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CASE STUDY OF PROPOSED MARICULTURE SITES

IN DAVAO CITY

A Case Study
Presented to
Professor Marie Antonette B. Pana-Tautho
College of Governance and Business
University of Southeastern Philippines
Obrero, Davao City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements in


GM 206

Amelia C. Bibera
October 24, 2015

Table of Contents
CHAPTER I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY......................................................................4
CHAPTER II. INTRODUCTION................................................................................ 5

2.1 Introduction.................................................................................................. 6
2.2. Objective..................................................................................................... 7
2.3 Statement of the Problem............................................................................... 7
2.4 Scope and Limitation..................................................................................... 8
2.4 A. Site Description................................................................................... 8
2.4 B. Proposed Sites................................................................................... 9
2.5 Definition of Terms....................................................................................... 10
CHAPTER III. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE................................................15
3.1 History of Mariculture................................................................................... 15
3.2 Related Studies on Mariculture......................................................................15
3.3 Mariculture in the Philippines.........................................................................16
3.4 Mariculture in Mindanao.............................................................................. 17
3.5 Understanding How the Mariculture Park is Born/Operate.................................18
3.6 Impact of Mariculture Parks..........................................................................20
CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION..........................................................22
4.3 Punta Dumalag Present Site of the Mariculture Livelihood Project....................22
4.3 A Background...................................................................................... 22
4.3 B The Cause for Alarm..........................................................................23
4.3 C The Result......................................................................................... 25
4.4 Selection of Potential Sites........................................................................... 26
4.5 Site I Lasang-Bunawan, Davao City.............................................................27
4.5 A. Bathymetry...................................................................................... 28
4.5 B. Protected Area.................................................................................. 28
4.5 C. Temperature..................................................................................... 29
4.5 D. Dissolved Oxygen............................................................................. 30
4.5 E. Salinity............................................................................................. 30
4.5 F. pH................................................................................................... 31
4.5 G. Chlorophyll....................................................................................... 31
4.5 H. Current............................................................................................ 31
4.5 I Microbiological and Heavy Metal Analysis...............................................32
4.6 Site 2 Toril, Davao City.............................................................................. 32
4.6 A. Location of the Corals Areas...............................................................32
4.6 C. Temperature..................................................................................... 32
4.6 C Microbiological and Heavy Metal Analysis..............................................33
4.7 Site 3 Talomo Bay Area.............................................................................. 33
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CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSION................................................................................ 34


CHAPTER VII. RECOMMENDATION.....................................................................36
REFERENCES.................................................................................................... 40
ANNEXES.......................................................................................................... 43

List of Figures
Figure 1. 2007 Fisheries Production.............................................................................7
Figure 2. Mariculture Livelihood Project in Punta Dumalag.........................................9
Figure 3. Location of the Study Sites.........................................................................10
Figure 4. pH Levels.....................................................................................................13
Figure 5. Mariculture Parks in The Philippines...........................................................18
Figure 6. Assessment of Impacts of Mariculture........................................................21
List of Annexes
Annex A. DENR Administrative Order No. 34, Series of 1990.........................................43
Annex B. The Group: Amelia C. Bibera, Shiela Legaria, Michelle Polistico, Rosalie
Otero, Melody Balicat........................................................................................... 44
Annex D. Punta Dumalag Mariculture Park..........................................................44
Annex C. The Group at the Angel's Cove Beach Resort.......................................44
Annex E. Houses on the Waters of Punta Dumalag..............................................45
Annex F. Sampling Points fro the Water Samples from Punta Dumalag...............45
Annex G.Coliform Analysis Results of the Coastal waters in Matina, Davao City. 46
Annex I. The Mangrooves at the Lasang-Bunawan Site.......................................46
Annex H. At the Police Station of Barangay Lasang.............................................46
Annex J. Ali Pesadas , 40 years old, member of the Nagkahiusang Mananagat sa
Barangay Lasang (NAGAMBALA)..........................................................................47
Annex K. Bathymetry (Lasang-Bunawan Site)......................................................47
Annex L. Protected Area (Lasang-Bunawan Site).................................................47
Annex M. Temperature (Lasang-Bunawan Site)....................................................48
Annex N. Dissolved Oxygen (Lasang-Bunawan Site)............................................48
Annex O. Salinity (Lasang-Bunawan Site)............................................................48
Annex P. pH (Lasang-Bunawan Site)....................................................................49
Annex Q.Chlorophyll (lasang-Bunawan Site)........................................................49
Annex R.Current (Lasang-Bunawan Site).............................................................49
Annex S. Microbiological & heavy Metals Analysis of Water Samples..................50
Annex T. Coral Areas (Toril Site)...........................................................................50
Annex U. Temperature (Toril Site)........................................................................50

CHAPTER I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY


Natural resources, time and again, have been used and abused. Dwinding
natural resources has been a reality of life in the Philippines. This scarcity is likewise
3

seen in coastal or municipal fisheries. The fish resources is fast diminishing. More
and more fishers have moved farther and farther from the shore to bring in a
bountiful catch, but sad to note, that this bountiful catch has slowly evolved into a
dream. There are more and more fishers chasing after less and less fish.
The immediate solution would be to slacken if not lessen fishing pressure to
allow the fish resources to once again flourish naturally. But can we direct the
fisherfolks to stop fishing when this is the only means of livelihood they know? This
would be tantamount to telling someone to stop living!
One alternative seen by the government is aquaculture and mariculture.
Mariculture or cultivation of fish in seawaters by fish cages is gaining a strong
following. This would allow the fisherfolks to continue with a livelihood that is familiar
and dear to them producing the very same fish, a commodity they are used to,
perhaps in more bulk and allowing them to work in the same environment they are
familiar with less dangers as they do not have to go very far and expose themselves
to the harsh elements.
The viability of fish cages has already been fully shown in the success stories
of those who have pioneered this industry here in the Philippines and in other
countries. The only remaining issue to be resolved is the proper regulation and
management of the monitoring of mariculture parks. The technology needed to
cultivate other species that will thrive well in controlled conditions can be aptly
provided by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR).
One big challenge in promoting sea cages as a technology for the ordinary
fisherfolk is the cost of the cages and its installation. This is where the government
could come in to subsidize the construction of these cages so as to forestall the
monopoly of this industry by the moneyed few who has the finacial resources but do
not have the heart nor dedication for the industry.
Culling from FAO Corporate Repository,1 is the perfect solution: The concept
of a mariculture park envisions that the government provides the infrastructure for
1 FAO Corporate Repository, Rural Aquaculture in the Philippines,
http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6943e/x6943e0e.htm
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mariculture in the same manner that it provides farm to market roads, irrigation
system and post harvest storage facilities for agriculture. Such facilities can even be
constructed by the private sector using Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) schemes
already being employed in the building of roads and power plants. Marine engineers
can design such mooring systems in a given area to a given specification. Plastic
buoys can be used to maintain the mooring terminals at the water surface.
Prospective fish cage operators will merely have to shackle their cages to the
mooring point and pay a corresponding mooring fee based on the size of the cages.
The fees can be based on a fair return on the investment for the infrastructure
amortized over a period of 20 to 25 years just like roads and bridges.
Through mariculture, we are not only building an industry but building and
uplifting lives.

