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PRIMARY

Natural
Science
TEACHERS RESOURCE BOOK

PRIMARY

Natural Science
TEACHERS RESOURCE BOOK

TEACHERS RESOURCE BOOK


Natural Science 3 is a collective work, conceived,
designed and created by the Primary Education
department at Santillana, under the supervision
of Antonio Brandi Fernndez.
WRITER
Carmen Gutirrez
MANAGING EDITOR
Sheila Tourle
PROJECT EDITOR
Geona Edwards
EDITORS
Beatriz Garca Hiplito
M. Antonia Oliva Prez-Andjar
PROOFREADING
Sheila Klaiber
Vassilia Katte
ILLUSTRATIONS
Juan Carlos Carmona, Mar Ferrero,
Carlos Gallego, Jose Luis Navarro,
El Ojo del Huracn, Jorge Salas,
Jos Santos, Carolina Temprado Battad

PRIMARY

Natural
Science

Contents
Nombre

Fecha

Introduction....................................................................................................... III

Worksheets
Your body............................................................................................................ 6
Your senses ........................................................................................................ 14
Food and nutrients.............................................................................................. 22
Keeping healthy .................................................................................................. 30
Animals............................................................................................................... 38
Invertebrates....................................................................................................... 46
Animals and people ............................................................................................ 54
Plants ................................................................................................................. 62
Animals and plants.............................................................................................. 70
Matter ................................................................................................................. 78
Materials and machines ...................................................................................... 86
Energy and the environment ............................................................................... 94

Answer key........................................................................................................ 102

Introduction

Natural Science 3 Teachers Resource Book


provides a wide variety of photocopiable worksheets
designed to complement Natural Science 3
Students Book and Natural Science 3 Teachers
Book. It is divided into 12 topics in order to cover the
main concepts of both the National Curriculum and
the curriculum established by the Community
of Madrid.
These worksheets facilitate a flexible approach in the
classroom. Students in the same class can be given
different worksheets. Stronger students can expand
on the material learnt in class. Weaker students can
use the worksheets to revise. Alternatively, students
can work together with stronger peers to complete
the tasks. These worksheets can also be assigned
as homework.
There are four categories of worksheets:
Reinforcement, Extension, Assessment and tests,
and Investigate. Answer keys are provided at the
back of this book.

Worksheets
Reinforcement worksheets

Keeping healthy

REINFORCEMENT

Name
1

There are twelve double-page


Reinforcement worksheets. These
worksheets are designed to provide
additional support for students in need of
further practice. They can be used after the
relevant section in the Students Book, before
the Final activities sections, or as extra
preparation for the Unit assessment.
Depending on the students, they can
complete the worksheets with or without
consulting their Students Books, in the
classroom or at home, individually or in pairs.

REINFORCEMENT

Date

Complete the sentences about healthy habits.


clean sleep posture diet exercise
a. Get enough

c. Do regular

a. cooling

It helps to eliminate organisms that spoil food.

b. adding preservatives

You preserve food in the fridge or freezer to make it last longer.

c. heating

Some substances are added to foods so they do not go off.

Which of these foods are fresh and which are processed? Classify.

d. Eat a healthy and balanced


e. Have good
2

b. Keep your body

Match the methods of preserving foods to the definitions.

.
to look after your back.
processed

Circle the healthy habits.


A

Write two sentences in the correct order.


hygiene

fresh

Food

is

to

prevent

illness

essential

a.
make

ill

Dirty

food

can

you

b.
3

Read these sentences about doing exercise. Write T (true) or F (false).


a. Exercise makes you more flexible.

Use the code and find out a healthy habit.

5A 5C 5D
5 M 5 N 5 O

b. Team sports are not as healthy as individual sports.


c. Exercise makes your muscles and bones stronger.

d. By practising a team sport you learn to work in a group.

5E 5F 5G
5R 5S 5T

5H 5I 5L 5P
5U 5V 5W 5Y

30

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Your senses

EXTENSION

Date

Your senses
Name

EXTENSION

Date

Guide dogs

Sign language

Guide dogs act as eyes for people who are blind.


They help blind people move from one place
to another. They can help a blind person cross
the road, avoid obstacles or go to the shops. Guide
dogs stay with their owners at all times.

People with sight and hearing disabilities use different languages to communicate
with other people. Sign language is a language that many deaf people use to
communicate. Braille is a system of printing for blind people.

Guide dogs work approximately six years before


they retire.
1

Use the sign alphabet. Learn to say your name


with your hands. Take turns with a partner
to spell out your name.

Use the Braille alphabet. Punch out your


name on a piece of card with the tip of
a ballpoint pen. Learn to read it with your
fingers. Exchange names with a partner.

Write T (true) or F (false).

Extension worksheets

a. Guide dogs help people who cannot see.


b. They sometimes leave their owners alone.
c. Their harness is just for decoration.
d. All breeds of dogs can be guide dogs.
e. They have a limited working life.
2

Complete the index card about guide dogs.

Guide dogs
Job description:
Most common breeds:
Equipment:
Years of service:

16

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Investigate worksheets

Food and nutrients

INVESTIGATE

Name

There are twelve Investigate worksheets, one for each topic.


These worksheets provide opportunities for students to carry out
simple investigative tasks, either in the classroom or at home.

Date

Which foods contain fat?


Instructions
1. In pairs, select five or six different foods,
for example, an apple, chips, a banana,
biscuits, a carrot, bread or cheese.
Cut them into pieces.
2. Cut some brown wrapping paper into five
10 cm squares.
3. Rub a piece of each food on a square until
it leaves a mark. Label the squares and allow
them to dry.
4. When dry, hold the squares against the light.
If there is a greasy spot, the food contains
fat. Measure the diameter of each grease
spot with a ruler. The size of the grease spot
tells us how much fat there is in the food.
5. Complete the table.
food

diameter
of grease spot

fat

no fat

6. Analyse your results and answer the questions.


a. Which food leaves the biggest grease spot?
b. Which is the food with the least fat?
c. Which is the food with the most fat?
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IV

31
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There are twenty-four Extension


worksheets. These worksheets can
be used for fast finishers or to expand
on the material covered in class.

Most guide dogs are Labradors or Golden


Retrievers. They receive special training starting
when they are puppies. Then, they are assigned
to a blind person. Guide dogs wear a harness to
do their job.

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Name

e. Swimming is not very good for your lungs and heart.

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Assessment worksheets
There are twelve double-page Assessment
worksheets, one for each topic. These
worksheets can be given to students once
the topic has been completed, as a revision
test, or to check progress at any point
during the year.

Plants

ASSESSMENT

Name
1

ASSESSMENT

Date

Read and complete the text about plant nutrition.

Label the plant. Then, answer the question.

carbon dioxide photosynthesis roots raw sap


water sunlight elaborated sap mineral salts
Plants make their own food through

They absorb

and

from the soil through their

. This mixture is the

. Plants also absorb

and

from the air. They then transform

the raw sap into


5

Isthestemofthisplantwoodyorherbaceous?Explain.

Find and circle five parts of the flower. Then, complete the sentences.

Label the parts of the leaf. Then, read and tick ().

a. Classify the leaf according to the edge.


smooth

lobed

jagged

heart-shaped

needle-shaped

a
z

b. The

are the small green leaves that protect the flower.

c. The

are the male parts of the flower. They produce pollen.

d. The

are coloured leaves. They form the

Read and complete.


6

ferns gymnosperms rhizoids seeds angiosperms flowers mosses


Flowering plants produce
groups are

with
, like apple trees, and

and
of mosses are called
66

a. It is the female part of the flower. It contains the ovary. It is the

b. Classify the leaf according to the shape.


palmate

. The two main

Match the sentences to the life processes that plants carry out.
sensitivity

a. Plants make elaborated sap.

, like pine trees.

nutrition

b. The leaves and stems grow towards the light.

are non-flowering plants. The roots

c. Pollen is produced in the stamens.

reproduction

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Food and nutrients

Date

Carbohydrates and fats are examples of


a. proteins.

b. nutrients.

There are twelve multiple-choice tests, one for


each topic. These tests are to be completed once
the topic has been studied. The tests provide
students the opportunity to revise the main
concepts of each topic and to assess the
knowledge they have acquired.

c. minerals.

Proteins are found in


a. meat, fish and eggs.
b. fruit and vegetables.
c. bread, potatoes, rice and pasta.

Calcium
a. is a very important protein.
b. makes up your bones and helps you to grow.
c. provides your body with energy.

A diet that gives you the right amount of nutrients is


a. sufficient.

b. active.

c. balanced.

Your body obtains vitamins, minerals and fibre from


a. fruit and vegetables.
b. meat, fish and pulses.
c. brown sugar, oil and butter.

Dairy products include


a. bread and sugar.

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Tests

TEST

Name

67

b. milk and yoghurt.

c. bacon and eggs.

Wholegrain foods are healthier because they


a. contain fibre.
b. are grown on special farms.
c. are made with healthy oils.

Your daily diet should include three


a. pieces of fruit.

b. snacks.

c. processed foods.

b. four meals a day.

c. five meals a day.

You should eat


a. three meals a day.

10 Experts think the Mediterranean diet is

a. not traditional.
28

b. very healthy.

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c. too oily.

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Answer key

Answer key
ANIMALS AND PLANTS

2. Search the Internet for three animal species from the


Arctic tundra. Write what they eat.

REINFORCEMENT

An Answer key for all the worksheets is provided at the back


of this Teachers Resource Book.

OA

PAGE 70

PAGE 73

1. Look and match the pictures to the areas.

1. Read the text and the table. Then, answer the


questions.

A. grassland; B. forest; C. desert; D. shrubland.

a. the sloth; b. the cheetah; c. on land; d. in the air.

2. Read and complete.


a. Trees grow in fertile soil with high humidity. Many trees
together form a forest.
b. Bushes grow in places with poor soil and low humidity.
An area dominated by bushes is a shrubland.
c. Grasslands are areas with long periods of drought. Trees
and bushes are scarce because they need water all year
round.
d. Deserts do not have much water and the soil is arid.
There is little vegetation. Only plants that need little
water can live in deserts.
3. Where do these animals live? Explain.

2. Find your favourite animal on the Internet.


OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 74
1. Write the names of these areas.
A. desert; B. shrubland; C. forest; D grassland.
2. Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the
false sentences.
a. T; b. F; c. T; d. F; e. T.

MA
Seabirds spend most of their lives over the sea. They only
go to land to reproduce.
Squirrels live most of the time in trees and swing from
branch to branch.
PAGE 71

Pines, oaks and beeches are types of trees.


Deserts are areas with arid soil and low humidity.
3. What is vegetation? Explain.
Vegetation is all the plants in an area, region or country.
4. Read and complete the words.
a. vegetation; b. drought; c. savannah; d. shrubland.

4. Find and circle eight animals. Then, write.

s
x

d
l

5. Classify these marine animals.


They breathe through lungs: whales, seals, turtles.
They breathe through gills: sharks, sardines, tuna.
6. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. T; b. T; c. F; d. F; e. T; f. F.

PAGE 75
5. Read the text and complete.
Some aquatic animals live in the sea. They are marine
animals. Others live in fresh water, in lakes or rivers.
Aquatic animals spend most of their lives in water. Many
of them breathe in oxygen from the water through gills.
Others come to the surface of the water to breathe in air,
through lungs.
6. Circle the correct animal.
a. bat; b. mussel; c. skater; d. snake; e. duck.
7. Read, then write the correct word.
a. trees; b. slither; c. underground.

TEST
PAGE 76

EXTENSION

1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. c; 6. b; 7. a; 8. a; 9. b; 10. a.

PAGE 72

INVESTIGATE

1. Read the text and circle the correct word.


a. Tundras are found in the Arctic.

PAGE 77
OA

b. In the summer, there are 24 hours a day of sunlight.


c. The top layer of the soil is the permafrost.
d. Winter in the Arctic tundra is extremely cold.
e. Global warming is harming the Arctic tundra.

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Answer key

Your body

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Label the body parts.

head

trunk

limbs

2 Look at the diagram and write examples.

brain

lung

arm

heart

leg

stomach

intestines

a. an organ inside your head


b. an organ inside your trunk
c. a lower limb
6

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REINFORCEMENT

3 Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. We need energy and nutrients to live, and we get them from food.
b. Nutrition provides your body with electricity and nutrients.
c. The process of nutrition allows us to detect and respond to changes
in the environment.
d. Children look like their parents because they inherit their physical characteristics.
e. We use our senses to get information about the environment.
f. Melanin protects your body from water.



4 Match the stages of life to the pictures.

adolescence

old age

childhood

adulthood

Now, write the stages of life in order.


1st

2nd

3rd

4th

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Natural Science 3

Your body

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Why do people have different skin colour?


