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PSYCHOLOGY INTRODUCTION

DEFINITION
Psychology is the science of
human and animal behavior;
include its application to
human problemsJ.B. Watson
The father of behaviorist school

In

modern terms psychology is


defined as the science of behavior
in relation with the environment.
Psychology is the scientific study
of behavior and mental processes.
Science of behavior and cognitive
process.
Study of consciousness.

Psychology as a science
As a science psychology is
systematic, because experiments
and observations are at core of
scientific psychology .
As a science it is measurable.(not
in all cases)

Application

It is an art and skill.

Applied aspects in the form of various


branches
eg: industrial, clinical, educational
psychology

This skill acquired by study, practice and


special training

Dual root of psychology

Philosophy and Natural science


Idea of applying methods of science to
study the human behavior.
2 important ideas from philosophy
Idea concerning the way in which we can
acquire the knowledge about natural
science.
Idea concerning the relationship between
mind and body

Work of psychologist /branches


and fields of psychology
Divided -pure psychology and applied
psychology
Pure psychology-provides frame work and
theory
Applied psychology-theory generated through
pure psychology finds its practical shape

Pure psychology -branches

General psychology

Abnormal

Geo psychology

Social

Developmental

Experimental

Physiological

Applied psychology-branches

School & Educational


psychology

Military

Political

Legal

Clinical

Counseling

Industrial &
organizational

History of psychology

Pre scientific psychology

Early schools of psychology

Modern perspective

Pre scientific psychology

Pre scientific psychology

It was believed that cause of human


behavior located outside the human being
Greek philosophers look inside the man
and tried to find out the clue of behavior
Socrates,Plato,Arisotile
Once again churchs believes came
influence of evils on behavior
17nth century Descarts (French) -Dualism

The study of psychology in philosophical context


dates back to the ancient civilizations of Egypt,
China, and Persia.

Psychology began adopting a more clinical and


experimental approach under Muslim
psychologists and physicians

Though the use of psychological experimentation


dates back to Alhazen's Book of Optics in 1021,
psychology as an independent experimental field
of study began in 1879,

Early schools of psychology

Early schools of psychology


Wilhelm Wundt founded the first
laboratory dedicated exclusively to
psychological research at Leipzig
University in Germany, for which Wundt
is known as the "father of
psychology".
The year 1879 is thus sometimes
regarded as the "birthdate" of
psychology.

The American philosopher


William James published his
book, Principles of
Psychology in 1890, which
gave the answer for many of
the questions

Structuralism

Functionalism
Wilhem wundt(1832-1920)
William james,
and his student
John dewey, James
Edward Titchener(1867-1927)
angell, Harvey carr

Mind is made by units


Method of studyintroseption
Tried to find out the
elements of mind
Consciousness can be
broken into 3 elements;
Physical sensation
Feelings
images

How and why mind


function?
Function of mind and
behavior
Experimented on the
way in which,learning,
memory, problem
solving,adaptation to
environment.

Behaviorism
John B Watson(1879-1958)

Denied the subjectiveness of mind


Observable activities of people and animal
3 characteristics:
Emphasis on conditional response
Learned rather than unlearned behavior
No difference between human and animal
behavior

Psychoanalysis
Sigmund Freud (1856-1938)

Expression of unconscious-behavior

Theme of unconscious motivationpsychoanalytic theory


1.The world of unconscious
2. psychoanalytic method-free assoc iation,
dream analysis, analysis of daily psycho
pathology
3.Structure of psyche-id, ego, super ego
4.Psychosexual development- oral stage, anal,
genital, latency, phallic

Gestalt psychology
(Max wertheimer-1912)
Whole is greater than or different than the
sum of all of the parts.

Opposed atomic and molecular


approach to behavior
Opposed structuralism

Modern perspective

Psychologist tried to obtain systematic


information about all aspects of behavior.

In order to get aqurate answer, psychologist


decided to study the behavior in different
perspectives.

Behaviorism and psychoanalysis are


present in modern perspectives in modified
form

Behavioral perspective

When a behavior giving rewards it is


stamped in, When a behavior not giving
rewards it is stamped out
Only observable behavior is the proper
subject for investigation
Eg: we cant observe work motivation
directly. So we asses it through behavior

Cognitive perspective

Focus on cognitive process memory,


thinking, decision making
Based on Albert banduras social learning
theory
Processing of information
Processing is based on experience we
have
Difference in processing leads to difference
in behavior

Socio cultural perspective

Individual perception ,feeling and action


strongly influence by social & cultural
factors
Social psychology tries to get a cause of
behavior relation with social factors
Look for quality of relationship

Developmental perspective

Characteristic changes occur in a person


when he/she mature

Changes occur in way of thinking

Humanistic perspective

Persons sense of self


Consider the human being as a purposeful
being
Giving more value to human being
Key points- self actualization, freedom,
search for unique goals
Personal meaning of his existance

Psychoanalytic perspective

It is a part of psychodynamic

Focus on role feeling and impulses.

when impulses are not acceptable leads


to defense mechanism . Eg:displacement

Biological perspective

Try to relate the behavior to functions of the


body-brain & nervous system, endocrine
system

Eg; electrical changes occur in brain during


learning process, during sleep..etc

Evolutionary perspective

Behavior is shaped to some extent by


genetic factors

Influence of inherited tendencies and


disposition

Eg; systematic study in identical twines

SCOPE OF
PSYCHOLOGY IN
HOMOEOPATHY

To differentiate normal and abnormal


behavior

To observe the patient

To asses the mental symptoms of patient.

In homeopathy, mental and emotional


symptoms are of paramount importance
Homeopathy however is not the same as
psychoanalysis, for although it needs to
mental/emotional dynamic in any case
taking, psychological insights may be
revealed, this information is used to find
a homeopathic remedy not to provide a
psychoanalytical solution.

Homeopathy uses the mental/emotional


componant to connect the full picture of the
patients suffering to the attributes of a
remedy - the more complete the picture, the
more likely the chosen remedy will be
homeopathic

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