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Howard C. Hoover sr

Abstract for scientific Imperatives for solar research

These conclusions and assertions are, no doubt, an incomplete compilation of scientific
imperatives for those impelled to do solar research into where nuclear mass energy is
transmuted from Proton to Proton-thermonuclear fusion reactions into the electromagnetic state
as photons.
Conclusions (a) or ascertains (b)
A: Mass and mass energy are equivalent.
B: Mass energy exists in the mass state or the electromagnetic state.
A: Mass energy in the electromagnetic state (photons) is in dipole configurations.
B: The force component in lines (pathways) of force in all dipole magnetic fields is provided
by the smallest particle of mass energy that can be known.
B: Where photons move linearly through space the direction of the circular pathways for
are predominately in the opposite direction of that photon through space.
A: The force component φ in pathways for force cannot exceed light velocity.

The Planck length 1.616252x10-35)2 meter. φ as adopted here, is the smallest dimension by
which any material object can be known. φ is the Greek symbol used within this conjecture to
mean the dimension of the smallest particle of mass energy in the electromagnetic state (emr)
that can known. Material objects having a single dimension are usually spherical or circular

Σ (4/3 π ) •(ρ /2 ) =231 -35meters≡ (φ ):
(φ )≡ the spherical volume of space conserved for the smallest three-dimensional partial of
electromagnetic state mass energy that can be known. Discrete quanta of (φ ) are the primary
components of mass energy that make up the mass of Protons, neutrons and electrons as well as
providing the force* components the in all magnetic fields. This assertion is borne out by the fact
that mass energy is transmuted from thermonuclear reaction into the electromagnetic state (em)
as photons. Mass energy in the (em) state provides the force components in all circular virtual
pathways of force in magnetic fields. Each line of force in magnetic fields encodes a specific
quanta of φ for each wavelength of electromagnetic radiation.
(mv=F)∴ ((φ )•v))≡ *293-6 joules

There is indirect evidence that electron mass energy is transmuted into heat carried by photons.
Just as specific heat of vaporization; (≡ 3413 Btu) is the imperative for the chemical reaction
that transforms 212 F* water molecule particles into the vapor state; nuclear reactions require

a specific quantum of latent heat derived from thermonuclear reactions to transmute atomic
mass energy from the mass state into the electromagnetic state (emr) in photons. The fact such
heat is detected from reflected sunlight is ample evidence that photons carry heat from where
thermonuclear reactions occur. Where sunlight is focused through a magnifying lens the latent
heat aspect of photons become focused and amplified enough to ignite a fire. Photoelectric effect
is also utilized by photovoltaic cells to transform electromagnetic energy into electricity. There

is some anecdotal evidence that the photoelectric effect may interact with silicone in the Earth
crust so as to induce the Earth dipole magnetic field.[existing dynamo theory as the origin of the
Earth magnetic field is incompatible with Curie point. However evidence has been found that the
Earth magnetic field has changed direction many times. *The square root of 212 F is, within an

acceptable margin of error, atmospheric pressure (14.7 psi);Σ (√ 212)≡ 14.56 psi); this is
empirical evidence that our mathematics are in agreement with nature’s schemes.

The conclusion is asserted here that mass energy in the electromagnetic (dipole) configurations
in photons can provide the angular momentum to propel photons through the void of space.
Magnetic poles of photon dipole magnetic fields are at opposite ends of a straight line through
each magnetic core. Magnetic polar regions are not points but areas that encompass all pathways
(lines of force). Scientific imperatives for magnetic field energy are: Conservation of energy and
momentum. Where opposite magnetic poles of each photon magnetic field are in a plane
parallel to the direction of motion and with the ‘north*’ pole facing in the direction of motion of
arrays of φ at rest, touching one another along each of vast numbers of virtual lines of force in
that magnetic field core will be densely concentrated internally between the north and south
magnetic poles. φ are evenly distributed along each circular, external, pathway (line) of force.
φ move along each circular line of force at or near light velocity. The angular momentum of a
returning (φ ) at the south magnetic pole will be transferred to (φ ) at rest in line of φ in the
core of the South magnetic pole; An equal (φ ) will be displaced from the internal core at the
North Pole in the same direction and velocity as the impacting (φ ); obeying Newton’s third
law**. It is mass energy in the electromagnetic state energy that propels that photon linearly
through space at light velocity. There are as many simultaneous impacts as there are lines of
force; simultaneous impacts may be in the thousands. The number of lines of force in each
magnetic field is a function of magnetic field strength. (A classic demonstration of Newton's
third law of equal and opposite reaction is where a series of steel balls (each representing one
(φ ) are suspended linearly by thread from a frame. Where a ball at the end of that stationary
line of balls impacts an adjacent ball a ball at the opposite end of that line of touching
suspended balls will be displaced, at the same velocity as the initial impact.) * (φ ) move along
circular, external, lines of force of each photon magnetic field at or near light velocity. (φ )in
contact along the magnetic core move, incidentally from impacts, in the opposite direction to
external lines of force through the magnetic core. The linear velocity of each magnetic field
through space plus the internal velocity of (φ ) along the magnetic core cannot exceed light
velocity (c).
** Such displacement is imperative to only where balls and lines of (φ ) are in contact that
Momentum is conserved.

