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Micreconomics
3rd year
Giorgi

Mar 06, 2016

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University of Melbourne
Micreconomics
3rd year
Giorgi

© All Rights Reserved

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University of Melbourne
Micreconomics
3rd year
Giorgi

© All Rights Reserved

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ECON30010 Microeconomics

9 - 16 March

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

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Topic 1 refresher

In most economic problems, the following assumptions seem reasonable:

I

compared.

good as bundle z, then x is at least as good as z.

y and bundle z is sufficiently close to y, then x is better than z.

Theorem

If preferences over bundles of goods x satisfy completeness, transitivity,

and continuity, then there exists a continuous utility function u(x) that

represents these preferences.

Why is this theorem important? Because mathematicians are very good at

working with functions, and we can use a lot of their tools.

ECON30010

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I

I

I

I

I

Budget set

Utility maximisation problem

Strict monotonicity We cover these two axioms here because they

are related to the maximisation problem.

Convexity

The Lagrange method

Marshallian demand

The name of this topic sounds like math. And our main focus will be

math: it is going to be applied to an economics problem, but my main

goal is to make sure you are comfortable with constrained optimisation.

Why?

We ourselves will need it later, but, more importantly, other subjects will

need it, and much more desperately than we would.

So, any effort to become fully comfortable with constrained optimisation

will pay off handsomely in the future (when your macro lecturer will zip past

the calculations and straight to the optimal solution).

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

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Constraint

Constraint

I

I

I

I

make an agent any happier, something else (more time? extra hike in

mountains?) would make the agent more satisfied.

If an agent to face a meaningful problem where the solution is not

giving an agent an infinite amount of something we need to

introduce some constraint.

Earlier, we have dealt with a simple constraint: an agent had $5 that

she needed to allocate.

This is not the most typical constraint the agent face, although we

will see plenty of similar simple constraints in this subject.

We now turn to a more typical one: budget constraint.

I

will see on a tutorial that we can interpret the same constraint as

something completely different.

applies to other types of constraints, including $5 one.

ECON30010

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Constraint

Budget Constraint

Budget constraint: good 1 and good 2 cost money and an agent (even

Warren Buffet) has a limited amount of it.

A consumer is restricted to choose a consumption bundle q = (q1 , q2 )

such that p1 q1 + p2 q2 Y . Right now, we are not interested where prices

p1 , p2 and income Y come from.

Y

p2

q2

If q1 = 0, p2 q2 = Y q2 = Y /p2

Budget line p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

If q2 = 0, p1 q1 = Y q1 = Y /p1

Budget set p1 q1 + p2 q2 Y

q1

Y /p1

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

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Formally, we can write this problem as:

max u(q1 , q2 )

q1 ,q2

subject to p1 q1 + p2 q2 Y

max u(x, y )

x,y

subject to x + y = 5

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

6 / 48

In ECON20002 you have learned1 that the indifference curve is the

solution to u(x, y ) = u0 , for different levels of u0 .

q2

q1

1

ECON30010

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ECON20002 recap

Y

p2

q2

q1

Y /p1

We are looking for the North-East-most indifference curve2 , such that it

touches budget constraint (to guarantee the feasibility of the solution).

2

Utility increases in that direction see the picture on the previous slide

ECON30010

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Consider an agent, Ann, with preferences:

uA (q1 , q2 ) = (q1 1)2 (q2 1)2

A similar function appeared in Tutorial 1. We know that this function is

maximised at q = (1, 1).

Suppose now that Ann has plenty of money

($4) and prices are p1 = p2 = 1. Her budget

constraint is q1 + q2 4.

From Tutorial 1,3 we know that Anns

indifference curves are circles. We can also

find that at point q = (2, 2) indifference

curve touches the budget line.4

Y

p2

q2

q1

Y /p1

.

How: by symmetry, we can guess that the point is on the intersection of budget line

and a 45 line, then find this point.

4

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

9 / 48

Strict monotonicity

I

This would not happen if utility function u were increasing: then for

any point in the interior of the budget set you could increase utility by

giving more of some good.

utility function is a fake, and we need to know what it means in terms

of something that is not a fake (something that we can observe, such

as choice/preferences).