Human skin colour varies greatly around the world. Itcan
range from a very dark brown to yellow. Skin colour is
controlled by genes, like other human characteristics such
as eye colour and hair type.
However, skin colour has also been influenced by the
environment over thousands of years. There are many
different skin colours today because people have adapted
to different environments. The Sun gives us light and heat,
but it also emits harmful rays. Some regions of the Earth
receive more harmful sun rays than others. This difference
directly affects skin colour.
Skin colour depends on how much melanin we have in our
skin. Melanin is a brown pigment that works as a natural
sun cream, and protects skin from the harmful rays of
sunlight. Over time, people who moved to areas of less
sunlight developed lighter coloured skin, and people who
lived closer to the Equator had darker skin with more melanin.

1 Read the text and complete the sentences.

a. Skin colour is controlled by


b. The Sun

harmful rays.

c. Skin colour depends on the

of melanin.

d. Melanin

the skin from the harmful rays of sunlight.

e. People with lighter skin have

melanin.

2 Search the Internet or magazines for photos of three famous people with different skin
colour. Write their names and the continent they come from.

medium skin

dark skin

light skin

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Your body

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Broken bones
Bones are hard, strong and rigid, but they can sometimes break or
fracture. However, broken bones can repair themselves. There are
many different types of fractures. Themost common type is a
simple fracture, which happens when a bone breaks cleanly. In
order to help bones heal correctly, itis important that they are
realigned. Broken bones can be put back into position by a doctor.
The bones are thenimmobilized with a plaster cast, so they can
start to heal. Simple fractures usually take about 6 to 8 weeks to
heal, although large bones take longer.

1 Write T (true) or F (false).

a. Bones break because they are rigid.


b. Bones can repair themselves.
c. The most common fracture is when a bone breaks into fragments.
d. Broken bones need to be realigned before being immobilized.
e. All fractures take about 6 to 8 weeks to heal.
f. A fracture of the femur takes the same time to heal as a fracture of the radius.

2 Have you ever broken a bone or do you know someone who has? Complete
the medical card.

medical card
Who broke a bone?

Which bone was it?

How did they break it?

How many weeks did it take to heal?

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Natural Science 3

Your body

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Classify the words.

forehead hand leg abdomen foot arm thorax back face


a. head 
b. trunk 
c. limbs 
2 Label the diagram.

brain

lung

stomach

kidney

bone

muscle

3 Draw two people and say how they are similar or different.

a. sexual characteristics 
b. body constitution 
c. height 
d. personal traits 
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ASSESSMENT

4 Complete the sentences.

a. The life process of


changes in the environment.

is the ability of living things to respond to

b. During the life process of


essential nutrients.
c. The life process of
new living things of their own kind.

living things take in food and absorb


is the ability of all living things to produce

5 Number the stages of nutrition in the correct order.

a. The nutrients travel through our body and give us energy


and the substances we need to grow.
b. We take in food.
c. Our body expels waste.
d. We absorb nutrients from the food that our body needs.
6 Read and circle the correct description.

childhood

adolescence

adulthood

old age

Milk teeth fall out, and permanent teeth grow.


A boys voice gets deeper.
The first stage of life.
Your body prepares to become an adult.
Many changes take place.
We can have children.
Our bones become fragile. Our muscles are weaker.
We grow very rapidly.

7 Write the four systems involved in nutrition.



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Your body

TEST

Name

Date

1 The main parts of the body are the head, the trunk and the

a. thorax. b. limbs. c. thighs.


2 To move your body, your muscles work together with your

a. bones. b. brain. c. lungs.


3 Melanin protects your body from

a. cold air.

b. sunlight. c. pain.

4 Personal traits include

a. the colour of your eyes and hair.


b. your body constitution.
c. your height.
5 During the process of nutrition, we first take in food. Then,

a. our body expels waste.


b. the nutrients travel through our body.
c. we absorb nutrients from the food.
6 Thanks to reproduction,

a. we can have offspring.


b. our body can obtain nutrients.
c. our brain can respond to changes.
7 We respond to changes in the environment through

a. nutrition. b. constitution. c. sensitivity.


8 Your milk teeth appear during

a. adolescence.

b. childhood. c. adulthood.

9 During adolescence, your

a. body and mind change a lot.


b. body is fully-developed.
c. skin develops wrinkles.
10 Puberty is part of

a. adulthood. b. old age.


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c. adolescence.
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Your body
Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

1 How much have you grown?

Instructions
1. Work in small groups.
2. Find out how long you were
when you were born.
3. Take turns and measure your
height today.
4. Make two bar charts.
At birth: Write these measurements
on the vertical axis: 10 cm, 20 cm,
30 cm, 40cm, 50 cm, 60 cm
and 70 cm. Write your names
on the horizontal axis.
Today: Use the same format.
Increase the measurements
to 170 cm.
5. Compare your bar charts with
other groups.

a. Who was the longest baby?


b. Who is the tallest student?


d. Who has grown the most?


c. Is it the same classmate?


e. How do you explain the answer to d?


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Your senses

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Unscramble the words and label the diagram.

siir

taneri

anceor

uplip

cpoti erevn

nesl

2 Circle the five parts of the ear and complete the sentences.

audito

r
ryne

arca
e
e
v

nalcochleasmall

bo

nes

eardr

um

a. Sound vibrations go into the outer ear and along the


b. The

vibrates.

c. The vibration of the eardrum moves the three


d. The sound then goes to the

e. The cochlea sends the sound through the


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to the brain.

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REINFORCEMENT

3 Read and complete the table.

smell
The sense organ is

It allows you to capture or identify

taste

touch

4 Match the parts of the organs to their function.

a. taste buds

captures light

b. epithelium

capture flavours of food

c. touch receptors

captures sound

d. retina

distinguish hot or cold

e. cochlea

captures smells

5 Label the diagram of the nose.

nostrils

olfactory nerve

olfactory bulb

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nasal cavity

olfactory epithelium

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15

Your senses

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Guide dogs
Guide dogs act as eyes for people who are blind.
They help blind people move from one place
to another. They can help a blind person cross
the road, avoid obstacles or go to the shops. Guide
dogs stay with their owners at all times.
Most guide dogs are Labradors or Golden
Retrievers. They receive special training starting
when they are puppies. Then, they are assigned
to a blind person. Guide dogs wear a harness to
do their job.
Guide dogs work approximately six years before
they retire.

1 Write T (true) or F (false).

a. Guide dogs help people who cannot see.


b. They sometimes leave their owners alone.
c. Their harness is just for decoration.
d. All breeds of dogs can be guide dogs.
e. They have a limited working life.
2 Complete the index card about guide dogs.

Guide dogs
Job description: 
Most common breeds: 
Equipment: 
Years of service: 

16

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Your senses
Name

EXTENSION

Date

Sign language
People with sight and hearing disabilities use different languages to communicate
with other people. Sign language is a language that many deaf people use to
communicate. Braille is a system of printing for blind people.

1 Use the sign alphabet. Learn to say your name


with your hands. Take turns with a partner
to spell out your name.

2 Use the Braille alphabet. Punch out your


name on a piece of card with the tip of
a ballpoint pen. Learn to read it with your
fingers. Exchange names with a partner.

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Your senses

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Write the five sense organs.


2 Label the parts of the eye.

3 Read and complete.

eyelids optic nerve pupil brain sight


a. The eyes are the sense organs of

b. The

, eyelashes and eyebrows protect the eyes.

c. The

is the hole in the centre of the iris though which

light passes.

d. When we see an object, the information is sent to the


the

through

4 Label the parts of the ear.

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ASSESSMENT

5 Circle the correct word.

a. The pinna / cochlea captures the sound.


b. The cochlea sends the sound through the ear canal / auditory nerve to the brain.
c. The brain interprets / vibrates the information.
6 What part of your nose captures smells?


7 Complete the sentences.

a. Touch is the
of the objects around you.

which allows you to identify characteristics

b. The sense organ of touch is the

8 Label the diagram of the skin.

9 Write the corresponding sense organ.

d. iris

b. nasal cavity

e. pupil

c. taste buds

f. auditory nerve

a. cochlea

10 Give advice to look after your eyes and ears.



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19

Your senses

TEST

Name

Date

1 We can only see if there is

a. light. b. sound. c. colour.


2 The eyes are

a. connected to the brain by the auditory nerve.


b. protected by the eyelids, the eyelashes and the eyebrows.
c. made up of three parts.
3 The part of the ear that vibrates is the

a. eardrum. b. cochlea. c. pinna.


4 The auditory nerve takes the information to the

a. outer ear.

c. brain.

b. inner ear.

5 The sense organ of touch is

a. the finger.

c. hair.

b. the skin.

6 The smell receptors are in the

a. olfactory epithelium.

b. olfactory bulb.

c. nostrils.

7 Umami is

a. the most important taste bud.


b. the fourth basic flavour.
c. a flavour found in strong cheeses.
8 You should not touch your eyes

a. in strong sunlight.
b. in the swimming pool.
c. with dirty hands.
9 When using headphones, you should

a. keep the volume low.


b. keep the volume high.
c. turn off the sound.
10 Doctors for children are called

a. podiatrists. b. paediatricians. c. physicians.


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Your senses

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 What happens when you cant see what you are tasting? And when you cant see or
smell what you are tasting?

orange juice

mustard

Instructions

mayonnaise

yoghurt
pineapple juice

ketchup

1. Work with a partner.


2. Your partner wears a blindfold.
3. Dip a plastic spoon in one of the foods and let your partner taste it.
4. Ask your partner to identify the food.
5. Repeat the experiment in a different order. This time your partner holds their nose.
6. Can you identify the food? Complete the table with the results. Take turns
and compare the results.
food


pineapple juice

blindfolded


yes

blindfolded and holding


your nose


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no

Natural Science 3

21

Food and nutrients

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Use the colour key and circle the words.

give us energy red

help us grow blue

keep us healthy green

sardines yoghurt grapes eggs rice olive oil pasta bacon


milk carrots bread butter strawberries lettuce cheese

2 Label the food wheel. Write carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals and vitamins,
water and exercise, and calcium.

3 Why are water and exercise in the centre of the food wheel?


4 Match and make correct sentences.

a. A sufficient diet

gives you the right amount of nutrients.

b. A balanced diet

gives you the right amount of energy.



22

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

REINFORCEMENT

5 Read and complete the sentences.

a. You need f

and c

for energy.

b. You need p

to grow.

c. You need v

and m

d. You need f

for your digestive system to work well.

to be healthy.

6 Look at the food. Circle the nutrients they give you.

proteins

fibre

carbohydrates

fibre

proteins

fats

minerals

carbohydrates

proteins

fats

vitamins

fibre

7 Tick () the correct sentence.

a. Calcium is a mineral that makes up our bones.


b. Carbohydrates make up our bones.
8 Circle the healthier food in each pair of words.

oil / butter
sausages / chicken

cheese / milk
croissant / bread

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

grapes / biscuits
tomato / pizza

Natural Science 3

23

Food and nutrients

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Pizza, glorious pizza!


Pizza has been around for a long time!
The Romans, for example, ate flatbread
made of flour and water, and topped
it with olive oil and herbs. When tomatoes
were introduced from the New World,
the people of Naples, in Italy, added them
to their pizzas. One day in 1889, Queen
Margherita of Italy went to Naples and ordered
a special lunch. The restaurant owner made
a pizza with the colours of the Italian flag to honour
the queen. He used tomatoes for red, mozzarella cheese for white
and basil for green. The queen loved it, so the dish was named Pizza Margherita.
Early in the 20th century, Italian immigrants to New York City started to make a new version
of pizza which became very popular all over the United States. Today, pizza is an
international dish that can have many different toppings, such as tuna, mushrooms and
olives.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What ingredient did the people of Naples add to pizzas? 


b. What are the ingredients of Pizza Margherita? 
c. Why is it called Pizza Margherita? 
d. Where is pizza eaten today? 
e. What are some of the toppings pizza can have? 
2 Draw and write about your favourite pizza.

My favourite pizza
Name: 
Ingedients: 

Main nutrients: 

24

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Food and nutrients

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Food around the world


All around the world, people enjoy food which
varies according to culture, availability and even
religion. Some foods can be quite unusual.
For example, Eskimos eat whale blubber,
Japanese people eat raw fish, Canadians eat
reindeer meat, Indonesian people eat monkey
toes, and people in Thailand eat insects!
Food is not only important for nutrition. It is also part of many social celebrations. On New
Years Day, people in China eat long noodles for long life. In other countries, people eat
green, leafy vegetables as a symbol of economic success because their green leaves look
like folded money. In other countries, people eat pulses, which look like little coins, and are
also considered a symbol of money.
At weddings, Italians and Greeks serve sugar-coated almonds which, being both sweet
and bitter, represent the highs and lows of marriage. Traditional wedding cakes in England
contain fruits and nuts, symbols of fertility and good fortune.

