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Analysis of Consumer Behaviour: A Survey on Detergent Powder in Delhi Region

Analysis of Consumer Behaviour: A Survey on Detergent Powder in Delhi Region Submitted by: Ayush Rajora

Submitted by:

Ayush Rajora (S143F0008) Neha Bajaj (S143F0020)

School of Business, Public Policy and Social Entrepreneurship

Ambedkar University Delhi

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We express our sincere gratitude to Prof. Vijay Nagrani and Dr. Kartik Dave for giving us the opportunity to undergo this project. We further thank him for lending a helping hand when it came to solving our problem related to the project. This project would not have been possible without his valuable time and support. We also thank Ambedkar University Delhi for an opportunity to undertake a soft skill project at this crucial time in our life in MBA which helped us to understand the topics deeply which were untouched before. Any suggestions to improve are always welcome.

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

The project is to study the consumer behavior in response to detergent powders, for Delhi market. To gather the data, we used the questionnaires method. A sample of 60 consumers was surveyed. The respondents were interviewed across market places. This data was fed in a data Microsoft Excel. With the help of which we analyzed and interpreted the data gathered, pertaining the buying behavior of consumers. Along with questionnaires, we also used Internet to find out about the detergent industry and the various brands available. There are more than 10 brands available in the Indian market, but we have chosen some major brands. The Indian laundry market is more than INR 5000 Crore, with HUL enjoying highest 42% of share, followed by others like P&G, Nirma etc. Detergent bar comprises of 43% of market share and powder enjoying the rest 57%. The brands which we tapped are Ariel, Surf Excel, Tide, Rin and leaving others as option. Competition in this market is really high with HUL, P&G, Nirma etc. strategizing and innovating to capture the market .The research design used in our research was descriptive, incorporating knowledge from secondary information analysis, quantitative research, methodology selection, question measurement & scale selection, questionnaire design and sample design to be used. And simple random sampling was done. Target customers were mainly housewives, and others who are using detergent powder. Area where research is done is Delhi because of the convenience factor.

After the analysis we came to the conclusion that the Surf Excel enjoys the top position in brand recall of the consumer. This is a positive sign for HUL. The research also shows that the market share of Surf Excel in Delhi detergent market approximately comes out to be the highest. Also, from the survey it is evident that brand name, price and cleansing action are three of the most important attributes a consumer looks for in any detergent brand. Surf Excel is the brand which people are well aware with and enjoys a good reputation with the consumers with respect to all these attributes.

Another thing that we noted in this survey was that Television is the most used information source for the consumer. The exact communication recall, is very high among the consumer. This could be attributed to the innovative advertisement, across all media.

Thus, we can conclude that Surf Excel enjoys excellent customer reviews. It gets special recognition for its superior cleansing action, the convenient packs it comes in, the ease it is available with.

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INTRODUCTION

Over the last decade, India has grown tremendously and so have the incomes of its people, with a larger chunk of the Indian demography moving into urban areas in search of better and more lucrative career options. With this advent, there has been a significant rise in consumer durables as well, with some of the earliest signs of this rise being shown by those which fulfilled the most basic of needs, like washing clothes. As a result of this, there has been an influx of buyers in the detergent market, with more and more people buying washing machine powders. However, this constitutes only 20% of the population. There is the remaining 80% of them, around 200 million households, who wash their laundry by hand.

There are consumers who have just transitioned from hand-wash to machine-wash. They tend to have a limited laundry detergent budget. But, established washing machine powder brands such as P&G’s Ariel and HUL’s Surf, are priced high and are not able to tap this segment of the consumers completely. They hence would be reluctant to use these high cost detergents every wash.

With the above state of the consumer demography in the Indian detergent market, we believe that there could be a significant scope for established brands like P&G and HUL to reposition or extend some of their detergent lines to target this consumer segment. On a more specific note, we aim to focus on P&G’s Tide, as potentially a new variant is to be introduced in the low-cost washing machine powder space. The reason behind this choice is that Tide is an established brand in the medium cost segment, priced at about half that of the high priced Ariel and Surf and can thus leverage its existing brand equity and make it an “Affordable Washing Machine Detergent”.

In order to back the above claim, we would have to undertake a market research study that establishes a significant demand for such detergents in the low-priced segment. This should be backed by surveys to gain the consumer and market knowledge and obtain insights of the scope of success for such a brand repositioning in terms of its potential of penetration among the potential customers wanting a lower priced washing machine detergent.

