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Automatic Control and Computer Science_2011

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Automatic Control and Computer Science_2011

Control wind 3 dof

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Fasc. 3, 2011

AUTOMATIC CONTROL and COMPUTER SCIENCE Section

CONTENTS

Multi-Agent System for Monitoring and Analysis Prahova Hydrographical

Basin

Alexandra Maria Matei

9 - 19

Communication Channels in a Modular Simulator

Lucian-Florentin Brbulescu

21 - 32

Extraction Technique

Tudor Barbu, Adrian Ciobanu and Mihaela Costin

33 - 41

Generators

Aleodor Daniel Ioan

43 - 59

Salvatore Cuomo, Pasquale De Michele and Marta Chinnici

61 - 75

Regulation and Load Reduction

Jovn Oseas Mrida Rubio and Luis Tupak Aguilar Bustos

77 - 94

Roxana Stnic and Emil Petre

95 - 111

Flexible Joint Manipulators

Bahram Karimi and Morteza Ghateei

113 - 127

Eduardo Canale, Pablo Monzon and Franco Robledo

129 - 141

Marius Marian and Andrei Prvan

143 - 155

Publicat de

Universitatea Tehnic Gheorghe Asachi din Iai

Tomul LVII (LXI), Fasc. 3, 2011

Secia

AUTOMATIC i CALCULATOARE

TURBINES FOR POWER REGULATION AND LOAD

REDUCTION

BY

Instituto Politcnico Nacional, Avenida del parque 1310,

Mesa de Otay, Tijuana 22510, Mxico

Accepted for publication: September 16, 2011

power regulation of variable speed wind energy conversion systems by

combining a linear control for blade pitch angle with a nonlinear H torque

control which mitigate the effects of external disturbances that occur at the input

and output of the system. The controller exhibits better power and speed

regulation when compared to classic linear controllers. We assume that the

effective wind speed and acceleration are available from measurements on the

wind turbine. In order to validate the mathematical model and evaluate the

performance of proposed controller, we used the National Renewable Energy

Laboratory (NREL) aerolastic wind turbine simulator FAST. Simulation and

validation results show that the proposed control strategy is effective in terms of

power and speed regulation.

Key words: nonlinear control, power and speed regulation, wind turbine

simulator.

2000 Mathematics Subject Classification: 34H05, 93A30.

78

1. Introduction

As a result of increasing environmental concern, more and more

electricity is being generated from renewable sources. Wind energy has proved

to be an important source of clean and renewable energy in order to produce

electrical energy. Nowadays, wind energy is by far the fastest-growing

renewable energy technology, between 2000 and 2009, wind energy generation

worldwide increased by a factor of almost 9 (Gelman et al., 2010). However,

the performance of wind turbine must be improved. There are two primary

types of horizontal-axis wind turbines: fixed speed and variable speed

(Ofualagba & Ubeku, 2008). In this work we choose the variable speed because

although the fixed speed system is easy to build and operate, does not have the

ability that the variable speed system has in energy extraction, up to a 20%

increase over fixed speed (Ofualagba & Ubeku, 2008; Burton et al., 2001).

Moreover, the variable speed system is much more complex to control.

Advanced control plays an important role in the performance of large wind

turbines. This allows better use of resources of the turbine, increasing the

lifetime of mechanical and electrical components, earning higher returns. On the

other hand, the new technological advancements improve the prospects of wind

power allowing the design of cost-effective of wind turbines. Wind turbine

controllers objectives depend on the operation area (Pao & Johnson, 2009; Laks

et al., 2009). Variable speed wind turbine operation can be divided into three

operating regions:

Region I: Below cut-in wind speed.

Region II: Between cut-in wind speed and rated wind speed.

Region III: Between rated wind speed and cut-out wind speed.

