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RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES

BANGALORE, KARNATAKA
ANNEXURE II
PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR
DISSERTATION
1.

NAME OF CANDIDATE AND


ADDRESS

2.

NAME OF THE INSTITUTION

3.

COURSE OF THE STUDY

MRS.TEJESHWARI.B.V
1ST YEAR MSC (N)
ST.JOHNS COLLEGE OF
NURSING
SARJAPURA ROAD
BANGALORE - 560034
ST.JOHNS COLLEGE OF
NURSING
SARJAPURA ROAD
BANGALORE-560034
MASTER OF SCIENCE
(NURSING)

SUBJECT
COMMUNITY HEALTH
NURSING
4.

DATE OF ADMISSION TO
COURSE

03-05-2010

5. TITLE OF THE TOPIC:


EFFECTIVENESS OF A STRUCTURED TEACHING PROGRAMME
ON KNOWLEDGE OF OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH HAZARDS AMONG
WOMEN WORKERS IN GARMENT FACTORY.

6. BRIEF RESUME OF INTENDED WORK:


6.1 Need for the study
Garment factories are the largest manufacturing sector in India, accounting for
around 25% of Indias output and 40% of total export. Karnataka is a major apparel
sourcing destination for the global market. There are 800 garment factories situated in
Bangalore. Women form a majority (80%) of the workforce in the industry.
Improvement of occupational safety and health standard in the garment factories are
very much essential. Occupational disease and injury are significant in India.1
The major occupational health hazards include physical health hazards (heat
and cold, poor and excessive lighting, noise, vibration, ultraviolet radiation and
ionizing radiation), chemical hazards (local action, inhalation of dusts, gases, metals
and their compounds and ingestion), biological hazards, technical hazards and
psychosocial hazards.2
India has made a name for itself as a garment manufacturing centre in to the
international market for durability, quality and beauty. The textile and garment
industry contribute to 16.63% of Indias export earning, around 45% of this comes
from garment export alone. This provides employment to about 3.5 million people.
The industry has the advantages of large availability of skilled female workforce, low
cost of raw materials and cheap labour.3
The occupational group in garment factories consists of tailors, helpers,
checkers, cutters, trimmers, supervisors and those who working in ironing and
finishing department. The important morbidities noted are musculoskeletal disorders
22.1%, refractive errors 14.4%, skin disorders 9.9% and respiratory illness 6.1%.4
There is an acute need for training in preventive, promotive and curative
health services for occupational health hazards as the part of industrial health
programme. The occupational health programmes can play a vital role in developing
countries. The task of a nurse is to educate workers, to motivate, develop and practice
in preventive measures.5
From investigators experience in the accidental emergency department, she
has identified that most of patients reported to the casualty with complaint of cut
injuries and fractures. This increase incidence of injuries has occurred due to
occupational health hazards. When the investigator interviewed these patients she
observed that they do not have much knowledge on the various occupational health
hazards and the way to preventing it.
This experience of the investigator and the fact that this topic has been
understudied has interested the researcher to do a study to identify occupational health
hazards, particularly among people working in the garment industry.

6.2 Review of literature


Review of literature is a key step in the research process. It refers to an
extensive and a systematic examination of literature relevant to research study to
generate data of what is known and not known about a particular situation and to
provide in depth knowledge base needed to study the selected problem.6
Review of literature done under the following aspects:
1. Studies on the occurrence of occupational health hazards.
2. Studies on knowledge, attitude and practice of occupational health
hazards.
1. Studies on the occurrence of occupational health hazards
A descriptive study was conducted to identify the occupation related accidents
in selected garment industry in, Bangalore city. The study revealed that with a total
work force of 3858, the incidents of accidents during the study period was 2.49/1000
workers.7
The cross-sectional study carried out among 540 cotton textile workers in
Wardha, revealed that prevalence of low back pain was 11.1%.8
A cross sectional study was conducted on a sample of 100 workers in a
woollen textile factory for identification of health related problems, in Belgaum,
district. The study period was from 2005-2006. The sampling technique used for the
study was convenient sampling. The data was collected with the help of questionnaire
and personal interview with the workers. The study showed that 91% of subject had at
least one work related musculo-skeletal pain.9
A cross-sectional study was carried out among the handloom weavers in
Nagpur. The sample size was 319 weavers. Simple random sampling was used. It was
found that there was a prevalence rate of 12.2% respiratory morbidity among the
handloom weavers. 10
A community based cross-sectional study was carried out in slum area of
Kolkata in 2008. The setting for the study where 3 main areas in the slums were
almost all those engaged in the small scale garment industry reside. A complete
enumeration of all workers was done. It was revealed that, about 69.64% had
musculo-skeletal problem, 5.36% had menstrual problem and 37.5% had mal
nutrition.11
A descriptive study was conducted to observe the patterns of absenteeism
related to particular activities in garment industry in Bangalore. The sample size was
388. Stratified random sample technique was used for the study. The study revealed
that tiredness and musculo-skeletal problems were the two significant reasons for the
workers absenteeism.12
2. Studies on knowledge, attitude and practice of occupational health
hazards.
A cross-sectional study was conducted in Tamilnadu, on knowledge,
attitude and practices related to occupational health problems among garment
3