TRENDS

India inclined towards positive momentum with increase in demand for premium powder detergents in big cities in 2014. Consumers are trying out brands that are one scale up from what they were using and this is increasing in switching ratios. Increasing sales of

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branded apparel have also influenced consumers to use branded concentrated detergents and fabric softeners. Current value sales of laundry care grew by 12% in 2014. Changing lifestyle and

preferences of consumers have led to their upgrading in laundry care with a corresponding increase in premiumisation, machine wash and solution wash by using combination of bars and detergents, fine fabric/liquid detergents, laundry aids, laundry boosters and many more. This upgrading trend is especially seen in urban markets, which supported the growth in 2014. The average unit price increased slightly as consumers were trading up to premium

products and costs of raw materials were also rising in 2014. Fabric softeners, growing from a small base, recorded current value growth of 25% in 2014. Fabric softeners are becoming increasingly popular as consumers prefer the soft touch and fragrances that fabric softeners create, such as that offered by Comfort fabric softener. In 2012, Hindustan Unilever launched a single-rinse conditioner under the brand name Comfort One Rinse fabric softener to take advantage of the growth of conditioners and their popularity amongst urban Indian consumers and now it is slowly starting to penetrate into rural India.

Laundry detergents recorded current value growth of 12% in 2014. Premium laundry

detergents have cut short the growth rate of laundry aids in India as one product with multiple attributes is preferred by women looking to save time and energy. Most of the powder detergents are being positioned as having several functional benefits including laundry aids so they were more preferred in 2014.

Laundry detergents’ premiumisation and solution washes are on rise in urban India as consumers are tending to opt for products which satiate their need to care for their clothing even if they have to spend extra for that. Still, economy products have a larger market share because of their high volume lineage and larger consumer base. Urban Indians are the prime consumer base for fine fabric detergents, liquid detergents and powder detergents.

Standard automatic detergents, such as Surf Excel and Ariel Front-O-Mat, continued to grow in 2014 due to the increasing use of washing machines across the country. Concentrated powder detergents, such as Surf Excelmatic and Ariel Ultramatic, on the

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other hand, accounted for only a marginal share of laundry care in 2014. Automatic detergents accounted for an 18% value share of laundry care in 2014.

Laundry aids, such as fabric conditioners, spot and stain removers, and other laundry boosters, are mostly preferred by upper-class and upper middle-class consumers in urban India. Advertising is the largest trend within these categories, with a focus on these consumer groups as seen in 2013 and in 2014 also. Higher retail mark-ups along with the acquisition of premium shelf positioning improved the penetration and presence of brands within spot and stain removers in 2014.

The concept of using fabric softeners continued to be niche in India. Furthermore, leading companies sought to capitalise on the increasing awareness and growing incomes of consumers, such as Hindustan Unilever with the launches of Comfort fabric softener and Comfort One Rinse long back in 2012. Fabric softeners continued to be a new product for Indian consumers, who had never used anything other than powder detergents or bar detergents, or laundry boosters such as liquid blues. Bambi by Dabur India and Downy by Procter & Gamble Home Products are the other prominent brands with a strong presence in fabric softeners.

According to Euromonitor International's socioeconomic data, washing machines continued to have a low penetration rate of 9% in 2014. Although penetration of washing machines in urban areas was around 32%, rural areas continued to have low penetration. Rural India continues to face many problems such as the lack of a water supply and frequent power cuts, which restrains growth of the penetration rate of washing machines in these areas. The concept of washing clothes by hand and domestic help also continues to enjoy huge popularity in the country.

Washing continues to be done at room temperature, as most consumers continue to be unaware of ideal washing temperatures for their clothes; however, manufacturers such as IFB, Samsung, Whirlpool and LG have introduced temperature-controlled washing machines, which are priced at least two to three times higher than fully automatic washing machines. Additionally, only a few washing machines have an in-built mechanism for washing clothes at a temperature lower than 30 degrees Celsius.

The majority of washing machine manufacturers, such as LG and IFB, amongst others, are focusing on wash, rinse and spin cycles of lower than 30 minutes. This is primarily

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attributable to fast-moving lifestyles in urban localities such as Bangalore, Hyderabad and Chennai. On the other hand, washing machine manufacturers are offering higher-capacity appliances with shorter cycles to appeal to various types of consumers and to retain them as customers.

India does not have an established network of organised laundrettes in any region. There are extremely limited branded outlets, such as Fabric Spa, which is a chain operated by Jyothy Laboratories. Independent laundrettes continue to be found only in urban areas, such as Delhi, Mumbai and Bangalore. Additionally, community-level laundry washing is usually done by common helpers who carry out laundry services for a group of people living in the same area. Hence laundrettes were not popular in India at the end of the review period.

