drugs used to treat depression are called antidepressants. Common types of antidepressants include selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants, bupropion, and

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monoamine oxidase inhibitors. Antidepressants modulate neurotransmitters for reducing stress-anxiety from stress response, and allow the brain itself to repair the disrupted neural network. Many forms of psychotherapy are effectively used to help depressed individuals, including some short-term (10 to 20 weeks) therapies. Psychodynamic therapy focuses primarily in revealing the unconscious content of a patient's psyche as the source of the pattern of inadequate ways of coping (maladaptive coping mechanisms) in negative or self-injurious behavior. The revelation helps a patient to resolve the problems through verbal give-and-take with the therapist. Psychodynamic therapy repairs the disrupted neural network by identifying the unconscious source of the mental overreaction for the disrupted neural network. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) teaches clients to challenge self-defeating and negative but enduring ways of thinking (cognitions) and change counter-productive behaviors. Research suggested that CBT could perform as well or better than antidepressants in patients with moderate to severe depression. CBT may be effective in depressed adolescents. CBT is particularly beneficial in preventing relapse. Interpersonal therapy (IPT) focuses on the patient's disturbed personal relationships that both cause and exacerbate the depression. IPT aims to change a person's interpersonal behavior by fostering adaptation to current interpersonal roles and situations. CBT and IPT repair the disrupted neural network by correcting cognition and behavior in the mental overreaction triggered by the flight-freeze instinct. In electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), pulses of electricity are sent through the brain via two electrodes to induce a seizure while the patient is under a brief period of general anaesthesia. It is usually used as the last resort after the lack of response to antidepressant medication and psychotherapy. ECT is probably more effective than antidepressants for depression in the immediate short-term. It requires ECT along with psychotherapy for the best outcome to prevent relapse. Common initial adverse effects from ECT include short and long-term memory loss, disorientation and headache, but memory disturbance after ECT usually resolves within one month. This procedure is thought to affect levels of neurotransmitters and possibly the disrupted neural network by the temporary loss of memory, and allows the brain to return to the normal condition temporarily. 2.2.1.2. Paranoid Subtype The chronic manipulation mental overreaction leads to the paranoid subtype of mental disorder. The common feature of the mental disorders is paranoid. The extreme mental overreaction often triggers more than one defensive survival instinct to produce the combination of different subtypes of mental disorders. In the paranoid subtype, borderline personality disorder (BPD) is the combination of the paranoid subtype and the unipolar depression subtype. Borderline personality disorder as the combination of the paranoid subtype and the unipolar depression subtype of mental disorder is characterized by pervasive instability in moods, interpersonal relationships (idealization and devaluation episodes), self-image, identity, and behavior, self-image, and behavior. Individuals with BPD are often described as deliberately manipulative or difficult, and they also experience inner pain and despair, powerlessness, and defensive reactions. BPD patient has strong

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rejection sensitivity and poor executive control of emotion and behavior. Adults who have antisocial personality disorder, formerly also called sociopaths, may be more likely to also have BPD. Historically, BPD has been thought to be a set of symptoms that include both mood problems (neuroses) and distortions of reality (psychosis), and therefore was thought to be on the borderline between mood problems and schizophrenia. Personality disorder is characterized by consistently problematic ways of thinking, feeling, and interacting.. Some have suggested that BPD should be renamed as emotionally unstable personality disorder. While less well known than schizophrenia or bipolar manicdepression, BPD is more common, affecting 6% of adults, men as often as women in general, women more than men in treatment populations. Onset of symptoms typically occurs during adolescence or young adulthood. Regardless of gender, people in their 20s are at higher risk for BPD than those older or younger. A major twin study found that if one identical twin met criteria for BPD, the other also met criteria in 35 percent of cases. People that have BPD influenced by genes usually have a close relative with the disorder. The environmental factors include childhood trauma, abuse, neglect, or separation from caregivers or loved ones. With help, many improve over time with 86% remission rate 10 years after treatment, and are eventually able to lead productive lives. People with borderline personality disorder frequently have unstable relationships, fly into rages inappropriately, or become depressed and