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Power-Quality

Improvement in ac

Railway Substations

The concept of chopper-controlled impedance.

a widely used railway system in France with a

length of 9,698 km. Overhead lines are supplied by substations drawing power from two

phases of a three-phase utility. They behave

as nonlinear and time-varying loads and represent one of the

most important sources of voltage unbalance for the electricity-transmission network. In the case of weak networks, railway operators are required to install compensation systems

in substations to satisfy utility regulations and to avoid penalties regarding voltage unbalance and reactive power consumption. The limits are established by the energy provider

with a view to guaranteeing an acceptable power quality to

other customers.

In three-phase networks, the most widely used solutions are

the classical static var (volt ampere reactive) compensators

(SVCs), based on thyristor-controlled reactors (TCRs), and the

static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) based on voltagesource inverters (VSIs). The TCR allows the variation of fundamental lagging current by phase control, counterbalancing large

leading currents from associated fixed capacitors and allowing

continuous compensation of the lagging line. However, this

solution generates a high level of harmonics and requires onerous LC filters. On the other hand, VSIs offer several advantages

over thyristor-based solutions in terms of compensation

dynamics and reduced harmonic distortion. For the last ten

Date of publication: 29 September 2014

Sign courtesy of Wikimedia Commons/Darren Hester

2325-5987/142014IEEE

VSI approach has been widely used for avoiding system

unbalance. However, in high-power applications, the semiconductor losses bring forth significant costs both in terms

of active energy and cooling system maintenance, which

must be taken into consideration by the railway operator.

The concept of the chopper-controlled impedance (CCI),

presented in this article, is based on series or parallel associations of ac choppers using high-frequency pulsewidth modulation (PWM) to vary reactances at the network frequency.

This approach is a low-power-loss solution and requires a

low volume of reactive elements, a fact that makes this solution very attractive in high-power, single-phase systems

such as railway networks.

Chopper-Controlled Impedance

Various converter topologies can be applied to provide ac/ac

conversion. Direct converters provide a link between the

the input and output frequencies are closely related. Nevertheless, passive filters are always required to filter out the

high-frequency harmonics introduced at the input and output sides by the converter switching operation.

Among the ac/ac direct converters, cycloconverters

and matrix converters are distinguished by their ability to

adjust the output frequency and voltage of a specific ac

input voltage source. They also provide bidirectional power-transfer capabilities, allowing the use of active loads

(e.g., motors in regenerative mode). On the other hand,

the ac chopper topology, which is similar to the wellknown dc chopper, provides direct ac/ac conversion

between two ac sources at the same fundamental frequency (Figure 1). The ac chopper may be considered as

an autotransformer whose turns-ratio can be electronically controlled. Nevertheless, although it can provide

instantaneous bidirectional power transfer, it allows

power flow in one direction only, according to the type of

load. AC choppers are normally designed to transfer

power between a fixed ac voltage source (e.g., the utility

grid) and a passive ac load. The load voltage [i.e., its rootmean-square (RMS) value] can be adjusted via the duty

cycle a to control the power flow, but the power exchange

(either active or reactive) is determined purely by the load

type (resistive, capacitive, or inductive).

The ideal waveforms are illustrated in Figure 2 (sinusoidal input voltage and sinusoidal output current). In this

example, the waveforms are given for the case of a 90

leading current.

It can be easily demonstrated that the RMS value of

the output voltage fundamental V2 depends on the input

voltage RMS value V1 and can be adjusted with the duty

cycle a:

V2 = aV1 .(1)

is given by

I 1 = aI 2 .(2)

ac chopper topology requires input and output filtering

elements. In any case, capacitor C F and inductor L F will be

designed to filter out the switching frequency from i 1 and

v 2 . Thus, as shown in Figure 3, the ac chopper can be used

as a step-down or a step-up converter, depending on the

connection of the network and the load. Assuming a sufficiently high switching frequency fsw, the filtering

elements L F and C F can be chosen to have a negligible

influence at the network frequency. Thus, in terms of fundamental RMS values and relationships of input and

output (1) and (2), the structures behave as variable impedances controlled by the duty cycle a. The expressions for

input impedance for step-down and step-up configurations are given by (3) and (4), respectively.

i1

i2

ac

v1

Z

V

Z in . I in . out

, (3)

in

a2

V

Z in . I in . Z out a 2 . (4)

in

frequency, then the converters act as variable capacitors.

