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Pollution, Assessment, Monitoring & Survey

STATUS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN INDIA


Central Pollution Control Board has carried out an inventory of municipal solid wastes generation,
collection, transportation and disposal in Class I cities and Class II towns in the country and
published status reports under Control of Urban Pollution Series (CUPS). The reports revealed
following facts:
Class- I Cities

The total Population of 299 Class-l cities (including 23 metro cities) is 13,99,66,369. The
Maharashtra state and Ganga river basin have the highest population of Class-l cities.
Out of 299 Class-l cities, 210 cities have responded to EPTRI's queries. This works out to
75% of the total cities. 45% of the total cities have physical characteristics data.
The municipal Solid Waste Generated in 299 Class-l cities is 48,134 MT/day for the year
1994-95 and 59349 MT/day for the year 1999 (projected).
Bombay which has the highest population, also generates the maximum quantity of solid
waste i.e. 5,355 MT/ day.
About 37% of the total municipal solid waste generated is from the cities located is
Ganga basin and 18% is Maharashtra state.
The average per capita generation of solid waste for Class-l cities works out to 0.376
kg/person/day. The per capita generation of solid waste ranges from 0.1 kg/day for
Junagadh to 0.929 kg/day Jalgaon city.
Mode of collection by manual methods accounts for 51% and by trucks, 48%.
The compostable matter is the major component of MSW composition in India. This
ranges from 24% to 58%, with an average of 35% by weight for Class-l cities.
The content of paper and paper board varies from 3% to 10%, by weigh and average
before disposal.
Out of 48,134 MT/ day of solid waste generated, only 2786 MT/ day receives treatment
before disposal.
The major mode of disposal of solid waste is by land-dumping and composting. The
disposal by land-dumping and composting in respect of Class-l cities works out to 94%
and 5% respectively.
With concentration of industrial and commercial activities around the city nodes, rapid
urbanisation attracted by large scale migration of rural population. The Industrial
Development Areas created in and around the urban centres do not cater to the needs of
basic civic amenities for the migratory population.
The migrated rural Population has not been able to easily adapt to the social change and
to urban living conditions. This has to a great extent contributed to the deteriorating
sanitary, conditions and solid waste generation problems.
The other aspect which contributed to the generation of solid waste is the economic
growth in the urban pockets and the consequent increase in consumerism and package
disposals.
The collection, transportation and disposal of loose garbage in bulk quantities by manual
methods are unhygienic for the carriers.
The dumping areas, have become serious health hazards to the people living the
neighborhood. The ground water in the area is also liable for contamination.
Basic care and precautions are not being taken in handling and safe disposal bio-medical
waste, which is being treated as domestic garbage in majority of the cases.
Enough care and attention are not being paid for the safe disposal of Industrial
Hazardous wastes.

Local Governments are legally bound to provide efficient and effective solid waste
services. With increased population and economic activities and changing urban
lifestyles, local Governments are unable to cope with the mounting solid wastes in cities.
As we witnessed after the plague scare at Surat in the year 1994, local communities and
people themselves were involved in cleaning up the city. The awareness generated
during the plague scare and the motivation of the people, however, could not be
sustained for long.
In large cities, the composition of wastes is changing with rapid increase in Paper,
Plastic, Metal and Hazardous materials components.
Many cities in India have turned to private contractors for transportation of garbage to
disposal sites.

Class II Towns

As per 1991 census, the total population of 345 class-II towns is 2,36,45,614. The Uttar
Pradesh state and Ganga river basin have the highest population of class-II towns.
Average population density for class-II towns works out to 3,695 persons /sq.km.
Out of 345 class-II towns, 113 towns have provided information on solid waste status.
This worked out to 33% of the total towns.
Municipal solid waste generated in 345 class-II towns works out to 3,401 MT /day. The
projected solid waste generation for 1999 based on average growth of population and
average MSW generation from each of the towns is 4217 MT/day.
About 30% of the total municipal solid waste generated is from Ganga river basin.
The Virar of Maharashtra state, which generates the maximum quantity of solid waste, 43
MT / day and Puliyangudi of Tamil Nadu state generates least, 1 MT/ day.
The average per capita contribution of solid waste for class-II towns works out to 0.152
kg / person / day. The per capita generation of solid waste ranges from 0.019 kg/day for
Puliyangudi of Tamil Nadu state to 0.747 kg/day for Virar of Maharashtra state.
The mode of collection is 78% by manual methods and 21% by trucks.
As per the information made available from the 113 municipalities, the solid waste
collection in all class-II towns is cent percent.
Out of 1,454 MT/day of solid waste generated from 113 number of towns, only 46 MT /
day receives treatment before disposal.
The major mode of disposal of solid waste is by land-filling. The disposal by land-filling
and composting in respect of class-II towns works out to 93% and 6%, respectively.