cannot trust the actions and motives of other people48. In the study, directed by neuroscientist Brooks King-Casas49, people with borderline personality disorder played a "trust" game involving sending money and receiving money. They play the game while their brains are scanned by functional MRI. The fMRI shows areas of activities in parts of the brain during the game. In this study, in the normal people, a part of the brain showed activity that responded in direct proportion to the amount of money sent and the money received. However, in people with borderline personality disorder, that part of the brain responded only to sending the money, not to the money received. The interpretation in term of the preypredator relation is that money represents resource. It shows a great distrust to any action from other people. The mainstay of treatment is various forms of psychotherapy, although medication and other approaches may also improve symptoms. Therapists are discouraged from diagnosing anyone before the age of 18, due to adolescence and a stilldeveloping personality. A number of techniques have been studied for borderline personality disorder including cognitive behavioral therapy, interpersonal therapy, and dialectical behavior therapy. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) focuses on helping the person understand how their thoughts and behaviors affect each other. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) focuses on how the person's symptoms are related to the problems that person has in relating to others. Psychoanalytic therapy, which seeks to help the individual understand and better manage his or her ways of defending against negative emotions in the context of current rather than past relationships, has been found to be effective in addressing BPD. Being manipulative, people with BPD are seen as among the most challenging groups of patients. People with BPD are described as “difficult,” “treatment resistant,” “manipulative,” “demanding” and “attention seeking". To deal with difficult patients, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) by Marsha Linehan 50 finds synthesis in various

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contradictions, or dialectics. For instance, therapists must accept patients just as they are (angry, confrontational, hurting) within the context of trying to teach them how to change. It combines the contradictory (dialectical) approaches of loving acceptance for dealing with depression and toughness for dealing with manipulation. The therapist specifically addresses four areas that tend to be particularly problematic for individuals with BPD: self-image, impulsive behaviors, mood instability, and problems in relating to others. To address those areas, treatment with DBT tries to build four major behavioral skill areas: mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotional regulation, and interpersonal effectiveness. DBT was developed specifically to treat BPD, and this technique has looked promising in treatment studies. Medications are often prescribed based on specific co-morbid symptoms shown by the individual patient. Antidepressant drugs and mood stabilizers (such as lithium and GABA enhancer) may be helpful for depressed and/or labile mood. Antipsychotic drugs may also be used when there are distortions in thinking. Medications do not manage BPD in its entirety. 2.2.1. 3. Anxiety Subtype The chronic obsession mental overreaction leads to the anxiety subtype of mental disorder. The common feature of the mental disorders is anxiety. In the United States the prevalence of anxiety disorders for adults is about 18.1%. Five major types of anxiety disorders are generalized anxiety disorder (GAD 3.1% of adult Americans), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD 1%), panic disorder (2.7%), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD 3.5%), and social phobia (or social anxiety disorder). Nearly threequarters of those with an anxiety disorder will have their first episode by age 21.5. Individuals who have an anxiety disorder typically have a family history of other members who have suffered from some type of anxiety disorder as well. Individuals with generalized anxiety have a tendency to worry about events, situations, and other variables in life on an excessive level without rational reason to worry. They worry about things to come, and the problems are often exaggerated and viewed in a more complicated manner than they really should be. They experience physical issues such as tension in the muscles, sweating, and even headaches. Individuals with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) often find themselves consistently performing behaviors that are repetitive due to the fact that they experience repetitively distressing thoughts. Common symptoms include the fear of being unclean and the possibility of making a mistake. Individuals with panic disorder experience attacks of nervousness and a high level of fear. Such anxiety results in potentially dangerous physiological responses, such as breathing complications, a fast heart rate, and profuse sweating. Common symptoms of this form of anxiety include feeling the sensation of terror, pain in the stomach, and even the fear of dying. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an anxiety disorder that can occur in the aftermath of a traumatic or life-threatening event. Symptoms of PTSD include flashbacks or nightmares about what happened, hypervigilance, startling easily, withdrawing from others, and avoiding situations that remind you of the event. When the symptoms last