Dry cleaning is very popular in India and such services can easily be found throughout cities. Typical clothes that are dry-cleaned are jackets, eveningwear, woollens and other delicate items.

COMPETITIVE LANDSCAPE

Hindustan Unilever continued to maintain its lead in laundry care with a 38% value share in 2014. The company enjoys a long-established presence in all categories of laundry care in India. The company’s widening distribution and its continued offer of various products at different price points help it cater to a larger consumer base. The company brands present at different price points are an advantage when looking towards developing a larger consumer base. Along with Jyothy Laboratories, which benefitted in 2014 from aggressive marketing and new launches, Rohit Surfactants increased its value share by 0.4 percentage points in

2014.

Its increased distribution to South India and also its launch of premium detergent

powder in 2013 helped the latter company to gain share points over other companies in

2014.

Both domestic and international brands are present in laundry care in India. International manufacturers, including Hindustan Unilever, Procter & Gamble Home Products and Reckitt Benckiser (India), continued to maintain dominant positions and registered a combined value share of 51% in 2014. Domestic manufacturers such as Rohit Surfactants and Nirma, however, continued to enhance their presence by focusing on geographical

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expansion to reach more consumers. Furthermore, other domestic brands such as Ujala and Fena continued to enjoy huge popularity in specific regions of India. Jyothy Laboratories launched Henko LINTelligent, targeting premium-end consumers,

and accelerated its Henko brand movement in the market in 2014. The launch has added a new clothes-friendly concept to cash in on consumers’ psyche and further stirred the competition in the market. In 2014, Jyothy Laboratories engaged actress Madhuri Dixit and aggressively

communicated its Nano Fiber Lock technology, which keeps clothes evergreen and free from lint. Hindustan Unilever and Procter & Gamble Home Products increased their focus towards

online advertising such as Twitter, Apple, Facebook and Google for core and non-core brands such as Vim, Surf Excel, Rin Advanced, Active Wheel, Tide and Ariel. There were no new packaging innovations in 2014 which impacted laundry care.

Economy and standard brands accounted for 85% of value sales in India in 2014.

Premium brands are increasing their presence in urban areas of India and their unique functional positioning across categories like fabric detergents, laundry boosters and laundry aids. Private label lines, including 110% by the More supermarket chain, Great Value by Easy Day, Clean Mate by Big Bazaar and Sudz by Reliance Fresh, have become hugely popular in India. Most private label products in detergents are distinguished by the offer of various in-store schemes and discounts.

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LITERATURE REVIEW

FMCG's (Fast Moving Consumer Goods) is one of the largest sectors of the business world. FMCG's are products that are manufactured by organisations such as Unilever, Procter & Gamble and GlaxoSmithKleine and are typically bought by consumers frequently (essentially they move from retailer's shelves to consumer very quickly).

FMCG have a short shelf life, either as a result of high consumer demand or because the product deteriorates rapidly. Some FMCGs—such as meat, fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and baked goods—are highly perishable. Other goods such as alcohol, toiletries, pre-packaged foods, soft drinks, and cleaning products have high turnover rates.

Though the profit margin made on FMCG products is relatively small (more so for retailers than the producers/suppliers), they are generally sold in large quantities; thus, the cumulative profit on such products can be substantial. FMCG is probably the most classic case of low margin and high volume business. This market consists of three main segment:

1) Food and beverages – Market Share of 19% and consist of products such as Health beverages, staples/cereals, bakery products, snacks, chocolates, ice cream, tea/coffee/soft drinks, processed fruits and vegetables, dairy products, and branded flour.

2)

Health Care – Market share of 33% and consists of products such as OTC products and ethical.

3)

Household and Personal care – Market share of 48% and consists of products such as Oral care, hair care, skin care, cosmetics/deodorants, perfumes, feminine hygiene and paper products, Fabric wash, household cleaners.

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INDIAN CONSUMER DURABLES AND FMCG INDUSTRY ANALYSIS

INDIAN CONSUMER DURABLES AND FMCG INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Favourable demographics and rise in income level will boost

Favourable demographics and rise in income level will boost FMCG market in India. Overall FMCG market is expected to increase at a CAGR of 17 per cent to USD103.7 billion during 2015–20E. Retail market in India is estimated to reach USD 869 billion by 2015, with organised retail accounting for an 8 percent share; this is likely to boost revenues of FMCG companies. The FMCG sector in India generated revenues worth USD 47.3 billion in 2015. Over 2007-15, these sector posted a CAGR of 13 percent inrevenues.