Thus, a reactive power compensator can be implemented

using the controlled impedance concept. The supplied

reactive power can be expressed as (5) for step-down

mode and (6) for step-up mode

v2

ac

V 2

Q = Z in a 2, (5)

out

Q=

Vin2

. (6)

a 2 Z out

Concept to Reactive Power Compensation

Currently, most of the main-line traffic is from locomotives

equipped with thyristor rectifiers. That is why (as traffic and

load increase) reactive power compensation is required to

reduce reactive power and to keep the voltage from sagging.

Basic power-factor correction is realized by fixed capacitors.

The problem of such configurations is that when the overhead lines operate at no load, the voltage will rise but may

not exceed the 29-kV standard limit. If an increase of compensation is required, then a variable reactive power compensator must be added to the fixed-capacitor banks.

Today, French National Railways [Socit Nationale des

Chemins de fer Franais (SNCF)] use some lines equipped

v1

i1

v2

i2

Figure 2. The typical ac chopper current and voltage waveforms for

duty cycle a = 0.5.

iin

i2 = iout

i1

Ln

ac

ic

Vin = V1

V2

Vn

LF

VL

Zout

Vout

CF

ac

Load

Network

iout

(a)

i1

ic

Zout

i2 = iin

LF

Ln

ac

V2

Vout = V1

VL

Vin

Vn

ac

Load

(b)

Network

Figure 3. The CCI with buck or boost ac/ac converter: (a) the step-down configuration and (b) the step-up configuration.

with thyristor-based SVCs. However, the TCR draws a nonsinusoidal current, and in single-phase systems, these have a

high level of third harmonic (up to 34% of the fundamental).

As a result, this topology requires a bulky LC shunt filter

tuned to the third harmonic. To avoid this drawback, a new

structure, based on CCIs was proposed. The case study is a

60-MVA substation close to Paris. The substation is phase-tophase connected to a 225-kV three-phase transmission line.

The initial circuit, presented in Figure 4, includes two fixed compensation banks with antiharmonic inductors (L 1 and L 2) .

Overhead Line

L1

L2

c2

c1

60-MVA

Fixed

Substation

225-kV Transformer Compensation

Transmission

Line

iLoad

(Trains)

Vline

Rails

Overhead Line

L1

C1

LF1

iin1

C2

LF2

iout1.1

ac

Vin1.1

L3

L2

Already-Existing

Compensation Banks

Vout1.1

iin2

Co1

iout2.1

ac

Vin2.1

ac

C3

V1

ac

iout1.2

ac

Vin1.2

Vout1.2

Co1

V2

N1

ac

Vout1.N1

Vout2.2

N2

iout1.N2

ac

Co1

Co2

ac

Vin2.N2

Vout2.N2

Co2

ac

New

Compensation Bank

iout2.2

Vin2.2

iout1.N1

ac

Vin1.N1

Vline

ac

ac

Co2

Vout2.1

N1 Step-Up ac Choppers

Rails

N2 Step-Up ac Choppers

18

16

0.8

0.9

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

12

Q = 3 Mvar

10

Initial Circuit

With ac Chopper

0.1

0

19

14

20

21

22 23 24 25 26

Vline (kV)

27

28

29

19

(a)

20

21

22

23 24

Vline (kV)

25

26

27

(b)

Figure 6. The (a) duty cycle and (b) reactive power are plotted versus the line voltage.

