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International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)

Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 907-913


ISSN 2078-2365

Power System Transient Stability Analysis with


High Wind Power Penetration
Amroune Mohammed 1, Bouktir Tarek 2
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Setif 1, Algeria
1
amrounemohammed@yahoo.fr
2
tbouktir@gmail.com

Abstract Some countries did not have adequate fuel


and water power resources, which led them to look for
alternative ways of generating electricity such as wind power,
solar power, geothermal power and biomass power, called
renewable energy. Wind energy is one of the most available and
exploitable forms of renewable energy due to their advantages.
However the high penetration of wind power systems in the
electrical network has introduced new issues in the stability
and transient operation of power system. The majority of wind
farms installed are using fixed speed wind turbines equipped
with squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG). Therefore, the
analysis of power system dynamics with the SCIG wind
turbines has become a very important research issue, especially
during transient faults. This paper provides an assessment of
wind penetration effects on the power system transient
stability. The wind generators considered are the squirrel cage
induction generator (SCIG), which is a fixed speed.
Index Terms Power system, Squirrel Cage Induction
Generator (SCIG), Wind Penetration, Transient stability,
Critical Clearing Time (CCT)

I. INTRODUCTION
Wind generators are primarily classified as fixed speed
or variable speed. Due to its low maintenance cost and simple
construction, squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) is
mostly used for wind power generation [1]. SCIGs directly
connect to the grid and they dont have convertor like DFIGs.
Because of lack of convertor and robust control procedure,
SCIGs are more sensitive to wind speed variations rather
than DFIGs and mechanical parameters like wind turbine
inertia constant and shaft stiffness coefficient have
remarkable impact on operation of this kind of wind
generators. Moreover they are more sensitive to fluctuations
and faults in power system rather than DFIGs [2].
One of important issues engineers have to face is the
impact of SCIGs wind turbines penetration on the transient
stability of power system. Transient stability entails the
evaluation of a power systems ability to withstand large

disturbances and to survive the transition to another


operating condition. These disturbances may be faults such
as a short circuit on a transmission line, loss of a generator,
loss of a load, gain of load or loss of a portion of
transmission network [3]. A number of studies have been
conducted on power system transient stability with high
penetration of SCIG based wind farms, but they have
considered simple network
structures [4], [5], [6]. In the present work, the impact of
SCIG wind farms installation and penetration on transient
stability is demonstrated using the IEEE 30-bus system.
Using this network, simulation has been carried out for two
different cases and different penetration levels during three
phases to ground fault:
Case 1: single SCIG wind farm has been connected
to grid.
Case 2: the network has been modified by
connecting two SCIG wind farms.
Simulation results show that wind farm consist of constant
speed wind turbine in high penetration condition is
remarkably influential in transient stability.
The paper is organized as follows. Section II briefly
introduces the mathematical models of power system and
wind generator. The Optimal Power Flow (OPF) formulation
is presented in Section III. In section IV, the detail case
studies focusing on the impacts of fixed speed grid-connected
wind farms on IEEE-30 bus test system are carried out.
Finally the conclusions are summarized in Section V.
II. POWER SYSTEM MODELLING
A. Power System Modelling
The power system model consists of synchronous
generator, transmission network and static load models,
which are presented below.
The machine classical electromechanical model is
represented by the following differential equations [7]:

Prof. Tarek Bouktir acknowledges support from MESRS (Algeria), grant


number J0203020080004

907
Power System Transient Stability Analysis with High Wind Power Penetration

International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)


Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 907-913
ISSN 2078-2365
d i
i s
dt
d 2 i f

Pmi Pei PDi


Hi
dt 2

Fig.1. Representation of the fixed speed induction generator

(1)

d
dt
D is the generator damping coefficient, H is the inertia
constant of machine expected on the common MVA base, Pm
is the mechanical input power and Pe is the electrical output.

Where: PD D

The transmission network model is described by the


steady-state matrix equation:
(2)
Ibus YbusVbus
Where Ibus is the injections current vector to the network, Vbus
is the nodal voltages vector and Ybus is the nodal matrix
admittance.
The electrical power of the ith generator is given by [8]:
ng

Pei Ei2Gii Cij cos ij i j

(3)

j 1

Where i = 1, 2, 3ng is the number of generators.


Cij = |Ei||Ej||Yij| is the power transferred at bus ij, E is the
magnitude of the internal voltage, Yij are the internal
elements of matrix Ybus and Gii are the real values of the
diagonal elements of Ybus.
The static model of load is represented by load admittance YL
defined by [8]:
P - jQ
YLi = i 2 i
Vi

(4)

B. Wind Generator Modelling


The fixed-speed, squirrel cage induction generator
(SCIG) is connected directly to the distribution grid through
a transformer. There is a gear box which maces the
generators speed to the frequency of the grid.
During high wind speeds, the power extracted from the wind
is limited by the stall effect of the generator. This prevents
the mechanical power extracted from the wind from
becoming too large. In most cases, a capacitor bank is
connected to the fixed speed wind generator for reactive
power compensation purposes. The capacitor bank
minimizes the amount of reactive power that the generator
draws from the grid [3].

