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Yosemite Sam

For the shortwave radio station, see Yosemite Sam ter in the Toonerville Trolley comic strip, as an inuence.
(shortwave).
In his memoir Chuck Amuck: The Life and Times of an
Animated Cartoonist, Chuck Jones says that a great-uncle
Yosemite Sam is an American animated cartoon who occasionally visited his family was a retired Texas
Ranger who was short, had red hair, a large mustache, and
character in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series
of cartoons produced by Warner Bros. Animation. The a hair-trigger temper (but no beard, unlike Sam). Mike
originally considered calling the character Texas
name is somewhat alliterative and is inspired by Yosemite Maltese
Tiny,
Wyoming
Willie, or Denver Dan, but then settled
National Park. Along with Elmer Fudd, he is the de facto
on
the
nal
name.
archenemy of Bugs Bunny. He is commonly depicted as
an extremely aggressive gunslinging prospector, outlaw,
pirate, or cowboy with a hair-trigger temper and an intense hatred of rabbits, Bugs particularly. In cartoons
with non-Western themes, he uses various aliases, including Chilkoot Sam (named for the Chilkoot Trail; Sam
pronounces it Chilli-koot) in 14 Carrot Rabbit (although
in the same cartoon, when he tries to gain Bugs Bunnys
trust, he cleverly invents alias Square-deal Sam), Ri
Ra Sam in Sahara Hare, Sam Schultz in Big House
Bunny, Seagoin' Sam in Buccaneer Bunny, Shanghai
Sam in Mutiny on the Bunny, and Sam Von Schamm the
Hessian" in Bunker Hill Bunny and many others. During
the Golden Age of American animation, Yosemite Sam
appeared in 33 shorts.

A running gag in the show is that sometimes Yosemite


Sam tells Bugs Open up this door open it up now!" and
Bugs opens it when Yosemite Sam is in its way of opening and then closes it leaving a raging Yosemite Sam attened. Another gag involved Sam yelling 'Whoa!' at
whatever mode of transportation he was using, only to
whack it when it refuses to stop. This is most notably
shown in Sahara Hare, where he hits his camel in the
head twice for not stopping; When I say 'whoa', I mean
WHOA!, at which time, the camels hump shrinks, and
a lump of similar size rises from the camels head.
Other characters with Sam-like features appear in several
Looney Tunes shorts. The Bugs Bunny entry Super-Rabbit
(1943) features the cowboy character Cottontail Smith,
whose voice is nearly similar to Sam. Stage Door Cartoon (1944), however, features a southern sheri character that looks and sounds similar to Sam, except for a
more dened southern stereotype to his voice. In a Day
Duck cartoon called Along Came Day (1947), Day has
to contend with two Yosemite Sams, one with Sams red
hair and one with black hair. Finally, Panchos Hideaway (1964) features a Mexican villain who is designed
much like Sam but has a dierent accent. In addition,
in the 1949, Chuck Jones-directed cartoon Mississippi
Hare, Bugs Bunny battles with an old, pistol-toting gambler called Colonel Shue, one whose role could have
easily been portrayed by Sam. (The Colonel reappears in
Dog Gone South, this time pitted against Charlie Dog,
and accompanied by a bulldog named Belvedere, who resembles Hector the Bulldog).[1]

History

Further information: List of Yosemite Sam cartoons


Animator Friz Freleng introduced the character in the
1945 cartoon Hare Trigger. With his grumpy demeanor,
ery temper, strident voice and short stature (in two early
gags in Hare Trigger, a train he is attempting to rob
passes right over top of him and he has to use a set of
portable stairs to get on his horse; in Bugs Bunny Rides
Again, he rides a miniature horse), and ery red hair,
Sam was in some ways an alter-ego of Freleng. The animator often denied any intentional resemblance. However, in the Looney Tunes Golden Collection, surviving
members of his production crew assert, and the late directors daughter acknowledges, that Sam denitely was
inspired by Freleng. Other inuences were the Red Skelton character Sheri Deadeye and the Tex Avery cartoon "Dangerous Dan McFoo". When he does a slow
burn and cries Oooooh!" he borrows a bit from such
comedic character actors as Jimmy Finlayson (a frequent
foil to Laurel and Hardy) and Frank Nelson (one of Mel
Blancs costars on The Jack Benny Program). Freleng
also cited the Terrible-Tempered Mr. Bang, a charac-

