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Rotor Angle Stability (1)

U n 1 n 1

U11

U 2 2

S L1

U n 2 n 2

S L n 1

GEN 2

SL2

It refers to the ability of synchronous machines

of an interconnected power system to remain in
synchronism after a disturbance.

GEN 1

Rotor angle stability may be characterized as:

Transient stability

SL n2

Transmission
Network

U n n

Small-signal stability

U N N

GEN n

SL n

SL N
1

System operators would like to assess the

dynamical response of the system for various
contingencies and operating points.
The aim is to check if N-1 criterion is met.
Then based on the results of the stability studies,
they take preventive control action if necessary.

non-linear

nature

of

the

dynamics

of

stable

disturbance.

system.

and

acceptable

e.p

after

large

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Transient Stability (4)

These stability studies are usually performed by
using time-domain simulation programs in
which the system has been mathematically
defined.
It is possible to use a more detailed and accurate
models for generators and other power system
components.
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The results do not give any information about

the stability margin or which components are
involved in the instability and etc.

state variables per device

10000 buses
This approach requires heavy, long and large

Therefore, other transient stability analysis

methods have been developed to overcome these
shortcomings.

time-consuming computations
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From Basic Course Eq. (4.8)

Transient Energy Function (TEF)

Lyapunov Function

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TEF (1)

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21

D1 D2 0

D1 D2 0
0.08

0.015

0.07
0.01

x f ( x, y )
0 g ( x, y )

0.06
0.005

1 & 2

0.05

1 & 2

0
-0.005

0.04
0.03
0.02

-0.01

0.01
-0.015
-0.02

22

0
-0.01
0

10

15

20
23

10

15

20
24

D1 D2 0

COI (2)

0.975
0.97
0.965
0.96

U3

0.955
0.95
0.945
0.94
0.935

10

15

20

25

26

D1 D2 0

COI (3)

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TEF (2)

0.015

0.01

1 & 2

0.005

-0.005

-0.01

-0.015

28

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15

20

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TEF (3)

method

TEF (4)

transforms the trajectories of a multi-machine

power system into the trajectory of a single
machine equivalent system of the form

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SIME(4)

SIME (2)

SIME (3)

The SIME method uses a time-domain program

in order to identify the mode of separation of its
machines into two groups, namely critical and
non-critical machines.

Having identified critical and non-critical

machines, they are replaced by a two-machine
equivalent.

By definition, the critical machines are the

machines responsible of the loss of synchronism.
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Then, this two-machine equivalent is replaced by

a single machine equivalent system.

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SIME (6)

Refreshes the parameters of the single machine

equivalent system at each integration time-step
and numerically assesses the transient stability of
this equivalent system based on the equal area
criterion

is concerned with the ability of the power

system to maintain synchronism after small
disturbances.
This type of instability is essentially a linear
phenomenon that is we are dealing with
linearized system models.
Undamped power oscillations are the result of
small-signal instability.

SIME(5)

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s
Pmpu Pepu
g

3000

Malin - Round Mountain MW Flow

2900
2800

2700
2600
2500
2400
2300

12 16 19 22

25 28

31 34

37 40 43

47 50 53 56 59 62

65 68

71 74

Time in Seconds

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2 H Sng
s Pbase

s ms

g
m
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Following a disturbance, the change in electrical

torque (DTe) of a synchronous generator can be
resolved into two components, namely
Synchronizing torque component (DTS)
Damping torque component (DTD)

Lack of sufficient synchronizing torque results

in non-oscillatory instability in the first few
seconds following a fault, i.e. loss of
synchronism between interconnected generators.
This type of instability is essentially caused by
the non-linear nature of the dynamics of
interconnected generators.

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Small-signal stability (6)

Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) system

Therefore, (fast) AVRs have been used to

increase the synchronizing torques between
interconnected generators.
They have also an effect of reducing the
damping torques which may result in oscillatory
instability.
This type of instability is essentially a linear
phenomenon.
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Each eigenvalue is usually associated with a

mode of the system.
The eigenvalues may be real or complex.
Complex eigenvalues always occur in conjugate
pairs if A is real.