1 Circle the correct words.

a. Based on weather / culture, people eat different foods around the world.
b. Reindeer meat / Raw fish is an unusual food eaten in Canada.
c. An unusual food eaten in Thailand is insects / monkey toes.
d. Foods like reindeer meat and insects mainly provide carbohydrates / proteins.
e. In England, fruits and nuts are symbols of fertility / prosperity and good fortune.

2 Search the Internet for other foods for special celebrations.


Then, complete the table.

country

celebration

food

symbolic of

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Natural Science 3

25

Food and nutrients

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Read the sentences and match.

a. This helps our digestive system work correctly.

carbohydrates and fats

b. We need them to grow.

fibre

c. We need them to stay healthy.

proteins

d. They give us energy.

vitamins and minerals

2 Is this a healthy breakfast? Explain.





3 Circle the foods you should eat every day.

4 What nutrients does each of these foods contain?

a.yoghurt

d. green peppers

b. olive oil

e.lentils

f.pasta

c.bread

5 Cross out the odd food in each food group.

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Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

ASSESSMENT

6 How much should you eat? Write more or less.

a. If you are overweight, you should eat

b. If you are underweight, you should eat

c. If you do a lot of exercise, you should eat

d. If you are old, you should eat

e. If you are young, you should eat

7 Find and circle four nutrients. Then, write.

Which main nutrient is missing from the word search?



8 Cross out the least healthy food for each meal. Write a healthier option.

a. Breakfast: orange juice, toast, cereal, a piece of cake.



b. Lunch: salad, chicken, chips, peas.

c. Dinner: a hamburger, carrot soup, an omelette, fish.

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Natural Science 3

27

Food and nutrients

TEST

Name

Date

1 Carbohydrates and fats are examples of

a. proteins. b. nutrients. c. minerals.


2 Proteins are found in

a. meat, fish and eggs.


b. fruit and vegetables.
c. bread, potatoes, rice and pasta.
3 Calcium

a. is a very important protein.


b. makes up your bones and helps you to grow.
c. provides your body with energy.
4 A diet that gives you the right amount of nutrients is

a. sufficient. b. active. c. balanced.


5 Your body obtains vitamins, minerals and fibre from

a. fruit and vegetables.


b. meat, fish and pulses.
c. brown sugar, oil and butter.
6 Dairy products include

a. bread and sugar.

b. milk and yoghurt.

c. bacon and eggs.

7 Wholegrain foods are healthier because they

a. contain fibre.
b. are grown on special farms.
c. are made with healthy oils.
8 Your daily diet should include three

a. pieces of fruit.

b. snacks. c. processed foods.

9 You should eat

a. three meals a day.

b. four meals a day.

c. five meals a day.

10 Experts think the Mediterranean diet is

a. not traditional.
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Natural Science 3

b. very healthy.

c. too oily.

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Food and nutrients

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Which foods contain fat?

Instructions
1. In pairs, select five or six different foods,
for example, an apple, chips, a banana,
biscuits, a carrot, bread or cheese.
Cut them into pieces.
2. Cut some brown wrapping paper into five
10 cm squares.
3. Rub a piece of each food on a square until
it leaves a mark. Label the squares and allow
them to dry.
4. When dry, hold the squares against the light.
If there is a greasy spot, the food contains
fat. Measure the diameter of each grease
spot with a ruler. The size of the grease spot
tells us how much fat there is in the food.
5. Complete the table.
diameter
of grease spot

food

no fat

fat

6. Analyse your results and answer the questions.


a. Which food leaves the biggest grease spot?

b. Which is the food with the least fat?

c. Which is the food with the most fat?

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Natural Science 3

29

Keeping healthy

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Complete the sentences about healthy habits.

clean sleep posture diet exercise


a. Get enough

b. Keep your body

c. Do regular

d. Eat a healthy and balanced


e. Have good

.
to look after your back.

2 Circle the healthy habits.

3 Read these sentences about doing exercise. Write T (true) or F (false).

30

a. Exercise makes you more flexible.

b. Team sports are not as healthy as individual sports.

c. Exercise makes your muscles and bones stronger.

d. By practising a team sport you learn to work in a group.

e. Swimming is not very good for your lungs and heart.

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

REINFORCEMENT

4 Match the methods of preserving foods to the definitions.

a. cooling

It helps to eliminate organisms that spoil food.

b. adding preservatives

You preserve food in the fridge or freezer to make it last longer.

c. heating

Some substances are added to foods so they do not go off.

5 Which of these foods are fresh and which are processed? Classify.

processed

fresh

6 Write two sentences in the correct order.

hygiene

Food

is

to

prevent

illness

essential

a. 
ill

make

Dirty

food

can

you

b. 
7 Use the code and find out a healthy habit.

5 A 5 C 5 D 5 E 5 F 5 G 5 H 5 I 5 L 5 P
5 M 5 N 5 O 5 R 5 S 5 T 5 U 5 V 5 W 5 Y

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Natural Science 3

31

Keeping healthy

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Sleeping and dreaming


Sleep is very important for keeping healthy.
When we sleep enough we can pay better
attention at school, be in a good mood and
solve problems more efficiently. Children
need to sleep ten hours a night.
Everybody dreams every night. In one
night, we can have four to seven dreams.
The things we dream about can be related
to our friends and family, our favourite TV
shows, or something we are happy or
worried about. We do not always remember our dreams. We forget most of our dreams
when we wake up.
Animals dream, too. Have you ever watched a dog while it is sleeping? Dogs move their
paws when they sleep like they are running.

1 Put the words in order to make sentences. Then, find and underline
these sentences in the text.

a. hours / to sleep / need / a night / ten / Children.



b. dreams / In one night, / four to seven / have / can / we.

c. always / We / our / do / dreams / not / remember.

2 Koalas sleep 22 hours a day! Search the Internet and find how many hours
your favourite animal sleeps.



3 Keep a dream journal for a week. Write your dreams and share them with your
classmates.
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Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Keeping healthy
Name

EXTENSION

Date

Visiting an art museum


One great option for a leisure activity
is visiting an art museum.
Art museums display paintings
and sculptures.
Most famous art museums are
located in big cities. The Prado
Museum is in Madrid. The Louvre
Museum is in Paris. The Tate
Gallery is in London. The Museum
of Modern Art is in New York.
Art museums look after their
paintings carefully because
they are of great historical
and cultural interest. Many
paintings are hundreds of years old.
Many people work in art museums. The director runs the art museum and is
in charge of all the employees. Art restorers repair damaged paintings so that they
are in perfect condition. Security guards protect the paintings which are displayed
in the museums.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What is an art museum?



b. Why do art museums look after their paintings?

c. What does an art restorer do?

d. What does a security guard do in an art museum?

e. Think of an art museum you have visited. What type of paintings did you see?

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

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33

Keeping healthy

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Who is looking after their health? Write H (healthy) or N (not healthy).

2 Tick () the good posture.

3 Match to make sentences about healthy habits.

a. We need to exercise

our backs.

b. We must eat

enough water.

c. We need to look after

hours of sleep a night.

d. We need ten

regularly.

e. We must drink

a healthy and balanced diet.

4 Complete the sentences with the correct words.

energy rest healthy tired ill recover sleep


a. After a busy day, we feel
b. Sleep keeps our body

and gives it

c. Sleep also helps us to

d. Children need to
e. People who sleep badly get
f. We need to
34

Natural Science 3

ten hours a day.


.
after a long day.
Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

ASSESSMENT

5 Give two examples of natural foods and two of processed foods.

a. natural foods

b. processed foods 
6 What stages does the food go through? Complete the words and match.

7 Read the sentences and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false
sentences.

a. Playing electronic games is a leisure activity.

b. Physical exercise is not good for your heart.

c. You must brush your teeth after every meal to avoid tooth decay.

d. You must wash your hands only once a day.

e. Pulses and cereals need preserving.

f. Heating, cooling and adding preservatives are methods to preserve food.




Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Natural Science 3

35

Keeping healthy

TEST

Name

Date

1 Physical exercise is good for your

a. body. b. mind. c. body and mind.


2 When you are sitting or walking,

a. you should keep your back straight.


b. do not carry weight.
c. remember to keep quiet.
3 Hygiene means keeping your body

a. rested. b. straight. c. clean.


4 You should brush your teeth for about

a. thirty seconds.

b. two minutes.

c. five minutes.

5 For good food hygiene, it is important to

a. wash your hands before every meal.


b. eat natural foods at every meal.
c. eat quickly at every meal.
6 Foods that do not need preserving include

a. pulses. b. meat. c. frozen foods.


7 Heating

a. is called refrigeration.
b. means adding preservatives.
c. helps to eliminate organisms that spoil food.
8 Leisure activities are things we do

a. in our free time.

c. at work.

b. at school.

9 Electronic games can be educational

a. so we should play them all the time.


b. but we should do other activities as well.
c. but we should never play them.
10 Children need to sleep

a. six hours a day.


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Natural Science 3

b. eight hours a day.

c. ten hours a day.

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Keeping healthy

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

Food and teeth


Egg shell is very similar to tooth enamel.
We can use it to see how different liquids
can damage tooth enamel.

Instructions
1. Work in groups.
2. Each group has 3 pieces of clean egg shell, 3 jars, water, some lemon juice and some
cola drink.
3. Put a piece of egg shell in a jar with water, another in a jar with lemon juice and another
in a jar with the cola drink.
4. Label the three jars.
5. Leave them on a shelf for a week and observe how the pieces of shell change.
6. Complete the table.
water

lemon juice

cola drink

Does the colour change?

Are there any stains?

Is the piece of shell weaker?

7. Compare the results and answer the questions.


a. Which shell changed colour the most?




b. Which shell was the most damaged?




c. Do you think these liquids would affect your teeth in the same way?


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Natural Science 3

37

Animals

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Read the definitions and match.

a. These animals eat plants.

scavengers

b. These animals eat meat.

omnivores

c. These animals feed on dead animals.

carnivores

d. These animals eat animals and plants.

decomposers

e. These animals feed on decaying matter.

herbivores

2 Classify the vertebrates.

mammals

birds

fish

reptiles

amphibians

3 Complete the table.

38

mammals

birds

fish

reptiles

amphibians

body covering

reproduction

breathing

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

REINFORCEMENT

4 Find five vertebrates. Then, complete.

These animals are all r







5 Match the bird group to the examples.

a. flightless bird

duck

b. waterfowl

eagle

c. bird of prey

canary

d. songbird

penguin

6 Look at the pictures and answer the questions.

a. What process is this? 


b. What animals undergo this process? 
c. What are the babies called? 
Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Natural Science 3

39

Animals

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Animal talk
Animals do not talk like people, but they still
communicate with each other. For example, birds
sing and chirp, dogs bark, cats meow and lions roar.
The blue whale is not only the largest animal
on Earth, but also the loudest. Blue whales emit
very loud and repetitive sounds that travel many
kilometres underwater. The call of a blue whale can
reach up to 188 decibels. This is much louder than
a jet engine, which is about 140 decibels. Human
shouting is 70 decibels.
Sounds over 120 decibels are painful to our ears.

1 Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Blue whales are the largest and loudest animals on Earth.


b. Their sounds can be heard from very far away.
c. A decibel is a unit for measuring distance.
d. The sound of a jet engine is louder than the call of a blue whale.
e. Blue whale sounds can be painful to our ears.


2 Use the code to find out how animals communicate.

5 A 5 E 5 I 5 O 5 U

trmpt

40

chttr


Natural Science 3

qck


chrp


hss


Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Animals

EXTENSION

Name

Date

How animals protect themselves from the cold


During the winter, the days get
shorter and the temperatures drop.
So, animals need to protect
themselves from the cold.
Some animals, such as rabbits,
dogs, cats and polar bears, grow
thicker fur to keep themselves
warm. Some animals hibernate. This
means they sleep during the coldest
months of the year. For example,
squirrels, bears, turtles, bats and
frogs hibernate and sleep all winter.
Some animals migrate. This means they travel long distances to find warmer climates.
For example, storks, antelopes, whales, swallows and ducks migrate.

1 Write a definition for these words.

Hibernate: 

Migrate: 

2 Use the colour key and circle the illustrations.

migrate blue

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

hibernate red

Natural Science 3

41

Animals

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Write the five groups of vertebrate animals.

2 What group do these animals belong to?

3 Tick () the correct options.

All mammals:
a. have bones.

b. drink their mothers milk.

c. are born from their mothers womb.

d. can walk when they are born.

4 Write an example of each type of animal.

marine mammal

flying mammal

primate

5 Read and circle the mistakes. Then, write the correct words.

Reptiles are viviparous animals. They breathe through gills.


Their skin is covered with hair. Most of them live on land and slither.


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Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

ASSESSMENT

6 Complete the sentences with Fish or Amphibians.

a.

have bare skin.

b.

breathe only through gills.

c.

breathe through lungs and their skin.