Freleng created Yosemite Sam to be a more worthy adversary for Bugs Bunny. Until then, Bugs major foe had
been Elmer Fudd, a man so mild-mannered and dimwitted that Freleng thought Bugs actually came o as a
bully by duping him. Sam, on the other hand, was extremely violent and belligerent, not at all a pushover like
Fudd. Freleng compacted into a tiny body and 11-gallon
hat the largest voice and the largest ego north, south,
east, aaaaand west of the Pecos".

For over 19 years, except for one cartoon (Hare-Abian


Nights in 1959) Frelengs unit had exclusive usage of Sam
at the Warner studio. Though ocially a cowboy, Freleng
put Sam in a dierent costume in almost every lm: a
knight, a Roman legionary, a pirate, a royal cook, a prison
guard, a duke (Duke of Yosemite, no less), a Hessian
mercenary, a Confederate soldier, a mountain climber
(climbing the 'Shmadderhorn' mountain in Switzerland),
a hen-pecked househusband and even a space alien. The
humor of the cartoons inevitably springs from the odd
miscasting of the hot-tempered cowboy. However, some
countries seem to prefer his pirate incarnation, as Sam
the pirate is his ocial name in France[2] and a frequent
alternative name in Italy.
While Sams basic character is that of a cowboy, he wears
a black Domino mask (or actually, just a wide black outline on the outer sides of his eyes) to show that hes an outlaw. This is so associated with his persona that he wears
the mask even when dressed as a duke, a ri, a pirate, or
a Viking.
Sam is signicantly tougher and more aggressive than
Elmer Fudd when challenging Bugs Bunny. He is also
quicker to learn from his mistakes, and never falls for the
same ploy twice. But despite Sams bluster, he doesn't
prove much brighter than Elmer in his encounters with
Bugs. His noise contrasts to the calmly cocky rabbit.
Sams own cockiness gets the best of him; Bugs can see
he is incapable of turning down a challenge. Every time
Bugs dares Sam to step across that line, he can't help
but do so, even if he steps o into empty space or down a
mine shaft. In Wild and Woolly Hare Sam and Bugs play
Chicken in two locomotives going toward one anotherSam doesn't crash into Bugs but still ends up losing. In the
classic Knighty Knight Bugs Sam is a black knight with a
re breathing dragon.
While unscrupulous and ornery himself, Sam consistently
displays an odd respect for religious conventions. Whenever he is preparing to shoot Bugs, he tells the varmint,
Now say your prayers!", allowing Bugs enough time to
foil his intentions.

1.1

Personality

Yosemite Sam is one of Bugs toughest antagonists.


Yosemite Sam is a character more violent than Bugs
most famous antagonist Elmer Fudd given that Sam has a
tougher accent, a higher erce voice, and a more violent
spirit, although he is also portrayed as a bumbling fool in
most of his appearances. Yosemite Sam has had several
occupations in his life that Bugs has gotten in the way of.
Among his occupations are:
Prison Guard: In Big House Bunny, Yosemite Sam
arrests and imprisons Bugs for a false accusation (escaping prison) and gives him 99 years in jail. However, he gets infuriated and lets Bugs out of prison