4,000

3,000

2,000

1,000

0

19

320

At the substation, a study of active and reactive energy consumption was performed over a five-month period. It was

thus demonstrated that the invoiced reactive energy could

4,000

20

21

22

23 24

Vline (kV)

25

26

27

20

21

22

23 24

Vline (kV)

(a)

25

26

27

300

280

260

240

19

be reduced from 5,000 Mvarh to 1,500 Mvarh by adding variable compensation of 3 Mvar.

The new compensation circuit is presented in Figure 5.

AC choppers are connected in series with the existing

fixed compensators. A filtered shunt capacitor bank

(L 3 - C 3) is added and sized to provide an additional reactive power of 3 Mvar at 22 kV (for a total maximum of

13 Mvar). The controlled impedance part allows reactive

power control by variation of the duty cycle according to

Figure 6 as a function of the line voltage and the maximum compensated reactive power, limited to 13 Mvar.

The peak voltage on each ac chopper is limited to

3.6 kV for a line voltage of 27.5 kV (no-load operation). As a

result, four series-connected ac choppers are required. The

advantage of the voltage divider with regard to semiconductor stress is shown in Figure 7, where the maximum

input current is reached when the output voltage is close

to 1 kV.

Compensation with Step-Up AC Chopper

of the solution presented in Figure 5. The maximum reactive power level was set to 1.2 Mvar. The ac chopper was

1,000

built at the Plasma and Conversion of Energy Research

0

Laboratory (LAPLACE) in Toulouse, France, and tested on

19

20

21 22 23

24 25 26 27

Vline (kV)

the SNCF test platform in Vitry (Paris), France. The experi240

mental setup, shown in Figure 8, is based on the series

connection of an ac chopper and an LC filter, which has a

220

capacitive response at 50 Hz. For safety reasons, resistors

200

R dis1 and R dis2 are installed to discharge the capacitors

when the circuit is turned off.

180

19

20

21 22 23

24 25 26 27

The RMS value of the ac supply used during the test is

Vline (kV)

2,450 V. The semiconductor devices used for the ac chopper

(b)

converter are 3.3-kV/1,500-A insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) switching at 1 kHz. The maximal reactive

Figure 7. The ac chopper output voltages and input currents versus

power provided is about 1.2 Mvar, and the reactive power

line voltage for (a) bank 1 and (b) bank 2.

variation, Q, is 320 kvar. An air-cooled

system based on heat pipes is used. The

control part and the generation of IGBT

L

switching patterns are achieved by using

a mixed-environment digital signal

Discharge

Discharge

processor and field-programmable gate

Contactor

Contactor R

array. The experimental setup is shown

dis1

v

C

in Figure 9, and the waveforms are preRdis2

iout

sented in Figure 10. It can be seen that

Co

the current i in is sinusoidal; voltage v cell

vout

corresponds to the voltage across capaci

in

vin

T1

T2

D1

itor C 0 when Vout is positive. The current

D2

vcell

in switch K1_C is chopped with a polariC1

C2

D1C

ty opposite to i in , and the voltage across

C 0 increases with duty cycle a. All

T1C

D2C

T2C

iK1_C

experimental measurements match well

to the previously calculated values. The

reactive power variation Q ^a h is plotted

Figure 8. The reactive power compensator based on a step-up ac chopper.

in Figure 11.

3,000

2,000

10

Voltage Balancing in Railway Substations

Chopper-Controlled Steinmetz

Circuit for Voltage Balancing

Figure 12 shows a classical railway substation supplied by

a three-phase network. At the point of common coupling,

to avoid penalties from the utility, the railway company is

forced to meet a maximum voltage unbalance factor (UF)

averaged over 10 min. The UF is defined as the ratio of the

negative sequence component V- and the positive

sequence component V+ of the line voltages (v a, v b, and v c) .

Figure 13 shows the basic principle of the active Steinmetz compensator with ac choppers realizing controlled

impedance, both capacitive and inductive, as required.

