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Neuroanatomy anatomy of the nervous system
Central Nervous System brain & spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System connects the brain &
spinal cord to the rest of the body
Somatic Nervous System w/ axons conveying
messages from sense organs to CNS & CNS to the
Autonomic Nervous System controls heart, intestines
& other organs
Spinal Cord within spinal column, communicates with
all the sense organs & muscles except those of the head
Bell Magendie Law entering dorsal roots (axon
bundles) carry sensory information, exiting ventral roots
carry motor information
Dorsal root ganglia
Gray matter H shaped, center of the cord, densely
packed with cell bodies & dendrites
White matter mostly of myelinated axons
Autonomic Nervous System
Sympathetic Nervous System prepare the organs for
vigorous activity. fight or flight. increasing breathing, heart
rate, decreasing digestive activity
Parasympathetic Nervous System for non emergency
responses, conserves energy.
para = beside.
Opposite of SNS.
Aka: craniosacral system - consists of the cranial
nerves & nerves from the sacral spinal cord.
Hindbrain : Rhombocencephalon
brainstem : pons, medulla, cerebellum
Medulla above the spinal cord. Vital reflex
breathing, heart rate, vomiting, salivation, coughing,
Cranial nerves control sensations fr the head, muscle
movements in the head, parasympathetic output to the
Pons Axons cross to the opposite side of the spinal
anterior and ventral to medulla. bridge.
Left hem = right side.
Right hem = left side.
Reticular formation under medulla & pons.
Descending = control motor areas of spinal cord.
Asceding = sends output to cerebral cortex, sends
axon to forebrain, modify brains readiness to
respond to stimuli.
Cerebellum many deep folds. Control of movement,
balance and coordination.
Midbrain : Mesencephalon
tectum, tegmentum, superior & inferior colliculus,
substantia nigra
Tectum roof of the midbrain.
Superior Colliculus Vision

Inferior Colliculus Hearing

Tegmentum Covering of other midbrain structures
Substantia Nigra dopamine-containing pathway that
facilitates readiness for movement.
Forebrain : Prosencephalon
thalamus, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, basal ganglia,
basal forebrain, hippocampus
Cerebral Cortex brain shell
Limbic system border aound the brainstem
Thalamus center of the forebrain. Sensory
Hypothalamus conveys messages to pituitary gland.
Damage: abnormalities in motivated behaviors.
Pituitary Gland hormones
Basal Ganglia Learning and remembering how to do
something, attention, language, planning.
Major structures: caudate, putamen, globus
Damage: impairs movement.
Basal Forebain arousal, wakefulness, attention
nucleus basalis receives input from the hypothalamus
& basal ganglia, sends axons that release acetylcholine to
cerebral cortex.
Hippocampus memories. Seahorse shaped.
Ventricles four fluid-filled cavities within the brain
Central Canal fluid-filled channel in the center of the
spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid cushions the brain against
mechanical shock, provide buoyancy, provide reservoir of
hormones &nutrition for the brain & spinal cord. Clear fluid
that fills ventricles.
produced by choroid plexus cells.
(lateral ventricles 3rd & 4th ventricles central
canal or spaces between the brain and meninges)
Obstructed: increase pressure on the brain,
overgrown head - hydrocephalus.
Meninges membranes that surround the brain and
spinal cord. Inflammation: meningitis.
Subarachoid space narrow space wherein blood
gradually reabsorbs the CSF.
Cerebral cortex consists of cellular layers on the outer
surface of the cerebral hem.
Cells = gray matter. Axons extending inward =
white matter.
Two bundles of axons = corpus callosum &
anterior commissure
Laminae layers of cell bodies that are parallel to the
surface of the cortex, separated by layers of fibers.
Lamina V sends long axons to the spinal cord & other
distant areas. Thickest. Greatest control of the muscles.
Lamina IV, receives axons from the various sensory
nuclei of the thalamus. In primary sensory areas. Not in
the motor cortex.

Occipital Lobe visual information

Primary visual cortex posterior pole of the occipital
Aka: Striate cortex
Striped appearance in cross-section
Damage: cortical blindness.
Parietal Lobe sensation. Monitors eye, head, and
body positions and passes it on to brain areas that control
movement. Spatial information. Numerical information.
Central Sulcus one of the deepest grooves in the
surface of the cortex
Postcentral gyrus receives sensations from touch
receptors, muscle stretch receptors and joint receptors.
Aka: primary somasensory cortex.
Four bands: 2 = light-touch info. 1 = deeppressure info. 1 = combination of both.
Temporal Lobe auditory perception. Vision.
Perception of movement. Recognition of faces.
Damage: Kluver-Bucy syndrome = no fear, no
Frontal Lobe movement.
Precentral gyrus control of fine movement.
Prefrontal cortex working memory, remember recent
events, decisions, planning movements. Most anterior
portion of the frontal lobe.
Delayed-response task response after a delay

psychological disorder psychological dysfunction
associated with distress or impairment in functioning and a
response that is not typical or culturally expected.
Aka: abnormal behavior.
Atypical: deviates from the average, violating social
psychological dysfunction breakdown in cognitive,
emotionla or behavioral functioning.

psychopathology scientific study of psychological

scientist-practitioners interaction of clinical work &
~ consumer of science informs practice, enhancing
~ evaluator determines the effectiveness of the