The Squirrel Cage Induction generator model is shown in


Fig. 2. Where Rs represents the stator resistance, Xs
represents the stator reactance; Xm is the magnetizing
reactance, while Rr and Xr represent the rotor resistance and
reactance,
respectively.
Rs

Xs

Xm

Vs

Vr

Vr= e-jwt Vr

Rr
Xr

Fig.2. Equivalent circuit of the Squirrel Cage Induction generator


[3]

A standard detailed two-axis induction machine model is


used to represent the induction generator. The relationship
between the stator voltage, rotor voltage, the currents and the
fluxes are given by the following equations [9]:
d

vds = -Rs ids - s qs + ds

dt
(5)

v = -R i + + d
qs
s
qs
s
ds
qs

dt

v = 0 = Rr idr - g s qr + dr

dr
dt

v = 0 = R i + g + d
qr
r
qr
s
dr
qr

dt

(6)

Where Vs is the stator voltage while Vr represents the rotor


voltage, s and r are the stator and rotor flux respectively,
while s is the synchronous speed. The rotor voltage is zero
because the rotor has been short-circuited in the Squirrel
cage induction generator. The model is completed by the
mechanical equation as given below [9]:
dr
1
(7)
=
(Tm - Te )
dt
2H
H is the inertia constant; Tm is the mechanical torque; Te is
the electrical torque and r is the generator speed.
III. OPTIMAL POWER FLOW FORMULATION
The OPF problem is considered as a general minimization
problem with constraints and can be written in the following
form [10], [11]:

Grid
v

Gear Box

Minimize f ( x, u)

(8)

Subject to g( x, u) 0

(9)

(10)
h( x, u) 0
Where f(x,u) is the objective function; g(x,u) is the equality
constraints and represent typical load flow equation; h(x,u) is
908

Power System Transient Stability Analysis with High Wind Power Penetration

International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)


Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 907-913
ISSN 2078-2365
the system operating constraints and x is the vector of state
variables.
The objective function for the OPF reflects the cost
associated with generating power in the system. The
objective function for the entire power system can then be
written as the sum of the fuel cost model for each generator:
NG

f fi

(11)

i 1

Where fi is the fuel cost of the ith generator


The fuel cost curve is modeled by quadratic function as:
(12)
fi ai bi PGi ci PGi2
th
Where ai , bi , and ci are cost coefficients of the i generating
unit shown in the Appendix.
The functions g and h are the equality and inequality
constraints to be satisfied while searching for the optimal
solution.
The function g represents the equality constraints that are
the power flow equations corresponding to both real and
reactive power balance equations, which can be written as
[11]:

Pi V , Pdi Pgi 0

(13)

Qi V , Qdi Qgi 0

(14)

h is the system inequality operation constraints that include


[11]:

Pgimin Pgi Pgimax

(15)

Qgimin Qgi Qgimax

(16)

generated. It uses mutation operation as a search mechanism.


This operation generates new parameter vector by adding a
weighted difference vector between two population members
to a third member. In order to increase the diversity of the
parameter vectors, the crossover operation produces a trial
vector which is a combination of a mutant vector and a parent
vector. Then the selection operation directs the search toward
the prospective regions in the search space. In addition, the
best parameter vector is evaluated for every generation in
order to keep track of the progress that is made during the
minimization process. The above iterative process of
mutation, crossover and selection on the population will
continue until a user-specified stopping criterion, normally,
the maximum number of generations or the maximum
number of function evaluations allowed is met. The process
is assumed to have converged if the difference between the
best function values in the new and old population, and the
distance between the new best point and the old best point are
less than the specified respective tolerances [13].
IV. SIMULATION RESULTS
This section presents computer simulation studies with
programs developed in MATLAB software version 7.7 to
demonstrate the transient performance of the power system
with high wind power integration. The Critical Clearing
Time (CCT) is used as indices to evaluated transient stability
and the IEEE 30-bus test system shown in Fig. 2 is employed
to conduct the transient stability simulation. Detailed
parameters of this system can be found in [14]. A wind farm
based on Fixed Speed Induction Generator (FSIG) is used
and the FSIG parameters are outlined in the Appendix.

25

Where Pgi and Qgi are the active and reactive power
generations at ith bus; Pdi and Qdi are the active and reactive
power demands at ith bus; Pi and Qi are the active and reactive
power injections at ith bus.