In region I wind turbines do not run, because power available in wind is

low compared to losses in turbine system. Region II is an operational mode

where it is desirable that the turbine capture as much power as possible from the

wind, this because wind energy extraction rates are low, and the structural loads

are relatively small. Generator torque provides the control input to vary the

rotor speed while the blade pitch is held constant. Region III is encountered

when the wind speeds are high enough that the turbine must limit the fraction of

the wind power captured such that safe electrical, and mechanical loads are not

exceeded. If the wind speeds exceed the contained ones in the region III, the

system will make a forced stop the machine, protecting it from aerodynamic

loads excessively high. Generally the rated rotor speed and power output are

maintain by the blade pitch control with the generator torque constant at its

rated value. Region III is considered in the present work where the power

available in the wind exceeds the limit for which the turbine mechanics has

been designed. Much of the research work in the wind energy conversion

system control have used classical controllers. This, for several reasons. First,

linear control theory is a well-developed topic while nonlinear control theory is

79

less developed and difficult to implement. Second, most wind turbine control

systems, to date, is based on linear control theory, thus the implemented wind

turbine controllers are the based on linearized models (Boukhezzar.et al., 2007)

Although thaonsider multiple controlled variables, such as controlling tower

vibration, rotor speed, and blade vibration simultaneously (see, e.g., (Grimble,

1996; Wright & Fingersh, 2008; Thomsen, 2006; Bianchi et al., 2007)).

The aim of this paper is to design a robust nonlinear controller to work

in region III where wind speeds are high and dramatic growth of load structural.

In this region the primary objective of the turbine controller is to reduce

electrical power and rotor speed fluctuations while reducing the control loads.

To limit loads and maintaining electric power production is necessary to limit

the power and the rotational speed at its nominal values. This work presents a

control strategy incorporating a linear control strategy with nonlinear H control

strategy for variable-speed wind turbines intended regulated the electric power

while the load is limited. The control structure is shown to robustly reject

disturbances acting on the system, particularly those introduced by time-varying

wind profiles. The controller takes into consideration the nonlinear nature of the

wind turbine behavior, the flexibility of drive train, as well as the turbulent

nature of the wind. The controller is design using a single mass model of the

variable speed wind turbine and its performance has been tested through

simulations. The dynamic model of a horizontal axis turbine is simulated in

MATLAB-Simulink and has been validated through a complex aerolastics wind

turbine simulator FAST (Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures and Turbulence

code) (Jonkman & Buhl, 2005). The overall controller is tested on a wind

turbine simulator with realistic wind profiles providing satisfactory results.

The paper is organized as follows. In Section II is given background

material on nonlinear H -control synthesis, the wind turbine model and

problem formulation is presented in Section III. The control design is provided

in Section IV. Performance of the proposed results are given in Section V

through simulations. Section VI presents some conclusions.

2. Background Material on Nonlinear H -Control Synthesis

Consider a nonlinear system of the form

x = f ( x) + g1 ( x) w + g 2 ( x)u

z = h1 ( x) + k12 ( x)u

y = h2 ( x) + k21 ( x) w

(1)

80

following assumptions are assumed to hold:

(A1) The functions f(x), g1(x), g2(x), h1(x), h2(x), k12(x), and k21(x) are

twice continuously differentiable in x locally around x = 0.

(A2) f (0) = 0 , h1 (0) = 0 , and h2 (0) = 0 .

(A3) h1T ( x)k12 ( x) = 0,

k12T ( x)k12 ( x) = I ,

T

k21 ( x)k21

( x) = I .

k21 ( x) g1T ( x) = 0,

theory (Doyle et al., 1989; Isidori & Astolfi, 1992) and they are made for

technical reasons. Assumption (A1) guarantees the well-posedness of the above

dynamic system, while being enforced by integrable exogenous inputs.

Assumption (A2) ensures that the origin is an equilibrium point of the nondriven (u = 0) disturbance-free (w = 0) dynamic system (1). Assumption (A3) is

a simplifying assumption inherited from the standard H -control problem.

A causal dynamic feedback compensator

u = K ( x)

(2)

(1)(2) is globally asymptotically stable when w = 0 .