Definition

If bundle x contains

I

5

This condition was introduced in ECON20002 under the name more is better.

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

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Theorem: With strictly monotonic preferences, we can replace inequality

with equality = in the consumer maximisation problem, so that

p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y .

Proof: Suppose not.6 That is, suppose that we cannot replace by =

because the optimal consumption of a consumer, (q1 , q2 ), is such that

p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y 0 < Y . Then consumer has Y Y 0 of income left over,

which can be spent on good 1 and good 2 (say, equally). Yet, if

preferences are strictly monotonic, then the consumer is better off. So, if

(q1 , q2 ) is an optimal consumption bundle, preferences could not be

strictly monotonic.

6

The proof technique where you assume that the statement of the theorem is wrong

and then prove that the condition of the theorem is not satisfied is called proof by

contradiction. Here the statement is that we can replace with = and the condition

is preferences are strictly monotonic.

ECON30010

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Definition

If bundle x contains

I

dishes. It does not satisfy monotonicity.

However, this is not a problem: we only need to

define the good as not washing dishes.

ECON30010

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Definition

If bundle x contains

I

Eating one chocolate bar is fantastic, but fifth kilo may

cause death.

In most cases, these examples are not a cause of concern

because: (1) goods would be more generally defined (e.g.

consumed over longer periods of time) and (2) the range of

consumption in the problem is where the satiation does not

happen (you wont eat chocolate only).

You still need to examine your problem to see whether the assumption fits.

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

13 / 48

Strict monotonicity is a technical assumption: it is much easier to solve

a problem if this assumption is imposed, but we are not doomed if this

assumption does not make sense in our problem. There are more

sophisticated methods to find a solution.

With equality, we will use the Lagrange method. With inequalities, we

would need to use the Kuhn-Tucker method.

You can check when they lived and guess which method is easier.

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

14 / 48

Suppose that indifference curves look like this:

Y

p2

q2

q1

Y /p1

We then have two optimal consumption bundles. This is not a big problem

if finding optimal bundle is our ultimate goal. However, if we want to

know how consumption changes in response to change in prices, having

two bundles is not convenient: we do not know which one the agent would

be consuming.

Hence, we want to rule out this situation too.

ECON30010

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(recap of ECON20002)

The usual assumption is that our marginal utility is decreasing: you are

ecstatic about the first bar of chocolate, but not so much about the

second bar.

This naturally leads to convexity assumption: if you are indifferent

between

x: 3 bars of chocolate & 1 candy and

y : 3 candies & 1 bar of chocolate,

then you must prefer (z) 2 bars of chocolate and 2 candies to x and y .

Does this assumption always hold? Not necessarily: both aspirin and

paracetamol are good against a headache (so, you are, conceivably,

indifferent), but having 1/2 of aspirin and 1/2 of paracetamol is a recipe

for a disaster.

Similarly to strict monotonicity: this is unlikely to be a problem with more

generally defined goods. At the same time, as always, when you think about

your specific problem, you do need to think whether this assumption is satisfied.

ECON30010

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16 / 48

Convexity

I have told you what convexity means when we talk about 3 chocolates

and 1 candy. We need to be a bit more general than that.

Formal definition of convexity:7

Definition

Suppose that a consumer is indifferent between bundle x and y. Consider

a bundle z := x + (1 )y for any such that 0 < < 1.8

I

Do not confuse convex preferences and convex functions. These are two different

notions. (Only if you are very curious: The set of better allocations the inside of the indifference curve is a convex set;

the set above the convex function is a convex set. Convex set is the set that contains a straight line that connects any two

points of the set.)

8

I do not need the second relation, z y , because I have already assumed

transitivity. Check that you understand why. The same applies to strict convexity.

9

ECON30010

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Definition

Suppose that a consumer is indifferent between bundle x and y. Consider a

bundle z := x + (1 )y for any such that 0 < < 1.

I

Any point on this line is z from

the definition.

q2

y

z

x

q1

If utility increases in the northeast direction (as it usually does), then the

whole straight line should be above the indifference curve (recall that

points above indifference curve are more desirable bundles).

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

18 / 48

Y

p2

Any point on this line is z from

the definition.

q2

y

z

x

q1

Y /p1

With strict convexity, we will have a unique solution to our maximisation

problem.