Electromagnetic (photon) energy will pass through the sun’s photosphere and the Earth
atmosphere without radiating any photon heat to the Earth atmosphere or the sun’s
photosphere. (Similar to where water molecules, in the vapor state, fill bubbles that ascend
though the liquid in a pot of boiling water). The convention in contemporary theoretical physics
is to mathematically analyze electromagnetic radiation wavelengths by using continuous wavy
lines (i.e. such wavelengths are the linear distance from the crest of one wave to the next crest of
that wave; this is also true where a continuous line traces distance from the top of one circle or
sphere to the bottom of the adjacent sphere or circle). Such wavelengths are incidental to the
configuration of transmuted mass energy in such electromagnetic radiations (photons). The
angle at which light is reflected is dependent on the angle of incidence; this is tacit affirmation
that such waves are spherical not linear. The fact that wavelengths of electromagnetic waves can
be Doppler shifted is ample evidence that quantum units of nuclear mass energy in each

wavelength of electrometric radiation is continuously discontinuous. All virtual lines of force

in each photon dipole magnetic field form virtual pathways that are populated by discrete quanta
of (φ ). Collectively all attributes of the electromagnetic spectrum populate all virtual lines of
force in each photon dipole magnetic field. An additional imperative for Proton mass energy to
be transmuted into electromagnetic radiation (photons) is that each Proton must absorb a
discrete quantity of latent* heat before the transmutation process will occur. The use of latent
state heat as adopted here is understood to include the thermonuclear heat of transmutation.
*Heat absorbed by a body without a rise in its temperature; such heat in photons is in a chaotic

One objective of this research is to provide a research tool of imperatives concerning the nuclear
origins of electromagnetic (photon) energy. Such nuclear mass energy in an electromagnetic
(dipole magnetic field) state encrypts signature information about the nuclear energy from which
photon energy is transmuted. An imperative of proton mass energy to be transmuted is that the
latent heat of transmutation must be absorbed by each Proton before that mass energy will be
transmuted into the electromagnetic state; Latent heat of transmutation is defined here as the
amount of heat energy that must be absorbed by each proton mass energy without increasing
that proton temperature. (Transmutation of mass energy and heat are imperatives that increases
heat and space for proton mass energy in the electromagnetic state). Thermonuclear reaction
heat is transmuted along with Proton mass energy into the electromagnetic (photon) state.
Such heat is the source of the warmth exhibited by Sunlight. Each of the many virtual lines of
force in photon dipole magnetic fields contains continuous elliptical virtual pathways (virtual
lines of force) along which discrete quanta of mass energy are uniformly distributed. The fact
that wavelengths of such electromagnetic wavelengths can shorten or lengthen in increments
(become Doppler shifted) is compelling evidence that the nuclear mass energy in such
wavelengths is continuously discontinuous. This may be visually illustrated: Hook one end of a
rubber band, representing a line of force, over the eraser end of a pencil. While stretching the
rubber band slightly scotch tape the other end of the rubber band so as to maintain that slight
stretch. Using a pen draw closely separated marks, each mark representing one mass energy
element φ , lengthwise along length of the slightly stretched rubber band. Collectively, the marks
and rubber band illustrate a quantified packet (wavelength) of φ and a virtual line of force
(rubber band). Remove the rubber band from the pencil. By stretching and reducing the stretch of
the rubber band the frequency* of the marks (representing ρ ) decrease by stretching and
increase in frequency* by relaxing the rubber band stretch. That is, the frequency of the marks is
incidental to the length of the rubber band. The quantity of virtual, elliptically shaped pathways,
(virtual lines of force) in each photon magnetosphere increases in length as virtual lines of force
uniformly increase in number and decrease in length towards the center of that dipole magnetic
* The marks become Doppler shifted. Doppler shifts (lengthening or shortening the distance
between marks) are a consequence of the time required for each array of φ in each wavelength
to collectively exhibit electromagnetic attributes. The frequency of waves are incidental to

