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Mar 06, 2016

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LD5-LD7

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LD5-LD7

© All Rights Reserved

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U n 1 n 1

U11

U 2 2

S L1

U n 2 n 2

S L n 1

GEN 2

SL2

of an interconnected power system to remain in

synchronism after a disturbance.

GEN 1

Transient stability

SL n2

Transmission

Network

U n n

Small-signal stability

U N N

GEN n

SL n

SL N

1

dynamical response of the system for various

contingencies and operating points.

The aim is to check if N-1 criterion is met.

Then based on the results of the stability studies,

they take preventive control action if necessary.

non-linear

nature

of

the

dynamics

of

stable

disturbance.

system.

and

acceptable

e.p

after

large

4

These stability studies are usually performed by

using time-domain simulation programs in

which the system has been mathematically

defined.

It is possible to use a more detailed and accurate

models for generators and other power system

components.

7

the stability margin or which components are

involved in the instability and etc.

10000 buses

This approach requires heavy, long and large

methods have been developed to overcome these

shortcomings.

time-consuming computations

10

11

12

Transient Energy Function (TEF)

Lyapunov Function

13

14

15

16

17

18

TEF (1)

19

20

21

D1 D2 0

D1 D2 0

0.08

0.015

0.07

0.01

x f ( x, y )

0 g ( x, y )

0.06

0.005

1 & 2

0.05

1 & 2

0

-0.005

0.04

0.03

0.02

-0.01

0.01

-0.015

-0.02

22

0

-0.01

0

10

15

20

23

10

15

20

24

D1 D2 0

COI (2)

0.975

0.97

0.965

0.96

U3

0.955

0.95

0.945

0.94

0.935

10

15

20

25

26

D1 D2 0

COI (3)

27

TEF (2)

0.015

0.01

1 & 2

0.005

-0.005

-0.01

-0.015

28

10

15

20

29

30

TEF (3)

method

TEF (4)

power system into the trajectory of a single

machine equivalent system of the form

31

32

SIME(4)

SIME (2)

SIME (3)

in order to identify the mode of separation of its

machines into two groups, namely critical and

non-critical machines.

machines, they are replaced by a two-machine

equivalent.

machines responsible of the loss of synchronism.

34

33

a single machine equivalent system.

35

36

SIME (6)

equivalent system at each integration time-step

and numerically assesses the transient stability of

this equivalent system based on the equal area

criterion

system to maintain synchronism after small

disturbances.

This type of instability is essentially a linear

phenomenon that is we are dealing with

linearized system models.

Undamped power oscillations are the result of

small-signal instability.

SIME(5)

37

38

39

s

Pmpu Pepu

g

3000

2900

2800

2700

2600

2500

2400

2300

12 16 19 22

25 28

31 34

37 40 43

47 50 53 56 59 62

65 68

71 74

Time in Seconds

40

41

2 H Sng

s Pbase

s ms

g

m

42

torque (DTe) of a synchronous generator can be

resolved into two components, namely

Synchronizing torque component (DTS)

Damping torque component (DTD)

in non-oscillatory instability in the first few

seconds following a fault, i.e. loss of

synchronism between interconnected generators.

This type of instability is essentially caused by

the non-linear nature of the dynamics of

interconnected generators.

43

44

45

Linear Time-Invariant (LTI) system

increase the synchronizing torques between

interconnected generators.

They have also an effect of reducing the

damping torques which may result in oscillatory

instability.

This type of instability is essentially a linear

phenomenon.

46

47

48

mode of the system.

The eigenvalues may be real or complex.

Complex eigenvalues always occur in conjugate

pairs if A is real.

a negative a represents a decaying mode.

a positive a represents monotonic instability.

49

50

51

damping of the i-th oscillatory mode, and pi

represents the frequency of i-th oscillatory mode

Local modes are associated with the swing of

units at a generating station with respect to the

rest of the power system.

Inter-area modes are associated with the swing

of many machines in one part of the system

against machines in other part.

A positive s represents an oscillatory instability.

52

53

54

by

55

56

58

57

59

60

10

Since the state matrix A is (normally) not a

diagonal matrix, the dynamic of each state

variable of the unforced system is a linear

combination of the other state variables.

It can be difficult to analytically identify the

parameters that have significant impact on the

dynamic of each state variable.

61

62

63

(dx/dt=Ax) is, based on the modal matrices,

transformed to a system whose state matrix is

diagonalized as follows.

the system with magnitude ai.

matrix is diagonal, and this dynamic system

represents nx uncoupled first-order differential

equations of the form

64

65

66

11

given by equation (11) which is a linear

combination of nx dynamic modes.

eigenvector describes how each dynamic mode

is distributed among the system states x (the

mode shape).

r

x1 v11

x

r

2 v21

x r

nx vnx1

r

v12

r

v22

r

vnx

2

v1rnx 1

v2r nx 2

r

nx

vnxnx

67

68

69

70

71

72

12

73

For small-signal stability and control, it is of

importance to measure properly the participation

of state variables within a mode i.

76

74

75

measures the activity of the state variable xk in

the i-th mode.

the contribution of this activity to the i-th mode.

77

78

13

The right eigenvector might be a possible option

since its elements measure the activity of the

state variables in the mode i.

participation factor has been introduced which is

a measure of the relative participation of the k-th

state variable in the i-th mode.

variable xk in the i-th mode and the vlik weighs

the contribution of this activity to the mode, the

product pki measures the net participation which

is also dimensionless.

(units) and scaling of the state variables which

are incomparable.

79

80

82

81

83

84

14

to system parameters such as excitation system

gain, generator inertia and line reactance is of

importance in power system stability analysis

and control.

identify the power system parameters which

have a major impact on damping of particular

modes.

85

88

86

87

controllability matrix whose element in the i-th

row and j-th column is cij.

uncontrollable) modes can be identified.

For instance, the i-th mode is uncontrollable if the

i-th row of this matrix has only zeroes.

89

90

15

observability matrix whose element in the j-th

row and i-th column is oji.

unobservable) modes can be identified.

For instance, the i-th mode is unobservable if the ith column of this matrix is zero.

91

92

94

93

95

96

16

power systems (1)

G( s)

power systems (2)

U n 1 n 1

U11

GEN 1

U 2 2

S L1

U n 2 n 2

S L n 1

GEN 2

G( s)

SL2

SL n2

Transmission

Network

k H ( s)

U n n

U N N

GEN n

SL n

97

SL N

One-axis model

Static load model

D=0

98

99

angles are linearly dependent.

The second zero eigenvalue is due to zero

damping constant.

If there is any non-zero damping constant in the

system, the second zero eigenvalue vanishes.

If the system contains an infinite bus, these two

zero eigenvalues vanish.

100

101

102

17

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