HISTORY

after Bugs annoys him including briey getting Sam


beaten up and locked up in jail himself. However,
when letting Bugs out, he is jailed by the Warden
(who gets infuriated with the antics that causes Bugs
to get Yosemite Sam in trouble with him) for Bugs
doings and for letting a prisoner (Bugs) escape.
Yosemite Sam then vows to get even with the stool
pigeon who squealed on him. It then cuts to Bugs on
a stool making the sounds of a pigeon.
Pirate: In Captain Hareblower, Yosemite Sam is a
pirate captain who is able to intimidate and scare
sailors and other pirates. Captain Sam encounters a
trading ship led by Bugs Bunny and decides to take it
for himself. With all of Bugs fellow sailors too cowardly to face Sam and drowned in the ocean; Bugs
challenges Sam to a ght. Captain Sam and Bugs
Bunny battle each others ships with Bugs on the
verge of winning. The battle ends up with Sam being
forced to abandon ship to escape an inevitable explosion on his own pirate ship. Captain Yosemite Sam
then triumphs over Bugs by lighting Bugs gunpowder room into exploding and escaping by himself,
but not before giving a warning for Bugs to leave
(an order Bugs Bunny does not follow).
Ri-Raer/Cowboy: In Sahara Hare, Yosemite
Sam is a proud intimidating North African version
of a cowboy; a Ri-Raer who owns the Sahara
Desert. When Bugs ends up in the desert when trying to nd Miami Beach, he sees Bugs trespassing
and chases Bugs into a deserted castle. Yosemite
Sam sees Bugs using the castle for protection and
tries several unsuccessful attempts at breaking into
the castle; eventually ending with Bugs escaping after causing a booby trap that Sam falls for; an armed
bomb coated door that will explode if Sam opens the
door to the castle.
Guard Captain: In Roman Legion-Hare, Yosemite
Sam is the captain of the Roman Imperial Guard,
and he is ordered by Grand Emperor Nero to nd a
victim for the lions at once... or else he will be their
prey. He then heads out to look for a victim with a
small band of Imperial Guards when Bugs shows up.
When asked if it was a convention of the legion, Sam
replies he is looking for victims to feed the lions...
and is shocked to learn that no other victims - save
Bugs - are present. He then chases the crafty cottontail into the Colosseum, where the lions await. Try
as he might to keep the big cats quiet, they always
tear his golden armor to shreds or rue the fuzz on
his helm. And when he presents Bugs to Nero, the
lions surge directly toward them, leaving Bugs unscathed.
Viking: In Prince Varmint, Sam is a Viking grunt
who attempts to raid the archduchy castle, which

1.1

Personality

happens to be under Bugs Bunnys protection. Bugs


teasingly tells him that its too early for Halloween
and then kicks him out of the castle. He even hires
an Indian Elephant to rst ram what Sam thinks
to be a door, but its really a painting imitating a
door, so the elephant is reduced to the shape of
an accordion - before smashing his master into the
same shape. Next. the elephant tries to demolish the castle walls with large boulders, but Bugs
still remains persistent in defending the castle by
sprinkling pepper over the elephant, which causes
the pachyderm to sneeze and launch a bolder into
Sam. Next, he suggests attacking the castle from the
rear, but Bugs (defensive as always) cleverly places a
champagne cork in the elephants trunk, leading Sam
to permanently evict the elephant: "AND DON'T
COME BACK!!!!!" His attempts to raid the castle
are cut short when the same elephant joins Bugs in
kicking him out of the kingdom for good.

much of the wild west through intimidation. One


day he comes to take over a cafe in an old western
town and is insulted by Bugs Bunny. Angered by
the insult, Yosemite Sam challenges Bugs Bunny to
a ght to the death. With Bugs on the verge of winning through trickery and deception, Yosemite Sam
decides to try one last time to intimidate the town;
to rob a train. But Bugs Bunny hijacks the train to
save it. Yosemite Sam tries to follow it by horse and
orders Bugs to get o by the time he counts to a specic number. However just before he reaches his nal number he always runs into something such as a
telephone pole, a tunnel wall and falling o a bridge.
A frustrated Yosemite Sam tries to get on another
train and force Bugs to surrender by preparing to
ram head-on into Bugs train. However Bugs foils
him by switching the railroad tracks causing Sams
train engine to crash hundreds of feet, into a gorges
river.