Rise in rural consumption will drive the FMCG market in India. The rural FMCG market expected to increase at a CAGR of 18.1 per cent to USD100 billion during 2012–25E.The overall rural FMCG consumption continues to grow at 12.5 per cent during 2013-14. Rural India’s per capita disposable income is set to increase. Rural India’s per capita disposable income is estimated to rise to USD631 in 2020 from USD411 in 2010. Shampoo maximum penetration of 69 percent, followed by biscuits at 68 percent. Skin Cream been listed in the top 10 category.

INDIAN CONSUMER DURABLES AND FMCG INDUSTRY ANALYSIS Favourable demographics and rise in income level will boost

Total consumption expenditure set to increase in the future years. Total consumption expenditure to reach nearly USD3600 billion by 2020 from USD1328 billion in 2012. India’s online retail to be more than seven times in next five years. The online retail market is

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expected to grow from USD3.5 billion to USD14.5 billion (from 10 per cent to more than 15 per cent of the organised retail market) during FY14-FY18E.

India’s middle income population estimated to reach 267 million by 2016 from 160 million in 2011. Rising incomes and growing youth population have been key growth drivers of this sector. Brand consciousness has also aided the demand. First Time Modern Trade Shoppers spend is estimated to triple to USD1 billion by 2015. Tier II/III cities are witnessingfaster growth in modern trade.

Low penetration levels in rural market offers room for growth. Disposable income in rural India has increased due to the direct cash transfer scheme. Growing demand for premium products and exports is another growth segment.

Investment approval of upto100 percent foreign equity in single brand retail and 51 percent in multi-brand retail is allowed. Initiatives like Food Security Bill and direct cash transfer subsidies reach about 40 percent of households in India. The minimum capitalisation for foreign FMCG companies to invest in India is USD 100 million.

Hair Care is the leading segment, accounting for 23.0 percent of the overall market in terms of revenue. Food Products is the second leading segment of the sector accounting for 19.0 percent followed by health supplements which is 18.0 percent. Household and Personal Care products are the largest FMCG segment, constituting around 48 percent of the total market, followed by health care products (33percent). Salty snacks was the fastest growing FMCG category in 2014 with a growth rate of 25 percent. Other categories such as packaged Atta, chocolates, and non-refined oil grew over 20 percent in 2014, as companies aggressively focused on increasing their penetration. Sales in biscuits, refined oil, soap, and washing powder (among the top five FMCG product categories) grew 4–10 percent in 2014.

expected to grow from USD3.5 billion to USD14.5 billion (from 10 per cent to more than

The urban segment is the largest contributor to the sector, accounting for around two-thirds of total revenue and had a market size of around USD 28.38 billion in 2015. Semi-urban and

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rural segments are growing at a rapid pace; they currently account for 40 percent of revenues. In the last few years, the FMCG market has grown at a faster pace in rural India compared with urban India. FMCG products account for 50 percent of total rural spending.

Soap and Detergent Industry Market Split By Detergent Type Machine Wash 82%; 82% 18%; 18% Hand
Soap and Detergent Industry
Market Split By Detergent Type
Machine Wash
82%; 82%
18%; 18%
Hand Wash

The market of synthetic detergents was valued at about Rs 112 billion as of 2012-13 with a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 3%. Out of this, the machine wash or automatic sales has been dominated by powder detergents, with a 98% share in the market, which has a size of Rs. 18700 Million. However, a much bigger segment of the market is the non-automatic or the hand-wash category, which has a size of Rs. 85466.8 Million and is also dominated by the powder detergents but by a smaller percentage compared to the machine-wash category, about 68%. The remaining contribution comes from the bar detergents. Within the machine-wash category, the highest growth has been contributed by the powder detergents, a CAGR of 9.5% since 2005, with the other sub- category within the machine-wash category being liquid detergents. Also, the hand-wash detergents have shown an impressive growth rate of 8.8% CAGR since 2005, which has contributed to the growth in the overall detergent market.