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more than a few weeks and become an ongoing problem, they might be PTSD. Some people with PTSD don’t show any symptoms for weeks or months. Social phobia or social anxiety disorder (SAD) is characterized by overwhelming anxiety and excessive self-consciousness in everyday social situations or only one type of situation, such speaking in formal or informal situations or eating or drinking in front of others. People with social phobia have a chronic fear of being watched and judged by others and being embarrassed or humiliated by their own actions. Their fear interferes with ordinary activities. Physical symptoms include blushing, profuse sweating, trembling, nausea, and difficulty talking. The treatments to anxiety disorder include psychotherapy, especially cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and medication. CBT is the treatment of choice. The central component in CBT is gradual exposure therapy. People are shown proof in the real world that their dysfunctional thought processes are unrealistic. The proof is by the exposure of patients to the things they fear in a structured, sensitive manner. Often, a hierarchy of feared steps is constructed and the patient is exposed to each step sequentially. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors as antidepressants are frequently considered as a first line treatment for anxiety disorders. A number of anxiolytics reduce anxiety by modulating the GABA receptors. People with anxiety disorders may have preexisting overactive amygdale. The PET (Positron Emission Tomography) images showed that people with SAD had increased blood flow in their amygdala, a part of the limbic system associated with fear. In contrast, the PET images of people without SAD showed increased blood flow to the cerebral cortex, an area associated with thinking and evaluation. 2.2.1.4. Mania Subtype The mania subtype of mental disorders is derived from the chronic mania mental overreaction. The common feature of the mental disorders is mania. The mania subtype includes manic depression and delusional mania. Manic depression (bipolar disorder) is the combination of extreme depression and extreme mania. Different people with bipolar disorder have different proportions of extreme depression and extreme mania. Bipolar disorder is characterized by episodes of depression, mania, or mixed state that typically recur and become more frequent across the life span. In most patients, these episodes, especially early in the course of illness, are separated by well periods during which there are few to no symptoms. The symptoms of mania include elevated (high) mood, irritability, overly-inflated self-esteem, decreased need for sleep, increased talkativeness; racing thoughts; distractibility, increased goal-directed activity, and excessive involvement in risky behaviors or activities. In mixed state, the symptoms of depression and mania are present at the same time. Depressed mood accompanies manic activation. About one percent of the American population in a given year has bipolar disorder. Bipolar disorder is the fifth leading cause of disability worldwide. People with bipolar disorder are at higher risk of having an anxiety disorder. Bipolar disorder typically emerges in late adolescence or early adulthood. Males may develop bipolar disorder earlier in life compared to females. Bipolar disorder is equally common in women and men. If one of a pair of identical twins has unipolar depression or bipolar

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disorder, there is a 67% chance that the other twin will develop unipolar depression or bipolar disorder, compared to only a 19 per cent chance in non-identical twins. After the onset of bipolar disorder, the brain is reconstructed to reflect the rage instinct and the flight-freeze instinct. The instinctive behaviors from both instincts have little use for the integration function from the prefrontal cortex and memory from the temporary lobes as well as overall broad functions of the brain, resulting in dysfunction and loss of neurons. Studies using positron emission tomography (PET) have found abnormal activity in specific brain regions including the prefrontal cortex for integration function, basal ganglia for procedural learning and action selection, and temporal lobes for memory during manic and depressive episodes51. There is evidence of hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis) abnormalities in bipolar disorder due to stress52. The loss of the brain tissue is shown in the analyses of MRI studies in bipolar disorder that reports an increase in the volume of the lateral ventricles due to the loss of the brain tissue53. Interpersonal therapy for bipolar disorder includes Psychoeducation (PE), Family Focused Therapy (FFT), and Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy (IPSRT). PE involves teaching patients with bipolar disorder about their illness and its treatment. FFT employs strategies to reduce the level of distress within the family that may either contribute to or result from the ill person's symptoms. IPSRT uses techniques aimed at regularizing daily routines and improving interpersonal relationships. CognitiveBehavioral Therapy (CBT) helps patients modify detrimental or inappropriate thought patterns and behaviors associated with bipolar disorder. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) can be used as the last resort short-term therapy. Medications serve two different purposes: medications to existing symptoms and medications for preventing symptoms from returning. Medications to treat mania are called neuroleptics. Medications to treat depressant are antidepressant medications. Symptoms of psychotic are treated with antipsychotic medications. Medications to prevent symptoms from returning are mood stabilizer, including lithium and alternative mood stabilizers. 2.2.2. Delusional Mental Disorders The combination of the genetic factors and the adverse environments leads to the underconnective nervous system. The underconnective nervous system does not have full connectivity in the nervous system because of the dysfunctional inflammatory immune system that cannot function normally to mediate essential nervous system functions of connectivity. The participations of different immune molecules in the development of connectivity in the nervous system are different for different parts of the brain and at different stages of the nervous development, so different disorders of underconnectivity affect different parts of the brain and occur at different ages. Gender also plays a role in some disorders of the dysfunctional immune system due to largely gender-related hormones. For an example, multiple sclerosis (MS) is two to three times as common in females as in males. For autism and schizophrenia, the affected parts of the brain are different, the onsets of the disorders are different in ages, and genders affect the differences in prevalence and the age of onset.

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In terms of connectivity, autism may relate to the dysfunctional meditation of activity-dependent refinement of connections during early childhood central nervous system development by immune molecules, while schizophrenia may relate to dysfunctional regulation of synaptic transmission 54 between hippocampal and cortical neurons during late adolescence by immune molecules. Consequently, the main problem with autism is neuron connection, while the main problem with schizophrenia is the transmission of neurotransmitters. As a result, the problem of schizophrenia can be minimized by the simple control of neurotransmitters through medication, but the problem of autism cannot be minimized by simple control of neurotransmitters through medication. In terms of gender-related hormones, testosterone in the fetal brain along with all other factors may induce the dysfunctional immune system to bring about autism that occurs more frequently in males than females. It may also contribute to autism as the “extreme male brain”55 (by Baron-Cohen) in such way that higher amount of testosterone in the fetal brain has higher chance to induce the dysfunctional immune system to bring about autism. In the genetic factor, there is a close relation between autism and schizophrenia. The findings in the MHC (gene for immune system) variants common for both autism and schizophrenia add to the growing genetic evidence suggesting that autism and schizophrenia share underlying molecular mechanisms56, 57. Growing evidence suggests the most important environmental factor is maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy. The migration of maternal immune molecules with or without maternal viral infection into the fetal brain brings about the dysfunctional immune system in the fetal brain. 2.2.2.1 Schizophrenia Triggering both the uncontrol-metaphor process from sleep and the defensive survival instincts, schizophrenia is the delusional version of BPD with the intrusion of the mental states of NREM sleep and REM sleep. Schizophrenia comprises a group of psychotic illnesses, characterized by disturbances in perception, thinking, emotional reaction and behavior, along with extensive withdrawal of interest in other people and the outside world. Different people with schizophrenia have different proportions of different symptoms, including positive (paranoid), negative (catatonic), and cognitive symptoms. Positive symptoms include delusions and hallucinations. Negative symptoms are more depressive in nature and also more debilitating. They include lack of motivation, inability to communicate, inability to relate, and inability to experience pleasure. Cognitive symptoms include inability to accurately receive and process information. The negative and cognitive symptoms are the hardest to treat and the most debilitating. As the paranoid type, positive symptom corresponds to the intrusion of the mental state of REM sleep. As the unipolar depression subtype, negative symptom corresponds to the intrusion of the mental state of NREM sleep. Some people with schizophrenia have purely negative symptom. Cognitive symptom corresponds to the suppressed controlreality process that is common to all people with schizophrenia. Unlike hyper stress response mental disorder, there is no animal model for schizophrenia. C. Gottesmann