CHAPTER II. INTRODUCTION


2.1 Introduction
Most of the worlds fishing areas have reached their maximun potential for capture
fisheries production, while demand for seafood worldwide is steadily increasing
(FAO, 2001 cited by Troell, M. Et al. 2003). Attention is also called to the fact that
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there is a steady increase in the global production of aquaculture which has doubled
in the last decade; aquaculture now is reponsible for supplying one third of the
seafood consumed worldwide (FAO, 2001). To meet the continuing demand the
aquaculture production has to increase by 50 million Mt by 20150 (Tacon and
Forster, 2001)
Philippines is an archipelago composed of 7,100 islands, thus a large portion
of the population resides in the coastal areas consequently depending on fisheries
for livelihood and sustenance. Aside from farming, the basic livelihod of Filipinos is
fishing. With a total territorial water of 2,200,000 km 2, it only has 299,735 km 2 of land
area of which 102,984 km2 or 34% is agricultural.2

Food security compounded with population growth, poverty, and declining


land and water resources productivity is a pressing issue in the Philippines. 3 Relative
to food, Filipinos are fish eaters with per capita consumption of 36 kg per year (99
gram per day)

equivalent to 12.3% of the total food intake per person per day.

Filipinos consider fish as a staple food together with the rice.


In the Philippines, fisheries is considered a very important industry. In 1995
Philippines was ranked 12 th among the largest fish producer in the world, fourth in
terms of aquaculture production based on figures from FAO Yearbook, 1995. As to its
contribution to the national Gross Value Added (GVA) in Agriculture, Fishery and
Forestry in 1997, fisheries contributed 18.5 percent, at constant prices, as against
livestock and poultry which contributed only 12.1% and 10.3% respectively. Fisheries
was exceeded only by agricultural crops which contributed 54.1%.

2 FAO Corporate Documentary Repository,


http://www.fao.org/docrep/003/x6943e/x6943e05.htm#TopOfPage
3 Food Security Through Sustatinable Mariculture Projects in the
Philippines.http://www.pemsea.org/eascongress/international-conference/presentation_t51_adora.pdf

4 Baget, Christina, Ecotoxicology of Pesticides in the Philippine Aquatic System,


page 273.
6

The categories of fish production are: commercial fisheries, municipal


fisheries and aquaculture. Commercial fisheries refer to fishing done in offshore
waters using fishing vessels of more than three gross tons. Municipal fisheries refer
to fishing done in inland and coastal areas with or without the use of a fishing boat of
up to three gross tons. Aquaculture refers to production in enclosures whether
ponds, pens, cages or on substrates such as stakes, ropes, lines, nets, shells, or on
a demarcated natural bed using seedstock, which may be naturally occurring, or
artificially produced in hatcheries.6

To show that the fishing industry is indeed


growing, the estimated number of people working in
fisheries according to BFAR is 990,872 based on a
1980 census jointly conducted by the Nationl
Statistics Office (NSO).7

Figure 1. 2007 Fisheries


Production

2.2. Objective
The main objective of this Case Study is to determine the best site for the
mariculture of Davao City based on the data provided as well as based on the actual
ocular inspection conducted.

2.3 Statement of the Problem


Specifically, this Case Study aims to answer the following questions:
1. Is the mariculture production in Punta Dumalag still safe for public
consumption?
2. Is the proposed location in Lasang Bunawan area suitable?
3. Is the proposed location in Talomo area suitable?
5 FAO, op. Cit.
6 FAO, op. Cit.
7 FAO, loc. Cit.
7

4. Is the proposed location in Lizada Toril suitable?


5. Are the fish cage owners receptive of the transfer of their fsh cages?

2.4 Scope and Limitation


This Case Study covers the Assessment of Proposed Mariculture Sites in
Davao City by the Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources (BFAR). This Case
Study will be limited only to the data gathered by the aforesaid Assessment.
The Assessment of Proposed Mariculture Sites by the BFAR conducted and
undertook the following activities:
1. Bathymetry
2. Water sampling and anlysis
a. Physico-chemical parameters
b. Microbiological examination
c. Heavy metal analysis
3. Measurement of current, speed and volume flow
Further limitation will be the fact that the writer does not have any
background in marine biology or any water related courses, hence, interprteation and
discussions will be culled from the data on hand as well as other related literature.
2.4 A. Site Description
The present site of the mariculture activity in Davao City is in Punta Dumalag,
Matina Aplaya, Davao City, covering 2 hectares of the 200 hectare coast of Dumalag
1, 2 and 3. There are more or less still 100 existing fish cages in the area despite the
closure order issued by the then City Mayor Sara Duterte. The City is finding it
difficult for the moment to fully stop the operation as to do so will affcet more than
30,000 8 people investors, caretakers, feed providers, fish buyers and their families.
The initial proposal is moving the fish cages a bit farther from the shore so as to
lessen the impact on the people who are affected.

8 Zaldivar, Jade C., Dumalag Fish Cages Closed, http://www.edgedavao.net/index.php?


option=com_content&view=article&id=6595:dumalag-fish-cages-closed-&catid=51:onthe-cover&Itemid=265

Figure 2. Mariculture Livelihood Project in Punta Dumalag

2.4 B. Proposed Sites


The possible sites where said mariculture activity will be transfered and which
is the focus of this study are:
Site 1 Lasang Bunawan, Davao City
Site 2 Toril, Davao City
Site 3 Talomo Bay Area, Davao City
Though Davao City is basically surrounded by waters, still finding an ideal site for the
Davao City Mariculture Park is a huge task, with all the pros and cons battering the
move.

Figure 3. Location of the Study Sites

2.5 Definition of Terms

Coliform bacteria are a commonly used bacterial indicator of sanitary quality


of foods and water. They are defined as rod-shaped Gram-negative non-spore
forming and motile or non-motile bacteria which can ferment lactose with the
production of acid and gas when incubated at 3537C.[1] Coliforms can be found in
the aquatic environment, in soil and on vegetation; they are universally present in
large numbers in the feces of warm-blooded animals. While coliforms themselves
are not normally causes of serious illness, they are easy toculture, and their
presence is used to indicate that other pathogenic organisms of fecal origin may be
10

present. Such pathogens include disease-causing bacteria, viruses, or protozoa and


many multicellular parasites. Coliform procedures are performed in aerobic or
anaerobic conditions.9

Coliform Count is the test of water contamination in which the number of the
colonies of coliform-bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) per 100 milliliter of water is
counted. The result is expressed as 'Coliform Microbial Density' and indicates the
extent of fecal matter present in it. According to common water quality standards
drinking

water

must

be

completely free from

any

colony,

bathing

and

swimming pool water can have about 200 colonies, and recreational (fishing and
boating) water about 1000 colonies. 10
Fecal coliform bacteria are the most common microbiological contaminants
of natural waters. Fecal coliform live in the digestive tracks of warm-blooded animals,
including humans, and are excreted in the feces. Although most of these bacteria are
not harmful and are part of the normal digestive system, some are pathogenic to
humans. Those that are pathogenic can cause disease such as gastroenteritis, ear
infections, typhoid, dysentery, hepatitis A, and cholera. 11
A fecal coliform test is used to determine whether water has been
contaminated
with fecal matter. The presence of fecal coliform indicates the possible presence of
organisms that can cause illness. The test can be performed relatively quickly and
easily. The EPA has set acceptable limits for fecal coliform in water based upon the

9 Wikipedia, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coliform_bacteria
10Business Dictionary.Com,
http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/coliform-count.html
11 Jolley, Louwanda W., What is Fecal Coliform? Why is It Important?,
http://www.clemson.edu/extension/natural_resources/water/publications/fecal_col
iform.html
11

use of the water. For example, drinking water cannot contain any fecal coliform but
water for swimming may contain up to 400 fecal coliform colonies/ 100 ml. 12

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the versatile "blue-green pus bacteria" that


opportunistically infects people, especially those who are immunocompromised.
Pseudomonas rarely causes infection in healthy individuals but it is a major cause of
hospital

acquired

(nosocomial)

infections.