Indian Chief: In Horse Hare, Yosemite Sam is the


chief of an Indian tribe during the Indian-American
wars in 1886. One day Yosemite Sam sees a USA
fort and decides to steal it for his tribe. He sees
that Sergeant Bugs Bunny is guarding the fort and
challenges him to war. Chief Sam has his men attack through various means such as launching himself into the fort, ring guns, etcetera but Sam is put
on probation when he is accused of ring at one of
his soldiers (It was actually Bugs). Eventually the
USA cavalry return and help Bugs defeat Sam and
his army of Indians.

Alien: In Lighter Than Hare, Yosemite Sam of


Outer Space is an alien from a foreign planet. Inside a ying saucer spaceship, Yosemite Sam reveals
his mission to nd an earth creature to take back to
his planet for uses such as slaves, producing on their
planet Etcetera. Yosemite Sam detects Bugs Bunny
and has his armies of robots to attack Bugs hideout. After a long struggle Yosemite Sams armies
of robots are blown to pieces. Finally, an exasperated Yosemite Sam uses an incinerating laser cannon to threaten Bugs into surrendering and boarding
his space ship. Yosemite Sam then ies out of earth
to his planet, unaware that he has actually captured
a decoy of Bugs lled with bombs. When Yosemite
Sam presents the dummy to his leader, the bombs
explode.

Enemy Pilot: In Dumb Patrol Yosemite Sam is


Baron Sam Von Schpamm a World War I Pilot who
tries to shot Down Bugs Bunny but who fails and
ends up as a Hells Angel.
Duke of Yosemite: In From Hare to Heir Yosemite
Sam is Duke of Yosemite-can Sam keep his temper
with Bugs Bunny as his guest?
Legendary Mountain Climber: A legendary
mountain climber in Pikers Peak, Sam hears of a
contest where whoever hikes up and reaches the
deadly highest mountain in the world, will receive
money equaled to trillions of dollars in todays
money; 50,000 Cronkites (named after legendary
TV host Walter Cronkite). Yosemite Sam takes the
contest and decides to climb up the mountain which
is based on Pikes Peak. However, when he reaches
base-camp at thousands of feet, he encounters Bugs
Bunny who hears about the contest. With both of
them wanting the prize, Yosemite Sam then must
race and defeat Bugs along the way up to Pikers
Peak to get the money.
Cowboy: In Wild and Woolly Hare, Yosemite
Sam is a legendary cowboy gangster who dominates

Sailor: In Rabbitson Crusoe, Yosemite Sam is a


sailor whose boat has sank in a thunderstorm in the
Pacic Ocean and lives as a castaway. Yosemite
Sam jumps across rocks to a deserted island and
spends many years there being targeted as a meal
by a shark named Dopey Dick. After some time,
Yosemite Sam grows tired of eating coconuts and
nds Bugs Bunny. He decides to cook up Bugs for
dinner. After a long battle, eventually the island is
reclaimed by the seas and Yosemite Sam ends up
being chased by Dopey Dick. Yosemite Sam is then
forced to make a deal with Bugs where Bugs will
not let Dopey Dick eat Sam and take Yosemite in
his boat (the cooking pot) back to civilization....but
only if Yosemite Sam is the one that does all the
work in paddling 2,736 miles to San Francisco California USA.
Chef: In Shishkabugs, Yosemite Sam has one of
his rare performances where his goal is not for evil
purposes and where he is not the aggressor. In this

2
episode, Sam is a very kind, generous chef for a very
rude spoiled king who has Sam enslaved through
blackmail. One day, Sam makes the king a usual
buet only for the King to rudely kick it away and
demand something new. That something new is
Hasenpfeer whose base is cooked rabbit. Sam
captures Bugs and puts Bugs in the meal, but Bugs
outsmarts Sam twice and the King blames it all on
Sam. Eventually, the King loses his patience and
has guards arrest Sam and installs Bugs as his new
chef. The King claims to have set up Sams death.
But since Sam is seen alive in more episodes, it
is presumed that either he was found not guilty by
the kingdom court, the citizens demanded Sams release, or Sam escaped.