For a real eigenvalue

a negative a represents a decaying mode.
a positive a represents monotonic instability.

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For a complex eigenvalue, si represents the

damping of the i-th oscillatory mode, and pi
represents the frequency of i-th oscillatory mode

Electromechanical oscillatory modes:

Local modes are associated with the swing of
units at a generating station with respect to the
rest of the power system.
Inter-area modes are associated with the swing
of many machines in one part of the system
against machines in other part.

A negative s represents a damped oscillatory mode

A positive s represents an oscillatory instability.

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by

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Small-signal stability (19)

Since the state matrix A is (normally) not a
diagonal matrix, the dynamic of each state
variable of the unforced system is a linear
combination of the other state variables.
It can be difficult to analytically identify the
parameters that have significant impact on the
dynamic of each state variable.

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To overcome this difficulty, the unforced system

(dx/dt=Ax) is, based on the modal matrices,
transformed to a system whose state matrix is
diagonalized as follows.

Equation (8) gives the each dynamic mode of

the system with magnitude ai.

We are dealing with an LTI system whose state

matrix is diagonal, and this dynamic system
represents nx uncoupled first-order differential
equations of the form
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11

The dynamic response of each state variable is

given by equation (11) which is a linear
combination of nx dynamic modes.

From equation (5), we can see that the right

eigenvector describes how each dynamic mode
is distributed among the system states x (the
mode shape).

r
x1 v11

x
r
2 v21

x r
nx vnx1

r
v12
r
v22

r
vnx
2

v1rnx 1

v2r nx 2

r
nx
vnxnx

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Small-signal stability (25)

For small-signal stability and control, it is of
importance to measure properly the participation
of state variables within a mode i.

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The k-th element of the right eigenvector

measures the activity of the state variable xk in
the i-th mode.

The k-th element of the left eigenvector weighs

the contribution of this activity to the i-th mode.

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13

Small-signal stability (28)

The right eigenvector might be a possible option
since its elements measure the activity of the
state variables in the mode i.

A dimensionless factor pki named as the

participation factor has been introduced which is
a measure of the relative participation of the k-th
state variable in the i-th mode.

Since the vrki measures the activity of the state

variable xk in the i-th mode and the vlik weighs
the contribution of this activity to the mode, the
product pki measures the net participation which
is also dimensionless.

These elements are dependent on the dimensions

(units) and scaling of the state variables which
are incomparable.
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Information about the sensitivity of eigenvalues

to system parameters such as excitation system
gain, generator inertia and line reactance is of
importance in power system stability analysis
and control.

Eigenvalue sensitivity can also be used to

identify the power system parameters which
have a major impact on damping of particular
modes.

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The nx r matrix V L B is termed as the mode

controllability matrix whose element in the i-th
row and j-th column is cij.

By inspecting this matrix, the controllable (or

uncontrollable) modes can be identified.
For instance, the i-th mode is uncontrollable if the
i-th row of this matrix has only zeroes.

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The m nx matrix CVR is termed as the mode

observability matrix whose element in the j-th
row and i-th column is oji.

By inspecting this matrix, the observable (or

unobservable) modes can be identified.
For instance, the i-th mode is unobservable if the ith column of this matrix is zero.

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Small-signal stability analysis of

power systems (1)

G( s)

Small-signal stability analysis of

power systems (2)

U n 1 n 1

U11
GEN 1

U 2 2

S L1

U n 2 n 2

S L n 1

GEN 2

G( s)

SL2

SL n2

Transmission
Network

k H ( s)

U n n

U N N

GEN n

SL n
97

SL N

One-axis model
D=0
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The state matrix columns associated with the rotor

angles are linearly dependent.
The second zero eigenvalue is due to zero
damping constant.
If there is any non-zero damping constant in the
system, the second zero eigenvalue vanishes.
If the system contains an infinite bus, these two
zero eigenvalues vanish.
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