On the earth where water at sea level reaches 212°F (a) it is at 14.7 (b) pounds of pressure. (the
square root of 212°F is 12.56 psi) This pressure-temperature ratio is: b\a=14.4217°F degrees per
pound of pressure. Applying this ratio to the sun: dividing c into one million (d) degrees we find
that the ‘atmospheric’ pressure at the lowest point of the sun’s corona ought to be)
1000000\14.4217=69340 psi pounds per square inch. (d/c=psi). Using this formula the
temperature in the chromo sphere may be predictable; chromo sphere temperature 24000 k

(43200 o F)= 207.85 psi:≡ atmospheric pressure in the sun’s corona. This calculated psi is not
precisely correct because the temperature that corresponds to a specific pressure is nonlinear.8.
Where (φ ) are in photon dipole magnetic fields the (φ ) in the lines of force will move
cyclically, at light velocity, within each dipole field. This mass energy provides the momentum
to accelerate photons into space at light velocity?
Thermonuclear fusion reactions in the Sun fuse protons from two hydrogen atoms into one
helium atom. Since there is more mass energy in two hydrogen atoms than one helium atom the
residual mass energy is transmuted into a photon(s). Thermonuclear reactions are both extremely
hot and explosive. This is analogous to where liquid state water molecules at, the bottom of the
pot of water, are transformed into a vapor state by latent heat of vaporization. (3413 Btu≡ Latent
heat of vaporization is imperative to transforming of one pound of water at 212o F into 212oF
vapor the state at sea level pressure without increase water in temperature). As heat is applied to
the pot bottom liquid water in contact with the bottom of that pot of liquid state water molecules
increase in temperature to 212 ͦ F. and are transformed into 212 ͦ F vapor state by absorbing the
latent heat of vaporization. That vapor creates spherical bubbles in the liquid and those bubbles
ascend through the liquid to the surface where the latent heat of vaporization is radiated into the
atmosphere that process returns those vapor state water molecules back into the liquid state. The
ascending bubbles are what are observed as boiling water.

An imperative for stars, such as our Sun, is the means to propagate residual energy from
thermonuclear reactions out into space is absolute. This is imperative lest that star become a gas
giant. Where vapor state water molecules not contained (under pressure) the vapor temperature
will be the same as the liquid temperature. This does not imply the material substance of the
sun's photosphere is liquid water. However, all heat carried by photons from the interior of the
sun must pass through the sun's photosphere (atmosphere) without raising the photosphere
temperature. This is tacit evidence that photon mass energy is in a latent state as it enters the
photosphere. Where such latent state energy enters the corona some of that energy is released as
heat. This is the source of heat 106 degrees Kelvin heat in the sun’s corona.

The dynamics of latent state heat is easily observed. Where heat is continuously applied to a
vessel of water vapor filled hemispheres are visible on the sides and bottom of the pot. Such
hemispheres serve as heat containers to conduct latent heat of vaporization through the liquid
water. That is, the spheres serve as containers which transport vapor state water molecules
upward through the liquid to the surface where that latent heat is radiated into the atmosphere
and the vapor condenses back into the liquid state. None of the latent state heat inside the
bubbles is transmitted to the liquid during bubble ascent. It is the vertical motion of the bubbles
and their accumulation on the liquid surface that is the turmoil observed as 'boiling'. As each
bubble, containing latent heat ascends through the liquid its volume expands because the
hydraulic pressure in a column of water decreases .5 pounds with each foot of bubble ascent.
Increasing in volume the domain of each molecular electron absorbs the latent heat and their
orbital domains expand to attain a vapor state. The nuclei of H20 are not involved vapor state
water molecules. Latent state (vapor state) water molecules are about 1400 time larger than
liquid state water molecules. Where the vapor is not contained (pressurized) the liquid and the
vapor will be the same temperature. The temperature of pressurized (contained) water vapor will
correspond to a specific pressure. At the surface where bubbles burst their encapsulated latent
heat is released. A bursting bubble creates a “spicule”; a minute quantity of water is observed
above where each bubble bursts. Conduction and convection provide the means for radiant heat
to move around and through a medium. Containment of heat provides the means for heat to
accumulate as pressure.