7 Circle the word related to birds in each pair.

animals plants

vertebrate invertebrate

wings fins

feathers fur

oviparous viviparous

8 What animal is it?

This animal is different when it is young and when it is an adult.


When it is born, it lives in water, breathes through gills and has a tail.
When it is an adult, it can live on land, it breathes using lungs and has legs.
It is a

9 Write the name of two animals which match the descriptions.

a. They breathe through lungs.

b. They breathe through gills.

c. They have scales.

d. They move using fins.

10 Complete the table.

mammals

reptiles

fish

birds

amphibians

They breathe through

Their body is covered


with

They move using

Their reproduction is

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Natural Science 3

43

Animals

TEST

Name

Date

1 Through the process of nutrition, animals obtain

a. energy.

b. information.

c. offspring.

2 Animals that feed on dead animals are

a. herbivores.

b. vertebrates.

c. scavengers.

3 Carnivores

a. feed on decaying plant and animal matter.


b. eat other animals.
c. eat food of plant and animal origin.
4 According to their type of reproduction, animals can be

a. oviparous or viviparous.

b. mammals or birds.

c. aquatic or terrestrial.

b. legs.

c. an exoskeleton.

5 All vertebrates have

a. a spinal column.

6 Mammals are viviparous because

a. they like milk.


b. they are born from their mothers womb.
c. they breathe air through their lungs.
7 Dolphins and whales are

a. cetaceans.

b. fish.

c. oviparous.

8 All birds are oviparous. This means that they

a. can sing to communicate.


b. have got webbed feet.
c. are born from eggs.
9 Lizards, snakes, crocodiles and tortoises are

a. invertebrates.

b. reptiles.

c. carnivores.

10 Fish are

a. aquatic vertebrates that breathe through lungs.


b. aquatic vertebrates that breathe through gills.
c. aquatic invertebrates with bare skin.
44

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Animals

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 How can you classify animals? Make an index card.

Instructions
1. Work in groups of four.
2. Search the Internet for information about an exotic animal. Draw the animal
or print out photographs and glue them onto separate pieces of card.
3. On the back of each card, write about your animal.

Animal name:
Habitat:
Vertebrate / Invertebrate
Food:
Reproduction:
Body covering:
Movement:

4. Play Guess the animal with a partner, using the information on the back of your cards.
Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Natural Science 3

45

Invertebrates

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Write the groups of invertebrates. Then, match them to the correct pictures.

a. They are simple aquatic invertebrates. They live attached to rocks. Their bodies are full
of pores and are sac-shaped.
They are

b. They have got poisonous tentacles and jelly-like bodies. Jellyfish are in this group.
They are

c. They have got long, soft bodies and no legs. Thy live in soil, in water or inside other
bodies.
They are

d. Mussels, octopuses, squids and snails are in this group of invertebrates.


They are

e. They are marine animals. Their skeleton is made of hard plates. Starfish and sea
urchins are in this group.
They are

f. They have got an articulated exoskeleton made up of external plates. Insects,


arachnids, crustaceans and myriapods are in this group.
They are

2 Circle the correct word.

Invertebrates havent got a skeleton / spinal column.


46

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

REINFORCEMENT

3 Circle the correct words.

a. Worms, insects and spiders are vertebrates / invertebrates.


b. Mussels have got shells / exoskeletons.
c. Crabs have got hard / soft exoskeletons.
d. Jellyfish and earthworms have got / havent got a hard covering.
1

4 Complete the crossword


about insects.

2
3

6
DOWN

ACROSS

1. These parts help insects feel and smell.

4. This part contains wings and legs.

2. These hatch from eggs.

5. This part is divided into segments.

3. Invertebrates with six legs.

6. Insects fly with these.

5 Complete the sentences about molluscs.

Molluscs have got

bodies. Most of them have got one or two


to protect their bodies.

Most of them are

, like clams, but some are

like snails and slugs.


6 Write one or two examples of each.

a. molluscs that have got two shells

b. molluscs that have got a single shell

c. molluscs that have got limbs with suction cups


Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing


Natural Science 3

47

Invertebrates

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Head-foot
Cephalopods are animals such as squids, octopuses
and cuttlefish.
These sea creatures are unusual because their feet,
which are actually long tentacles, surround their mouth
and are attached to their heads. Cephalopod means
head-foot.
Did you know that the octopus is one of the most
intelligent of all the invertebrates in the marine world?
Octopuses also have excellent eyesight, although they cannot hear.
An octopuss soft body looks like a large bag. It lives on the ocean floor, and its eight
tentacles help it to move about and catch food. An octopus moves by jet propulsion: it
sucks water in, then squirts it out of its head so fast that it moves through the water!
Octopuses protect themselves in two ways. They squirt dark ink which blinds their
enemies so they have time to escape. They also change the colour of their skin sothat
they blend in with their surroundings. This helps them hide from their enemies.

1 Unscramble the words and find some examples of cephalopods.

dsuisq


a.

shuctitlfe

b.

otcpuoses

c.

2 Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. The octopus is one of the most intelligent invertebrates in the sea.


b. Cephalopod means head-legs.
c. Octopuses move by jet propulsion.
d. Octopuses have an excellent sense of hearing.
e. Octopuses have five tentacles.



48

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Invertebrates
Name

EXTENSION

Date

Honey bees
Honey bees are flying insects that form
colonies and live in beehives. They work
together for the good of the community,
and each bee belongs to a specialized
group according to its work.

foto
abeja

In a beehive, there is one queen whose


role is to lay eggs to produce new bees.
Drones are male bees that mate with
the queen.
Worker bees are the most numerous
group. When they are young, they stay in the beehive to look after it and defend it. When
they are older, they fly outside to collect nectar and pollen from flowers to make honey for
their food. They are able to indicate to other bees where to find pollen by performing a
special dance.
Bees are necessary for plant reproduction because they transport pollen from one plant to
another. They can visit over 2,000 flowers in a day!

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What is a beehive?

b. How many queens are there in a beehive?

c. What are drones?

d. What bees are in charge of collecting pollen and nectar?

e. Why are bees important for plant reproduction?



Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Natural Science 3

49

Invertebrates

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 What do all invertebrates have in common?


2 Look at the illustrations and match.

mollusc

arthropod
B

cnidarian

worm

sponge

echinoderm

3 Circle the correct word. Then, write the sentences.

a. Jellyfish have tentacles / legs. Their bodies look like jelly / rocks.

b. Worms have soft / hard bodies. They are short / long.

c. Molluscs have hard / soft bodies. They usually have shells / scales.

d. Spiders have eight / six legs.

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ASSESSMENT

4 Label the parts of the fly.

5 Number the illustrations in order.

6 Write T (true) or F (false).

a. Echinoderms live attached to rocks.


b. Sponges can live on land and in water.
c. Jellyfish have poisonous tentacles.
d. All worms are aquatic.
7 Write the group of arthropods these invertebrates belong to.

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51

Invertebrates

TEST

Name

Date

1 Invertebrate animals

a. always live in warm places with high humidity.


b. havent got a spinal column.
c. have got long, soft bodies with no legs.
2 Sponges are

a. vertebrate animals that live in the sea.


b. aquatic invertebrates that live attached to rocks.
c. marine arthropods.
3 Jellyfish are

a. sponges.

b. vertebrates.

c. cnidarians.

b. the soil.

c. trees.

4 Earthworms live in

a. the sea.
5 Molluscs

a. are oviparous invertebrates with soft bodies.


b. can only live attached to rocks in the sea.
c. have got very bright colours.
6 Starfish and sea urchins are

a. arachnids.

b. echinoderms.

c. arthropods.

7 Insects, arachnids, crustaceans and myriapods are all

a. arthropods.

b. vertebrates.

c. herbivores.

8 Arthropods have got

a. many legs.
b. an articulated exoskeleton.
c. wings.
9 Insects bodies are divided into

a. head, thorax and abdomen.


b. antennae, legs and wings.
c. head, trunk and limbs.
10 Spiders have got

a. ten legs.
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Natural Science 3

b. eight legs.

c. six legs.
Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Invertebrates

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Where do live arthropods? Find them!

Instructions
1. Look for small invertebrate animals that live near your school. Identify them and write down
their names in the table below.
2. Some of them can bite or sting you, so dont touch them. Instead, search the Internet
for pictures of them.
3. Complete the table with their characteristics.
name

legs

antennae

articulated body

wings

head, thorax
andabdomen

exoskeleton

other body
protection

4. Classify your arthropods according to their characteristics.


a. insects 
b. arachnids 
c. crustaceans 
d. myriapods 

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53

Animals and people

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Circle the foods that come from animals.

2 What materials do we obtain from these animals? What things can we make
with them?

a. Sheep give us

We can make

b. Cows give us

We can make

. We can make

c. Silkworms give us

3 Find seven animals that can be used for transport. Then, write.

o
i

x
p

q
o

s
d









4 Which things can you use for birdwatching? Colour the words.

radio
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Natural Science 3

binoculars

motorbike

telescope

rope

field guide

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REINFORCEMENT

5 Complete the sentences.

extensive raise intensive livestock


a. Farmers
called

animals for their meat, milk, eggs or skins. This is


farming.

b. In

farming, animals live in the open and eat grass.

c. In

farming, animals live fenced in and farmers feed them.

6 What kind of livestock farming is it?

7 Match the animals to the types of livestock.

poultry
cattle
sheep
pigs
goats

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55

Animals and people


Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Chinese calendar


The Chinese calendar is based on the
phases of the Moon. The Chinese
New Year is not always on the
same date: it begins between
the end of January and the
middle of February.
The Chinese calendar follows
a 12-year pattern. Each
year is named after an
animal. According to
legend, Buddha invited all
of the animals to join him for
a New Years celebration,
but only 12 animals appeared.
To reward these animals,
Buddha named a year after each
one. The first year was the Year of
the Rat. The second year was the Year
of the Ox. This was followed by the Year of
the Tiger, and the years of the Rabbit, Dragon,
Snake, Horse, Sheep, Monkey, Rooster, Dog and finally,
the Pig. According to Chinese tradition, people have the characteristics
of the animal of the year when they were born.

1 Search the Internet to find the animal of this years Chinese calendar.
Find and write a list of this animals characteristics.



2 Look at the calendar. In which year were you born? Which animal represents that
year? Find out and write the characteristics you share with this animal.




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Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Animals and people

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Groundhog Day
Groundhog Day is a holiday celebrated each
year on the 2nd February, in the United
States of America and Canada. In the
States, thousands of people go to
Punxsutawney, Pennsylvania, to see this
event. On this date, a special groundhog,
called Phil, comes out of his burrow after
hibernating all winter. Groundhog Phil
predicts the weather for the rest of the
winter. According to tradition, if it is sunny
on the 2nd February and the groundhog sees
its shadow, it returns to its burrow.
This means that winter weather will continue
for six more weeks. If it is cloudy and the
groundhog doesnt see its shadow,
it means that spring weather will
arrive soon.

1 Match these words from the text to their definitions.

a. groundhog forecast
b. burrow

be in a dormant condition in the winter months

c. hibernate

a dark shape produced when light is blocked

d. predict

a small, brown, furry animal with short legs

e. shadow

a hole or tunnel in the ground where a small animal lives

2 Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Groundhogs hibernate in winter.


b. On Groundhog Day, a groundhog predicts the weather for summer.
c. If the groundhog sees its shadow, it means the end of winter.


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57

Animals and people

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Write the benefits we obtain from these animals.

a. sheep

b. cows

c. bees

d. silkworms

e. pigs

f. chickens

2 Look and match.

intensive farming

extensive farming

3 Read and complete the sentences.

58

is the farming of bees to obtain h

is the farming of fish for food.


Natural Science 3

and wax.

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

ASSESSMENT

4 Complete the sentences about sheep farming.

a. A male sheep is a: r

b. A baby sheep is a: l

c. A female sheep is a: e

d. A person who takes care of


sheep is a: s

e. S
means to
cut off a sheeps wool.
f. The place where sheep are kept
at night is a: p
.
5 Read and write T (true) or F (false).

a. Leather is made by tanning animal skins.


b. Livestock farming means animal farming.
c. There are only two types of livestock farming: cattle and sheep.
d. Birdwatching is a hobby.
6 Draw some farm animals. Write which things we obtain from them.











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59

Animals and people

TEST

Name

Date

1 These days, a lot of food from animals is obtained

a. by keeping bees in beehives.


b. by hunting wild animals.
c. by livestock farming and fishing.
2 The two types of animal farming are

a. livestock and extensive farming.


b. extensive and intensive farming.
c. intensive and livestock farming.
3 From animals, people obtain materials for clothing such as

a. wool, leather and silk.


b. leather, plastic and iron.
c. cotton, hemp and silk.
4 Leather is made

a. with animal skins.


b. with milk, eggs and honey.
c. with animal hairs.
5 Common types of livestock are

a. insects and myriapods.


b. cattle, sheep, pigs, goats and poultry.
c. cows, sheep, pigs, sharks and insects.
6 Beekeeping is the farming of bees in order to obtain

a. meat and honey.

b. honey and wax.

c. wool and wax.

b. intensive farming.

c. zoologists.