It

tends

to

infect

people

with

immunodeficiency or burns and those with indwelling catheters or on respirators.


Infection with pseudomonas can lead to urinary tract infections, sepsis (blood stream
infection), pneumonia, pharyngitis, and many other medical problems. Pseudomonas
colonizes the lungs of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and contributes to the chronic
progressive pulmonary disease and death rate in CF.13

Bathymetry is the measurement of the depth of water in oceans, rivers, or


lakes. Bathymetric maps look a lot like topographic maps, which use lines to show
the shape and elevation of land features. 14

Protected areas are internationally recognised as regions set aside primarily


for nature and biodiversity conservation and are a major tool in managing species
and ecosystems which provide a range of goods and services essential to
sustainable use of natural resources. The term 'protected area' includes Marine
Protected Areas (MPA) the boundaries of which will include some area of ocean. 15

12 Ibid.
13 Medicine Net. Com http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?
articlekey=11986
14 National Geographic,
http://education.nationalgeographic.com/encyclopedia/bathymetry/
15 http://old.unep-wcmc.org/about-protected-areas_163.html
12

Salinity is the total concentration of all dissolved salts in water

These

electrolytes form ionic particles as they dissolve, each with a positive and negative
charge. As such, salinity is a strong contributor to conductivity.16
pH is a determined value based on a defined scale, similar to temperature.
This means that pH of water is not a physical parameter that can be measured as a
concentration or in a quantity. 17

Figure 4. pH Levels

If the pH of water is too high or too low, the aquatic organisms living within it
will die. pH can also affect the solubility and toxicity of chemicals and heavy metals
in the water . The majority of aquatic creatures prefer a pH range of 6.5-9.0, though
some can live in water with pH levels outside of this range.
As pH levels move away from this range (up or down) it can stress animal
systems and reduce hatching and survival rates. The further outside of the optimum
pH range a value is, the higher the mortality rates. The more sensitive a species, the
more affected it is by changes in pH. In addition to biological effects, extreme pH
16 Kemker, Christine. Dissolved Oxygen. Fundamentals of Environmental
Measurements. Fondriest Environmental, Inc. 19 Nov. 2013. Web. <
http://www.fondriest.com/environmental-measurements/parameters/waterquality/salinity/ >
17 Kemker, op. Cit.
13

levels usually increase the solubility of elements and compounds, making toxic
chemicals more mobile and increasing the risk of absorption by aquatic life.
Dissolved Oxygen refers to the level of free, non-compound oxygen present
in water or other liquids. It is an important parameter in assessing water quality
because of its influence on the organisms living within a body of water.18
Dissolved oxygen is necessary to many forms of life including fish,
invertebrates, bacteria and plants. These organisms use oxygen in respiration,
similar to organisms on land. Fish and crustaceans obtain oxygen for respiration
through their gills, while plant life and phytoplankton require dissolved oxygen for
respiration when there is no light for photosynthesis 4. The amount of dissolved
oxygen needed varies from creature to creature. Bottom feeders, crabs, oysters and
worms need minimal amounts of oxygen (1-6 mg/L), while shallow water fish need
higher levels (4-15 mg/L)

Chlorophyll is a color pigment found in plants, algae and phytoplankton. This


molecule is used in photosynthesis, as a photoreceptor 20. Photoreceptors absorb
light energy, and chlorophyll specifically absorbs energy from sunlight 15. Chlorophyll
makes plants and algae appear green because it reflects the green wavelengths
found in sunlight, while absorbing all other colors. 19

Temperature is the water temperature close to the ocean/sea. Temperature


controls the rate at which food gets conveyed to energy, which affects respiration,
food intake, growth and behavior. Temperature also affects the amount of oxygen
dissolvedin the water and the existence and growth of organisms that cause disease.
An increase in temperature decreases the dissolved oxygen while increasing the

18 Kemker, op. Cit.


19 Kemker, op. Cit.
14

metabolic rate, which, in turn, increases the animals oxygen demand. Harmful
aerobic bacteria multiplly rapidly and compete for the limited oxygen. 20

CHAPTER III. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


Chapter 3 of this case study identified the various related literature, studies,
books, scholar writings published, locally or internationally, websites discussing the
the case relative to mariculture, and presented to serve as support and strengthen
the imperative need of this case study. Tables, slides related to the study as well as
diagrams and pictures were taken to further explain this case study.

3.1 History of Mariculture


Mariculture was first developed in 1896 in Japan by Kokichi Mikimoto.
Mikimoto was given a patent for his dicscovery.21 Oftentimes aquaculture and
20 Why Water Quality Control is Critical to Fish Farmers,
http://aquaculturedirectory.co.uk/why-water-quality-control-is-critical-to-the-fishfarmer/
21 Diffrence Between Aquaculture and Mariculture,
http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-betweenaquaculture-and-mariculture/
15

mariculture are confused. Both aquaculture and mariculture are related into
cultivating produts under controlled conditions. Both have aided greatly in the
increase in aquatic production. However, aquaculture is related to growing fish
products in fresh water and mariculture is related to growing fish products in
seawater.22

3.2 Related Studies on Mariculture


Various studies and researches have been conducted involving mariculture.
One important factor in mariculture according to Volkman (1989) is the impotatnt role
of microalgae in mariculture as food for the larval stages of crustaceans and fish, for
all stages of bivalves and as food for zooplankton which are fed to late larval and
juvenile fish and crustaceans.

It is important that the nutritional quality of the

microalgae is at its optimal for the fish in the fish cages. (Brown et al., 1989).
Another study on mariculture by Toranzo, et al. (2005) delved on the
diseasees that occur in mariculture and focused and compiled some dispersed
literature published about the most threatening diseases occurring in fish cultured in
marine waters worldwide such as vibriosis, bwinter ulcerQ, photobacteriosis,
furunculosis, flexibacteriosis, bwinter diseaseQ, streptococcosis, lactococcosis, BKD,
mycobacteriosis and piscirickettsiosis. The authors also discussed the current status
in the development of vaccination strategies to prevent these bacterial diseases.
Troell et al. (2003) concludes that to ensure a long-term sustainability of the
industry, reducing the negative environmental impacts from aquaculture activities
should be taken into consideration.
Considering that aquaculture is a fastest growing industry, caution is given by
Troell et al. (1999) when he stated that rapid scale growth of intensive mariculture
systems can often lead to adverse impacts on the environment. Intensive sh and
shrimp farming, being dened as throughput-based systems, have a continuous or

22 Ibid.
16

pulse release of nutrients that adds to coastal eutrophication. As an alternative


treatment solution, seaweeds can be used to clean the dissolved part of this efuent.