workers. The setting was a small scale garment factory in Madurai city. Stratified
random sampling method was used for the study. The study revealed that, 93% of the
workers had experienced various health problems while working in the garment
manufacturing units, but only 4% workers were using personal protective
equipments.13
6.3 Problem statement
A study to assess the effectiveness of a structured teaching programme on
knowledge of occupational health hazards among women workers in a selected
garment factory, Bangalore.
6.4 Objectives of the study
1. To assess the pre-test knowledge of women workers regarding occupational
health hazards.
2. To assess the post-test knowledge of women workers regarding occupational
health hazards.
3. To compare the pre-test and post-test knowledge on occupational health
hazards among women workers in a selected garment factory.
4. To determine the association between the knowledge of women workers on
occupational health hazards with selected base line variables.
6.5 Operational definitions
Effectiveness
Effectiveness is the ability to produce a specific result or to exert a
specific measurable influence.
In this study it refers to the extent to which the structured teaching
programme on knowledge on occupational health hazards achieves its
objectives in improving knowledge as evidenced by gain in post test
knowledge score.
Structured teaching programme
It is systematically developed instruction and audiovisual aids designed
for a group of women to provide information on occupational health hazards
such as physical, chemical, biological, mechanical and psychosocial diseases.
Knowledge
Information or awareness is gained through experience or education.
In this study it refers to the understanding of women workers regarding
occupational health hazards and its management as measured by the correct
responses to items on structured interview schedule and scored.
Occupational health
In this study it refers to promotion and maintence of highest degree of
physical, mental, social and psychological well being of women workers in
garment factory, Bangalore.

Occupational health hazards


In this study it refers to any one of physical, chemical, biological,
mechanical and psychosocial diseases which garment women workers are
particularly prone to get.
Women workers
In this study it refers to the female who is between the age group of 18
to 50 years working in selected garment factory, Bangalore urban area.
Garment factory
In this study it refers to garment manufacturing unit where people
work to earn their livelihood.
Baseline variables
In this study it refers to age, education, income, division of work and
period of work.
6.6 Assumption
Structured teaching programme is an accepted strategy in improving
knowledge.
Women workers will have some knowledge regarding occupational health
hazards in garment factory.
Selected baseline variables may have some influences on occupational health
knowledge.
6.7 Delimitation
The study is limited to women who are working in the selected garment factory
in Bangalore urban area.
6.8 Projected outcome
This study is aimed to assess the knowledge of women regarding
occupational health hazards. The result of this study will help the industrial nurse to
plan and organise the health education programme for employees on occupational
health hazards. The structured teaching programme will help to improve knowledge
of the employees thus plan preventive measures which will bring down the morbidity
and mortality condition.
6.9 Hypothesis
H1: The mean post test knowledge score of women workers regarding
occupational health hazards will be significantly higher than the mean pre test
knowledge score at 0.05 levels.
H2: There will be a significant association between knowledge score of
workers regarding health hazards and selected baseline variables at 0.05 level
of significance.

7. MATERIAL AND METHOD


7.1 SOURCE OF DATA:
Data will be collected from the women workers in a selected garment factory,
Bangalore.
7.1.1 Research Design
The research design is the plan for the study, providing the overall frame work
for collecting the data.6
The research design selected for the study is Quasi-experimental design
(one group pre-test post-test design).
7.1.2 Setting
The setting of the study refers to the area where the study is conducted.6
The study will be conducted in the Maruthi Garment (P) Ltd in Bangalore
urban area. This factory consists of 200 women workers and it is situated in A.G.S
Layout, Bangalore.
7.1.3 Population
Population is defined as the entire aggregation of cases that meet the
designated criteria.6
The requirement for defining a population for research study arises from the
need to specify the group to which the result of study can be applied. The population
of the present study will comprises of 200 working women in selected garment
factory.
7.2 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION:
7.2.1 Sampling procedure
Sampling procedure refers to the process of selecting a portion of the population
to represent the entire population. Based on permission obtained from the
management of a select factory, 60 samples will be drawn for the study by simple
random sample technique (lottery without replacement).
7.2.2 Sampling Size
In the present study sample size will be 60 women workers working in the
selected garment factory.
7.2.3 Inclusion criteria for sampling

Women workers from selected the garment factory who are willing to
participate and available at the time of data collection.
Women workers who can understand and speak the common language
(Kannada, Hindi and English).