23

2
3

14

1
4

Several methods have been employed to solve this


problem, e.g. gradient methods, Linear programming
method and quadratic programming. However all of these
methods they may not be able to provide optimal solution and
usually getting stuck at a local optimal [12]. New
optimization techniques such as genetic algorithms, particle
swarm optimization, Artificial Ant Colony algorithm, and
Differential Evolution Algorithm are recently introduced and
also applied in the field of power systems. In this paper
Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) is used.

15

1
5

24

18

1
8

19

1
9

20

2
0

2
5

24

26
2
6

21

2
1

2
7

22
2
2

17

16

1
6

27

2
8

28

1
7

G
G

12

10

1
2

1
1

1
0

11

G
G

30
3
0

29
2
9

13

G
G

G
G

Differential Evolution is a direct search method using


operators: mutation, crossover and selection. The algorithm
randomly chooses a population vector of fixed size. During
each iteration of algorithm a new population of same size is

5
5

G
G

909
Power System Transient Stability Analysis with High Wind Power Penetration

International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)


Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 907-913
ISSN 2078-2365
Fig.3. Single line diagram of the IEEE 30-bus system

cost($/h)

A. Case 1: Single SCIG wind farm


In this case the SCIG wind farm of 20 MW has been
connected to bus 10 and bus 24 separately (Figure 4). The
SCIG was installed in a site that has the best potential in
therms of the resources itself, construction and operations
and maintenance logistics as well as interconnection and
potentiel permissing issues such as wildlife ampcts and local
politics [15].
The Optimal Power Flow results obtained with
Differential Evolution Algorithm (DEA) with and without of
wind farm is listed in Table 1. According to this table
connecting the wind farm at bus 24 will be a better option in
terms reduction in the total costs and power losses.
25

2
5

WG
23

2
3

14

1
4

15

1
5

24

18

1
8

19

1
9

20

2
0

24

26
2
6

21

2
1

2
7

22
2
2

17

16

1
6

27

2
8

28

1
7

G
G

12

10

1
2

1
1

1
0

11

WG

13

30
3
0

29
2
9

A disturbance in the form of a three phase to ground fault


is occurs at t = 1 second at bus 1, cleared by opening the line
connecting the nodes 12.
The dynamic analysis of grid connected SCIG needs
to know about the Critical Clearing Time (CCT) of SCIG,
which determines its transient stability. If the CCT is much
lower than the time setting of protective devices normally
installed in network, the system is said to be stable [16].
The Figures 5 and 6 show the dynamic responses of all
machines for Fault Clearing Time (FCT) equal to 170 ms and
213 ms respectively. These Figures show that the Critical
Clearing Time (CCT) improved after the introduction of the
wind farm of SCIG type. For FCT = 213 ms, the system with
Wind Farm (WF) at bus 10 (G10) remains stable and can
return to steady state finally. However, the system with wind
farm at bus 24 (G24) is unstable. Anothers simulations have
been performed for different fault locations in IEEE 30-bus
system, in order to know the effect of SCIG wind farm
location on transient stability. The results from the cases
study are presented in Table 2. The comparative results have
shown that the location of wind turbines has an effect in
transient stability of power system. In our case the insertion
of a wind farm at bus 10 is better than its insertion at bus 24.

G
G

250

200

5
5

G
G

Fig.4. Single line diagram of the modified IEEE 30-bus system

Angle rotorique relatif, degree

**** oliennes
au jb 10
without
wind farms
oliennes
** *wind----farm
at busau
10jb 24
___ sans oliennes
- - - wind farm at bus 24
_____

1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6

150

100

50

TABLE 1 : OPF RESULTS WITH AND WITHOUT WIND FARMS

BUS

PG (MW)
Without
wind farm

PG (MW)
With wind
farm at bus 10

PG (MW) With
wind farm at
bus 24

1
2
5
8
11
13
P loss
Total

176.8141
48.8318
21.4853
21.6837
12.1033
12.0000
9.51813
802.333

167.0748
46.4729
20.7535
15.9062
10.0000
12.0000
8.80743
741.518

167.0383
46.4601
20.7448
15.8131
10.0215
12.0000
8.67769
741.072

4
t, sec

Fig.5. Rotor angle differences of all machines (FCT=170 ms)

910
Power System Transient Stability Analysis with High Wind Power Penetration

International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)


Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 907-913
ISSN 2078-2365
250
_____

200
Angle rotorique relatif, degree

1-2
1-3
1-4
1-5
1-6

without auwind
**** oliennes
jb 10
farms
----- oliennes au jb 24
**___
*wind
at bus 10
sansfarm
oliennes
- - - wind farm at bus 24

150

100

50

4
t, sec

Fig.7. Power generation with wind farm at bus 10

Fig.6. Rotor angle differences of all machines (FCT=213 ms)