A discovery, in the 1940's, by Swedish astronomer Bengt Edien, revealed the corona
(atmosphere) of the sun is hotter than the sun's photosphere (surface); the imperative for the
corona (atmosphere) to be hotter than the photosphere (surface) is that the heat of thermonuclear
reactions in the corona are in a latent configuration in order to pass through the sun’s
photosphere with out increasing the photosphere temperature. This is analogous to where latent
heat in the vapor state passes through boiling water. The bubbles that ascend through the liquid
in a pot of water are incidental to the latent heat of vaporization.

In the Sun thermonuclear reactions produce heat in the form of explosive radiation pressure. As
hot* (*below Curie point) electromagnetic energy in the form of spherical electromagnetic
radiations are ejected from Sun surface opposite magnetic poles of their dipole magnetic fields
couple in parallel; thus those magnetic fields are transverse. Where opposite magnetic poles of
dipole fields are adjacent either serially or in parallel their magnetic energy becomes shared
across such boundaries. Photon energy is Proton nuclear mass energy transmuted by hot, violent
thermonuclear (fusion) reactions into electromagnetic configurations (dipole fields)
Spectrographic analysis of such electromagnetic radiations reveals the nuclear origin of photon
energy as well as all wavelengths of visible and invisible light and heat. That is, each virtual line
of force in photon magnetic field carries a different wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum
in linear configurations along virtual elliptically configured lines force. Each wavelength and
heat is conducted along separate lines of force. The imperative for models of photon energy is
that those models must provide for Doppler shifts of electromagnetic radiations and heat without
loss of heat or (ρ ). This imperative of photons is that each continuous elliptical line of force in
each magnetic field is progressively longer as they recede in distance away from the magnetic
poles. Such lines of force form pathways for each discrete wavelength of electromagnetic
radiation and heat along which a discrete quantity of (φ ) are equally distributed.
Conclusions derived from the fact that electromagnetic waves can be Doppler shifted in finite
increments is compelling evidence that discrete quanta of (φ ) in such waves is continuously
discontinuous. There is anecdotal evidence that photon energy may exhibit attributes associated
with spherical waves where they are reflected. The imperative of spherical photons is that the
wavelengths (pathways for discrete quanta of (φ ) along lines of force) be partitioned into
individual into layers. In photons each virtual line of force is the wavelength (λ ) along which a
finite number of hot (ρ ) move cyclically. Each line of force is analogous to the lines formed in
each layer of a spherical Bermuda onion where each layer, representing a wavelength,
progressively diminishes in length toward the onions center.
*The imperative of the warmth of Sunlight being felt on the Earth is that such heat not be
dissipated (radiated) during propagation of that electromagnetic radiation through space. That
such heat is not reflected in Sunlight reflected from the Moon to the Earth is not sited where
photon energy (mass energy in the electromagnetic state) is memorialized in published studies of
photons. The conclusion is asserted that such heat is absorbed into the moon mass.

From the foregoing we are made aware energy of which mass is composed has a three
dimensional existence only in discrete quantum units. An imperative that permits wavelengths of
visible, invisible light and heat in electromagnetic radiations to be Doppler shifted is that (ρ ) in
each of those wavelengths are continuously discontinuous.