3.3 Mariculture in the Philippines


Mariculture in the Philippines has been practiced in the 1980s, but it was
only

in the early 1990 that much of the growth and expansion of the industry

occurred in the popularization of milkfish mariculture. Milkfish now accounts for about
90% of the production from marine cages. (Marte, et al. 2000). Because there were a
lot of milkfish mariculture there was a decline in the milkfish price. Note that milkfish
is the Philippine National Fish. When its price dropped because of saturation in the
market, the mariculture industry focussed its attention on other fishes, primarily
primarily grouper (Epinephelus spp.), snapper (Lutjanus spp.), sea bass (Lates
calcarifer) and siganid (Siganus spp.). Currently, imported species such as red
tilapia, yellow-wax pompano (Trachinotus blochii) and red drum (Sciaenops
ocellatus) are also being tested by the private sector. A high production cost due to
low feed conversion efficiency and high seed cost is presently the greatest concern
of marine cage farmers. In some areas, unregulated expansion has already led to
problems in water quality.23
The importance of aquaculture in the Philippines cannot be emphasized
enough, hence, promoted the mariculture park concept as a sustainable strategy
envisioned to ensure food security and contribute to economic growth.

24

However, knowing the culture of Filipinos, which copies the latest trend,
BFAR has emphasized that it has to be a mariculture park. Without mariculture
parks, mariculture operators, responding to market forces alone will tend to establish
mariculture structures without regard for the overall sustainability of the industry.
This is also to prevent the possibility of those that are financially able to just put up
fish cages anywhere and everywhere in the waters without regards to protected
23 Marte, et al., Recent Developments in Fresh Water and Marine Cage
Aquaculture in the Philippines, 2000.
24 Adora, Gil., Food Security through Maricuture Park Projects in the Phlippines,
http://www.pemsea.org/eascongress/international-conference/presentation_t51_adora.pdf
17

areas, water quality, microbiological and heavy metal analysis, water analysis and
other tests to ensure safe fish products.

3.4 Mariculture in Mindanao


As of the latest, there are 46 mariculture parks already established
throughout the Philippines and 10 are yet to be established 25. In Mindanao alone the
mariculture parks established are:
Region IX (Zamboanga Peninsula) - 4
Region X (Northern Mindanao)
-2
Region XI (Davao Region)
-4
Region XIII (Caraga Region)
-4
ARMM
-1

Figure 5. Mariculture Parks in The Philippines

3.5 Understanding How the Mariculture Park is Born/Operate


The birth of a Mariculture Park (MP) starts with:
25 Ibid.

18

A. An Initial Environment Assessment.


This is necessary to check whether the site is suitable. To do this, water
analysis will be conducted with water samples taken and recorded using approved
methods of analysis as embodied under the DENR Administartive Order No. 34,
Series of 1990, Revised Water Usage and Classification/Water Quality Criteria
Amending Sections 68 and 69, Chapter III of the 1978 NPCC Rules and Regulations
(Annex A). The parameters are also specfied in aforesaid DAO No. 34.

Parameters Set
There are specific parameters that affect the quality of water in the
environment and they have to be taken into consideration when selecting a site for a
Mariculture Park. These properties can be physical, chemical or biological factors.
Physical properties of water quality include temperature and turbidity. Chemical
characteristics involve parameters such as pH and dissolved oxygen. Biological
indicators of water quality include algae and phytoplankton. These parameters are
relevant not only to surface water studies of the ocean, lakes and rivers, but to
groundwater and industrial processes as well.
As embodied in In DAO No. 34 the Classification For Coastal and Marine
Waters is Class SC Fishery Water Class II (Commercial and Sustenance
Fishing).
The parameters for Coastal and Marine Waters Criteria for Class SC
some of the parameters as refected in the data of BFAR are:

Color (c) No abnormal discoloration from unnatural causes

19

Temperature (d) (max. Rise in deg. Celsius)

3 (d)-The allowable temperature

increase over the average ambient temperature for each month. This rise shall be
based on the average of the maximum daily temperature readings recorded at the
site but upstream of the mixing zone over a period of one (1) month.
pH (range) 6.0 8.5
Dissolve Oxygen (e) Minimum 70 -Sampling taken between 9:00 AM and 4:00 PM

One consideration is to create stable aquatic environment that reduces the


energy that fishes, crustacea, and mollusks must spend simply surviving and
increases the energy for growth.

Aquatic animals must rely on the water that surrounds them for warmth,
oxygen and food. They become stressed when key parameters, such as pH,
temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity, are not within their optimum range for
survival. The effort it takes these animals to stabilize their bodies in a stressful
environment increases their energy consumption. This, in turn, increases the
demand for for and cost of food while retarding growth. The fish may eventually die.
In addition to its effect on energy consumption, a stressful environment can also
predispose an animal to, or even cause, disease by creating conditions in which
microbes thrive while the animal struggles.

To ensure water quality parameters are keppt within the optimum range for
the species being cultivated, frequent monitoring and necessary adjustments must
be made.

B. The Sanguniang Bayan or Panlungsod Enacts an Ordinance Declaring


the Area as Mariculture Park
20

C. If the LGU and BFAR agree they will Sign an MOA to Develop and CoManage The MP (Executive Management Council)
3.6 Impact of Mariculture Parks
Introducing a new technology or concept would mean a change. Mariculture is
a strategy of sustainably managing fish production. The aim here is not simply
introducing a technology and make it free-for-all kind. As in everything, there are two
sides of a coin, thus, even mariculture results in a positive and negative impacts.
Positive impacts are broadly classified as economic and environmental. 26 For
the economic impact there is an increase in volume of production in aquaculture,
mariculture and marine fish cages, the annual growth rate in the protection of fish
cages averaged 116% of the last decade;

27

enhanced technical capacities in

seafarming among fishers; more livelihood opportunities as there were 2000 jobs
that have been created in Mariculture Park; others have been hired as workers in the
construction of the park or have gone into production of necessary equipment such
as cage, fishnets, or became suppliers of fingerlings, while others have been hired to
provide caretaker or maintenance services; while men foused on mariculture the
women participated in fishnet production and processing activities like de-boning,
smoking, marinating and drying of seaweeds.