Placoid scales are responsible for the rough feeling of dogfish


~ creator of science conducting research that

leads to new procedures useful in practice
4 goals in psychology describe, explain, predict, control
Studying psychological disorders: focus
clinical description presents the unique combination of
behaviors thougts, & feelings that make up a specific
disorder. (prevalence, incidence, sex ratio, course)
~ chronic 6 months +
~ episodic triggered
~ time limited 3 months
~ acute suddenly
~ insidious gradually
~ diagnosis vs. prognosis (good vs. guarded)
~ dev psy study of changes in behavior over time
~ dev psychopathology study of changes in
abnormal behavior
~ life-span dev psychopathology study of abnormal
behavior across the entire age span
causation (etiology) study of origins. Cause of
treatment and outcome

ish Scales

4) Teleost (bony fish) scales

These are thin scales of dermal bone. They have a thin covering
of epidermal tissue over them. It is derived by reduction (loss) of
parts of a ganoid scale. There are two types depending on their

4a) Cycloid Scales: See bioplastic mounts and slides. A round

ended scale.
4b) Ctenoid Scales: See bioplastic mounts and slides. A comb
shaped end is characteristic of this scale type.

Fish scales are also called dermal scales since they are derived
mainly from the dermis.

1)Cosmoid Scales: Found in Placoderms (extinct) as plates,

and also typical of the Lobe Finned Fishes or Sarcopterygii,
(Choanichthyes). Extinct fish had scales of enamel, cosmine and
bone with pulp cavities. Modern ones, like Coelocanthand the
lung fish have calcified fibers so this type of scale is almost
extinct. No specimens available.

2)Ganoid Scales: See bioplastic mounts, slides, the plates of

sturgeon, called scutes, and the scales of the gar pike on
display. Made of multi-layered enamel called ganoin over
lamellar bone. Primitive (now extinct) species also had a
cosmine layer and vascular bone with pulp, but these were lost
in modern day examples.

Placoid Scales: See bioplastic mounts and dogfish slides. Made

of enamel (epidermal) and the dermal derivatives, dentine and
bone with a pulp core. They are typical of cartilaginous fishes.

The flight feathers closest to the body are sometimes

called tertiaries.
Referring to the bioplastic mount and slides, make a sketch of
the placoid, ganoid, cycloid and ctenoid scales. This sketch is for
your own reference so do not copy the drawings but draw what
you see under the microscope.

The hair follicle is an epidermal derivative

responsible for the formation and growth of
hair. They are distributed widely, but are
absent in thick skin, lips and around the anal
and urethral orifices. The base of the follicle, a
bulbous structure called a hair bulb, is located
deep in the dermis or in the hypodermis. An
external and internal root sheath, extending
from the bulb toward the skin surface, forms a
cylindrical cavern that houses the hair.
Feathers: are believed to have evolved from reptilian scales.
Columns of epidermal cells project into the skin initially to form
an invagination called the feather follicle. Later growth results in
a projection out of the skin of a keratinized epidermal sheath with
an inner feather shaft. These columns then separate and
develop into barbs. Feather growth is initiated by dermal
papillae, which die in the grown feather to form feather pulp.
Examine the dried specimens. Note the quill (calamus), which
attaches to the body and extends as a rachis. From the rachis
project many veins with barbs and barbules to hold them

The tail feathers, called retrices, act as brakes and a rudder,

controlling the orientation of the flight. Most birds have 12 tail
The bases of the flight feathers are covered with smaller contour
feathers calledcoverts. There are several layers of coverts on
the wing. Coverts also cover the ear.

Down feathers: Down feathers are small, soft, fluffy, and are
found under the contour feathers. They are plumaceous, and
have many non-interlocking barbs, lacking the barbules and
hooklets seen in contour and flight feathers. This makes it
possible for them to trap air in an insulating layer next to the
skin, protecting the bird from heat and cold. They are so efficient,
humans use these feathers for insulation, too, in down jackets
and comforters.
There are special types of downy feathers called powder down
feathers. When the sheaths or barbs of these feathers
disintegrate, they form a fine keratin powder, which the bird can
spread over its feathers as a water-proofing agent. The powder
also assists in cleaning as the bird preens. The absence of
powder down in birds such as cockatoos and African greys can
be a sign of disease, including beak and feather disease.

Filoplumes: Filoplumes are very fine, hair-like feathers, with a

long shaft, and only a few barbs at their tips. They are located
along all the pyterlae. Although their function is not well
understood, they are thought to have a sensory function,
possibly adjusting the position of the flight feathers in response
to air pressure.

Semiplumes: Semiplumes provide form, aerodynamics, and

insulation. They also play a role in courtship displays. They have
a large rachis, but loose (plumaceous) vanes. They may occur
along with contour feathers or in separate pterylae.

Bristle feathers: Bristle feathers have a stiff rachis with only

Contour feathers: Contour feathers cover most of the
surface of the bird, providing a smooth appearance. They protect
the bird from sun, wind, rain, and injury. Often, these feathers are
brightly colored and have different color patterns. Contour
feathers are divided into flight feathers and those that cover the

Flight feathers: Flight feathers are the large feathers of the

wing and tail. Flight feathers of the wing are collectively known
as the remiges, and are separated into three groups.
The primaries attach to the metacarpal (wrist) and phalangeal
(finger) bones at the far end of the wing and are responsible for
forward thrust. There are usually 10 primaries and they are
numbered from the inside out.
The secondaries attach to the ulna, a bone in the middle of the
wing, and are necessary to supply "lift." They are also used in
courtship displays. There are usually 10-14 secondaries and
they are numbered from the outside in.

a few barbs at the base. They are usually found on the head
(around the eyelids, nares, and mouth). They are thought to
have both a sensory and protective function.