An imperative of electromagnetic radiation energy is that mass energy and heat is transmuted
into the electromagnetic state. Where (φ ) are within dipole magnetic fields they follow elliptical
paths formed by virtual lines of force along which (φ ) move. This conclusion is based on the
fact that all electromagnetic radiation energy is transmuted from thermonuclear fusion reactions

into photon energy. (φ ) provide the force components (momentum) of lines of force in a dipole
configuration. Incorporated within each photon magnetic field lines of force are discrete quanta
of (φ ) that encode all wavelengths of visible and invisible light. Other discrete arrays of photon
energy reveal the nuclear energy from which each photon is transformed into kinetic state mass
energy. These facts provide insight into the capability of quantum units of (φ ) to encrypt
sequences that reveal (through spectroscopic analysis) the nuclear energy from which each
photon is transmuted. Where photons are directed through a prism such electromagnetic
radiations emerge in discrete wavelengths. This is convincing evidence that (φ ) in each photon
remain in discrete packets (quanta). That fact also reveals the durability of (φ ) in packets
(quanta). (Think of each array of discrete quanta of as analogous to where specific amounts
(discrete quanta) of beads are stung on thread, representing lines of force, and the ends of the thread
are tied to form an ellipse. Such discrete quanta of (φ ) (represented by beads) move cyclically, along
lines of force (represented by thread) within each magnetosphere.

The primary components of all dipole magnetic fields are: a magnetosphere, a generally elliptical
volume of space, where virtual lines of force form pathways along which (φ ) move cyclically*.
In each magnetopause virtual lines of force ideally form generally elliptical pathways along
which discrete quanta of are conducted. The magnetic core of each magnetosphere is centered
along the magnetic core between the magnetic poles through the magnetic core to the other
magnetic pole. Virtual lines of force and (φ ) are at their maximum density inside each magnetic
core. As (φ ) are conducted away from a North magnetic pole along lines of force paths their
density decreases as to the distance squared from that pole outward to apogee. From apogee the
density of lines of force increase in density as to the distance squared from the apogee toward the
'South' pole. Inside the magnetic core between the ‘North’ and ‘South’ poles (φ ) are at
maximum density. This circulating motion along lines of force of spherical (φ ) provides
substance to the lines of force in all dipole magnetic fields. *Such circulation of ( φ ) is essential
to Conservation of momentum and energy. Virtual lines of force permit uniform cyclic
movement of (φ ) within each magnetosphere. Following virtual a line of force path is analogous
to ones route being guided by a rope inside a dark cave.

Where mass energies are transmuted by thermonuclear reactions in the Sun discrete packets of
(ρ ) are released in the form of photons. Where photon energy transmuted from such hot,
explosive thermonuclear reactions produce radiation pressure. On the Earth where
electromagnetic radiation energy that strikes a reflector it heats the reflector and creates a
measurable pressure of about to 13-1bs9 or 5897-grams/sq mile. The conclusion is asserted that
radiation pressure is how photons self propel themselves through the void of space.

Where a Magnetosphere (dipole magnetic field) surrounds and moves within each photon it
serves as the medium to transport virtual lines of force that guide electromagnetic energy
through space. Each magnetosphere is composed of virtual lines of force, a magnetopause
(outer boundary) and a magnetic core.

Conceptually put forth by Max Planck in his Quantum Concept4 the idea of the photon
(packets of (φ ) has evolved into discrete bundles (quanta); each discrete quantum of (φ )
collectively, has attributes of an elastic solid. A discrete quantity (array) of (φ ) in each photon
conveys heat as well as visible and invisible electromagnetic radiation. Discrete arrays φ )
collectively impart the nuclear signature from which each photon is transmuted. This is

convincing evidence that (φ ) follow cyclic paths along each virtual line of force within each
photons magnetic field are continuously discontinuous. Lines of force and (φ ) are imperative
components of each dipole magnetosphere.

Since 1620 when Christaan Huygens5 postulated the concept of aluminiferous aether a
notion persisted that space is filled with a substance, such as ether, that enable
electromagnetic radiations to be transported through the void of space. The aether concept
was disproved in the late 1800 by the Michaelson-Morely experiment that was designed to
detect such aether.

In the Sun photons are a product of proton-to-proton (fusion) reactions. Photons energy
transmuted from such hot, explosive thermonuclear reactions is nuclear mass energy transmuted
into the electromagnetic state. Photons are ejected from the Sun by explosive radiation pressure,
generated from thermonuclear reactions on the sun. Photon momentum must be considerably
greater than the Sun’s gravity. Radiation pressure is the source of photon angular momentum
that propels them through the vacuum of space linearly at light velocity.