The multinational firms have taken the bigger pie in the market share, with about 56% of the category belonging to them. This has primarily been due to frequent product innovations and the higher advertising budgets of these firms. This higher budget translates into a better

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distribution and also much higher visibility in the retail stores. However, the relative success of the
distribution and also much higher visibility in the retail stores. However, the relative success
of the Indian firms like Rohit Surfactants and Nirma could be attributed to a long standing
customer relationship and more importantly, the fact that these products have always been
present in the economy tiers, thus positioning them as affordable brands and therefore
catering
to
bigger
chunk
of
the
customers,
which has
Market Share: Brand-wise
Wheel
19%
19%
Ghari
Surf
Nirma
7%
Tide
Rin
17%
Others
10%
14%
14%
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Godrej, Henkel, Amway HUL Nirma and P&G Rohit Surfactants HUL; 42%
Godrej, Henkel,
Amway
HUL
Nirma and P&G
Rohit
Surfactants
HUL; 42%

Market Share: Manufacturer-wise

Rohit Godrej, Surfactants; Henkel, 15% Amway; 17%

Nirma and P&G; 26%

helped them gain the relatively larger

market shares they currently hold.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A research process consists of stages or steps that guide the project from its conception through the final analysis, recommendations and ultimate actions. The research process provides a systematic, planned approach to the research project and ensures that all aspects of the research project are consistent with each other. Research studies evolve through a series of steps, each representing the answer to a key question.

The chapter aims to understand the research methodology establishing a framework of evaluation and revaluation of primary and secondary research. The techniques and concepts used during primary research in order to arrive at findings; which are also dealt with and lead to a logical deduction towards the analysis and results.

RESEARCH DESIGN

It is proposed to first conduct an intensive secondary research to understand the full impact and implication of the detergent industry, to review and critique the industry norms and reports, on which certain issues shall be selected, which one feels remain unanswered or liable to change, this shall be further taken up in the next stage of exploratory research. This stage shall help to restrict and select only the important question and issue, which inhabit growth and segmentation in the industry.

The various tasks that are undertaken in the research design process are:

Defining the information need Design the exploratory, descriptive and causal research.

Research design is a conceptual structure within which research is conducted. A research design is the detailed blueprint used to guide a research study towards its objective. It is a series of advanced decision taken together comprising a master plan or a model for conducting the research in consonance with the research objectives. Research design is needed because it facilitates the smooth sailing of the various research operations, thereby

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making research as efficient as possible yielding maximum information with the minimum effort, time and money.

RESEARCH PROCESS

The research process has four distinct yet interrelated steps for research analysis.

It has a logical and hierarchical ordering:

Determination of information research problem.

Development of appropriate research design.

Execution of research design.

Communication of results.

Each step is viewed as a separate process that includes a combination of task, step and specific procedure. The steps undertake are logical, objective, systematic, reliable, valid, impersonal and ongoing.

EXPLORATORY RESEARCH

The method I used for exploratory research was

Primary Data Secondary data

PRIMARY DATA

New data gathered to help solve the problem at hand. As compared to secondary data which is previously gathered data. An example is information gathered by a questionnaire. Qualitative or quantitative data that are newly collected in the course of research, Consists of original information that comes from people and includes information gathered from surveys, focus groups, independent observations and test results. Data gathered by the researcher in the act of conducting research. This is contrasted to secondary data which entails the use of data gathered by someone other than the researcher information that is obtained directly from first-hand sources by means of surveys, observation or experimentation.

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Primary data is basically collected by getting questionnaire filled by the respondents.

SECONDARY DATA

Information that already exists somewhere, having been collected for another purpose is called secondary data. Sources include census reports, trade publications, and subscription services, data that have already been collected and published for another research project (other than the one at hand). There are two types of secondary data: internal and external secondary data. Information compiled inside or outside the organization for some purpose other than the current investigation. Market information compiled for purposes other than the current research effort; it can be internal data, such as existing sales-tracking information, or it can be research conducted by someone else, such as a market research company.

Secondary source of data used consists of books and websites

My proposal is to first conduct a intensive secondary research to understand the full impact and implication of the industry, to review and critique the industry norms and reports, on which certain issues shall be selected, which I feel remain unanswered or liable to change, this shall be further taken up in the next stage of exploratory research.

DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH

STEPS in the descriptive research:

Statement of the problem

Identification of information needed to solve the problem

Selection or development of instruments for gathering the information

Identification of target population and determination of sampling plan

Design of procedure for information collection

Collection of information

Analysis of information

Generalizations and/or predictions

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DATA COLLECTION

Data collection took place with the help of filling of Questionnaires.The questionnaire method has come to more widely used and economical means of data collection. The common factor in all varieties of the questionnaire method is this reliance on verbal responses to questions, written or oral. I found it essential to make sure the questionnaire was easy to read and understand to all spectrums of people in the sample. It was also important as researcher to respect the samples time and energy hence the questionnaire was designed in such a way, that its administration would not exceed 2-3 min. These questionnaires were personally administered.