7 Most poultry is raised by

a. extensive farming.

8 People who vaccinate animals to prevent illnesses are

a. shepherds.

b. farmers.

c. vets.

9 When wool is cut off a sheep, we call it

a. shearing.

b. herds.

c. flock.

10 Books that help you to identify different types of animals are called

a. dictionaries.
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Natural Science 3

b. binoculars.

c. field guides.

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Animals and people

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

Egg labels
Look closely at an egg box next time you buy some
eggs. You can find a number which indicates the method
of production:
0 = organic egg production. The indoor space is 1 m2 for
6 hens. The outdoor space is 4 m2 for each hen. Hens
eat freely outside.
1 = free-range eggs. The indoor space is 1 m2 for 9 hens.
The outdoor space is 4 m2 for each hen.
2 = indoor farming. The indoor space is 1 m2 for 9 hens.
The hens are not kept in cages.
3 = cage farming. The indoor space is 1 m2 for 18 hens.
The hens are kept in cages.

1 In your notebook, draw squares for each method of producing hens. Draw the hens
inside. Add the outdoor space where it corresponds. Then, answer the questions.

a. Which hens live in the most crowded space? 


b. Which hens can spend time outside? 
2 Look at the prices of different eggs in a supermarket and write them.

0:
1:
2:
3:
a. Which eggs are the most expensive?

b. Which eggs are the cheapest?

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61

Plants

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Read and write tree, bush or grass. Then, match.

a. A

has a short, woody stem.

b.

have a soft, flexible stem.

c. A

has a thick, woody stem called a trunk.

2 Read and complete the words.

a. They grow from the stems and branches.

b. They fix the plant to the ground.

c. They can be woody or soft.

3 Unscramble the words and label the diagram.

taple

epsal

isptil

mestan

4 Complete the sentences. Write male or female.

The pistil is the


The stamens are the
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Natural Science 3

part of the flower.


parts of the flower.
Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

REINFORCEMENT

5 Complete the sentences about the stages of reproduction of a plant.


Then, write a, b, c or d next to the drawings.

germinates seeds pistil stamens


a. Pollen is formed in the

b. A grain of pollen reaches


the
of another
flower.
c. The ovary matures and turns
into fruit. The fruit contains
the
.
d. When a seed falls to the ground,
it
and a new
plant grows.

6 What do plants need to grow? Label the drawing.

c
d

m
w

7 Read and match.

mosses and ferns

angiosperms and gymnosperms

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

flowering plants
non-flowering plants

Natural Science 3

63

Plants

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Floral emblems
Many countries have a flower or a plant as a national symbol. In some countries,
there are also floral emblems for each region. Floral emblems are usually plants that grow
in abundance in the country. The four countries that make up Great Britain each have their
own floral emblem.

The national flower


of England is the rose.

The national flower


of Scotland is the thistle.

The national flower


of Northern Ireland
is the shamrock.

The national flower


of Wales is the daffodil.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What are floral emblems?



b. What is the floral emblem of England?

c. Does your country have a floral emblem?

d. What flower would you like as the floral emblem of your region?

e. Describe your floral emblem.


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Plants

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The Venus flytrap


The Venus flytrap is a small, carnivorous plant.
Its sweet-scented leaves attract insects.
These leaves open and close like jaws to capture
insects. When the plant is touched, sensitive hairs
on the inside of the leaves send signals to the plant.
So, when an insect touches one of these hairs,
the leaves snap shut. The plant then slowly digests
the trapped insect. After about aweek, all that is left of the insect is its hard exoskeleton.
The Venus flytrap can live in soils with a low mineral content because it obtains minerals
from the insects it captures.

1 Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. The Venus flytrap is a carnivorous plant.


b. The plants beautiful flowers attract insects.
c. Sensitive hairs send signals to the plant.
d. The Venus flytrap obtains minerals from insects.
e. A Venus flytrap takes about a month to digest an insect.


2 Search the Internet for carnivorous plants. Choose one and complete
theindexcard.

Name: 
Where does it grow?

What animals does it trap?

How does it get nutrients?

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65

Plants

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Label the plant. Then, answer the question.

Is the stem of this plant woody or herbaceous? Explain.



2 Label the parts of the leaf. Then, read and tick ().

a. Classify the leaf according to the edge.


smooth

lobed

jagged

b. Classify the leaf according to the shape.


palmate

heart-shaped

needle-shaped

3 Read and complete.

ferns gymnosperms rhizoids seeds angiosperms flowers mosses


Flowering plants produce
groups are

with
, like apple trees, and

and
of mosses are called
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Natural Science 3

. The two main


, like pine trees.

are non-flowering plants. The roots


.
Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

ASSESSMENT

4 Read and complete the text about plant nutrition.

carbon dioxide photosynthesis roots raw sap


water sunlight elaborated sap mineral salts
Plants make their own food through

They absorb

and

from the soil through their

. This mixture is the

. Plants also absorb

and

from the air. They then transform

the raw sap into

5 Find and circle five parts of the flower. Then, complete the sentences.

a. It is the female part of the flower. It contains the ovary. It is the

b. The

are the small green leaves that protect the flower.

c. The

are the male parts of the flower. They produce pollen.

d. The

are coloured leaves. They form the

6 Match the sentences to the life processes that plants carry out.

a. Plants make elaborated sap.


b. The leaves and stems grow towards the light.
c. Pollen is produced in the stamens.

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

sensitivity
nutrition
reproduction

Natural Science 3

67

Plants

TEST

Name

Date

1 The main parts of a plant are

a. the roots, the leaves and the pistil.


b. the roots, the stems and the branches.
c. the roots, the leaves and the stem.
2 Herbaceous stems are

a. soft and flexible.

b. hard and rigid.

c. hard and flexible.

3 Leaves are classified according to their

a. colour.

b. shape and edge.

c. size.

4 Gymnosperms

a. are non-flowering plants.


b. do not produce fruits.
c. do not produce seeds.
5 The female part of a plant is

a. the corolla.

b. the calyx.

c. the pistil.

6 Plants respond to changes in the environment because they have

a. roots.

b. sensitivity.

c. stamens.

7 The process by which plants make their own food is called

a. respiration.

b. photosynthesis.

c. transpiration.

8 There are two main groups of flowering plants

a. angiosperms and gymnosperms.


b. mosses and gymnosperms.
c. angiosperms and ferns.
9 Angiosperms usually have beautiful flowers and

a. produce fruit with seeds inside.


b. seeds grouped together in cones.
c. have leaves all year round.
10 Non-flowering plants have rhizoids which

a. fix the plant to the soil.


b. feed the plant.
c. produce the seeds.
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Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Plants

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 What do plants need to grow?

Instructions
1. Work in groups of four. Each group
has four small plants, a paper bag,
atransparent plastic bag and water.
2. Label the plants as follows: 1. no water;
2.no light; 3. no air; 4. control plant.
3. Place the paper bag over plant
number 2, so it doesnt receive
anylight.
4. Place the plastic bag over plant
number 3, so it doesnt get any air.
5. Put the plants on a window sill
andwater them regularly, except
forplant number 1. Make sure the
control plant has air, light andwater.
6. Observe the growth of the plants over the next four weeks and record your
observations. Complete the table.
week

plant 1

plant 2

plant 3

plant 4

7. Compare your results and answer the questions.


a. Did all the plants grow the same? 
b. Which plant was the healthiest? 
c. Which plant was the least healthy? 
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69

Animals and plants

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Look and match the pictures to the areas.

forest
shrubland

grassland
desert

2 Read and complete.

high shrubland forest vegetation fertile drought scarce arid low poor
a. Trees grow in

soil with

Many trees together form a

b. Bushes grow in places with


soil and

humidity. An area dominated by bushes is a

c. Grasslands are areas with long periods of


are

humidity.

.
. Trees and bushes

because they need water all year round.

d. Deserts do not have much water and the soil is


. There is little

. Only plants that need little water can live in deserts.

3 Where do these animals live? Explain.






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REINFORCEMENT

4 Find and circle eight animals. Then, write.


s






5 Classify these marine animals.

whales seals sharks sardines turtles tuna

They breathe through lungs

They breathe through gills

6 Write T (true) or F (false).

a. Sponges are marine invertebrates.


b. Elephants are terrestrial mammals.
c. Seabirds live in small tunnels underground.
d. All fish live in fresh water.
e. Snakes havent got legs, so they slither.
f. Corals move about the seabed.
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71

Animals and plants

EXTENSION

Name

Date

A frozen land
Tundras are one of the coldest and harshest
areas on Earth. They are found in the Arctic,
where the weather is extremely cold, dry and
windy. Trees cannot grow in tundras, but there
are many low plants. The Arctic tundra has
average temperatures of 12 C to 6 C. This
means that the top layer of soil, called the
permafrost, is almost always frozen.
In winter, the permafrost is covered with
a thick layer of snow, and no plants are visible.
In summer, there are 24 hours a day of sunlight,
and the surface of the permafrost melts. Wildflowers appear everywhere.
Many animals live in the Arctic tundra, including Arctic foxes, polar bears, caribous and
snow geese. Unfortunately, as a result of global warming, temperatures are rising. This is
causing the permafrost to melt. The Arctic tundra is in danger.

1 Read the text and circle the correct word.

a. Tundras are found in the Arctic / Antarctic.


b. In the summer, there are 12 / 24 hours a day of sunlight.
c. The top layer of the soil is the tundra / permafrost.
d. Winter in the Arctic tundra is extremely warm / cold.
e. Global warming / Acid rain is harming the Arctic tundra.

2 Search the Internet for three animal species from the Arctic tundra.
Write what they eat.

animals

72

food

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Animals and plants

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Fast and slow animals


Animals move at different
speeds. Walking at a normal
pace, people usually walk
five or six kilometres per
hour. Some very slow
animals take a whole year to
travel the same distance as
a fast animal can travel in
one hour!

animals
on land

in the air

in water

slow
animals

Sloths move at 12
metres per hour.

Small flies move at 35


kilometres per hour.

Perches swim at 2.1


kilometres per hour.

fast
animals

Cheetahs can run at


100 kilometres per hour.

Falcons can fly at 300


kilometres per hour.

Sailfish can swim at 110


kilometres per hour.

1 Read the text and the table. Then, answer the questions.

a. Which animal is the slowest on land? 


b. Which animal is the fastest on land? 
c. Does the slowest animal move on land, in the air or in water? 
d. Does the fastest animal move on land, in the air or in water? 
2 Find your favourite animal on the Internet.
Draw it. Then, find out how fast it moves
and complete the sentences.

My favourite animal is the 

It moves at 

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73

Animals and plants

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Write the names of these areas.

2 Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Vegetation depends on soil, climate, relief and humidity.


b. Pines, oaks and beeches are types of bushes.
c. The African Savannah is a grassland area.
d. Deserts are areas with fertile soil and high humidity.
e. Grass in grasslands dies in drought periods.



3 What is vegetation? Explain.




4 Read and complete the words.

74

a. All the plants in an area, region or country.

b. A long period of little or no rainfall.

c. A grassland area in Africa.

d. An area dominated by bushes.

Natural Science 3

h
u

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

ASSESSMENT

5 Read the text and complete.

oxygen lungs surface marine rivers


Some aquatic animals live in the sea.
They are

animals.

Others live in fresh water, in lakes or

Aquatic animals spend most of their lives in water. Many of them


breathe in

from the water through gills.

Others come to the

of the water to breathe in air,

through

6 Circle the correct animal.

bat / bird

a. A mammal that can fly.


b. A mollusc that lives fixed to the rocks on the seabed.

sea urchin / mussel


skater / butterfly

c. An insect that glides on the surface of the water.

snake / salamander

d. A reptile that slithers.

eagle / duck

e. A water bird.
7 Read, then write the correct word.

a. Squirrels live most of the time in

and swing from branch to branch.

trees bushes tunnels


b. Snakes havent got legs, so they

.
fly slither jump

c. Many small animals live in tunnels

in the sea in small houses underground

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Natural Science 3

75

Animals and plants

TEST

Name

Date

1 Vegetation is

a. all the plants that live in an area, region or country.


b. all the plants and animals that live in an area.
c. the flowers that grow on trees.
2 Many trees growing together make up a

a. grass area.

b. forest.

c. desert.

3 We obtain honey and wax from

a. bees.

b. spiders.

c. sheep.

4 Shrublands are areas

a. with long periods of drought where forests cannot grow.


b. dominated by bushes.
c. dominated by cactuses.
5 African savannahs are

a. deserts.

b. forests.

c. grasslands.

6 A desert is

a. an area where there is a lot of sand.


b. an area with arid soil and little water.
c. a kind of vegetation.
7 Corals live in

a. the sea.

b. fresh water.

c. either the sea or fresh water.