The discrete quanta of transmuted mass energy in each wavelength of electromagnetic radiation,
following virtual elliptical pathways, along virtual lines of force move around and through each
magnetosphere core that is centrally located linearly between opposite magnetic poles in each
photon magnetopause. The virtual lines of force are generally elliptical except along a straight
line between opposite magnetic poles of a magnetic core. In the central magnetic core all virtual
lines of force converge along central core in each magnetopause. Virtual lines of force in the
Earths field, form elliptical paths along which (φ ) move cyclically on the outside from the
magnetic core diverging as to the distance squared outward from the North pole core to the
apogee and continue back along those paths to the perigee; converging in density as to the
distance squared toward the South magnetic pole core.
Experiments on Earth have revealed that a measurable amount of radiation pressure is imposed
on a light reflector by electromagnetic radiation pressure. This is an example of where the
particle (φ ) aspect of electromagnetic radiation energy reveals itself. Where all radiation energy
that strikes a reflector is reflected the radiation pressure imposed by those impacts is about 13lbs9
or 5897-grams/sq mile. This is an example of Newton's third law of equal and opposite reaction
and is conclusive evidence of the cohesive quanta of (φ ) in each discrete packet of photon
energy, which collectively exhibit attributes of an elastic particle.

The Faraday Effect4, discovered by Michael Faraday 5, 1845, was the first experimental evidence
that light energy and electromagnetic related generically. The theoretical basis for that
relationship, now called electromagnetic radiation, (emr) and was formalized by James Clerk
Maxwell6 in the 1860's and 1870's. From 1856 through 1873 Maxwell developed the laws of
electromagnetism, beginning with Michael Faraday's concept of a magnetic field (dipole
magnetosphere) comprised of “…tubes of force…”. Such discrete wavelengths of (ρ ) move,
cyclically, along virtual lines of force within each magnetopause. This circulating motion of each
discrete quantity of spherical (ρ ) provides substance to the many lines of force in each dipole
magnetic field. Such circulation of charged magnetic (ρ ) is essential to Energy conservation.
Maxwell’s calculations showed that electromagnetic waves, in a vacuum, travel at the same
speed as light. Maxwell concluded correctly, that light is a form of electromagnetic wave. The
primary energy component of virtual lines of force are (ρ ) that follow generally elliptical paths
that take them away from the magnetic core of that dipole field and back to the opposite
magnetic pole core from whence those lines of force came. Such paths of discrete quanta of

Quantons is, within the context of this research, the imperative that provides the spectroscopic
attributes, which reveal the atomic nuclei from which each photon is transmuted. Michael
Faraday [1791 1867] discovery that a magnetic field can affect the polarization of light is
conclusive evidence of the dipole field aspect of electromagnetic radiation. He proposed in 1845
that light might be waves [undulations] in the lines of force of electromagnetism. Examples of
these undulations may be observed by viewing movies of the Aurora Borealis (northern lights).
Plasma, from space, may 'glow brightly as it responds to lines of force of magnetic fields such as
those at the north and south geomagnetic poles on the Earth. Plasma from the Sun emulates the
in lines force of Earth magnetism. In solar flares, originating from the Sun, plasma is carried
along the linear paths of the Suns magnetic energy. Pictures taken by NASA's SOHO satellite of
solar prominences reveal solar plasma illuminates the linear aspects of magnetic lines of force.
Such solar prominences on the Sun may extend hundreds of thousands of miles outward from the
photosphere of the Sun. Mass ejections from the Sun that reach the Earth have wrought havoc on
communications and power grids on Earth. Power grids may be damaged by electrical induction
imposed on grid switchgear by electromagnetic energy from the Sun.
1: Fabric of Knowledge: Intellectual property of Howard Hoover sr
2: website:\Planck Length
3: Principle of equivalence of mass and mass energy: Wikipedia
4. Website:\Planck quantum
5. Christaan Huygens: website:
6. A term coined Michael Faraday website: Faraday.
7. Swedish astronomer Bengt Edien.
8. Van Nostrands Scientific encyclopedia, sixth ed Sun (The)
9. wikipedia radiation pressure