7.2.4 Exclusion criteria for sampling

Women workers from the selected garment factory who are absent on the
date of data collection.

7.2.5 Instrument Used


Section-1 Interview schedule to elicit the demographic information.
Section-2 Structured interview schedule to assess the knowledge.
Section-3 Structured teaching programme.

7.2.6 Data Collection Method


After obtaining management permissions the sample will be identified as per
inclusion criteria. The 60 workers will be selected using simple random sampling
technique. The purpose of study will be explained by the researcher to the women
workers and necessary consent will be obtained from them before study. Structured
interview schedule will be used to assess the knowledge on occupational health
hazards. The time spent with each worker will be 10 15 minutes. After the pre-test,
group teaching will be conducted for 30 minutes in a selected garment factory by
using audio visual aids. 3 to 4 such session will be conducted to cover the entire
sample. Seven days after the teaching, the post test will be conducted for each worker
in the same way as the pre-test is been conducted.
7.2.7 Data analysis plan
Data analysis will be done using descriptive and inferential statistical
methods to meet the objectives of the study.

Data will be entered on a master sheet.


The baseline variables will be assessed by using descriptive statistics such
as mean, percentage and standard deviation.
Association will be done by using the appropriate inferential statistics
such as chi-square and t tests.

7.3. Does the study require any investigation or intervention to be conducted on


patient or other human or animals? If please describe briefly:
No
7.4 Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution?
Yes,ethical clearance has been obtained from scientific and ethical review
committee of St.Johns National Academy of Health Sciences,Bangalore.

LIST OF REFERENCES:
1. Agnihotram RV. Occupational health research in India. Indian Journal of
Industrial Health; 2005; 9(1); 10-14.
2. Park K. Text book of preventive and social medicine. 20th ed. Jabalpur.
Banarsidas Bhanot publishers; 2009. 708-722.
3. Rosenstock L, Cullen M, Fingerhut M. Occupational Health. Journal of
Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries.1127- 43.
4. Parimalam P, Kamalamma N , Ganguli AK. Ergonomic interventions to
improve work environment in garment manufacturing units. Indian Journal of
Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 2006 August; 10(2); 74-77.
5. Dinesh RR. Occupational health scenario. Indian Journal of Occupational and
Environmental Medicine; 1997 December; 1(1); 23-25.
6. Polit DF, Beck CT. Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for
nursing practice. 8th ed. Philadelphia. Lippioncott Williams and Wilkins
publisher; 2004. 320-328.
7. Clavin S, Joseph B. Occupation related accidents in selected garment
industries in Bangalore city. Indian Journal of Community Medicine. 2006
July-September; 31(3); 150-52.
8. Tiwari RN, Pathak MC, Zodpey SP. Low back pain among textile workers.
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 2003 JanuaryApril; 7(1); 27-29.
9. Metgud DC, Khatri S, Mokashi MG, Saha PN. An ergonomic study of women
workers in a woollen textile factory for identification of health related
problems. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 2008;
12(14). Available from htpp://www.ijoem.com/text.com
10. Tiwari RR, Zodpey SP, Vasudeo ND. Respiratory morbidity in handloom
weavers. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 1999
April-June; 3(2); 71-73.
11. Saha TK, Dasgupta A, Butt A, Chattopadhya. Health status of workers
engaged in the small scale garment industry: How healthy are they? Indian
Journal of Community Medicine. 2010; 35; 179-82.
12. Sunita C, Joseph B, Subbanna. Absenteeism in the garment manufacturing
industry. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; 2000
April-June; 4(2); 78-82.
13. Weide WE, Verbeek JH, Salle HJ, Frank JH. Prognostic factors for chronic
disability from acute low back pain in occupational health care. Scandinavian
Journal Work Environmental Health. 1995; 25(1); 49-55.

8.

SIGNATURE OF CANDIDATE

9.

REMARKS OF GUIDE

10.

NAME AND DESIGNATION


OF

10.1

MRS.MERCY .P.J
HOD OF COMMUNITY
HEALTH NURSING
ST.JOHNS COLLEGE OF
NURSING.

GUIDE

10.2
SIGNATURE
10.3
CO-GUIDE

DR.BOBBY JOSEPH
PROFESSOR OF
COMMUNITY MEDICINE
ST.JOHNS MEDICAL
COLLEGE

10.4
SIGNATURE

11.
11.1

HEAD OF DEPARTMENT

11.2

SIGNATURE

12.
12.1

12.2

REMARKS OF THE
CHAIRMAN AND PRINCIPAL

SIGNATURE

MRS.MERCY .P.J
HOD OF COMMUNITY
HEALTH NURSING
ST.JOHNS COLLEGE OF
NURSING

SYNOPSIS

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