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finds remarkable similarity between schizophrenia and REM sleep in the brain activities and behaviors. Schizophrenia in all populations is about 1 per cent. The chance of an individual being schizophrenic rises to 10 per cent if a parent or sibling has the illness. An identical twin has a 45 per cent chance of developing schizophrenia if his or her co-twin has been diagnosed with it; suggesting both genetic component and other factors. Schizophrenia affects men and women with equal frequency. Schizophrenia often first appears in men in their late teens or early twenties. In contrast, women are generally affected in their twenties or early thirties. After the onset of schizophrenia when REM sleep intrudes wakefulness, the brain of schizophrenia is reconstructed to reflect the intrusion of REM sleep into wakefulness. During REM sleep, the prefrontal cortex, left brain, and hippocampus are suppressed. The observations of the brain of schizophrenia include the reduced prefrontal cortex58, the reduced mediodorsal nucleus of the thalamus for the connection directly to the prefrontal cortex59, the mental deficit in the left brain60, and the reduced hippocampus in people with schizophrenia. In terms of neurotransmitter, as in REM sleep, schizophrenia has significant decrease of dopamine in the prefrontal cortex, in parallel with significant increase in dopamine in the nucleus accumbens 61 . Corresponding to the negative symptom, NREM sleep is simply hypo-REM sleep with hypo-active brain. People normally have NREM sleep and REM sleep rebound as the increase of NREM or REM sleep after the NREM or REM sleep deprivation the night before. The intrusion of the mental state of sleep in wakefulness in schizophrenia eliminates the rebound. People with schizophrenia of the dominating negative symptoms have deficient NREM sleep and the absence of the NREM sleep rebound as NREM sleep intrudes wakefulness62. During the acute schizophrenic episodes, people with schizophrenia of the dominating positive symptoms have the absence of the REM sleep rebound63 as REM sleep intrudes wakefulness. The mainstay of treatment is antipsychotic medication, which primarily suppresses striatal (mesolimbic) dopamine possibly to increase dopamine in the prefrontal cortex 64 . Antipsychotic medication can reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis in about 7–14 days, but fail to significantly reduce the negative symptoms. Different antipsychotic medications suppress dopamine differently with different side effects. In addition to medication, psychotherapy, psychosocial, and vocational and social rehabilitation are important in treatment. CBT helps patients with symptoms that do not go away even when they take medication. The CBT therapist teaches people with schizophrenia how to test the reality of their thoughts and perceptions, how to "not listen" to their voices, and how to manage their symptoms overall. CBT can help reduce the severity of symptoms and reduce the risk of relapse. Delusional bipolar is derived from the combination of the uncontrol-metaphor process and the flight-freeze-rage instinct. Randomness caused by severe depression and mania triggers the uncontrol-metaphor process. It is observed sometimes in severe mania or depression is accompanied by periods of psychosis. Psychotic symptoms include hallucinations and delusions. Psychotic symptoms associated with bipolar disorder typically reflect the extreme mood state at the time.

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2.2.2.2. Autism Autism is the delusional anxiety subtype mental disorder by the obsessive instinct and the uncontrol-metaphor-hypoactive process from NREM sleep. Autism is a developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life, and affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills. Gene or the prenatal period plays the most important role in autism as shown in identical twin studies showing 90 percent chance of autism by both twins. Autism affects boys 3 - 4 times more often than girls. After the onset of schizophrenia, the brain of schizophrenia is reconstructed to reflect the intrusion of REM sleep that is characterized as active and random activity. Similarly, after the onset of autism, the brain of autism is reconstructed to reflect the intrusion of NREM sleep that is characterized by focused activity surrounded by hypoactive and random activity. The behavior of autism corresponds to NREM dream that is characterized by focused mental activity surrounded by hypoactive and random activities. Such behavior shown in a brainwave study that suggested that adults with autism have local overconnectivity in the cortex and underconnectivity between the frontal lobe and the rest of the cortex 65 . Other study suggests the underconnectivity is mainly within each hemisphere of the cortex and that autism is a disorder of the association cortex66. Since the onset of autism is in childhood, the plasticity of the brain not only reconstructs wakefulness but also sleep. Children with autism have less total sleep with more time spent in NREM sleep and less time in REM sleep67. Focused activity can sometimes result in the extraordinarily rare talents of prodigious autistic savants68 and superior skills in perception and attention, relative to the general population69. To correct focused activity surrounded by random and hypoactive activity requires an early, intensive, appropriate treatment program. Most programs build on the interests of the child in a highly structured schedule of constructive activities to broaden focused activity and correct random and hypoactive activity. Medications are used only for specific symptoms, and do not deal with overall disorder of autism. 