These impedances, connected across two lines of the

three-phase network, draw currents with a negative

sequence, which compensates the current unbalance

and, consequently, the voltage unbalance produced by

two-line loading.

Only the real part of the negative sequence component

drawn by the substation is compensated, which is the

main drawback of the active Steinmetz circuit. Nevertheless, modern locomotives are equipped with active frontend rectifiers, which draw a sinusoidal current in phase

with the line voltage. In the future, locomotives using thyristor rectifiers will no longer be used; therefore, it will not

be necessary to consider low-power-factor operation during development. Moreover, the railway operator is not

interested in an instantaneous compensation since penalties are applied on the basis of a 10-min average. In this

case, a very simple control strategy can be implemented:

the duty cycle of the ac choppers will be controlled as a

function of the active power consumed by the substation.

Control System

ac Chopper

ac Power-Supply

Connection

Capacitor C0

T

Vcell

4 ms

500 V/div

1

Vin

500 V/div

2

iin

500 A/div

2) [Tek TDS3014B].CH2 500 V 4 ms

3) [Tek TDS3014B].CH3 500 V 4 ms i

4) [Tek TDS3014B].CH4 500 V 4 ms K1_C

500 A/div

Q (kvar)

900

950

1,000

1,050

1,100

1,150

1,200

1,250

Duty Cycle

duty cycle a.

S comp = S L - UF S cc . (7)

3 and set to 3.3 Mvar. The converter is designed with

standard 3.3-kV/1.5-kA IGBT modules with a switching

frequency fsw = 1 KHz. For the design, the following specifications were developed.

xx

Transformer ratio: N T1 and N T2 limit the semiconductor voltage to 1,800 V.

Inductor L

Typical Substation of the French National Railways

The case study is a 16-MVA substation located in vron,

Pays de la Loire, France. The primary of the transformer is

connected across two of the three 90-kV/50-Hz transmission lines, and a 2.7-Mvar reactive power compensation

bank is connected on the 25-kV side. The rating of the

compensator was chosen to guarantee a UF of 1.5% when

the substation is loaded at 10MW and for the lower shortcircuit power S cc = 295 MVA. The power rating of the

unbalance compensator is given by

Capacitor C

ea

Zcc

ia

va

eb

Zcc

ib

vb

ec

Zcc

ic

vc

PCC

il Substation

itrain

11

ac Chopper 2.N2

LV 2

Vout2.N2

LV 2

Vout2.2

LV 2

Vout2.1

2

ac Chopper 2.2

Inductive

Controlled

Impedance

IAB

vb

2

ac Chopper 2.1

LF 2

Vin2

CF 2

NT 2 I

in2

va

ac Chopper 1.1

Iin1 LF 1

vc

ICA

NT 1

LV 1

Vin1

CF 1

Capacitive

Controlled

Impedance

CV 1

Vout1.1

1

ac Chopper 1.2

LV 1

CV 1

Vout1.2

1

ac-Chopper 1.N1

LV 1

CV 1

Vout1.N1

1

Figure 13. An active Steinmetz compensator.

Power

Capacitive CCI

Inductive CCI

1,800

1,750

Vpeak

Mvar

3

2

1,700

1,650

1

0

1,850

Capacitive CCI

Inductive CCI

1,600

0

0.2

0.4

(a)

0.6

0.8

1,550

0.2

0.4

(b)

0.6

Figure 14. The (a) reactive powers and (b) input ac choppers peak voltage are plotted versus duty cycle a 1,2 .

12

0.8

xx

Input filter: To balance the substation even when it is

223

250

Power Losses (kW)

200

141

128.2

150

80.6

100

61.3

33.6

50

0

2-L VSI

Active

Steinmetz

Scomp = 10 MVA (UF = 0% at SL = 10 MVA)

Figure 15. A comparison between voltage-balancer topologies in terms

of power losses.