The first-hand information was collected by making the people fill the questionnaires. The primary data collected by Direct Personal interview .The respondents were contacted at shopping malls, market places in Delhi. The data was collected by interacting with 60 respondents who filled the questionnaires and gave the required necessary information. The respondents consisted of home makers, students, business men, professionals etc. the required information was collected by directly interacting with these respondents.

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SAMPLE DESIGN AND SAMPLE SIZE

SAMPLE DESIGN

It is a description of the characteristics of that group of people from whom a course is intended. Also called the audience the audience to be served by our project includes key demographic information (i.e.; age, sex etc.). The group of people you are trying to reach with a particular strategy or activity. The target population is the population I want to make conclusions about. In an ideal situation, the sampling frames to matches the target population. A specific resource set that is the object or target of investigation. The audience defined in age, background, ability, and preferences, among other things, for which a given course of instruction is intended.

  • I have selected the sample through Simple random Sampling

A simple random sample is a group of subjects (a sample) chosen from a larger group (a population). Each subject from the population is chosenrandomly and entirely by chance, such that each subject has the same probability of being chosen at any stage during the sampling process. This process and technique is known as Simple Random Sampling.

SAMPLE SIZE

The numbers of samples you need are affected by the following factors:

Project goals

How you plan to analyze your data

How variable your data are or are likely to be

How precisely you want to measure change or trend

The number of years over which you want to detect a trend

How many times a year you will sample each point

How much money and manpower you have

  • I have targeted 60 people in the age group of 20 years and above for the purpose of the research. The sample size is influenced by the target population. The target population

represents the Delhi

regions. .

The people were from different professional backgrounds.

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QUESTIONNAIRES

The method of data collection through questionnaire is very popular. In a questionnaire a number of questions are typed in a define order on a form or set of forms. And the researcher fills it by asking the questions with a request to answer by respondents. This method is vastly used in various economy and business surveys and research. There are various benefits of conducting a research with the help of a questionnaire and these are as follows:

  • 1. There is a low cost in conducting a field survey when population is less in number.

  • 2. It is free from the bias of the interviewer; answers are in respondent’s own words.

  • 3. Respondents have adequate time to give well thought out answers.

  • 4. Results that are found from this method are most reliable and dependable. In the good form of questionnaire there should all type of questions like open ended, close-ended questions in a right sequence and number of questions should be very limited. Start of the questionnaire should be respondent friendly.

In my questionnaire we had used both open and close ended questions and made the questionnaire in the simple language stating questions in basic language.

CONDUCTING THE FIELD SURVEY

After making the suitable questionnaire according to my research problem we conducted the field survey in some part of Delhi and collected the necessary data for my research.

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ERRORS IN THE STUDY

Interviewer error

There is interviewer bias in the questionnaire method. Questions can be biased by the interviewer’s views or probing, as interviewers are guiding the respondent while the questionnaire is being filled out. The attitudes, interviewer revels to the respondent during the interview can greatly affect their level of interest and willingness to answer openly. As interviewers probing and clarifications maximize respondent understanding and yield complete answers, these advantages are offset by the problems of prestige seeking, social desirability and courtesy biases.

Questionnaire error

The questionnaire designing has to careful so that only required data is concisely reveled and there is no redundant data generated. The questions have to be worded carefully so that the questions are not loaded and does not lead to a bias in the respondents mind

Respondent error

The respondents selected to be interviewed were not always available and willing to cooperate also in most cases .The respondents were found not having the knowledge, opinion, attitudes or facts required additionally uninformed response errors and response styles also led to survey error.

Sampling error

We have taken the sample size of 60, which cannot determine the buying behavior of the total population.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

All the research projects are hindered in their smooth flow by some unforeseen problems. The problems arise in the form of constraints by budget, time and scope of the study. The current project was also faced by certain problem. Some of the problems faced in the course of the research are as follows:

A strong unwillingness on the part of the owners of various cars, to participate and aid the research.

The boredom and wavering concentration that set in among the respondents while answering the long questionnaire: thus in turn led to the difficulty of preventing incomplete questionnaires.

Sampling error: the research include a sample size of 60 customers which is not enough to determine the brand perception of the consumers for buying FMCG. Since it’s not a census survey there is always a chance of error while extrapolating the results of a sample study over the population especially in those researches where the qualitative aspects are concerned. So it’s always doubtful to map the qualitative aspects using a quantitative measure.

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ANALYSIS

   

Average quantity of buying a washing

 
 

powder

 
 

Location of Purchase

100

250

500

1

2

5

 

Grand

 

gms

gms

gms

Kg

K

K

Total

 

g

g

Local Kirana Store

1

2

11

11

1

4

30

Phone Apps like Grofers etc.