8 Marine mammals, like dolphins or whales,

a. must come up to the surface to breathe.


b. dont need to breathe air from the surface.
c. breathe through gills.
9 Terrestrial animals

a. do not need water.

b. live on land.

c. have wings to walk about.

b. seabird.

c. slithering reptile.

10 A bat is a

a. flying mammal.
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Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Animals and plants


Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

1 Which animals and plants share the same area?

Instructions
1. Work in groups.
2. Choose one of these areas: shrubland, desert, grassland or forest.
3. Search the Internet for plants and animals that live in your habitat. Find out what
they eat and how they reproduce. Print out or draw pictures.
4. Make a poster with your pictures. Write the names of the animals, what they eat
(carnivore, herbivore or omnivore) and how they reproduce (oviparous or viviparous).
5. Show your poster to your classmates and tell them about your favourite animal
or plant.
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77

Matter

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Complete the sentences.

space volume matter substances mass


Everything around us that takes up

is made up of

All objects have two properties:


object, and

, which is the amount of matter in an

, which is the amount of space an object occupies. The

different types of matter are called

2 How do you measure mass and volume? Look and match.

mass

volume

3 What are the three states of water? Write solid, liquid or gas.

4 Write yes or no and give an example.

fixed shape

78

fixed volume

example

solids

liquids

gases

Natural Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

REINFORCEMENT

5 Use the clues to complete the changes of state.

a. Ice changes into liquid water.

b. Liquid water changes into ice.

c. Liquid water changes into water vapour.


d. Water vapour changes into liquid water.

v
n

6 Label the diagram.

water vapour

water

ice

7 Which photo shows a chemical change? Tick ().

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L./Richmond Publishing

Natural Science 3

79

Matter

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Lovely ice cream!


What happens to ice cream in very hot weather? You have to
eat it quickly before it melts!
Ice cream is made with frozen milk, thats why it is solid. When
you take it out of the freezer, it begins to melt and turns into a
liquid. The flavour, though, remains the same.
When frozen ice cream melts and becomes liquid, it goes
through a physical change of state.
But the ice cream flavour does not change. It still tastes wonderful!
1 Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Ice cream is solid because it is made of frozen milk.


b. Ice cream melts when the temperature decreases.
c. When ice cream melts, there is a chemical change.
d. When ice cream melts, its flavour does not change.


2 Find and circle six ice cream flavours. Then, write.

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Matter
Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Wobbly Bridge


The Millennium Bridge in London is a
very popular tourist destination. It is
a pedestrian bridge, so cars cannot
cross it. When you are standing
on the bridge, you can see many
of Londons historical buildings, such
as St. Pauls Cathedral and the Globe
Theatre. The bridge also appears in films,
such as Harry Potter and the Half-Blood
Prince and many Bollywood films.
The Millennium Bridge is made of concrete and steel, so it is very strong. It can
hold up to 5,000 people at one time. But when it opened in 2000, people said
the bridge moved under their feet! This problem was corrected, but even today,
people still call it The Wobbly Bridge.
1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. Where is the Millennium Bridge?



b. What can you see when you are standing on the bridge?

c. What is it made of?

d. How many people can it hold at one time?

e. When was the bridge opened for the first time?

f. Why do people call it The Wobbly Bridge?

g. Can you name a popular bridge in your country?

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Matter

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Answer the questions.

a. What is matter?

b. What is volume?

c. What are the three states of matter?

d. What is a substance?

2 Use the clues to complete the text.

All objects have two properties in common: m


and v

. Objects also have other properties,

depending on what s

they are made of.

These properties are: c


and h

,s

,l

. These properties help us to distinguish

one substance from another.


3 Label the illustrations.

liquid

Natural Science 3

gas


82

solid


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ASSESSMENT

4 Write T (true) and F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Solids have a fixed shape and a fixed volume.


b. Liquids do not have a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.
c. Gases have a fixed volume, but the shape can vary because
they adopt the shape of the container they are in.


5 Read and cross out the wrong words.

a. Chemical changes / Physical changes are when substances change into


different substances.
b. Contraction / Combustion is a physical change.
c. Matter / A mixture is when two or more substances are mixed together.
6 What physical change takes place? Write mixture, change of shape, change of size
or change of state.

a. You pour sugar in milk and stir it.

b. You fold a paper and make a paper boat.

c. You heat the air inside a balloon and it expands. 




d. You heat water and it turns to vapour.

7 Complete the chart with solidification, condensation, melting and evaporation.

solid

liquid

gas

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83

Matter

TEST

Name

Date

1 Everything around us that takes up space is made up of

a.wood.

b.matter.

c.water.

b. an object.

c. a substance.

2 Each type of matter is

a. air.

3 The amount of matter in objects is called

a.mass.

b.volume.

c.density.

b.centimetres.

c.litres.

4 Volume is measured in

a.kilogrammes.
5 Gases

a. have a fixed shape and a fixed volume.


b. have a fixed volume, but their shape can change.
c. do not have a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.
6 There are two types of changes in matter

a. condensation and solidification.


b. physical and chemical changes.
c. mixtures and evaporation.
7 Contraction is

a. combustion.

b. a physical change.

c. a chemical change.

8 When the temperature of an object increases

a. it gets bigger. This is called expansion.


b. it gets smaller. This is called contraction.
c. it gets bigger. This is called contraction.
9 Melting is

a. when a gas is cooled and changes into a liquid.


b. when a solid is heated and changes into a liquid.
c. when a liquid is cooled and changes into a solid.
10 When a substance changes into another different substance it is called

a. chemical change.
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b. expansion.

c. physical change.

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Matter

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Does air really take up space? Try two experiments.

Instructions
Work with a partner. Do the following easy experiments.
You need a tank or large bowl of water, a dry sponge and an empty plastic bottle.
Experiment A
Squeeze a dry sponge inside a tank
or bowl of water. What do you see?
Complete the table.

Experiment B
Put an empty plastic bottle sideways
inside a tank or bowl of water. What
do you see? Complete the table.

first minute

Experiment A

Experiment B

after a few minutes

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85

Materials and machines

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Classify the materials.

wood
paper

granite

leather

pottery

glass

natural materials

man-made materials

2 Tick () the materials that come from animals.

wool

hemp

leather

wood

silk

cotton

3 Read and match.

a. Hemp

is used to make furniture.

b. Wood

is used to make fabrics.

c. Cotton

4 Complete the stages involved in making paper.

belt pulp impurities wood spools


a.

is broken up into small pieces.

b. The pieces are mixed with other substances to make


c. The pulp is filtered to get rid of

d. The paper pulp is spread onto a moving


e. The final product is wound onto
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.
.
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REINFORCEMENT

5 How do these machines work?


Use the key and circle.

energy from electricity red


energy from people blue

6 Choose two machines from Activity 5. Explain what they are used for.

a. We use

to

b.

to

7 Classify these machines.

pliers

fan

telephone

pulley

compound machines

simple machines


8 Complete the crossword about simple machines.

Across
1. A ramp (two words).
Down

2
1

2. A rigid bar.
3. A solid disk that turns on an axle.
4. A wheel with a rope around it.

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Materials and machines

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The wheel
The wheel is one of the most important inventions of all
time. It changed our means oftransport forever.
The wheel is a simple machine that was invented over
5,000 years ago. It consists of a disk that turns on an
axle. The first wheels were simple disks made of solid
wood. Wheels with spokes were invented over 1,000
years later.
Later, wheels were made of metal. This allowed heavy
objects to be moved from one place toanother.
After that, metal wheels were covered with rubber
and cork. These wheels are still used today because
they are so light and resilient.

1 Circle the illustration of the oldest wheel. Then, answer the question.

Why do you think this is the oldest wheel?





2 Think about life before the invention of the wheel. How do you think people moved
heavy objects?




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Materials and machines


Name

EXTENSION

Date

Where does paper come from?


Paper was invented in China over 2,000
years ago.
Originally, paper was made of pulp produced
by boiling cloth and old fishing nets!
Nowadays, paper is made of pulp from wood.
Large plantations of trees are grown. The trees
are cut down, then chopped into small wood
chips. These chips are soaked in water and
chemicals to form wood pulp.
The pulp is bleached to remove tree bark and sap. Next, the pulp is drained
and squeezed to remove all the excess water, then placed in huge drying machines.
The pulp is then attached to spools and placed in cutting machines.
Today, lots of different paper products are made from recycled paper. Using recycled
paper to make new paper has less impact on the environment, and is better for
the planet.
Recycled paper is used for everything from paper plates to toilet paper!

1 Read and write True or False.

a. Paper was invented 2,000 years ago in India.

b. Originally, the pulp used to make paper came from boiled cloth. 
c. These days the pulp is made of wood chips soaked in water
and chemicals.

d. The pulp is cleaned with bleach to remove sap and bark.

e. Recycled paper is only used to make toilet paper.

2 Search the Internet. How is paper recycled? Write three or four sentences
describing the process.




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Materials and machines

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Name the materials used to make these objects. Then, write N (natural)
or M (man-made) next to each material.

2 Write the raw materials.

a.paper 
b.iron

c.plastic 
3 Write T (true) or F (false).

a. A pulley makes it difficult to lift heavy objects.


b. A ramp is an inclined plane.
c. A lever is a bar which rests on a pivot point.
d. A wheel rotates around a pivot point.
e. A pulley rotates around an axle.
4 Name one invention for each category. Then, write what energy it uses.

energy

invention

90

transport

communication

cleaning the house

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ASSESSMENT

5 Complete the sentences.

energy communicate time effort people


a. Machines save us

and

b. A telephone is a machine that lets us


c. All machines need

.
to work.

d. Scissors need energy from

to work.

6 Write what type of energy these machines use.

7 Complete the text.

operating handle bar complex levers people gear


A bicycle is a

machine because it is made up of many


parts. It has got two wheels, a

that helps steer the bicycle, and two pedals that act as
The pedals turn a

that moves a chain. The chain connects the

pedals to the back wheel. The bicycle needs energy from


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to work.
Natural Science 3

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Materials and machines

TEST

Name

Date

1 Natural materials

a. come from animals, plants and minerals.


b. are manufactured from other materials.
c. are very hard and resistant.
2 Paper, glass and plastic are

a. man-made materials.

b. natural materials.

c. chemical materials.

3 The raw material used to make paper is

a. petroleum.

b. wood.

c. leather.

4 Wool, leather and silk are examples of materials that come from

a. animals.

c. minerals.

b. plants.

5 Machines

a. help us to save time and energy and make our work easier.
b. are objects that we can see in museums.
c. are only used for transport.
6 A car is a complex machine because

a. it needs petrol to function.


b. it is made up of many operating parts.
c. it is used to travel.
7 A pulley is

a. a complex machine.

b. a simple machine.

c. not a machine.

8 An inclined plane might be used to

a. enter a building in a wheelchair.


b. transport products over long distances.
c. apply force when cracking a nut.
9 In order to work, all machines need

a. electricity.

b. energy.

c. a motor.

10 The printing press, the plane or the watermill are examples of

a. means of transport.
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Natural Science 3

b. gears.

c. inventions.
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Materials and machines

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 What simple and complex machines do you use in everyday life?

Instructions
1. Work in groups of four to make a poster.
2. Use magazines and catalogues to find
pictures of simple and complex machines
used in everyday life. Cut the pictures out
and sort them into two piles: simple and
complex machines.
3. Divide a piece of card into two sections.
Write two titles: Simple machines and
Complex machines. Glue the pictures
onthe corresponding section and label
them.
4. Next to each picture, write the energy
source each machine needs to work.
5. Once the poster is finished, complete
thetable. You can also add other
machines which do not appear on
yourposter.
machines I use in everyday life
simple machines

complex machines

6. Analyse your table and draw conclusions.


I mainly use simple / complex machines in everyday life.
I mainly use machines that need human energy / electricity / petrol to work.
7. Compare your conclusions with your group.
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Energy and the environment

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Complete the crossword about forms of energy.

ACROSS
1. Energy that makes
a computer work.

2. Energy produced
by a radiator.

6
2

3. Energy in a pizza.
4. Energy inside uranium.
DOWN

5. Energy in a ball that


is falling.
6. Energy from a lamp.
4

2 Circle six energy sources and classify them.

algascoal
sun
wat
tur
a
er
n
petr
d
oleumwin
non-renewable energy sources

renewable energy sources




3 Complete the sentences.

a. In a toaster,
b. In a light bulb,
c. In a torch,
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Natural Science 3

energy transforms into


energy transforms into
energy transforms into

energy.
energy.
energy.

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REINFORCEMENT

4 How do we know these things have got energy? Write an example for each.

a. the wind

b. a football player

5 Read and correct this sentence.

Wind, water and sunlight are energy sources. They will run out soon!