LATER YEARS

and Anvilology (the study of falling anvils, a staple joke in


the Looney Tunes genre), and was sometimes portrayed
as the school principal (though at least one episode identied Bugs Bunny as the principal, and Wile E. Coyote
was Dean of Acme Loo). As with all the main Looney
Tunes characters, Sam had a student counterpart at Acme
Loo in Montana Max. In K-Acme TV, Yosemite
Sam was seen as the judge of Toon Court (a parody
of The Peoples Court) where he proceeded over a trial
where Calamity Coyote issues a complaint against the
ACME Corporation for negligence and faulty workmanship. The ACME Corporations representative Bobbo
ACME claims that the devices made by the ACME Corporation work if they are used right as he demonstrates
the catapult on Calamity Coyote. Judge Yosemite Sam
nds in favor of the ACME Corporation. In the same
Knight: In Knighty Knight Bugs, Sam is the Black episode, Yosemite Sam appeared as a prospector in a docKnight and has stolen the Singing Sword. King umentary detailing about the sightings of a furry creature
Arthur hires court jester Bugs Bunny to retrieve the called Bigbutt (a spoof of Bigfoot).
sword. After retrieving it, Bugs escapes Sam and Yosemite Sam also appeared along with Bugs Bunny in a
manages to lock Sam out of his castle. Sam at- number of Mirinda commercials in early 90s, most probtempts to break back in, but each attempt back- ably due to direct competition to Fanta, being advertised
res. Eventually, Bugs leads Sam and his re- with Disney characters at that time.
breathing dragon into the dynamite storage facility.
He also appears in the movie Space Jam as a player for
The dragon sneezes, blowing the two of them to the
the Tune Squad. In a memorable scene, he and Elmer
moon.
Fudd shoot o the teeth of one of the Monstars while clad
in Pulp Fiction-esque attire, complete with Dick Dale's
Trolley Conductor: In Tweetys High Flying Ad- Misirlou playing. In an earlier scene, when the Nerdventure, Sam drives a trolley in San Francisco. The lucks hold all the toons hostage, Sam sneaks up on the
trolley is hijacked by Sylvester, who is hoping to use Nerdlucks, pointing his pistols at them, and orders them
it to chase Tweety. Instead, he breaks the throttle to release all the toons, only to have the Nerdlucks re
which is used as a brake, rendering the trolley out of a laser pistol back at him, which leaves Sam naked and
control. It speeds all over San Francisco, ending up beardless as the phasers burned o his mustache.
on Alcatraz. During this, Sam attests to Sylvesters
idiocy, eventually chasing Sylvester all over Alcatraz Sam also appeared in The Warners 65th Anniversary Spewith his hat. He also chases Sylvester on a train to cial and two episodes of 1995s The Sylvester and Tweety
Las Vegas, only to be locked on another train head- Mysteries.
ing out of the city.
In the 2003 movie Looney Tunes: Back in Action,
Yosemite Sam is a bounty hunter employed by the Acme
Corporation who was hired to nish o DJ Drake and
Day Duck. In this lm, he owns a casino in Las Vegas,
2 Later years
which he calls Yosemite Sams Wooden Nickel, and is accompanied by Nasty Canasta and Cottontail Smith (who
Yosemite Sam made appearances in several television may be originally employed as his security guards) (from
specials in the 1970s and 1980s, and in three of the Super Rabbit). He goes as far as betting a large sack of
Looney Tunes feature-lm compilations.
money to get the card, stealing Je Gordon's car, and even
Sam was the star of his own comic book series from 1970 using a stick of Dynamite to beat DJ and Day. Though
to 1984, for a total of 81 issues. Published by Gold Key putting up a good chase, in the end, his car crashes into
/ Whitman Comics, the ocial title of the series was the wall of his own casino while the spy car ies above it.
He get launched in a pitch black room full of Dynamite,
Yosemite Sam and Bugs Bunny.[3][4]
and he lights all of them when he tries to look around with
Sam makes a cameo appearance in Disney/Amblin's Who
a match. He is last seen in the Acme building trying to
Framed Roger Rabbit, complete with his "britches" on
cover his failure on DJ, Dusty Tails, and Day, though
re.
his boss couldn't even understand what hes saying.
Yosemite Sam was one of the classic Looney Tunes
A younger version of Sam had appeared in Baby Looney
characters who appeared as faculty members of Acme
Tunes, in songs. In one episode, Bugs dresses up as Baby
Looniversity in the 1990s animated series Tiny Toon AdSam for Halloween.
ventures. Sam was shown teaching classes in Firearms