TABLE 2 : CCT WITH AND WITHOUT WIND FARMS

Faulte
d bus

Open
line

CCT
without
wind
farms (ms)

CCT with
wind farm
at bus 10
(ms)

CCT with
wind farm
at bus 24
(ms)

1
1
2
2
2
2
4
4
6
6

1-2
1-3
1-2
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-4
4-6
2-6
4-6

169
223
238
303
309
303
498
506
599
611

216
261
296
357
370
357
624
637
834
854

211
256
277
350
360
351
618
631
822
838

In order know the impact of wind penetration level on the


power system Critical Clearing Time, the analysis has been
carried out on 10%, 20%, 30% and 35% wind penetration
levels based on the total power required (283.4 MW).
Penetration level is defined as the ratio of capacity of wind
electric generator to capacity of alternator. The optimal
active powers generated by all generators when SCIG wind
farm is connected to bus 10 and to bus 24 are shown in Fig. 7
and Fig. 8 respectively. The variation of CCT for the fault at
bus 1 with opening the line 12 is shown in Figure 9. From
these Figure, it can be seen that the system transient stability
can be improved by improving penetration levels of SCIG
wind turbines.

Fig.8. Power generation with wind farm at bus 24

Fig.9. CCT variation with wind farms (fault at bus 1)

B. Case 2 : Two SCIG wind farms


In this case the two SCIG wind farms have been connected
to bus 10 and bus 24 simultaneously. Both farms generate 30
MW. Table III shown the total cost obtained with three
penetration level scenarios. According to this table the total
cost is low when the penetration level of wind farm is high at
bus 10 and low at bus 24 (scenario 3).
A three-phase short circuit has been simulated on
deferent selected buses for the three previous scenarios. The
911

Power System Transient Stability Analysis with High Wind Power Penetration

International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)


Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 907-913
ISSN 2078-2365
distribution of power generation between wind farms has an
effect on transient stability of power system as shown in
Table IV. In our study the CCT is more improved when the
penetration levels of wind farm is high at bus 10 and low at
bus 24 (scenario 3).

preliminary conclusions and comments can be summarized


as follows:
An optimal integration, location and utilization of
SCIG type wind generator to the power system
improved the transient stability;
Wind power plants affect voltage levels and power
flows in the networks. These effects can be
beneficial to the system, especially when wind
power plants are located near load centers.

TABLE 3 : OPF RESULTS FOR DEFERENT SCENARIOS

G10

G24

Total cost ($/h)

Scenario 1

15%

15%

562.244

Scenario 2

10%

20%

664.419

Scenario 3

20%

10%

561.28

The location and number of SCIG based wind


turbine has an effect on transient stability of
power system;
The increased of penetration level of wind
generation SCIG type increase the power system
Critical Clearing Time;
The distribution of power between SCIG wind
farms has an effect on transient stability of
power system.
Appendix
TABLE 4 : POWER GENERAION LIMITS AND COEFFICIENTS

BUS

Fig.10. Power generation for deferent scenarios

TABLE I.

CCT FOR DEFERENT SCENARIOS

1
2
5
8
11
13

Cost Coefficients
a
0
0
0
0
0
0

b
2
1.75
1
3.25
3
3

c
0.00375
0.0175
0.0625
0.0083
0.025
0.025

PGMIN
(MW)

PGMAX
(MW)

50
20
15
10
10
12

200
80
50
35
30
40

TABLE 5 : INDUCTION TURBINE MODEL PARAMETRS

Faulte
d bus

Ope
n
line

CCT (ms)
for Scenario
1

CCT (ms)
for scenario
2

CCT (ms)
for
scenario 3

1
1
2
2
2
2
4
4
6
6

1-2
1-3
1-2
2-4
2-5
2-6
2-4
4-6
2-6
4-6

445
483
584
631
626
638
1281
1278
1576
1558

443
484
580
635
629
642
1286
1283
1587
1561

445
485
586
636
631
644
1288
1286
1659
1564

V. CONCLUSION
The impact of increased penetration of fixed speed wind
generators on power system transient stability is discussed in
this paper. According to the simulation results, some

Stator resistance (Rs)


Rotor resistance (Rr)
Stator reactance (Xs)
Rotor reactance (Xr)
Magnetizing reactance (Xm)
Inertia constant (H)

0.1015 pu
0.0880 pu
3.5547 pu
3.5859 pu
3.5092 pu
4 s

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Power System Transient Stability Analysis with High Wind Power Penetration

International Electrical Engineering Journal (IEEJ)


Vol. 4 (2013) No. 1, pp. 907-913
ISSN 2078-2365
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Power System Transient Stability Analysis with High Wind Power Penetration