Given a real number > 0 , it is said that system (1), (2) has L 2 -gain

less than if the response z, resulting from w for initial state x(0) = 0 , satisfies

z (t ) dt < 2 w(t ) dt

2

(3)

The H -control problem is to find a globally admissible controller (2)

such that L 2 -gain of the closed-loop system (1)(2) is less than . In turn, a

locally admissible controller (2) is said to be a local solution of the H -control

problem if there exists a neighborhood U of the equilibrium such that inequality

(3) is satisfied for all T > 0 and all piecewise continuous functions w(t ) for

which the state trajectory of the closed-loop system starting from the initial

point x(0) = 0 remains in U for all t [0, T ] .

2.1. Local State-Space Solution

Hamilton-Jacobi-Isaacs inequalities from that arise in the state feedback and

81

H -control problem. The subsequent local analysis involves the linear timeinvariant H -control problem for the system

x = Ax + B1w + B2u

z = C1 x + D12u

y = C2 x + D21w

(4)

where

A

C1

C2

f

(0), B1 = g1 (0), B2 = g 2 (0),

x

h

= 1 (0), D12 = k12 (0),

x

h2

=

(0), D21 (t ) = k21 (0).

x

(5)

stabilizable and detectable from u and y, respectively. Under these assumptions,

the following conditions are necessary and sufficient for a solution to exist (see,

e.g., (Doyle et al., 1989)):

C1) There exists a positive semidefinite symmetric solution of the

equation

(6)

such that the matrix has all eigenvalues with negative real part.

A ( B2 B2T 2 B1B1T ) P

According to the strict bounded real lemma (Anderson &Vreugdenhil,

1973), condition C1) ensures that there exists a positive constant 0 such that the

system of tehe perturbed Riccati equation

P A + AT P + C1T C1 + I

1

+ P 2 B1B1T B2 B2T PE = 0

(7)

82

where A = A + B1 B1 P .

Eq. (7) is subsequently utilized to derive a local solution of the

nonlinear H -control problem for (1). The following result is extracted from.

T

corresponding positive solution of (7) under some > 0 . Then the output

feedback

u = g 2T ( x) P x

(8)

3. Wind Turbine Model and Problem Statement

The aerodynamic power captured by the rotor is given by the nonlinear

expression (Burton et al., 2001)

Pa =

1

R 2C p ( , )v 3

2

(9)

where: v is the wind speed, the air density, and R the rotor radius. The

efficiency of the rotor blades is denoted as C p , which depends on the blade

pitch angle , or the angle of attack of the rotor blades, and the tip speed ratio

, the ratio of the blade tip linear speed to the wind speed. The parameters

and affect the efficiency of the system. The coefficient C p is specific for

each wind turbine. The relationship of tip speed ratio is given by

=R

r

v

(10)

illustrated in Fig. 1. This surface was created with the modeling software

WTPerf (Marshall, 2009), which uses blade-element-momentum theory to

predict the performance of wind turbines (Burton et al., 2001). The WTPerf

simulation was performed to obtain the operating parameters for the CART

(Controls Advanced Research Turbine).

83

Fig. 1 indicates that there is one specific at which the turbine is most

efficient. From (9) and (10), one can note that the rotor efficiency is highly

nonlinear and makes the entire system a nonlinear system. The efficiency of

power capture is a function of the tip speed ratio and the blade pitch. The power

captured from the wind follows the relationship

Pa = Ta r

(11)

where:

Ta =

C ( , ) 2

1

R 3 p

v

2

(12)

is the aerodynamic torque which depends nonlinearly upon the tip speed ratio.

A variable speed wind turbine generally consists of an aeroturbine, a gearbox,

and generator, as shown in Fig. 2.