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

19 / 48

Convexity on a graph

Definition

Suppose that a consumer is indifferent between bundle x and y. Consider a

bundle z := x + (1 )y for any such that 0 < < 1.

I

q2

z

y

q1

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

20 / 48

Y

p2

q2

s

S

q1

Y /p1

Convexity holds, but solution is not unique: there is an interval of

solutions from s to S.

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

21 / 48

Non-convexity

Definition

Suppose that a consumer is indifferent between bundle x and y. Consider a

bundle z := x + (1 )y for any such that 0 < < 1.

I

Y

p2

q2

x z

q1

Y /p1

These preferences are not convex.

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

22 / 48

More assumptions

differentiable. These assumptions are also traceable to assumptions on

preferences. However, it becomes too technical and I will skip that.

ECON30010

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23 / 48

max u(q1 , q2 )

q1 ,q2

subject to p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

This is called constrained maximisation problem because you need to (i)

find max u(q1 , q2 ) and (ii) satisfy your constraint (here p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y ).

Problem (i) alone is called unconstrained optimisation problem. You can

guess that constrained maximisation problem is usually more difficult than

an unconstrained one.

How do you solve constrained maximisation problem?

I Sometimes you can see what the solution is (for example, when

goods are perfect complements or perfect substitutes);

I You can substitute in budget constraint (q1 = 1 (Y p2 q2 )) (this is

p1

what you have done in ECON20002)

I Or you can use the Lagrange method

I

You can also use a shortcut which comes from the Lagrange method;

this is what youve also done in ECON20002.

ECON30010

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By Year 3, we know perfectly well how to solve unconstrained optimisation

problem (take a derivative, equate it to zero (that is obtain first-order condition,

FOC), argue/check/think whether FOC gives you a correct solution). We can do

this mindlessly, except for the last step (argue/check/think).

The Lagrange method turns something that you dont know how to solve

into something that you know how to solve. It introduces an auxiliary

problem.

Define Lagrangian as

L(q1 , q2 , ) = u(q1 , q2 ) + [Y p1 q1 p2 q2 ],

where , called a Lagrange multiplier, is an additional decision variable

(along with q1 and q2 ).

max u(q1 , q2 )

q1 ,q2

max L(q1 , q2 , )

q1 ,q2 ,

subject to p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

ECON30010

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max L(q1 , q2 , ) = u(q1 , q2 ) + [Y p1 q1 p2 q2 ]

q1 ,q2 ,

L(q1 ,q2 ,)

q1

L(q1 ,q2 ,)

q2

L(q1 ,q2 ,)

ECON30010

=0

=0

= 0.

9 - 16 March

26 / 48

max L(q1 , q2 , ) = u(q1 , q2 ) + [Y p1 q1 p2 q2 ]

q1 ,q2 ,

ECON30010

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max L(q1 , q2 , ) = u(q1 , q2 ) + [Y p1 q1 p2 q2 ]

q1 ,q2 ,

ECON30010

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L(q ,q ,)

1 ,q2 )

1 2

= u(q

p1

q1

q1

u(q1 ,q2 )

L(q1 ,q2 ,)

= q2 p2

q

L(q1 ,q2 2 ,)

= Y p1 q1 p2 q2

=0

=0

= 0.

MU1 (q1 , q2 ) = p1

1 (q1 ,q2 )

MRS = MU

MU2 (q1 ,q2 )

MU2 (q1 , q2 ) = p2

p1 q1 + p2 q2

p q + p q = Y

1 1

2 2

=

= pp12

= Y.

MU1

MU2

=

p1

p2

good; that is, an increase in utility if income Y is increased by 1 cent.

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

29 / 48

Revisit our utility function u(q1 , q2 ) = q1 q2 .

Recall that MU1 = q2 , MU2 = q1 , q1 =

previous slide = q2 /p1 = q1 /p2

Y

2p1 ,

and q2 =

Y

2p2 ;

from the

the shadow value of a constraint is = 1/2.

Let Y = 1.01 now; p1 = 1/2, p2 = 2 as before. Then q1 = 1.01,

q2 = 1.01/4, u(q1 , q2 ) = 1.012 /4 = 0.255025.