2.2.3. Hyper Pleasure Response Mental Disorders The subtypes of the hyper pleasure response mental disorders are bond addiction, expressive addiction, systemization addiction, and domination addiction. They are all hyper stress-induced pleasure response mental disorders. People with these mental disorders are low stress, novelty-seeking, and risk-seeking people in their specific pleasure responses, and they are addicted to their specific pleasure responses. For drug addicts, addictive drugs instead of addictive behaviors cause the hyper pleasure response mental disorders. Since only 10 percent of people who experiment with drug become drug addict, the hyper stress-induced pleasure response nervous system plays an important role in drug addiction. 2.2.3.1. Bond Addiction Subtype

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People with bond addiction maintain the addictive behavior by the miserable withdrawal symptom in the absence of the addictive novel and risky bond. One example of the bond addiction mental disorders is nymphomania. Nymphomania is a mental disorder marked by compulsive risky sexual behavior such as promiscuity to form sexual bonds with people. The withdrawal symptom forces the people with nymphomania to engage in the compulsion repeatedly to form sexual bonds with people. Nymphomania can happen to any adult, though it is more common in women and homosexual men. The concept of nymphomania is being increasingly replaced with a new and more scientifically accepted concept of hyper sexuality. Hyper sexuality is considered as a strong inclination to engage in sexual activity, which is more than normal clinical levels of acceptance. Treatment for nymphomania involves psychotherapy and medication. Medications for nymphomania include antidepressants or antianxiety or antipsychotic medications for the stress response in the withdrawal symptom. 2.2.3.2. Expressive Addiction Subtype People with the expressive addiction need the attention of audience for their expressive addiction, so the expressive addiction is same as the attention addiction. The attention addiction disorders include histrionic personality disorder for mostly women and narcissistic personality disorder mostly for men. For people with histrionic personality disorder, the way to get attention is through good appearance, excessive emotionality (liveliness, drama, and enthusiasm), attention-seeking, and seductive behavior. For people with narcissistic personality disorder, the way to get attention is through personal adequacy (talent), power, prestige vanity, and self-centeredness. While histrionic personality disorder needs to get attention indiscriminately, positive attention (admiration) or negative attention (notoriety), to be noticed, narcissistic personality disorder needs only positive attention to be in the inner circle of top social echelon. For people with histrionic personality disorder, the old attention can get boring easily, so they continuously seek the novel attention. As a result, they have shallow social relationship without deep commitment. Since they are typically risk-takers, they are not afraid of losing old relationships. In doing so, they hurt their loved ones. People with narcissistic personality disorder look down at people outside of the inner circle in top social echelon, and are hypersensitive to criticism. Their attitudes are offensive. Histrionic personality disorder is more prevalent in females than males. It occurs about 2 to 3 percent in the general population. Narcissistic personality disorder occurs about 0.5 to 1 percent in general population. The addictive attention makes psychotherapy difficult to get pass the need of attention during psychotherapy. Like most personality disorders, people with histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders typically will experience few of the most extreme symptoms by the time they are in the 40s or 50s. 2.2.3.3. Systemization Addiction Subtype People with systemization addiction have the stress-pleasure connection that allows them to turn the stress response in the failure of systemization into pleasure

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response, so they take pleasure instead of stress to systemize novel data. They are compulsive to systemize novel data to the detriment of other pleasure responses such social interaction and physical activity. One example is Asperger Syndrome (AS). In the digital technological advanced countries where social interaction and physical activity are in decline and digital systemization is in demand, AS and AS-like personality become increasingly common. AS is more common in men than in women. People with AS do not withdraw from the world in the way that people with autism withdraw. They will often approach other people. They do not have problem with language development, and their speeches tend to be verbose. However, since they take pleasure in often boring systemization instead of socialization and physical activity, they often find themselves isolated. Although people with AS often have difficulty socially, many have above-average intelligence. They may excel in fields such as computer programming and science. People with AS include Albert Einstein, Andy Warhol and Emily Dickinson. There is no delay in their cognitive development, ability to take care of themselves, or curiosity about their environment. Treatments for children with AS teach skills by building on a series of simple steps, using highly structured activities. Important tasks or points in social skill and motor skill are repeated over time to help reinforce certain behaviors. 