400,000

250,000

50,000

0

Energy

Capacitor

VSI-2L

21,160

100,000

19,186

18,628

150,000

10,472

200,000

Energy

Inductors

VSI NPC-3L

200,302

340,200

300,000

181,116

On the basis of the design presented in the previous sections, Figure 15 summarizes the power losses for different

voltage-balancer topologies. Losses are referred to a

working condition for the compensators when the load

phase is z L = 0c. Comparing the two solutions based on

VSI converters, the three-level neutral point clamped

(NPC) solution is characterized by lower losses. In addition,

if the active Steinmetz compensator is compared with the

three-level NPC topology, a reduction in the power losses

of about 60% is achieved.

The energy stored in the reactive elements is used as a

qualitative index of the components space volume. The

peak values for current I| and voltage V| in the inductors

Energy (J)

358,828

350,000

31,631

power compensator was replaced with one that was

900 kvar, and the input filter capacitor of the CCI was

chosen to provide a reactive power Q F = 900 kvar. In

this way, when no trains are supplied by the substations, the c

ircuit is seen from the three-phase network

as a balanced load. Moreover, L F1,2 is simply the leakage inductance of the 3.3-MVA transformer.

xx

Maximum ac chopper output current: The number of

modules in parallel (N 1 or N 2) was chosen according

to the thermal limits of the IGBTs (case temperature:

TC = 100 cC, and junction temperature: T J = 125 cC)

with a maximum RMS current I MAX of 735A.

xx

Maximum power: Output impedance parameters

obtain 3.3Mvar at the maximum duty cycle (0.9). Moreover, a 10% maximum current ripple at the switching

frequency was chosen to determine the output impedance of the capacitive ac choppers.

The reactive powers and peak input voltages (Vin1 and

Vin2) of the controlled impedances versus duty cycles a 1

and a 2 are shown in Figure 14.

Total

Active Steinmetz

^S comp = 5.7MVAh .

iL

(A)

100

0

100

1

1.02

(W) (var)

Pload

1.04

Qload

Time (s)

(a)

1.06

1.08

1.1

1.06

1.08

1.1

6,000 K

4,000 K

2,000 K

0K

1

1.02

1.04

Time (s)

(b)

Figure 17. (a) The substation current waveform and (b) active and reactive power.

13

(A)

ia

ib ic

150

100

50

0

50

100

150

0.8

1.2

1.4

1.6

UF%

Time (s)

(a)

3

2

1

0

Substation

Without Load

Load On

Compensation Off

0.8

Load On

Compensation On

1.2

1.4

1.5%

1.6

Time (s)

(b)

Figure 18. (a) The line currents and (b) the voltage UF%.

and capacitors of the three studied topologies are evaluated and used in

1

E cap = 2 CV| 2

1

E ind = 2 LI| 2 . (8)

the three solutions. Comparing the energy stored in the

reactive elements for the three topologies, a huge

difference exists between the proposed compensator and

the classical solutions based on VSI

converters. Particularly for the size of

the dc-link capacitors, the capacitive

stored energy in these conversion

structures is significant. In fact, as

the converter is injecting a purely

negative sequence three-phase current, the fluctuating power makes it

necessary to install large capacitors

to limit the voltage ripple at the

dc side.

Chopper-Controlled Steinmetz

Circuit

The semiconductor

power losses and

energy-storage

requirements

compared to the

widely used VSI

topology make the

proposed solution

very attractive for

railway operators.

at lowest short-circuit power,

S CC = 295 MVA, is considered. The

chopper-controlled Steinmetz circuit

is connected in parallel to the substation. In the circuit, the substation

and the trains were replaced by a controlled c

urrent

source. Then, simulations with PSIM software were carried out using measured current waveforms. The substation current waveform is given in Figure 17 and presents

14

and UF% are presented in Figure 18, in which three

working periods can be distinguished in the simulation

corresponding to three modes of operation:

xx

The substation is not loaded and appears as a balanced load to the power network.

xx

The substation is loaded, and the UF reaches 2%.

xx

The chopper-controlled Steinmetz circuit is turned on

and UF is close to zero, well under the limit of 1.5%.