84

spin a shaft at the speed r . The low speed torque Tls acts as a braking torque

on the rotor. The gearbox, which increases the rotor speed by the ratio n g to

obtain the generator speed g and decreases the high speed torque Ths . The

generator is driven by the high speed torque Ths and braked by the generator

electromagnetic torque Tem (Boukhezzar et al., 2007). The mathematical model

of the two mass wind turbine, can be described as follows:

J r r = Ta (r , , v) K ls ( r ls ) Dls (r ls ) Drr

J g ng g = Tem ng + K ls ( r ls ) + Dls (r ls ) Dg ng g

(13)

where: ls is the low shaft speed, r the rotor side angular deviation, ls

the gearbox side angular deviation, J r the rotor inertia, J g the generator

inertia, Dr the rotor external damping, Dg the generator external damping,

Dls the low speed shaft damping, and K ls the low speed shaft stiffness. The

gearbox ratio ng is:

ng =

g Tls

=

.

ls Ths

(14)

85

the turbine may be then considered, upon using (14) and (13), one gets:

J t r = Ta (r , , v) Dtr Tg ,

(15)

inertia, turbine total external damping, and generator torque in the rotor side,

respectively. The parameters of the model are given in Table 1.

Table 1

One-Mass Model Parameters

Numerical

Notation

Units

value

R

21.65

m

1.308

kg/m3

Jt

3.92x105

kg m2

Dt

400

N m/rad/s

H

36.6

m

Pe

600

kW

ng

43.165

teetered, active-yaw, upwind, variable speed, variable pitch, horizontal axis

wind turbine. The nominal power is 600 kW, the rated wind speed of 13 m/s, a

cut out wind speed of 26 m/s, and it has a maximum power coefficient C pmax =

0.3659. The rated rotor speed is 41.7 rpm. The required constraints for torque

and rotor speed are 162 kN-m and 58 rpm respectively (Fingersh & Johnson,

2002). The gearbox is connected to an induction generator via the high speed

shaft, and the generator is connected to the grid via power electronics.

Generator power will be controled in region III when the wind speeds

are high enough that the turbine must limit the fraction of the wind power

captured so that safe electrical and mechanical loads are not exceeded. Then it

operates at the rated power with power regulation during high wind periods by

active control of the blade pitch angle or passive regulation based on

aerodynamic stall (Burton et al., 2001). The objective control in this region is to

find a control law Tg and to achieve the best tracking of rated of power

while r follows d , as well as to reject fast wind speed variations and

avoiding significant control efforts that induce undesirable torques and forces

on the wind turbine structure. For variable speed wind turbine we design a

controller using blade pitch and generator torque as control inputs.

Our objective is to design a regulator of the form

86

Tg

1

Tg =

C0 p (Ta Dtr Tg ) u

Jt

r

(16)

constant while the rotor speed regulation is partly guaranteed by the pitch

controller.

We confine our investigation to the velocity regulation problem where

1) The output to be controlled is given by

0

1

w

0

r

+ u

z = y

Pnom Pe 0

(17)

2) The measurements

r

y = p + wy

Tg

(18)

4. Controller Synthesis

4.1. H Synthesis

To

begin

with,

let

us

introduce

the

error

state

vector

Dt

1

1

x1 x3 + Ta

Jt

Jt

Jt

x2 = c0 x2 + u

1

1

x3 = c0 x2 (Ta Dt x1 x3 ) x3 u

x1

Jt

x1 =

(19)

87

differentiable in x locally around the origin x = 0 R 3 , the above H control

problem is nothing else than the earlier theoretical approach to the nonlinear H

control problem for the system (1) specified as follows:

[Ta Dt x1 x3 ]

Jt

,

f ( x) =

c0 x2

1

Ta x3 Dt x1 x3 x32

+

+

c0 x2

Jt

Jt

Jt

x1

0

0 0 0

g1 ( x ) = 0 0 0 , g2 ( x ) = 1 ,

1

0 0 0

x1

(20)

0

1

h1 ( x ) = x1 , k12 ( x ) = 0 ,

x2

0

x1

1 0 0

h2 ( x ) = x2 , k21 ( x ) = 0 1 0 .

x3

0 0 1

for the system (4), (5), the state vector x contains the desviation from the

operating point

1 Ta

Dt

J t x1

A1 =

0

A31

0

c0

C0

x1op

Jt

0 ,

A33

88

0 0 0

0

B1 = 0 0 0 , B2 = 1 ,

0 0 0

1

x1op

0 0 0

1

C1 = 1 0 0 , D12 = 0 ,

0 1 0

0

1 0 0

1 0 0

C2 = 0 1 0 , D21 = 0 1 0

0 0 1

0 0 1

where

A31

A33

2

x3op (Ta x 1 ) c0 x2op

x3op

2

2

Jt

x1

x1op

J t x1op

1

Taop + Dt x1op + 2 x3op .