2.2.3.4. Domination Addiction Subtype People with domination addiction are compulsive to engage in risky and novel dominating adventures that they feel they can dominate. The domination addiction mental disorders include pathological gambling, kleptomania, and psychopath. Gambling is risk-taking. The pleasure from chronic winnings triggers addictive pathological gambling. Addictive gamblers feel they have control over gambling. Pathological gambling is being unable to resist impulses to gamble, which can lead to severe personal or social consequences. The fMRI study of the reactions of pathological gamblers showed that monetary reward in a gambling-like experiment produces brain activation very similar to that observed in a cocaine addict receiving an infusion of cocaine70. Most treatment for pathological gambling involves counseling, step-based programs, self-help, peer-support, medication, or a combination of these. Gamblers Anonymous (GA) is a commonly used treatment for gambling problems. Modeled after Alcoholics Anonymous, GA uses a 12-step model that emphasizes a mutual-support approach. To get away with crime is risk-taking. The pleasure from chronic getting away with stealing triggers addictive kleptomania to steal compulsively that provides the emotional rush experience and the emotional withdraw symptom. Kleptomania is the irresistible urge to steal items that usually have little value. People with pathological gambling and kleptomania regret what they do, but the emotional rush experience and the stress response from the withdraw symptom force them to repeat what they have regretted. Cognitive behavioral therapy is effective for kleptomania. In general, cognitive behavioral therapy helps patient identify unhealthy, negative beliefs and behaviors and replace them with healthy, positive ones.

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Controlling and dominating totally other people is risky. Chronic pleasure the control of social relation can triggers addiction instinct for the addictive domination of social relation, resulting in psychopath. Psychopaths use charisma, manipulation, intimidation, sexual intercourse and violence control others and to satisfy their addictive domination of control by social relation. They are impulsive and irresponsible, often failing to keep a job or relationship. They are very egocentric individuals with no empathy for others, and they are incapable of feeling remorse or guilt. About one percent of the US population is psychopaths 71. Most of people with psychopath are men. People with psychopath are intact in cognitive empathy, but deficient in emotional empathy. In an fMRI study by neuroscientist Kent Kichl72, a certain part of the brain in criminal psychopaths showed much less activity in responses to emotional charged words like blood, sewer, hell, and rape than the normal people, indicating extremely low stress with respect to cruelty. People with psychopath show a poor neural connection between the amygdala for emotional reactions and emotional learning and the prefrontal cortex for impulse control, decision-making, emotional learning and behavioral adaptation73. 2.2.4. Religions and Mental Disorders Religion plays an important role in the prevention of mental disorders in society and the minimization of the symptoms of mental disorders. 2.2.4.1. Mental Health of Religious Group Some religions and sects cannot keep the essential sanity of social groups under chronic adverse environment, resulting in the disintegration of the social groups. How can some religious groups keep their sanity under chronic adverse environment, and survive? Like individuals, religious groups can suffer from the hyper stress response social disorders, the delusional response social disorders, and the hyper pleasure response social disorders under chronic adverse environment, resulting in the self-destruction of social group like suicide of individual. In social disorders, a social group allows people to behave like people with mental disorders under chronic adverse environment. The key to hold the sanity of social group without self-destruction is the right core belief. Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have lasted for a long time under chronic adverse environment, while many other religious groups under similar environment were selfdestructed by social disorders. The right core belief for them is derived from the strong faith in God. The strong faith in God for justice and as the protector and comforter of the religious group minimizes hyper stress response, so the social group can overcome the social disorders of depression, extreme paranoid, anxiety, and mania. The strong faith in God as a living being instead of man-made idol minimizes delusional response as manmade delusion, so the social group can overcome the social disorders of delusional depression, delusional paranoid, delusional anxiety, and delusional mania. The strong faith in God as the ultimate happiness minimizes hyper pleasure response to earthly pleasure, so the social group can overcome the social disorders of bond addiction, expressive addiction, systemization addiction, and domination addiction. The mental