28

Some of the environmental impact of mariculture are the elimination of destructive,


illegal fishing methods; there is an increase in fish recruitment;

29

other

26 Ibid.
27 Ibid.
28 No commercial Fishing in Marine Parks can benefit fisheries, wildlife, and Hong
Kongs economy if proper measures are in place to regulate fishing and provide
alternative livelihoods, Nov. 23, 2009, http://www.legco.gov.hk/yr0910/english/panels/ea/papers/ea1123cb1-462-3-e.pdf
29 Adora, loc. cit.
21

environmental impacts such as uneated food, faeces, pseudofaeces, scales and


other concerns have also been duly addressed and studied such as improve feeding,
site rotation, harrowing. 30

Figure 6. Assessment of Impacts of Mariculture

CHAPTER IV. ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION


Ocular Inspection
An ocular inspection was conducted last August 31, 2015 to actually see the site of
the present mariculture livelihood project as well the proposed mariculture sites. The
whole day was spent going around the City to the areas and pictures, observations
and interviews were duly recorded. No mandate or requirement was made for the
actual inspection of the place, but the group took the initiative to see the sites. The
30 Assessment of Impacts on Mariculture, OSPAR Commission, 2009,
http://qsr2010.ospar.org/media/assessments/p00442_Impacts_of_Mariculture.pdf
22

group (Annex B) is basically composed of students sans any background of marine


biology or oceanography (except for Ms. Polistico), thus to aid in the making of the
Case Study, they opted to see the sites for themselves.

4.3 Punta Dumalag Present Site of the Mariculture Livelihood Project

4.3 A Background

The present site of mariculture livelihood project is at Punta Dumalag, Matina


Aplaya, Davao City. Prior to the rise of the number of fish cages in the area, the
shorelines (continuing until the then famous Times Beach) have been the site of
various simple beach resorts for majority

of Dabawenyos, since the rate is

affordable. In fact, even today, near the mariculture site are two beach resorts
namely Seagull Beach Resort and the Angels Cove. (Annex C)
Fish cultivation in the area started in 2003 and grew to a P 300 million
industry by 2011 with 43 investors 200 fish cages occupying two hectares out of the
200-hectare coastal are of Dumalag 1,2, and 3. 31 Sometime in the early 2009, Davao
City was in the process of looking for an ideal site to declare as a Mariculture Park.
Punta Dumalag in Matina Aplaya, Davao City was chosen as the potential site. When
there still 96 fish cages in the area, there was a 960 metric tons of fish harvested in
early 201032, which was a big boost to the dwindling catch from the open seas. Thus
Barangay Matina Aplaya and the Aquatic Resources Managment Council (CFARMC)
ackowledged that the fisherfolk would greatly benefit at declaring Punta Dualag as a
Mariculture Park. (Annex D)
CAO Avila sometime in June 2010 said that the promotion of fish cage
farming and other sustainable aquaculture technologies will provide an alternative
source of income for the fisherfolk living near the area. 33

31 Zaldivar, loc. Cit.


32 Ibid.
23

In 2010, Davao City has already started issuing business permits to fish
cultivators during the boom in rearing milkfish in Punta Dumalag. It was City
Planning and Development Office (CPDO) head Robert Alabado who also said that
issuance of permits should be put on hold as there is a need for biochemical analysis
in the area to ensure the safety of the produce which s consumed by locals as well
as
The analysis of water is important to guide the city on how to manage the
park or avoid any incidence of fish kills. 34

4.3 B The Cause for Alarm

The continued increase in the number of residents along the shore has been
noted. Add also the fact that most of the residents in the area are the so called
infomal settlers and are not germane in the area. Another aggravating factor is that
most, if not all, of the coastal and even inland houses do not have proper septage.
They consider the sea as one big rest room where they do their personal necessities
without regard for hygiene or sanitation. (Annex E)
According to the then City Agriculturist Leonardo Availa II The fish cages,
although the size and depth were feasible for fish culture, their proximity to houses
and other business facilities is a major limitation for commercial mariculture. Most of
the residents along the coastal area do not have proper drainage. As a result, their
waste water and even human waste are directly thrown nto the water. 35
City Mayor Sara Duterte-Carpio ordered the closure of the fish cages when
she learned that said coastal area is unfit for fish cultivation. 36 In fact, it was then
Vice Mayor Rodrigo Duterte who opposed the closure as it would be tantamount to
33 Bayanihan, Davao City Conducts Water Sampling Analysis of Marine Water,
June 20, 2011. http://bayanihan.org/2011/06/10/davao-city-conducts-watersampling-analysis-of-marine-water/
34 Ibid.
35 Zaldivar, loc. cit.
36 Zaldivar, loc. Cit.
24

depriving the people of their means of livelihood. He later relented with the condition
that an indepth study be first made and water analysis and studies be conducted to
have conclusive and sufficient proof that the water is contaminated and unfit for fish
cultivation. City Agriculturist Avila strongly recommended to the City Mayor for the
closure of the Punta Dumalag Mariculture Park beacuse, it is a sad truth that Punta
Dumalag has been the victim of indiscriminate solid and liquid waste disposal.
The City Agriculture Office Chief of Extension Services Division Jovencio
Umagung also said that Punta Dumalags waters are an end point of waste waters
thus it s unfit for raising fish. 37 He explained this by saying that whatever comes from
the highlands, when it rains, will evenutlly go down to the lowlands. Waters from
Matina Pangi and Talomo River connects to Punta Dumalag, which is a bay area.
So, if waste waters is released to the rivers, with the waste of community along the
rivers, then all forms of waste end up in coastline, including human waste.
The proximity of the growing number of fish cages vis-a-vis the increasing
number of coastal and inland residences have been a cause for alarm. Simple logic
would show that the human waste would naturally be carried by the flow of the water
to the fish cages and the fish will consume said fecal wastes.
To check this presumption, water samples were taken from predetermined
eight (8) sampling points for microbiological anysis at DOST XI. The sampling points
(Annex F) were taken from the waters in the fish cages and the milkfish produced.

4.3 C The Result

The result of the water samples taken from the areas near Punta Dumalag as
well as near the fish cages yielded the following alarming result.

Interpretation of the Result:38


The baseline study was made November 24-26 in 2010 and the results were
released February of 2011.(Annex G)
37 Ibid.
38 Zaldivar, loc. Cit.
25

The results showed that 50% of the water samples contained coliform counts
that are beyond the allowable limit of Fishery Water Class 2 and 7 out of 8 water
samples analyzed for fecal colifrom contained counts beyond te 5000 MPN (most
probable number) limit allowed by the DENR.
Results of the analysis also showed counts of pseudonmonas aeruginosa, a
bacteria that can cause disease in susceptible individuals as it can produce toxin
protens which is not only the cause of tissue damage but also interfere with the
human immune systems defense mechanisms.
The results showed that the water in fish cages has a high content of coliform
and other pathogens, including Escherichia coli (E. Coli) from animal and human
waste.

As earlier defined, while most coliform bacteria do not cause illness, however
their presence in a water system poses the danger that disease-causing strains of
bacteria, viruses and protozoa are also present. E. Coli can cause flu-like symptoms
such as nausea, vomiting, fever and diarrhea. It can also cause intetinal illness and,
in very rare cases, a serious kidney condition called hemolytic uremic syndrome.
High level exposure or contact to E. Coli and other fecal coliform bacteria can also
produce skin irritation or rashes; and eye, ear or throat irritation.