5
Sam also plays the role of alien occasional guest villain
K'chutha Sa'am (a parody of the Klingons, and right
in line with Sams aggressive personality) on the Duck
Dodgers animated series.

but was also a strain on Blancs throat, thus he always did


Yosemite Sams lines at the end of a recording session
so he could rest himself overnight. The last time Blanc
voiced the character was Day Ducks Fantastic Island in
He also appears in the video games Loons: The Fight for 1983. As he got into his 70s, he couldn't take it anymore
Fame, Taz: Wanted, Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle, The Bugs and didn't reprise the role of Sam in Who Framed Roger
Bunny Crazy Castle 2, Bugs Bunny Crazy Castle 3, The Rabbit while playing all his other Looney Tunes roles in
Bugs Bunny Birthday Blowout, Bugs Bunny: Rabbit Ram- the movie. This makes Sam one of the few voices created by Blanc to be voiced by someone else during his
page, Bugs Bunny in Double Trouble, Bugs Bunny: Lost
in Time, Bugs Bunny and Taz: Time Busters, Sheep, Dog, lifetime. Blanc used a voice similar to Yosemite Sams
for Mr. Spacely on The Jetsons.
'n' Wolf, Looney Tunes B-Ball, Day Duck in Hollywood
and Loony Tunes: Back in Action the video game.
Others
In Looney Tunes: Acme Arsenal, Yosemite Sam makes an
appearance riding a railway cart on the Wild West level.
Joe Alaskey (Who Framed Roger Rabbit, Tiny Toon
Adventures)
Yosemite Sam appears in multiple episodes of The
Looney Tunes Show, voiced by Maurice LaMarche. He
rst appeared in the show in three Merrie Melodies segments called Blow My Stack, Moostache and Stick
to My Guns. Yosemite Sam is one of Bugs and Days
neighbors. In the episode Day Duck, Esq., its revealed that his full name is Samuel Rosenbaum. In
Ridiculous Journey, it is revealed that Yosemite Sam
has a cousin in Blacque Jacque Shellacque who Yosemite
Sam enlisted to recover Sylvester, Tweety, and Tasmanian Devil after they were accidentally shipped to
Alaska. It was through Yosemite Sam that Bugs Bunny
and Granny enlisted Blacque Jacque Shellacques help.

Je Bergman (Tiny Toon Adventures, (Blooper)


Bunny, Invasion of the Bunny Snatchers)

Yosemite Sam made two cameo appearances in a MetLife


commercial in 2012. In one of the ads, a producer
knocked on Yosemite Sams trailer and he thought there
were varmints bothering him and he took down and
shot some fur coats of animals with rage. Even though he
would shoot some animals with rage, his temper calmed
and revived the animals with puppies.