Note that

u = 0.255025 0.25 = 0.005025 0.005 = 1/2 (1.01 1) = Y

Change in u is almost equal to times the change in how binding the

constraint is. It would have been exactly 0.005 if the increase in income Y

has been even smaller (you can try that at home).

ECON30010

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30 / 48

Consider another utility function: u(q1 , q2 ) = q1 q2 + 3q1 . Let p1 = p2 = 1

and Y = 2

The Lagrangian is

L(q1 , q2 , ) = q1 q2 + 3q1 + [2 q1 q2 ],

L(q1 ,q2 ,)

q1

L(q1 ,q2 ,)

q

L(q1 ,q2 2 ,)

= q2 + 3 = 0

= q1 = 0

= 2 q1 q2 = 0.

(

q1 = q2 + 3

q2 + 3 + q2 = 2

2q2 = 1

ECON30010

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Y

p2

q2

q1

Y /p1

(corner solution)

if can consume negative quantities

quantities.

ECON30010

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max u(q1 , q2 )

q1 ,q2

p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

subject to q1 0

q2 0

Yet, the solution to this problem, using Kuhn-Tucker conditions, would be

too messy. Hence, we ignore some of the constraints, with a hope that

they would not matter, but need to revisit our problem once we obtained

the solution to a simplified problem.

Surprisingly, a lot of problems in economics are solved this way: Original

problem is too hard; let us try to solve a simplified problem, hoping that its

solution will satisfy other constraints; if not, try a different simplification.

ECON30010

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Revisit our solution in Example 1:

(

q1 =

q2 =

Y

2p1

Y

2p2

Note that we obtained the solution for any prices p1 , p2 and any income

Y . That is, we could write the solution as functions q1 (p1 , p2 , Y ) and

q2 (p1 , p2 , Y ). These functions are called Marhsallian, or uncompensated,10

demand.

10

You can look up your notes from ECON20002 if you want to know right now why

the demand is called uncompensated, or you can wait a little.

ECON30010

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Summary

Main points:

I

preferences by a continuous utility function;

Maximisation of a utility function subject to a budget constraint

(using Lagrange method) leads to Marshallian demand functions.

I

unconstrained maximisation problem.

Solve unconstrained maximisation problem using standard methods.

Whats next:

I

Normal, inferior and Giffen goods.

ECON30010

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(Ii)

ECON30010

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(II)

q1 ,q2

subject to p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

Corresponding Lagrangian

L = ln(q1 b1 ) 2 ln(b2 q2 ) + [Y p1 q1 p2 q2 ]

ECON30010

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1

L

=

p1 = 0

q1

q1 b1

2

L

=

p2 = 0

q2

b2 q2

L

= Y p1 q1 p2 q2 = 0

q2 = b2 2

1

= p1

q1 b1

2

= p2

b2 q2

p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

b2 q2

p1

=2

q1 b1

p2

p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

p1

(q1 b1 )

p2

p1

(q1 b1 ))

p2

= p1 q1 + p2 b2 2p1 (q1 b1 ) = p2 b2 p1 q1 + 2p1 b1

Y p2 b2

p1

Y p2 b2

q1 = 2b1

; q2 = b2 2

b1

p1

p2

p1

1

Y b1 p1

= b2 2 (b1 p1 Y + p2 b2 ) = 2

b2

p2

p2

Y = p1 q1 + p2 q2 = p1 q1 + p2 (b2 2

ECON30010

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Marshallian (uncompensated) demand is:

Y p2 b2

p1

Y b1 p1

q2 (p1 , p2 , Y ) = 2

b2

p2

q1 (p1 , p2 , Y ) = 2b1

Y = 3, b1 = b2 = p1 = p2 . Then q1 = 2 31

1 = 0. If we go back to the

utility function, u(q1 , q2 ) = ln(q1 b1 ) 2 ln(b2 q2 ), it is not defined if

q1 = 0 and b1 = 1 because it leads to ln(0 1), which is undefined. To

ensure that q1 b1 > 0 and b2 q2 > 0 we need to impose the following

conditions:

Y p2 b2

For q1 > b1 we need 2b1

> b1 hence Y p2 b2 < p1 b1 and

p1

for 0 < q2 < b2 we need Y p2 b2 < p1 b1 < Y p2 b2 /2

11

We always need to check that our solution makes sense, but in simple examples it is

obvious.