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health of the social group from the three religions provides a model for individuals in the modern age to maintain mental health of society and individuals. 2.2.4.2. Mental Disorders and Religious Community In compassionate religious community, people should have compassionate toward people with mental disorders, for almost all adults have experienced some symptoms of mental disorders in their lives. Whenever people with mental disorders need help, people help them. Otherwise, people share harmonious relationship with them as with all other people. Harmonious relationship consists of the hyper bond (empathy) instinct to bond eagerly with other people and the detective instinct to detect other people’s need and intention from the perspective of other people. With the influence of harmonious relationship, people with mental disorders can get out of their narrow preoccupation of self and disorder, and move toward normalcy with broad perspective and broad socialization. Harmonious religious community is a sanctuary for people with mental disorders and sinners.

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3. Summary
Mental disorders are derived from the combinations of hyper response genes, chronic adverse environments, and misdirected mental functions. The hyper response genes include the hyper pleasure response genes, the hyper stress response genes, and the hyper immune response genes. Chronic adverse environments include chronic adverse experiences and chronic adverse infection. The combination of the hyper pleasure response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected addiction instincts results in the hyper pleasure mental disorders. The combination of the hyper stress response genes, the chronic adverse experiences, and the misdirected defensive survival instincts results in the hyper stress response mental disorders. The combination of the hyper immune response genes, the chronic adverse infection, and the misdirected mental process during sleep results in the delusional mental disorders. In the hyper pleasure response mental disorders including histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders, pathological gambling, and psychopath, life is controlled by the addiction of pleasure. In the hyper stress response mental disorders including major depression, borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders, and manic depression, life is controlled by the struggle for survival. In delusional mental disorders including schizophrenia and autism, life is controlled by the dream-like wakefulness. Normal social life (interaction) is explained by the three-branch structural theory, consisting of the yin (collective), the yang (individualistic), and the harmonious social lives (interactions). The collective social life represents collective wellbeing for the feminine task of upbringing of offspring. The individualistic social life represents individualistic achievement for the masculine task of attracting female mate. The harmonious social life that was derived from the unique human evolution to minimize conflicts in social interactions represents harmonious cooperation. All people have the three social lives in different proportions. Social life is developed by the five factors from the prenatal period to early adulthood. Social role (Bond-Systemization), social relationship (Wellbeing-Achievement) and social unit (Collectiveness-Individual) are developed during prenatal period and childhood for gender differentiation. Intragroup interaction (Passive-Dynamic) is developed during adolescence for the size of core social group. Social flexibility (Rigid-Flexible) achieves maturity during early adulthood for social responsibility. The five factors are similar to the factors in the popular MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and Big Five personality theories. Different social lives are the different combinations of the five factors. The results of the combinations for yin and yang social lives are bond, expressive, systemization, domination social lives corresponding to amiable, expressive, analytical, and driver social styles in the popular Merrill-Reid social style theory, respectively. Harmonious social life relates to the highly flexible social life Social-life enhancer (bond, expressive, systemization, or domination) enhances social life, and social-life stressor disrupts social life. The instinctive reaction to sociallife enhancer that enhances social life is social-life pleasure response to continue the social-life enhancer. Social-life stressor (disconnection, injustice, disorganization, or repression) that disrupts social life causes the loss of the function of certain adaptive social life. The instinctive reaction to social-life stressor is social-life stress response to prompt attention to social-life stressor, so social-life stressor can be dealt with urgently.

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4. Reference
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