Jt

local solution of the H regulation problem.

oscillation, the torque control is aided by the pitch action. The pitch control

allows to maintain the rotor speed around its nominal value. To achieve this,

proportional action is used

= K p w

89

(21)

5. Simulation Results with Turbulent Wind

CART. This turbine was modelled with the mathematical model on MatlabSimulink as well as in FAST aeroelastic simulator for validation. The wind

speed is described as a slowly varying average wind speed superimposed by a

rapidly varying turbulent wind speed. The model of the wind speed v at the

measured point is

v = vm + vt

(22)

90

where: vm is the mean value and vt the turbulent component. The hubreference wind field was generated using Turbsim (Kelley & Jonkman, 2009).

The wind data consist of 600 sec in vm = 20 m/s with 16% turbulence

intensity, via the Kaimal turbulence model. Fig. 3 shows the profile of wind

speed. In order to improve power regulation, rotor speed, and reduce the

mechanical loads, we design H -regulation controller (8), (20) with = 12

and = 0.001 .

First, the proposed controller is evaluated using the simplified

mathematical model and then is evaluated with FAST simulator. In Figs. 4

and 5, simulation results are presented. The nominal values for regulation

problem are shown in Figs. 4 a and 4 b; it is observed that the proposed

control is able to achieve precise speed and power regulation. In Fig. 4 a the

rotor speed is well regulated close to its nominal value. Fig. 4 b shows that

the electrical power Pe follows the nominal power. This value is almost

equal to the nominal power Pnom. In this region pitch control alters the pitch

of the blade, thereby changing the airflow around the blades resulting in the

reduced torque capture of wind turbine rotor. Because of the pitch control,

the control torque is reduced as shown in Fig. 5 a; if variation of Tg are

large can be result in loads over the wind turbine affecting its behavior, but

in this case its value goes up to 138.25 kNm, which is under the maximum

one 162 kNm. These result in the reduction of the drive train mechanical

stresses and output power fluctuations. In Fig. 5 b we see that the collective

pitch action did not exceed its limit. It was observed that a good tracking of

a power reference and regulation of the rotor speed near of its nominal value

can be successfully enforced with the controller used.

To verify the results obtained from the mathematical model, the

proposed controller strategy performance has been tested for validation

using FAST simulator. In this study, two degree of freedom are simulated:

the variable generator and rotor speed. The performance increases in

comparison with the mathematical model getting a better regulation speed

and power tracking (Figs. 4 a and 4 b). The high speed shaft torsional

moment with the mathematical model is greater then the one obtained with

the simulator as well as the pitch angle (Figs. 5 a and 5 b). Checking out

the results, one should conclude that the wind turbine control is

satisfactory.

b generator power.

91

92

a generator torque and b pitch angle.

93

6. Conclusions

Variable speed operation of wind turbine is necessary to increase power

generation efficiency. As explained above, the wind turbine output power is

limited to the rated power by the pitch and torque controller. We have

developed the structure for nonlinear H control system in conjunction with a

linear control strategy whose design procedure shown to be acceptable to

solving the tracking of a power problem and regulation of the rotor speed near

of its nominal value. To evaluate the performance the proposed strategy control

approach has been simulated on a 600 kW two-blade wind turbine. Then, it has

been validated using the wind turbine simulator FAST. Simulation results show

that the proposed method is able to achieve the power and speed regulation

while the load is limited.

The states of the system were supposed available.