ECON30010

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Types of goods

Consider good 2:

q2 (p1 , p2 , Y )

=

Y

Y

Y b1 p1

2

2

b2 =

> 0 because p2 > 0.

p2

p2

increases.

These goods are called normal.

ECON30010

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Types of goods

In fact, we can do even more math and look at what share of income this

individual spends on good 2, and how it changes with income:

Y q2 (p1 , p2 , Y ) q2 (p1 , p2 , Y )

p2 q2 (p1 , p2 , Y )

= p2 Y

Y

Y

Y2

2Y (2(Y b1 p1 ) b2 p2 )

b1 p1 + b2 p2

=

=

>0

2

Y

Y2

This is a luxury good. For this good, the individual spends larger share of

her income on the good as income rises. That is, if an individual spends

10% of income on good 2 at income level Y, if income increases by , the

share spent from this would be above 10%.12 In fact, in our case it is

2 p2

possible that b1 p1Y+b

> 1, so an individual spend the whole and more

2

on good 2.

12

ECON30010

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Types of goods

Consider good 1:

q1 (p1 , p2 , Y )

=

Y

Y

Y p2 b2

1

2b1

= < 0 because p1 > 0

p1

p1

increases.

These goods are called inferior.

Note that our formula implies that if the price of good 1 is very low, the

consumption of this good decreases extremely fast as income increases. It may

sound peculiar on a first sight, but should not be surprising: if price of good 1 is

very low, then this individual consumes a lot of good 1 to begin with, so the fall

in consumption is also very large.

ECON30010

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Types of goods

Giffen goods

Consider good 1 again:

q1 (p1 , p2 , Y )

=

p1

p1

Y p2 b2

2b1

p1

=

Y p2 b2

(p1 )2

1 ,p2 ,Y )

Suppose Y , p2 and b2 are such that Y p2 b2 > 0. Then q1 (pp

> 0.

1

It means that as price of good 1 increases, the consumption of good 1

increases. These goods are called Giffen goods. This is an unusual

property and we will explore it in a little more detail.

First, let us see what the condition Y p2 b2 > 0 implies in terms of the

2 b2

amount of good 1 consumed. The demand for good 1 is 2b1 Y p

, so

p1

if Y p2 b2 > 0, then q1 < 2b1 . That is,

consumption of good 1 is low.

ECON30010

q1 (p1 ,p2 ,Y )

p1

9 - 16 March

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Types of goods

q1 (p1 , p2 , Y )

> 0 if Y p2 b2 > 0

p1

q1 (p1 , p2 , Y )

< 0 otherwise

p1

We see that derivative may change for different values of Y , p2 and b2 .

A more proper terminology should be a good that exhibits Giffen

property in the range b1 < q1 < 2b1 .13

All other goods can be change their properties depending on particular

prices and income; for example, a good can be normal over a range of

prices and incomes and inferior over a different range.

13

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

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Types of goods

We will talk more about Giffen behaviour; before we turn to that, we will

revisit our utility function that gave Giffen behaviour and will change just

one coefficient.

Old:

New:

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

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Types of goods

L

1

=

p1 = 0

q1

q1 b1

L

2

=

p2 = 0

q2

b2 q2

L

= Y p1 q1 p2 q2 = 0

1

= p1

q1 b1

2

= p2

b2 q2

p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

p1

b2 q2

=

q1 b1

p2

p1 q1 + p2 q2 = Y

.

p1

q2 = b2 (q1 b1 )

p2

p1

(q1 b1 ))

p2

= p1 q1 + p2 b2 p1 (q1 b1 ) = p2 b2 p1 b1

Y = p1 q1 + p2 q2 = p1 q1 + p2 (b2

Where is q1?

Or q2 ?

What if p2 b2 p1 b1 is not equal Y ?

ECON30010

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Types of goods

is not surprising that we cannot find a solution (it is akin to maximising

linear function f (x) = x using first order conditions: youve tried

something like this in Tutorial 1).

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

47 / 48

Types of goods

Summary

Skills:

I

does not work.

that your solution makes sense.

Economics:

I

ECON30010

9 - 16 March

48 / 48

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