The presence of fecal coliform in aquatic environments may indicate that the
water has been contaminated with fecal materials of human or other animals.
Because of this result, the waters of the coastal areas of Punta Dumalag is declared
not suitable for fish culture since there are a lot of possible negative health impacts
on the the consumers of the produced of the fish cages.
The earlier plan of moving the fish cages a bit father from the shore is still not
feasible and safe since the results showed that all the sample areas are
contaminated not only with coliform but fecal coliform. Emphasis is made to the fact

26

that the coliform should be maximum of 1,000 and that the fecal coliform is nil. For
both criteria, Punta Dumalag is a poor choice.
Additonal Tests

Last June 2011, another tests were conducted and the results were released
on July but the waters again showed high content of coliforms and other pathogens.
Thus, it was conclusively shown that the waters in the Punta Dumalag Marine Park
are contaminated and should be stopped to prevent greater damage to the health of
the consumers and hinder more problems for the City itself.

4.4 Selection of Potential Sites

After the results of the water analysis of Punta Dumalag, and given the order
of closure, the City then directed the BFAR to search for altenative areas for the
Mariculture Park of Davao City.
BFAR has slected three potential sites:
1. Lasang-Bunawan Site
2. Lizada Toril Site
3. Talomo Bay Area Site
These three potential sites were tested in water quality. Water quality testing
is an important part of environmental monitoring. When water quality is poor, it
affects not only aquatic life but the surrounding ecosystem as well. 39

39 Kemker, op. Cit.


27

4.5 Site I Lasang-Bunawan, Davao City


The first site visited was the Lasang-Bunawan Site. Courtesy call was made at the
Barangay Hall but considering it was a holiday, no Barangay Official was there. The
Lasang Police Station was also visted and it was the Environmental Desk Officer
(Annex H) who assisted.

Through directions, the location of

the potential

mariculture site was reached.

Actual Observation
The first thing noticeable in the area is that there are no houses or residences on the
proposed site unlike in Punta Dumalag where there are houses on posts in the
waters. This would eliminate the fear of water contamination from coliform particulaly
fecal coliform coming from human and animal wastes of nearby residences. There
are no commercial or industrial establishments within the vicinity that would have the
probility of dumping their chemical wastes in the waters.
The mangrooves in the area (Annex I) which would be ideal for fish
recruitment. The fisherfolks in the area have already organized themselves and
called their organization NAGAMBALA (Nagkahiusang Mananagat sa Barangay
Lasang). (Annex J)
To reach the place, one has to walk quite a bit since the area is only
accessible through foot path. There numerous multi-colored hermit crabs. The
current was not that strong as the proposed site is covered the Island Garden City of
Samal.

Results of the Tests Conducted by BFAR on Lasang-Bunwan Proposed Site:

4.5 A. Bathymetry
(Annex K)

28

In finding an ideal site for a Mariculture Park, the FAO Technical Manual

40

one must take into consideration the hydrodynamics condition, the bathymyetry and
the typology of the sea bed. These factors are important in the health and growth of
the fish which will naturally affect the quantity and quality of production.
The Lasang-Bunawan Sites bathymetry shows the vaious depths of the sea,
there are shallow areas as well as deep areas. The fish cages can be ideally placed
within the medium areas (not to shallow and not too deep) as shown in the
rectangular box. The contour of the seabed is shown as widely spaced lines which
represent a flat area or gently sloping slope.
The optimal conditions should provide for a minimum distance of 2 m between
the bottom of the net and the sea bed. This is to keep the fish being cultivated away
from the organic matter loading under the cage, due to the accumulation of faeces
and uneaten feed wastes. This organic matter is colonized by bacteria that, through
decomposition, cause pollution of the water, and may create health problems for the
fish in the cage.

4.5 B. Protected Area


(Annex L)

The Lasang-Bunawan Site has an added plus factor, it has a protected area.
A marine protected area (MPA)41 is essentially a space in the ocean where human
activities are more strictly regulated than the surrounding waters - similar to parks we
have on land. These places are given special protections for natural or historic
marine resources by local, state, territorial, native, regional, or national authorities.

40 FAO Construction and Installation of Hexagonal Wooden Cages for Fish


Farming, A Technical Manual, http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3091e/i3091e.pdf
41Protect Planet Ocean, What Are Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) ?,
http://www.protectplanetocean.org/collections/introduction/introbox/mpas/introductionitem.html

29

There is a tendency for the depletion of fish stocks results from uncontrolled
fishing activities by local and illegal methods of fishing. But having a marine
protected area will ensure the preservation of the fishes.

Marine protected areas provide benefits to both the fisheries and


conservation.42 It has been established that MPAs, specially no-take reserves, have
high potential values for fisheries management purposes.

Fisher folks have always complained of decline in the number of fishes,


environmental damage and other adverse impacts. If there is a marine protected
area in the vicinity of the Marine Park, this would ensure the conservation of species.
Many fisheries already use various forms of MPAs in their routine management,
including seasonal and spatial closures of fishing ground. 43

4.5 C. Temperature
(Annex M)

The temperature of water has a lot to do with successful aquaculture and


mariculture. Fish are cold blooded animals and they have the same body
temperature as their environment. Hence, they are directly inlfuenced by the
temperature of the water.

42 Kenchington, Richard; Ward, Trevor and Hegerl, Eddie, The Benefits of Marine
Protected Areas, Commonwealth Department of Environment and Heritage, 2003,
https://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/5eaad4f9-e8e0-45d1-b88983648c7b2ceb/files/benefits-mpas.pdf

43 Ibid.
30

The temperature in Lasang-Bunawan Site is more of cooler temperature at


the bottom (28.22-28.50) and its surface temperature is warmest (29.00 29.34).
Fish do not stay on the surface, but more towards the bottom. Having a cool
temperature, the fishes do not have to breathe fast because their metabolism has
slowed down and they do not require much oxygen. Further, cold water contains
more dissolved oxygen so the fishes do not have to work hard to extract oxygen.

4.5 D. Dissolved Oxygen


(Annex N)
The standard for dissolved oxygen according to FAO 44 is >3mg/liter. Dissolved
oxygen refers to the volume of oxygen in water. DO is neede for the fish to breath.
The Lasang-Bunawan Site shows that the dissolved oxygen ranges between 4.25
and 5.00 with most of the surface have 4.50-4.75 while the bottom ranges from 4.255.00, hence, more that satisfying the standard requirement for dissolved oxygen in
mariculture. Add also the fact that the temperature of Lasang-Bunawan Site is cold,
colder water holds more dissolved oxygen.

45

4.5 E. Salinity
(Annex O)

Salinity is the measure of concentartion of dissolved salts (ions) in water. As stated in


Environmental Managment of Mariculture 46, unless in special conditions, (e.g.
stagnation or cold current), water quality parameters of fish culture zones, should
44 http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3091e/i3091e.pdf
45Alliance for the Chesapeake Bays RiverTrends
Manualhttp://www.longwood.edu/cleanva/world_water_monitoring_va/resized
%20images/water_quality_parameter_info_acb.pdf

31

generally remain within the following ranges most of the time, in salinity the range
25-34ppt.
The Lasang-Bunawan Site the salinity at the bottom ranges from 29.50-30.75, which
is within the optimum standard.