Jim Cummings (Sylvester and Tweety Mysteries, Animaniacs, Tweetys High-Flying Adventure, Scooby
Doo and Looney Tunes Cartoon Universe: Adventure)

Yosemite Sam appears in the 2015 DTV movie Looney


Tunes: Rabbits Run voiced by Maurice LaMarche.

Je Bennett (Looney Tunes: Back in Action, Hare


and Loathing in Las Vegas)

Yosemite Sam appears in Wabbit voiced by Maurice


LaMarche. His appearance has him depicted to having
a larger moustache and a fat body.
Yosemite Sam is also nose art on the WWII F4U Corsair
Skyboss at the American Airpower Museum at Republic
Airport in Farmingdale, NY.

Voice actors

Mel Blanc
The role of Yosemite Sam was originated by the Warners principal voiceman, Mel Blanc. In his autobiography, Blanc said he had a dicult time coming up with the
voice. He tried giving Sam a small voice, but didn't feel
that it worked. One day, he decided to simply yell at the
top of his voice, which was inspired by a t of road rage
he had that day. It t perfectly with the blustery character,

Charlie Adler (Tiny Toon Adventures)


Maurice LaMarche (Tiny Toon Adventures, TazMania, Carrotblanca, Looney Tunes: Reality Check,
Looney Tunes: Stranger than Fiction, Duck Dodgers,
Bah, Humduck! A Looney Tunes Christmas, The
Looney Tunes Show, Looney Tunes: Rabbits Run,
Wabbit, various video games)
Greg Burson (Animaniacs)

Bill Farmer (Space Jam)


Frank Gorshin (From Hare to Eternity)

4 References
[1] Barrier, Michael (6 November 2003). Hollywood Cartoons: American Animation in Its Golden Age. United
States: Oxford University Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-019-516729-0. Retrieved 9 March 2008.
[2] Sam le pirate. Telemaniac.free.fr. Retrieved 2013-1229.
[3] Yosemite Sam at the Comic Book DB
[4] Yosemite Sam and Bugs Bunny checklist at ComicsDB.com

5 External links
Yosemite Sam at the Internet Movie Database

6 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

6.1

Text

Yosemite Sam Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yosemite_Sam?oldid=703809137 Contributors: Amillar, Heron, Paul A, Amcaja,


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NuclearWarfare, Carriearchdale, Yonskii, Aitias, HarrivBOT, DumZiBoT, Jack Bauer00, Dulcem, SilvonenBot, Maurilio0419, Gcstackmoney, XuxiRawe22, Addbot, Dnabennica, Kimmymarie24, Tippx, BicMacDad18, Leszek Jaczuk, Download, WikiEditor50, Tassedethe, Peridon, Pointer1, Luckas-bot, Yobot, Stx423, AnomieBOT, Millahnna, Hi878, Lisa mynx, Jungty, Ace of Spades, Tamariki, Tinton5, Smijes08, Plasticspork, Lolziwrotesomething, FoxBot, Jedi94, Hardy1956, Lotje, SilverDragon234, Marvelfan28, Diannaa, Stj6,
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6.2

Images

File:Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/4/48/Folder_Hexagonal_Icon.svg License: Cc-bysa-3.0 Contributors: ? Original artist: ?


File:Portal-puzzle.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/f/fd/Portal-puzzle.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ?
Original artist: ?
File:Question_book-new.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/99/Question_book-new.svg License: Cc-by-sa-3.0
Contributors:
Created from scratch in Adobe Illustrator. Based on Image:Question book.png created by User:Equazcion Original artist:
Tkgd2007
File:Symbol_book_class2.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/89/Symbol_book_class2.svg License: CC
BY-SA 2.5 Contributors: Mad by Lokal_Prol by combining: Original artist: Lokal_Prol
File:Yosemite_Sam.png Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/8/8c/Yosemite_Sam.png License: ? Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?

6.3

Content license

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0

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