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Heart and Circulatory System

LEB 02

02.01 Human electrocardiography (ECG)


What you can learn about
 Electrocardiogram according
to Einthoven II
 Heart rate
 Quiet and strained heart
 ECG segments
 Atria
 Ventricles
 AV nodes

Principle and tasks:


To record an electrocardiogram (ECG)
between the left leg and the right
and left arm (lead II according to
Einthoven). To relate the ECG segments to the course of heart contraction (P wave, P-Q segment, QRS
complex, T wave)

What you need:


Cobra3, Basic Unit

12150.00

Power supply, 12 V

12151.99

RS232 data cable

14602.00

Cobra3 Universal Recorder Software

14504.61

Bio-amplifier

65961.93

Electrode collecting cable

65981.03

ECG electrodes, 3 pieces

65981.01

Potassium chloride, 250 g

30098.25

Connection cord, 32 A, l = 25 cm, red

07360.01

Connection cord, 32 A, l = 25 cm, blue

07360.04

Spoon with spatula end, l = 150 mm, steel, wide

33398.00

Balance SAS51, 200 g/0.01 g, RS232

45990.93

Graduated cylinder, 100 ml

36629.00

PC, Windows 95 or higher


Tempo/Kleenex Tissues

Circuit diagram

Human electrocardiography (ECG)


P4020111

Typical measuring results


18 Laboratory Experiments, Biology

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG D - 37070 Gttingen

LEB
02.01

Human electrocardiography (ECG)

Related topics
Electrocardiogram according to Einthoven II, heart rate,
quiet and strained heart, ECG segments, atria, ventricles,
AV nodes
Principle and task
To record an electrocardiogram (ECG) between the left leg
and the right and left arm (lead II according to Einthoven).
To relate the ECG segments to the course of heart contraction (P wave, P-Q segment, QRS complex, T wave)
Equipment
Cobra3, Basic Unit
Power supply, 12 V
RS232 data cable
Cobra3 Universal Recorder Software
Bio-amplifier
Electrode collecting cable
ECG electrodes, 3 pieces
Potassium chloride, 250 g
Connection cord, 32 A, l = 25 cm, red
Connection cord, 32 A, l = 25 cm, blue
Spoon with spatula end,
l = 150 mm, steel, wide
Balance SAS51, 200 g/0.01 g, RS232
Graduated cylinder, 100 ml
PC, WINDOWS
Tempo/ Kleenex Tissues

12150.00
12151.99
14602.00
14504.61
65961.93
65981.03
65981.01
30098.25
07360.01
07360.04

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1

33398.00
45990.93
36629.00

1
1
1

Fig. 2. Circuit diagram

Set-up
According to Figs. 1 and 2.

Fig. 1. Experimental set-up

Phywe Series of publication Laboratory Experiments Biology PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen

40201

25

LEB
02.01

Human electrocardiography

Prepare a 1% KCl solution. Cut Kleenex/Tempo tissues to size such that they are approximately as large
as ECG electrodes. Moisten the pieces of cut tissue
with KCl solution.
Using tightening bands, attach one electrode each to
the inner sides of the right and left wrists as well as to
that of the left ankle. In the process, place a piece of
the cut tissue that has been moistened with KCl solution between the skin and the electrode in each case.
Have the experimental subject sit in a relaxed posture
with his or her underarms resting on his or her knees.
Connect the electrode collecting cable as follows: red
plug to the electrode on the right arm; yellow plug to
the electrode on the left arm; green plug to the electrode on the left leg.
Connect the electrode collecting cable to the input
port on the bioamplifier and the amplifier output port
on the bioamplifier to the Analog IN 2 port on the
Cobra3 Interface: the red jack of the bioamplifier with
the upper yellow jack (+) on the Cobra3 Interface; the
blue jack on the bioamplifier with the lower yellow
jack (-).
Procedure
Switch on the bioamplifier; set the amplification to 100
times and the measuring mode to EKG.
Start recording the measured values using parameters in accordance with those shown in Fig. 3:
CONTINUE, START MEASUREMENT.

After conclusion of the measurement process (ca.


5 s), select an appropriate section of the measurement signal.
Measure the maximum amplitude of the ECG.
Calculate the pulse rate using the Survey icon.
Impose a strain on the heart (e.g. 10 deep-knee
bends) and repeat the measurement as described
above.
Several ECG plots can be simultaneously displayed
and compared on the screen.

Results and evaluation


The amplitude of the QRS group is 1 to 2 mV (take the
100-times preamplification into consideration!).
Depending on the strain, the pulse rate lies between
50 and 130 beats/min (time separation between two
corresponding peaks: 1.2 to 0.5 s).
Relationship of the ECG segments to the course of
contraction:
P wave
= Spreading of excitation across the
two atria
P-Q segment = Delay of excitation conduction at
the AV nodes
QRS complex = Excitation conduction across the
two ventricles
T wave
= repolarization of the two ventricles

Fig. 3. Measurement parameters


Fig. 4. Typical measuring results

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40201

Phywe Series of publication Laboratory Experiments Biology PHYWE SYSTEME GMBH & Co. KG D-37070 Gttingen