4.5 F. pH
(Annex P)

pH is a measure of how acidic or basic (alkaline) a solution is. As earlier


stated, if the pH of water is too high or too low, the aquatic organisms living within it
will die. pH can also affect the solubility and toxicity of chemicals and heavy metals
in the water.The majority of aquatic creatures prefer a pH range of 6.5-9.0, though
some can live in water with pH levels outside of this range.
The ph level of the Lasang-Bunawan Site, the surface and the bottom, is 7.75
8.04, hence, within the optimum standards for mariculture park.

4.5 G. Chlorophyll
(Annex Q)

Phtoplanktons are single-celled algae and other plant like organisms. They
use chlorophyll and other light-harvesting pigments to carry out photosynthesis.
Because cold waters tend to have more nutrients than warm waters, phytoplankton
tend to be more plentiful where waters are cold. 47

46 Environmental Management of Mariculture, http://www.hkaffs.org/en/images/GAP2.pdf

47Earth Observatory. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/GlobalMaps/view.php?


d1=MY1DMM_CHLORA&d2=MYD28M
32

The Lasang-Bunawan Site yields that chlorophyll in the area shows the range
from 0.50 2.00 which is ideal for mariculture park.

4.5 H. Current
(Annex R)
As to the current (speed, direction and volume), the Lasang-Bunawan Site, the
surface current, which is the horizontal movement of ocean water that is caused by
wind and that occurs at or near the oceans surface is CM37 (3m deep) while the
underwater current, which occurs deep in the ocean and is influenced by water
density, salinity and temperature is CM35 (28m deep).

4.5 I Microbiological and Heavy Metal Analysis


(Annex S)
The Lasang-Bunawan Site has , <1.8 in total coliform, <1.8 in Anaerobic Plate
Count (APC) and an acceptable Mercury content of 0.002ppm.

4.6 Site 2 Toril, Davao City


The second site the group visited is the Toril proposed site. The said site is
located near the Coal Plant as well as San Miguel Beer Plant. The current was also
strong considering the site is in an open sea with no island in front of it.

Results of the Tests Conducted by BFAR on Toril Proposed Site:


While the dissolved oxygen, salinity, cholorophyll would show they they are
within the standard, its bathymetry would show that it has high slopes and not ideal
for mariculture park.

4.6 A. Location of the Corals Areas


(Annex T)
The Toril Site cannot be considered as a potential mariculture site because of
the presence of corals. Studies have shown that placing cages above or near
33

sensitive habitats such as seagrasses, coral reefs, seaweed beds, etc., that provide
nursery areas and habitat to wild fish must be avoided. 48

4.6 C. Temperature
(Annex U)

The high temperature of the Toril Site is also is not ideal for mariculture park
as it diminishes the solubility of dissolved oxygen and thus decrease the avilability of
this essential gas. Elevated temperatures increase the metabolism, respiration and
oxygen demand of fish and other aquatic life, approximately doubling the respiration
for a 10 C. rise in temperature. Hence the demand for oxygen is increased under
conditions where oxygen supply is lowered. High temperatures produce death.

4.6 C Microbiological and Heavy Metal Analysis

(Earlier Marked as Annex R)


The Toril Site has , 32 in total coliform, 2 in Anaerobic Plate Count (APC) and
an more than the allowed Mercury content of 0.0045ppm in site 1 and 0.0034 in
site 2.
4.7 Site 3 Talomo Bay Area
Athough there are results of the bathymetry, salinity, temperature, chlorophyll
of Talomo Bay Area, the same is not taken into consideration as there are no data
relative to the microbiological and heavy metals analysis of water samples. The data
would be determinative of whether the water is contaminated and should not be a
mariculture site.

48 FAO Construction and Installation of Hexagonal Wooden Cages for Fish Farming, A
Technical Manual, http://www.fao.org/docrep/018/i3091e/i3091e.pdf

34

CHAPTER VI. CONCLUSION

Base from the data obtained and presented by BFAR, the following are the
conclusion of this Case Study:
1. The Mariculture Site in Punta Dumalag, Matina Aplaya, Davao City is a worst choice
as the waters are extremely contaminated with coliform, fecal coliform and
pseudomonas aeruginosa. The tests have shown that the allowable limits of coliform
is only 1,000 and 7 out of the 8 samples taken in the different areas far exceeds the
allowable limit, that is >1,600.

The tests likewise revealed that there are fecal

coliform in all the 8 sample sites and the standard is that there should be nil

or

extremely low concentration and not detectable by existing equipment. The fecal
coliform in all the sites are not nil and quite alarming as some is recorded as
>1,600.00. Fishes from contaminated waters could only lead to greater problems for
the City as this would affect the health of the people.
The option of just moving the fish cages farther away from the shore is not
also feasible. Remember that one of the sample site is offshore or farther away from
the shore yet it still yielded a result that is is contaminated with coliform, fecal
coliform and pseudomonas aeruginosa.

2. The Lasang-Bunawan Site is the ideal site for a Mariculture Park. All the factors
such as its, bathymetry, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and cholorophyll are
35

within the standard set by the FAO. The coliform, E. Coli and APC in the results also
showed that the same are within the allowable limit. The Mercury test also yielded a
result of 0.002ppm, again within the standard limit.
3. The Toril Site should be scrapped from the list of choices as there are corals within
the proposed site. Placing cages above or near sensitive habitats such as
seagrasses, coral reefs, seaweed beds, etc., that provide nursery areas and habitat
to wild fish, must be avoided.

Add also the fact that the result of the tests showed that the coliform in
Toril is 32 and that the Mercury test result is 0.0045ppm in site 1 and 0.0034 in site 2
which is more than the allowed 0.002ppm.
4. The Talomo Bay Site should also be scrapped from the list as the there is no
available data on its microbiological and heavy metals analysis of water samples.

36

CHAPTER VII. RECOMMENDATION


Thus, from the facts and data deduced, this Case Study has arrived at the
following recommendation:
1. Enact an Ordinance declaring the Lasang-Bunawan Site as the Mariculture
Park of Davao City
Based from the data gathered as well as the inspection conducted, the best
alternative is to transfer the site from Punta Dumalag to the Lasang-Bunawan Site.
There will be resistance on the part of the fisherfolk in Punta Dumalag, but the
government should be firm in its stand so as to protect the consuming public and
avert more the possibility of health problems.
2. Impose a deadline (one year) to the Punta Dumalag fish cage owners to wind
up and harvest the remaining fish in their pens;
Unless there is a strong political will among those in the government, this
problem of the continued rise in number of those constructing fish pens in the area
will never be resolved. A clear invemtory should be conducted to determine the
actual number of fish cages, the owners and the status of the fish in the pen. Each
fish pen should be assigned a permanent number for ease of identification.
To come up with a win-win solution, the government, understanding that
putting up the fish cages entailed capital, should impose a one year deadline. There
should be a Memorandum of Agreement between the LGU and the existing fish cage
owners that within that one year no additional fingelings would be added. Further,
even if the last harvest is still far from the one year deadline, the owners should give
their commitment not to add anymore new fingerlings. Both parties should come up
with a sanction in violation of the MOA.
Upon the expiration of the one year period, using the police power of the
government, demolish the remaining fish pens in the area. This would clearly signal
that the government is really serious when it comes to the health of the people.
Corresponding penalties should be imposed and meted out to those who
would again put up fish cage structures in the area.
37