REFERENCES

Anderson B., Vreugdenhil R., Network Analysis and Synthesis. Prentice Hall,

Englewood Cliffs NJ, 1973.

Bianchi F.D., de Battista H., Mantz R.J., Wind Turbine Control Systems: Principles,

Modelling and Gain Scheduling Design of Advances in Industrial Control.

Springer-Verlag, London Limited, 1st Edition, 2007.

Boukhezzar B., Lupu L., Siguerdidjane H., Hand M., Multivariable Control Strategy for

Variable Speed, Variable Pitch Wind Turbines. Renewable Energy, 32, 8,

12731287, 2007.

Burton T., Sharpe D., Jenkins N., Bossanyi E., Wind Energy Handbook. Wiley, 1st

Edition, 2001.

Doyle J., Glover K., Khargonekar P., Francis B., State-Space Solutions to Standard H2

and H Control Problems. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, 34, 8, 831847, 1989.

Fingersh L., Johnson K., Controls Advanced Research Turbine (CART) Comissioning

and Baseline Data Collection. Technical Report, NREL, 2002.

Gelman R., Kubik M., Buchanan S., 2009 Renewable Energy Data Book. [Online].

Available: http://www.eere.energy.gov/maps_data/pdfs/eere_databook.pdf, 2010.

Grimble M., Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Control: Comparison of Classical, LQG

and H Designs. Dynamics and Control, 6, 2, 143161, 1996.

Isidori A., Astolfi A., Disturbance Attenuation and H -Control via Measumerent

Feedback in Nonlinear System. IEEE Trans. Autom. Control, 37, 9,

12831293, 1992.

Jonkman J., Buhl M. Jr., FAST Users Guide. Technical report, NREL/EL-500-38230,

National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, CO, 2005.

Kelley N., Jonkman B., TurbSim User's Guide: Version 1.50., Technical Report,

NREL/TP-500-46198, National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 2009.

Laks J.H., Pao L.Y., Wright A.D., Control of Wind Turbines: Past, Present, and Future.

IEEE Proc. Amer. Control Conf., 20962103, St. Louis, MO, 2009.

94

Marshall

http://wind.nrel.gov/designcodes/simulators/wtperf/, 2009.

Ofualagba G., Ubeku E.U., Wind Energy Conversion System- Wind Turbine Modeling.

IEEE Power and Energy Society General Meeting - Conversion and Delivery

of Electrical Energy in the 21st Century, 18, 2008.

Pao L.Y., Johnson K.E., A Tutorial on the Dynamics and Control of Wind Turbines and

Wind Farms. IEEE Proc. Amer. Control Conf., 20762089, St. Louis, MO,

2009.

Thomsen S., Nonlinear Control of a Wind Turbine. ME Thesis, Lyngby: Informatik og

Matematisk Modellering, Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, 2006.

Wright A.D., Fingersh L.J., Advanced Control Design for Wind Turbines. Part I:

Control Design, Implementation, and Initial Tests. Technical Report,

NREL/TP-500-42437, NREL, 2008.

CU VITEZ VARIABIL

(Rezumat)

Este prezentat o strategie de control care rezolv problema reglrii puterii la

ieirea sistemului eolian de conversie a energiei la vitez a vntului variabil

combinnd un sistem de control liniar al unghiului elicei cu un un sistem de control H

neliniar al cuplului, ce diminueaz efectul perturbaiilor externe ce apar la intrarea i la

ieirea sistemului. Sistemul de control propus prezint o mai bun reglare a puterii la

ieire i a vitezei de rotaie n comparaie cu regulatoarele liniare clasice. Se presupune

c valori reale ale vitezei i acceleraiei vntului sunt disponibile din msurtori

efectuate pe o turbin eolian. Pentru a valida modelul matematic i pentru a evalua

performanele sistemului de control propus a fost folosit simulatorul unei turbine

eoliene FAST de la National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Rezultatele

obinute prin simulare arat eficacitatea strategiei de control propus pentru reglarea

vitezei i a puterii la ieirea turbinei eoliene.

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