Figure 19 shows a zoom on the

three-phase line-currents and the

currents drawn by the compensator. It

can be seen that currents i ca and i cb

are quasi-sinusoidal, which confirms

that harmonic interactions are avoided, as expected, with the frequency

analysis presented above. Furthermore, the line voltage drop corresponding to the negative current

sequence is strongly reduced, and the

substation voltage is boosted by 1.7 %.

Conclusion

voltage unbalance compensators

based on PWM ac choppers were proposed. In multilevel structures, current or voltage sharing is naturally

ensured by the choice of impedance

values. A very simple control of reactive power can be achieved by varying only the duty cycle;

no control loops for internal variables are required. Compared to a TCR solution, the ac chopper does not generate

any low-order harmonics, thanks to its PWM operation.

100

ia

ib

ic

(A)

50

0

50

100

1.52

(A)

iac

1.54

1.56

1.58

1.6

1.56

1.58

1.6

Time (s)

(a)

iab

60

40

20

0

20

40

60

1.52

1.54

Time (s)

(b)

Figure 19. (a) The line currents and (b) the injected currents i ab and i ca .

Direct converters

provide a link

between the source

and the load without

additional storage

elements.

it is necessary to choose the filtering

elements with regard to preexisting

harmonics in the network.

As far as the application in ac traction lines is concerned, simulation

results validated the operation of this

novel topology, and a 1.2-Mvar prototype

of the compensator was built and tested

at the SNCFs test platform, confirming

the analytical study and system performance. Although a STATCOM solution

using cascaded VSIs could be considered, the ac chopper

topology, presented in Figure 5, exhibits lower semiconductor

losses. Furthermore, a low-loss voltage-unbalance compensator based on the CCI concept was proposed, and the case

study of a real French substation was undertaken. Despite the

limited compensation domain of the presented topology, the

study highlights its feasibility in railway substations. In fact, in

this kind of application, average compensation is sufficient to

respect the utilitys requirements. The semiconductor power

losses and energy-storage requirements compared to the

widely used VSI topology make the proposed solution very

attractive for railway operators. A very simple control can be

achieved by varying only the chopper duty cycles, without the

need for control loops for other variables. The simulation

results confirmed the operation of the novel topology under

real conditions. At present, an industrial solution of the chopper-controlled Steinmetz circuit is under development and

will be tested in 2016.

choppers, Eur. Power Electron. J., vol.

2123, pp. 2232, Sept. 2011.

G. Raimondo, P. Ladoux, A. Lowinsky, H. Caron, and P. Marino, Reactive

power compensation in railways based

on acboost choppers, IET J. Electr. Syst.

Transport., vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 169177,

Dec. 2012.

P. Ladoux, G. Raimondo, H. Caron,

and P. Marino, Chopper-controlled

Steinmetz circuit for voltage balancing in railway substations, IEEE Trans. Power Electron.,

vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 58135822, Dec. 2013.

G. Raimondo. (2012, Feb.). Power quality improvements

in 25 kV 50 Hz railways substation based on chopper controlled impedances. Ph.D. thesis, Institut National Polytechnique de Toulouse, France. [Online]. Available:

http://ethesis.inp-toulouse.fr/archive/00001820/01/raimondo.pdf

Biographies

Philippe Ladoux (philippe.ladoux@laplace.univ-tlse.fr) is a

full professor at the Plasma and Conversion of Energy

Research Laboratory, University of Toulouse, France.

Joseph Fabre (joseph.fabre@laplace.univ-tlse.fr) is a postdoctoral researcher at the Plasma and Conversion of Energy

Research Laboratory, University of Toulouse, France.

Herv Caron (herve.caron@sncf.fr) is an engineer at the

Department of Fixed Installations for Traction Power Supply in the French National Railways Company.

P. Ladoux, Y. Chron, A. Lowinsky, G. Raimondo, and

P. Marino, New topologies for static reactive power

15

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