3.Conduct community dialogues and information dissemination


Constant community dialogues and information dissemination is a must to
make the locals realize the seriousness of the rise in fecal coliform in the area.
Graphic and clear pictures and film viewing of people who got sick from eating
contaminated fish should be shown. Also inform them that should there be rise in the
contamination, it would eventually result in fish kill.
4.The Barangay Captain should take the lead
Constiuents look up to their local officals for guidance and support. The
Barangay Captain as well as the Kagawads of the barangay should make an actual
inventory of household constituents along the coastal areas who still do not have the
proper septage and lobby with City Hall for correspponding support and budget. If
budget is not available, there are NGO groups or other agencies they can link with to
other private groups who works in this aspect.
5.The Barangay Should Aim for Zero Open Defecation
The reason why fecal coliform contaminates the water is beacuse of the
sanitation habits of the residences when it comes to waste removal. Most, if not all,
particularly along the coastline, consider it normal and natural to defecate in the
waters without countinfg the cost. Others perhaps just do not have the finances to
come up with a proper septage. Explain to them that eventually, this system of open
defectaion will contaminate even their drinking waters. Relate to them the success
story of Masbate relative to Zero Open Defecation. Provide linkages for the
community to avail of the same benefits that Masbate now enjoys.

ACF has been implementing the project Scaling up Sustainable and


Resilience Basic Sanitation, Safe Water and Improved Hygiene Behavior with
funds from the UNICEF. The project aims to deliver clean water and improve
practice on WASH to households, schools and day care centers in Cawayan,
Milgaros, Aroroy and Monreal. The project employs the Community Led Total
Sanitation (CLTS), a participatory strategy that facilitates the community's
desire to stop open defecation.

38

A total of 10 barangays in Masbate have been declared zero open


defecation (ZOD) or open defecation free (ODF). A barangay is declared ZOD
when no one in the community defecates in the open anymore. Families have
learned to use a toilet for defecation and wash their hands after toilet use. "Our
experience in Masbate have shown that active involvement of communities
contributed to achieving a clean, healthy, dignified and child-friendly
environment," said Eleanor Pena, head of office in ACF Masbate. 49

6. Offer incentives to fish cage owners


The LGU should offer incentives to fish cage owners who would decide to
transfer their operation to the Lasang-Bunawan Site, such as one year tax free
operation or free from payment of business permits and the like. Give assistance to
the owners on how to facilitate the transfer. Offer free technical assistance on the
construction of their new fish cages as well as give free fingelinglings and nets. Such
incentives would encourage the owners to transfer as well as would encourage those
already in the area to cooperate and get the government fees needed to operate in
the new mariculture park.
Impose on the fish cage owners to register with the Business Bureau their fish
cages and impose the necessary fees such as sanitation fee, etc.;
7. Create an Executive Management Committee (EMC)
Establish an Executive Management Committee directly reporting to the
Office of the Mayor. This Committee will be responsible for any updates, concerns,
issues relative to

discuss proper farm management and other sustainable

aquaculture practices in technology and skills training, and even gather and share
the best practices of other mariculture parks.
Put up a monitoring team to constantly inspect/rove in the area to show to the
people that the LGU is serious in closing the fish cages. Involve the barangay of the
area to join in the monitoring and reporting of any attempts to put up new structures.
49 Countdown to Zero Open Defecation in Masbate, July 8, 2015.
http://reliefweb.int/report/philippines/countdown-zero-open-defecation-masbate
39

They EMC should also develop a coherent set of guidelines for the planning,
monitoring and regulation of Mariculture Parks;
8. Come up with a Mariculture Zoning Plan
The City should come up with a comprehensive Mariculture Zoning Plan so as
to identify and delineate and designate areas that would be ideal for mariculture
parks. Also ways and measure must be made to make plans that would sustain the
MPs. A budget should likewise be allocated, through the approval of the City Council,
to assist mariculture farmers during calamities such as typhoons, fish kills and the
like. Carrying capacity should also be taken into consideration.
9. Create an Mariculture Park environmental monitoring team
10. Secure the Environmental Certificate from the DENR

REFERENCES
Adora, Gil., Food Security through Maricuture Park Projects in the Phlippines,
http://www.pemsea.org/eascongress/international-conference/presentation_t51_adora.pdf
Alliance for the Chesapeake Bays RiverTrends Manual
40

http://www.longwood.edu/cleanva/world_water_monitoring_va/resized
%20images/water_quality_parameter_info_acb.pdf
Assessment of Impacts on Mariculture, OSPAR Commission, 2009,
http://qsr2010.ospar.org/media/assessments/p00442_Impacts_of_Mariculture.pdf
Baget, Christina, Ecotoxicology of Pesticides in the Philippine Aquatic System, page
273.
Bayanihan, Davao City Conducts Water Sampling Analysis of Marine Water, June
20,
2011.
http://bayanihan.org/2011/06/10/davao-city-conducts-water-samplinganalysis-of-marine-water/
Brown, M. R., Jeffrey, S.W.; and Garland, C.D., 1989. Nutritional Aspects of
Microalgae Used in Mariculture.
Brown, M.R.; Jeffrey, S.W., Volkman, J.K., Dunstan, G.A., 1997. Nutritional
Properties of Microalgae for Mariculture.
Business Dictionary.Com, http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/coliformcount.html
Countdown to Zero Open Defecation in Masbate, July 8, 2015.
http://reliefweb.int/report/philippines/countdown-zero-open-defecation-masbate
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Davao,

43

ANNEXES

Annex A. DENR Administrative Order No. 34, Series of 1990


44

Annex B. The Group: Amelia C. Bibera, Shiela Legaria, Michelle Polistico, Rosalie
Otero, Melody Balicat.

Annex C. The Group at the Angel's Cove Beach


Resort

Annex D. Punta Dumalag Mariculture Park

45

Annex E. Houses on the Waters of Punta Dumalag

Annex F. Sampling Points fro the Water Samples from Punta Dumalag

46

Annex G.Coliform Analysis Results of the Coastal waters in


Matina, Davao City

Annex H. At the Police Station of


Barangay Lasang

Annex I. The Mangrooves at the Lasang-Bunawan Site

47

Annex J. Ali Pesadas , 40 years old, member of the Nagkahiusang Mananagat sa


Barangay Lasang (NAGAMBALA)

Annex K. Bathymetry (Lasang-Bunawan Site)

Annex L. Protected Area (Lasang-Bunawan Site)

48

Annex M. Temperature (Lasang-Bunawan Site)

Annex N. Dissolved Oxygen (Lasang-Bunawan Site)

Annex O. Salinity (Lasang-Bunawan Site)

49

Annex P. pH (Lasang-Bunawan Site)

Annex Q.Chlorophyll (lasang-Bunawan Site)

Annex R.Current (Lasang-Bunawan Site)

50

Annex S. Microbiological & heavy Metals Analysis of Water


Samples

Annex T. Coral Areas (Toril Site)

Annex U. Temperature (Toril Site)

51