1

1

2

Super Market stores like Big Bazaar, More Stores, Relaince Fresh etc.

 

4

4

9

7

3

   

27

 

Wholesalers

1

1

Grand Total

2

7

15

20

8

8

60

 
 

Occupation

 
 

Location of

Governm

Home

Privat

 

Self

 

Stud

 

Gra

 

Purchase

ent

-

e

Employ

ent

nd

Service

Maker

Servic

ed

 

Total

e

 

Local Kirana Store

4

12

3

9

2

30

Phone Apps like Grofers etc.

1

1

2

Super Market stores like Big Bazaar, More Stores, Relaince Fresh etc.

3

 

6

 

13

 

4

 

1

27

 

Wholesalers

1

1

Grand Total

7

19

17

14

3

60

 
 

Gender

   
 

Location of Purchase

 

Female

Male

Grand Total

 

Local Kirana Store

21

9

30

 

Phone Apps like Grofers etc.

 

1

1

2

 

Super Market stores like Big Bazaar, More Stores, Relaince Fresh etc.

 

19

 

8

27

 

Wholesalers

1

1

 

Grand Total

42

 

18

 

60

 
   
 

Gender

 
 

Detergent Powder

 

Female

 

Male

 

Grand Total

 

Ariel

5

2

7

Ghari

7

2

9

Nirma

8

8

Rin

2

1

3

Surf exel

14

8

22

 

24

Tide

5

3

8

Wheel

1

2

3

Grand Total

42

18

60

25

 

Quantity Purchased

 

Monthly Household

100

250

500

1

2

5

Grand

Income (in Rupees)

gms

gms

gms

Kg

Kg

Kg

Total

> 10,000

2

1

3

10,000 – 30,000

4

6

6

1

17

31,000 – 50,000

1

3

4

3

1

2

14

51,000 and above

1

3

10

7

5

26

Grand Total

2

7

15

20

8

8

60

 

Awareness of your choice of detergent was through

Education

Display

 

Friend

 

Promotio

Retail

   

T.V./Radi

 

Gra

s &

 

s &

nal stalls

er

o/

 

nd

Hoardin

Relativ

 

Newspap

 

Total

gs

es

er adv.

Graduate

5

3

7

14

29

Post-Graduate/

5

2

2

9

Doctorate

Professional

3

1

3

7

Degree

Under Graduate

3

7

5

15

Grand Total

10

8

3

17

 

22

60

 
 

Brands of Detergent Powder

 

Occupation

Ariel

Ghari

Nirm

Rin

Surf

 

Tid

 

Whe

Grand

 

a

Exel

e

el

Total

Government

4

2

1

7

Service

Home-Maker

3

4

4

 

1

2

3

2

19

Private Service

2

3

1

10

 

1

17

Self Employed

1

2

4

 

1

4

2

14

Student

1

2

3

Grand Total

7

9

8

3

22

8

3

60

 
 

Brands of Detergent Powder

 

Monthly Household

Ariel

 

Ghar

 

Nirm

Rin

Sur

 

Tid

 

Whe

Grand

Income (in Rupees)

 

i

a

f

e

 

el

Total

 

Exe

   

l

> 10,000

1

2

3

10,000 - 30,000

1

1

10,000 – 30,000

1

5

5

2

1

2

16

31,000 – 50,000

1

4

1

1

3

3

 

1

14

51,000 and above

4

2

16

 

4

 

26

Grand Total

7

9

8

3

22

8

 

3

60

26

 

Quantity Purchased

 

Residence Location

100

250

500

1

2

5

Grand

gms

gms

 

gms

Kg

Kg

Kg

Total

Central Delhi

1

2

6

9

East Delhi

4

6

2

1

2

15

North Delhi

1

1

3

4

1

1

11

South Delhi

2

3

5

1

11

West Delhi

2

2

5

1

4

14

Grand Total

2

7

15

20

8

8

60

 
 

Brands of Detergent Powder

 

Location of Purchase

Arie

Ghar

 

Nirma

Ri

Sur

Tid

Whe

Grand

l

  • i f

n

e

el

Total

exe

l

Local Kirana Store

5

4

7

2

6

3

3

30

Phone Apps like Grofers etc.

1

1

2

Super Market stores like Big Bazaar, More Stores, Relaince Fresh etc.

2

 

4

 

1

16

4

 

27

Wholesalers

1

1

Grand Total

7

9

8

3

22

8

3

60

 
 

Brands of Detergent Powder

 

Location of Purchase

Arie

Ghar

 

Nirma

Ri

Sur

Tid

Whe

Grand

l

  • i f

n

e

el

Total

exe

l

Local Kirana Store

5

4

7

2

6

3

3

30

Phone Apps like Grofers etc.