6 What fossil fuels are they? Read and answer.

a. We use it in cars and to make plastics.

b. It is a rock. We get it from mines.

c. It goes to houses and factories along pipes.

7 Read and match.

a. They use fossil fuels.

thermal power plants

b. They use energy from the Sun.

hydroelectric power plants

c. They use mechanical energy from the wind.

solar power plants

d. They use mechanical energy from water.

wind farms

8 Look at the photos and describe the environmental problem.



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Energy and the environment

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The steam engine


The 18th century was a crucial time in the
search for more sources of energy.
In the 18th century, societies were very
complex. People needed a lot of energy,
but they did not have many machines that
could make energy easier to use. At the
end of the 18th century, James Watt, a
Scottish inventor, invented the steam
engine.
This machine used energy from
water vapour that was produced
by burning coal. Energy from water vapour could move a wheel at a steady rhythm.
The steam engine was used in many different ways. For example, it was used in factories,
in mines and for means oftransport, especially trains.
Thanks to James Watts steam engine and other great inventions, large factories
werebuilt, and many people found jobs in these factories. This period of history is called
theIndustrialRevolution.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. In what century was the steam engine invented?



b. Who invented the steam engine?

c. What was the steam engine used for?

2 Explain how the steam engine works. What kind of energy does water vapour
have?




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Energy and the environment


Name

EXTENSION

Date

Windmills in Don Quixote


Do you know Don Quixote de la
Mancha? Then, you probably know
the scene inwhich Don Quixote
attacks windmills because he thinks
they are terrifying, evilgiants.
But what are the windmills that Don Quixote
fights, in reality? They are huge machines
that use the energy from wind to grind
grains of wheat andmake flour.
The wind turns the big sails that are on the
outside of the building. These move a series
of gears that turn a grinding stone that crushes the grains of wheat.
These windmills are not used anymore for grinding, but you can still see some
of them if you go to La Mancha.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What energy do windmills use to work?



b. What were windmills used for?

c. What kind of energy does the wind have? Tick ().
mechanical

chemical

thermal

d. Think of modern wind farms. How are modern wind turbines similar to the
oldwindmills?

e. Are modern wind farms used to grind grain? What are they used for?


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Energy and the environment

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 What is energy? Define in your own words.



2 Complete the forms of energy.

a. m

d. e

b. c

e. n

c. t

f. l

3 What type of energy have they got?

a. fuel

d. wind

b. uranium

e. water

c. sunlight

f. fire

4 Write the energy transformations in each object.

5 Write the names of the power plants.


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ASSESSMENT

6 Classify the types of energy sources. Then, answer the questions.

coal sunlight wind petroleum uranium water


non-renewable energy sources

renewable energy sources




a. What is the difference between renewable and non-renewable energy sources?




b. Are fossil fuels renewable or non-renewable? Explain.


7 Match the type of power station to its source of energy.

thermal power station

hydroelectric power station


wind farm

wind

uranium

nuclear power station

water

fossil fuels

8 Write three different ways to save energy.




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Energy and the environment

TEST

Name

Date

1 Something has got energy when

a. it can make something move or change position.


b. it is very bright.
c. It is very heavy and takes up a lot of space.
2 The wind has got

a. mechanical energy.

b. light energy.

c. chemical energy.

b. chemical energy.

c. electrical energy.

3 Food contains

a. light energy.
4 In a lamp,

a. mechanical energy transforms into thermal energy.


b. electrical energy transforms into light energy.
c. electrical energy transforms into chemical energy.
5 Renewable energy sources

a. will never run out.


b. are found in underground mines.
c. are running out very quickly.
6 Coal is

a. renewable.

b. non-renewable.

c. a pure substance.

7 Energy from the Sun and the wind is

a. renewable.

b. non-renewable.

c. impossible to store.

8 In hydroelectric power plants,

a. they use energy from the wind to produce electricity.


b. they use energy from water to produce electricity.
c. they use energy from the Sun to produce electricity.
9 The accumulation of harmful substances and waste products is called

a. the environment.

b. global warming.

c. pollution.

10 To reduce waste we should

a. practise the three Rs.


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Natural Science 3

b. use a lot of water.

c. use plastic bags.

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Energy and the environment


Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

The three 'Rs'


The three Rs are reduce, reuse and recycle. They
help us take care of the Earth and its limited resources.
Reducing what we use means using fewer natural
resources and less energy.
Reusing things twice or many times means less waste.
Recycling converts used items back into raw materials to make
new products. This preserves our natural resources and reduces waste.

1 What do you do at home to reduce, reuse and recycle? Write.

a. We reduce by using less 

b. We reuse 

c. We recycle 

2 How do you recycle?

To make recycling easier, we have to separate


our rubbish into different containers. For example,
plastic goes in one container and cardboard goes
in another. How many different containers are there
where you live? Draw and colour.

plastic bag

cardboard box

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Answer key
YOUR BODY

ASSESSMENT

REINFORCEMENT

PAGE 10
1. Classify the words.

PAGE 6
1. Label the body parts.
top to bottom: head, trunk, limbs.
2. Look at the diagram and write examples.
Model answer (MA)
a. brain; b. heart; c. leg.
PAGE 7
3. Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false
sentences.
a. T; b. F; c. F; d. T; e. T; f. F.
Nutrition provides your body with energy and nutrients.
The process of sensitivity allows us to detect and respond
to changes in the environment.
Melanin protects your body from the harmful rays of
sunlight.
4. Match the stages of life to the pictures.
A. adolescence; B. childhood; C. old age; D. adulthood.
1st childhood; 2nd adolescence; 3rd adulthood;
4th old age.

EXTENSION

b. trunk: abdomen, thorax, back.


c. limbs: hand, leg, foot, arm.
2. Label the diagram.
left column: brain, stomach, muscle.
right column: lung, kidney, bone.
3. Draw two people and say how they are similar or
different.
OA
PAGE 11
4. Complete the sentences.
a. The life process of sensitivity is the ability of living things
to respond to changes in the environment.
b. During the life process of nutrition living things take in
food and absorb essential nutrients.
c. The life process of reproduction is the ability of all living
things to produce new living things of their own kind.
5. Number the stages of nutrition in the correct order.
order: b, d, a, c.
6. Read and circle the correct description.
childhood: Milk teeth fall out, and permanent teeth grow.

PAGE 8
1. Read the text and complete the sentences.
a. Skin colour is controlled by genes.
b. The Sun emits harmful rays.
c. Skin colour depends on the amount of melanin.
d. Melanin protects the skin from the harmful rays of
sunlight.
e. People with lighter skin have less melanin.
2. Search the Internet or magazines for photos of three
famous people with different skin colour.

a. head: forehead, face.

Open answer (OA)

adolescence: Your body prepares to become an adult.


adulthood: We can have children.
old age: Our bones become fragile. Our muscles are
weaker.
7. Write the four systems involved in nutrition.
digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system
and excretory system.

TEST
PAGE 12
1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. a; 5. c; 6. a; 7. c; 8. b; 9. a; 10. c.

PAGE 9
1. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. T; b. T; c. F; d. T; e. F; f. F.
2. Have you ever broken a bone or do you know someone
who has?
MA

My friend Ana.

Her humerus.

She fell.

It took two months.

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Natural Science 3

INVESTIGATE
PAGE 13
OA

Answer key
YOUR SENSES

PAGE 17

REINFORCEMENT

1. Use the sign alphabet.

PAGE 14
1. Unscramble the words and label the diagram.
left column: iris, cornea, pupil.
right column: retina, optic nerve, lens.
2. Circle the five parts of the ear and complete the
sentences.
auditory nerve, ear canal, cochlea, small bones, eardrum.
a. Sound vibrations go into the outer ear and along
the ear canal.
b. The eardrum vibrates.
c. The vibration of the eardrum moves the three
small bones.

OA
2. Use the Braille alphabet.
OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 18
1. Write the five sense organs.
eyes, ears, skin, nose and tongue.
2. Label the parts of the eye.
left column: cornea, pupil.
right column: optic nerve, retina.
3. Read and complete.

d. The sound then goes to the cochlea.

a. The eyes are the sense organs of sight.

e. The cochlea sends the sound through the auditory nerve


to the brain.

b. The eyelids, eyelashes and eyebrows protect the eyes.

PAGE 15
3. Read and complete the table.
smell: The sense organ is the nose. It allows you to capture
or identify smells.
taste: The sense organ is the tongue. It allows you to
capture or identify flavours.
touch: The sense organ is the skin. It allows you to capture
or identify different characteristics of objects.
4. Match the parts of the organs to their function.
a. taste buds: capture flavours of food.
b. epithelium: captures smells.
c. touch receptors: distinguish hot or cold.
d. retina: captures light.
e. cochlea: captures sound.
5. Label the diagram of the nose.
clockwise, starting top left: olfactory bulb, nasal cavity,
olfactory nerve, nostrils, olfactory epithelium.

EXTENSION
PAGE 16
1. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. T; b. F; c. F; d. F; e. T.
2. Complete the index card about guide dogs.
Job description: To help people move from place to place.
Most common breeds: Labradors and Golden Retrievers.

c. The pupil is the hole in the centre of the iris through


which light passes.
d. When we see an object, the information is sent to the
brain through the optic nerve.
4. Label the parts of the ear.
left column: pinna, eardrum.
right column: auditory nerve, cochlea.
PAGE 19
5. Circle the correct word.
a. The pinna captures the sound.
b. The cochlea sends the sound through the auditory nerve
to the brain.
c. The brain interprets the information.
6. What part of your nose captures smells?
Smell receptors in the olfactory epithelium capture smells.
7. Complete the sentences.
a. Touch is the sense which allows you to identify
characteristics of the objects around you.
b. The sense organ of touch is the skin.
8. Label the diagram of the skin.
left column: hairs, touch receptors.
right: nerve.
9. Write the corresponding sense organ.
a. ear; b. nose; c. tongue; d. eye; e. eye; f. ear.
10. Give advice to look after your eyes and ears.
MA

Equipment: Harness.

Make sure there is enough light when you read or study


and dont look directly at the Sun.

Years of service: Approximately six.

Wash your ears daily, and dont put objects in your ears.

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Answer key
TEST

FOOD AND NUTRIENTS

PAGE 20

REINFORCEMENT

1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. c; 5. b; 6. a; 7. b; 8. c; 9. a; 10. b.

INVESTIGATE

PAGE 22
1. Use the colour key and circle the words.
red: rice, olive oil, pasta, bacon, bread, butter, cheese.

PAGE 21

blue: sardines, yoghurt, eggs, milk.

OA

green: grapes, carrots, strawberries, lettuce.


2. Label the food wheel. Write carbohydrates, proteins,
fats, minerals and vitamins, water and exercise, and
calcium.
left column: carbohydrates, water and exercise, minerals
and vitamins.
right column: fats, proteins, calcium.
3. Why are water and exercise in the centre of the food
wheel?
They are in the centre because they are essential for good
health.
4. Match and make correct sentences.
a. A sufficient diet gives you the right amount of energy.
b. A balanced diet gives you the right amount of nutrients.
PAGE 23
5. Read and complete the sentences.
a. You need fats and carbohydrates for energy.
b. You need proteins to grow.
c. You need vitamins and minerals to be healthy.
d. You need fibre for your digestive system to work well.
6. Look at the food. Circle the nutrients they give you.
top row: proteins, proteins, carbohydrates.
bottom row: fats, vitamins, fibre.
7. Tick () the correct sentence.
a. Calcium is a mineral that makes up our bones.
8. Circle the healthier food in each pair of words.
top row: oil, milk, grapes.
bottom row: chicken, bread, tomato.

EXTENSION
PAGE 24
1. Read the text and answer the questions.
a. The people of Naples added tomatoes to pizzas.
b. The ingredients of Pizza Margherita are tomatoes,
mozzarella cheese and basil.
c. It is called Pizza Margherita because Queen Margherita
of Italy loved it.
d. Today pizza is eaten all over the world.
e. Pizza can have many different toppings including tuna,
mushrooms and olives.

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Natural Science 3

Answer key
2. Draw and write about your favourite pizza.

7. Find and circle four nutrients. Then, write.

OA

a. Based on culture, people eat different foods around the


world.

b. Reindeer meat is an unusual food eaten in Canada.

PAGE 25
1. Circle the correct words.

c. An unusual food eaten in Thailand is insects.


d. Foods like reindeer meat and insects mainly provide
proteins.
e. In England, fruits and nuts are symbols of fertility and
good fortune.
2. Search the Internet for other foods for special
celebrations.
OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 26
1. Read the sentences and match.
a. fibre; b. proteins; c. vitamins and minerals;
d. carbohydrates and fats.
2. Is this a healthy breakfast? Explain.

Carbohydrates is missing in the word search.


8. Cross out the least healthy food for each meal.
Write a healthier option.
a. a piece of cake. MA. eggs.
b. chips. MA. bread.
c. a hamburguer. MA. an apple.