1

1

2

Super Market stores like Big Bazaar, More Stores, Relaince Fresh etc.

2

 

4

 

1

16

4

 

27

Wholesalers

1

1

Grand Total

7

9

8

3

22

8

3

60

 

Reasons for purchasing from a particular

 

location

 

Location of Purchase

Convenie

Guarante

Price /

Varie

Gran

nce

e of

Discou

ty

d

originalit

nts

Total

y

27

Local Kirana Store

 

21

7

2

30

Phone Apps like Grofers etc.

 

1

1

2

Super Market stores like Big Bazaar, More Stores, Relaince Fresh etc.

 

10

 

4

 

9

4

27

wholesalers

 

1

1

Grand Total

 

33

5

16

6

60

 
 

Brands of Detergent Powder

 

Reasons of

Ari

Gha

Nirm

Ri

Surf

Tid

Whee

Grand

preference for the brand of your choice

el

ri

a

n

exel

e

l

Total

Cleans

with

only small

2

1

3

amount

Cleans with only small amount & Fragrance

 

1

1

Fragrance

 

1

1

1

3

Superior whiteness

1

9

3

13

Tough stains removal

2

1

3

Usability

in

washing

1

4

1

6

machine

Affordable (Price)

 

7

8

3

1

3

2

24

Good for colored clothes

1

1

4

6

Mildness on hands

 

1

1

Grand Total

 

7

9

8

3

22

8

3

60

28

APPENDIX – I QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear respondent,

We are students of AUD (Ambedkar University Delhi) and as part of our curriculum we are conducting a market research. We would like your cooperation for the same, with an assurance that all the information, which you’ll give, will remain confidential

  • 1. Which brand of detergent powder do you use the most?

o

Surf exel

o

Ariel

o

Tide

o

Rin

o

Nirma

o

Wheel

o

Ghari

o

Others (Please Specify)……….

  • 2. On an average in what quantity do you buy washing powder?

o

Sachet poch

o

100 gms

o

250 gms

o

500 gms

o

1 Kg

o

2 Kg

o

5 Kg

  • 3. Why do you like this brand?

o

Affordable (Price)

o

Superior whiteness

o

Mildness on hands

o

Good for colored clothes

o

Tough stains removal

o

Usability in washing machine

o

Cleans with only small amount

o Fragrance

  • 4. From where do you like to buy your detergent powder?

o

Super Market stores like Big Bazaar, More Stores, Relaince Fresh etc.

o

Local Kirana Store

o

Phone Apps like Grofers etc.

o

Others (please specify)……

  • 5. Why do you buy from this particular place?

o Convenience

o

Price / Discounts

o

Guarantee of originality

o Variety

  • 6. How did you come to know about the detergent powder that you use?

29

o

Retailer

o

Friends& Relatives

o

T.V & Radio , newspaper ad

o

Displays & Hoardings

o

Promotional stalls

o

Any Other source _________

  • 7. Can you recall any one of the advt. of the detergent powder you use the most that you saw in past one

month?

o

Fully Recall

o

Partially Recall

o

Can’t Recall

  • 8. Gender

o

Male

o

Female

  • 9. Age

o

Below 25 Years

o

25 – 35 years

o

36 – 45 years

o

46 years and above

  • 10. Education

o

Under Graduate

o

Graduate

o

Post-Graduate/ Doctorates

o

Professional Degree

  • 11. Monthly Household Income (in Rupees)

o

> 10,000

o

10,000 – 30,000

o

31,000 – 50,000

o

51,000 and above

  • 12. Residence

o

South Delhi

o

West Delhi

o

Central

o

North Delhi

o

East Delhi

  • 13. Occupation

o

Student

o

Home-Maker

o

Government Service

o

Private Service

o

Self Employed

30

31
31

APPENDIX – II

32

Response Sheet in Excel

33

Response Sheet in Excel 33

References

Chowdhury Aayush, Kapoor Abhishek (2005)., Profiling the Young Indian Consumer, Advertising Express, Vol. V, Issue 9, September 2005, pp.83-85

SaklaniAlok, Purohit H.C and Badoni, D.C(2005)., „Positive Disconfirmation as a Threshold to High Satisfaction, Journal of Management Research, Vol.1, No.1, September - December 2000, p.41.

Schiffman Leon, KanukLeslie(2010-E).,Consumer Behaviour , 10/E Pearson

34