TEST

MA

PAGE 28

Yes, it is a healthy breakfast. There is protein in the milk,


vitamins in the fruit, and carbohydrates in the cereal.

1. b; 2. a; 3. b; 4. c; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8. a; 9. c; 10. b.

3. Circle the foods you should eat every day.


milk; fruit; meat; bread; vegetables.
4. What nutrients does each of these foods contain?

INVESTIGATE
PAGE 29
OA

a. calcium and proteins; b. fats; c. carbohydrates;


d. vitamins, minerals and fibre; e. proteins;
f. carbohydrates.
5. Cross out the odd food in each food group.
A. milk; B. olive oil; C. carrot.
PAGE 27
6. How much should you eat? Write more or less.
a. If you are overweight, you should eat less.
b. If you are underweight, you should eat more.
c. If you do a lot of exercise, you should eat more.
d. If you are old, you should eat less.
e. If you are young, you should eat more.

Natural Science 3

105

Answer key
Keeping healthy

PAGE 33

REINFORCEMENT

1. Read the text and answer the questions.

PAGE 30
1. Complete the sentences about healthy habits.
a. Get enough sleep.
b. Keep your body clean.
c. Do regular exercise.
d. Eat a healthy and balanced diet.
e. Have good posture to look after your back.
2. Circle the healthy habits.
A. Brush your teeth; B. Have good posture; C. Do physical
exercise; E. Keep your body clean.
3. Read these sentences about doing exercise. Write T
(true) or F (false).
a. T; b. F; c. T; d. T; e. F.

a. An art museum displays paintings and sculptures.


b. Art museums look after their paintings carefully because
they are of great historical and cultural interest.
c. An art restorer repairs damaged paintings so that they
are in perfect condition.
d. A security guard protects the paintings which are
displayed in the museum.
e. OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 34
1. Who is looking after their health? Write H (healthy) or N
(not healthy).
H; H; N; N.
2. Tick () the good posture.

PAGE 31

The picture on the left shows good posture.

4. Match the methods of preserving foods to the


definitions.
a. cooling: You preserve food in the fridge or freezer
to make it last longer.

3. Match to make sentences about healthy habits.


a. We need to exercise regularly.
b. We must eat a healthy and balanced diet.

b. adding preservatives: Some substances are added


to foods so they dont go off.

c. We need to look after our backs.

c. heating: It helps to eliminate organisms that spoil food.

e. We must drink enough water.

5. Which of these foods are fresh and which are


processed? Classify.
processed: cake, chocolate, ice cream.
fresh: orange, meat, apple.
6. Write two sentences in the correct order.

d. We need ten hours of sleep a night.


4. Complete the sentences with the correct words.
a. After a busy day, we feel tired.
b. Sleep keeps our body healthy and gives it energy.
c. Sleep also helps us to recover.
d. Children need to sleep ten hours a day.

a. Food hygiene is essential to prevent illness.

e. People who sleep badly get ill.

b. Dirty food can make you ill.

f. We need to rest after a long day.

7. Use the code and find out a healthy habit.


Children need to sleep ten hours a day.

EXTENSION

PAGE 35
5. Give two examples of natural foods and two of
processed foods.
MA

PAGE 32

a. natural foods: pear and fish.

1. Put the words in order to make sentences. Then, find


and underline these sentences in the text.

b. processed foods: pizza and pasta.

a. Children need to sleep ten hours a night.


b. In one night, we can have four to seven dreams.
c. We do not always remember our dreams.
2. Koalas sleep 22 hours a day!

6. What stages does the food go through? Complete the


words and match.
A. production; B. food industry; C. sale.
7. Read the sentences and write T (true) or F (false). Then,
correct the false sentences.
a. T; b. F; c. T; d. F; e. F; f. T.

OA
3. Keep a dream journal for a week.
OA

Physical exercise is good for your heart.


You must wash your hands regularly.
Pulses and cereals do not need preserving.

106

Natural Science 3

Answer key
TEST

ANIMALS

PAGE 36

REINFORCEMENT

1. c; 2. a; 3. c; 4. b; 5. a; 6. a; 7. c; 8. a; 9. b; 10. c.

INVESTIGATE
PAGE 37
OA

PAGE 38
1. Read the definitions and match.
a. herbivores; b. carnivores; c. scavengers; d. omnivores;
e. decomposers.
2. Classify the vertebrates.
mammals: zebra, dolphin.
birds: owl, eagle.
fish: shark.
reptiles: tortoise, crocodile.
amphibians: frog, salamander.
3. Complete the table.
mammals: hair, viviparous, lungs.
birds: feathers, oviparous, lungs.
fish: scales, oviparous, gills.
reptiles: scales, oviparous, lungs.
amphibians: bare skin, oviparous, lungs and skin.
PAGE 39
4. Find five vertebrates. Then, complete.

These animals are all reptiles.


5. Match the bird group to the examples.
a. penguin; b. duck; c. eagle; d. canary.
6. Look at the pictures and answer the questions.
a. It is the process of reproduction.
b. Amphibians undergo this process.
c. The babies are called tadpoles.

EXTENSION
PAGE 40
1. Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the
false sentences.
a. T; b. T; c. F; d. F; e. T.
A decibel is a unit for measuring sound.
The sound of a jet engine is quieter than the call of a blue
whale.

Natural Science 3

107

Answer key
2. Use the code to find out how animals communicate.

10. Complete the table.

trumpet; chatter; quack; chirp; hiss.

mammals: lungs, hair, legs, viviparous.


reptiles: lungs, scales, legs, oviparous.

PAGE 41

birds: lungs, feathers, wings and legs, oviparous.

1. Write a definition for these words.

fish: gills, scales, fins, oviparous.

MA
Hibernate: When an animal sleeps during the coldest
months of the year.
Migrate: When animals travel long distances to find warmer
climates.
2. Use the colour key and circle the illustrations.
blue: stork, whale.
red: frog, bear

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 42
1. Write the five groups of vertebrate animals.
mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish.
2. What group do these animals belong to?
A. reptiles; B. birds; C. mammals; D. amphibians; E. fish.
3. Tick () the correct options.
a; b; c.
4. Write an example of each type of animal.
MA
marine mammal: whale.
flying mammal: bat.
primate: monkey.
5. Read and circle the mistakes. Then, write the correct
words.
Reptiles are viviparous oviparous animals. They breathe
through gills lungs.
Their skin is covered with hair scales. Most of them live on
land and slither.
PAGE 43
6. Complete the sentences with Fish or Amphibians.
a. Amphibians have bare skin.
b. Fish breathe only through gills.
c. Amphibians breathe through lungs and their skin.
7. Circle the word related to birds in each pair.
top row: animals, vertebrate, feathers.
bottom row: wings, oviparous.
8. What animal is it?
It is a frog.
9. Write the name of two animals which match the
descriptions.
MA
a. dog, eagle; b. shark, tuna; c. lizard, crocodile;
d. dolphin, whale.

108

Natural Science 3

amphibians: lungs and skin, bare skin, legs, oviparous.

TEST
PAGE 44
1. a; 2. c; 3. b; 4. a; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8. c; 9. b; 10. b.

INVESTIGATE
PAGE 45
OA

Answer key
INVERTEBRATES

PAGE 49

REINFORCEMENT

1. Read the text and answer the questions.

PAGE 46
1. Write the groups of invertebrates. Then, match them to
the correct pictures.

a. A beehive is where honey bees live.


b. There is one queen.
c. Drones are male bees.

top: e, d, a.

d. When worker bees are old, they fly outside to collect


nectar and pollen.

bottom: f, b, c.

e. Because they transport pollen from one plant to another.

a. They are sponges.


b. They are cnidarians.

ASSESSMENT

c. They are worms.

PAGE 50

d. They are molluscs.


e. They are echinoderms.
f. They are arthropods.
2. Circle the correct word.
Invertebrates havent got a spinal column.
PAGE 47
3. Circle the correct words.

1. What do all invertebrates have in common?


Invertebrates havent got a spinal column.
2. Look at the illustrations and match.
A. cnidarian; B. arthropod; C. worm; D. echinoderm;
E. sponge; F. mollusc.
3. Circle the correct word. Then, write the sentences.
a. Jellyfish have tentacles. Their bodies look like jelly.

a. Worms, insects and spiders are invertebrates.

b. Worms have soft bodies. They are long.

b. Mussels have got shells.

c. Molluscs have soft bodies. They usually have shells.

c. Crabs have got hard exoskeletons.

d. Spiders have eight legs.

d. Jellyfish and earthworms havent got a hard covering.


4. Complete the crossword about insects.
1. antennae; 2. larvae; 3. insects; 4. thorax; 5. abdomen;
6. wings.
5. Complete the sentences about molluscs.
Molluscs have got soft bodies. Most of them have got one
or two shells to protect their bodies.
Most of them are aquatic, like clams, but some are
terrestrial, like snails and slugs.
6. Write two examples of each.
MA
a. mussels and clams.
b. snails.
c. octopuses and squids.

EXTENSION
PAGE 48
1. Unscramble the words and find some examples
of cephalopods.
a. squids; b. cuttlefish; c. octopuses.

PAGE 51
4. Label the parts of the fly.
left column: thorax, antennae, head.
right column: wings, abdomen, legs.
5. Number the illustrations in order.
A. 4; B. 2; C. 1; D. 3.
6. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. F; b. F; c. T; d. F.
7. Write the group of arthropods these invertebrates
belong to.
A. insects; B. myriapods; C. arachnids; D. crustaceans.

TEST
PAGE 52
1. b; 2. b; 3. c; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8. b; 9. a; 10. b.

INVESTIGATE
PAGE 53
OA

2. Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false


sentences.
a. T; b. F; c. T; d. F; e. F.
Cephalopod means head-foot.
Octopuses cannot hear.
Octopuses have eight tentacles.

Natural Science 3

109

Answer key
ANIMALS AND PEOPLE

2. Look at the calendar. In which year were you born?


OA

REINFORCEMENT

PAGE 57

PAGE 54

1. Match these words from the text to their definitions.

1. Circle the foods that come from animals.

a. groundhog: a small, brown, furry animal with short legs.

eggs, sausages, cheese, meat, honey, milk.


2. What materials do we obtain from these animals? What
things can we make with them?
a. Sheep give us wool. MA. We can make clothes.
b. Cows give us leather. MA. We can make shoes.
c. Silkworms give us silk. MA. We can make scarves.
3. Find seven animals that can be used for transport.
Then, write.

b. burrow: a hole or tunnel in the ground where a small


animal lives.
c. hibernate: be in a dormant condition in the winter
months.
d. predict: forecast.
e. shadow: a dark shape produced when light is blocked.
2. Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the
false sentences.
a. T; b. F; c. F.

On Groundhog Day, a groundhog predicts the weather for


the rest of winter.

If the groundhog sees its shadow, it means the winter


weather will continue.

ASSESSMENT

PAGE 58

1. Write the benefits we obtain from these animals.

4. Which things can you use for birdwatching? Colour


the words.
binoculars, telescope, field guide.

a. sheep: wool, meat.


b. cows: leather, milk, meat, cheese.
c. bees: honey, wax.
d. silkworms: silk.
e. pigs: meat.
f. chickens: eggs, poultry.
2. Look and match.
extensive farming; intensive farming.

PAGE 55
5. Complete the sentences.

3. Read and complete the sentences.

a. Farmers raise animals for their meat, milk, eggs or skins.


This is called livestock farming.

a. Beekeeping is the farming of bees to obtain honey and


wax.

b. In extensive farming, animals live in the open and eat


grass.

b. Pisciculture is the farming of fish for food.

c. In intensive farming, animals lived fenced in and farmers


feed them.
6. What kind of livestock farming is it?
extensive farming; intensive farming.
7. Match the animals to the types of livestock.
poultry: chicken; cattle: cow; sheep: sheep; pigs: pig;
goats; goat.

PAGE 59
4. Complete the sentences about sheep farming.
a. A male sheep is a: ram.
b. A baby sheep is a: lamb.
c. A female sheep is a: ewe.
d. A person who takes care of sheep is a: shepherd.
e. Shearing means to cut off a sheeps wool.
f. The place where sheep are kept at night is a: pen.

EXTENSION

a. T; b. T; c. F; d. T.

PAGE 56
1. Search the Internet to find the animal of this years
Chinese calendar.

6. Draw some farm animals. Write things which we obtain


from them.
OA

OA

110

5. Read and write T (true) or F (false).

Natural Science 3

Answer key
TEST

PLANTS

PAGE 60

REINFORCEMENT

1. c; 2. b; 3. a; 4. a; 5. b; 6. b; 7. b; 8. c; 9. a; 10. c.

INVESTIGATE
PAGE 61
1. Draw squares for each method of producing hens.
Draw the hens inside. Add the outdoor space where it
corresponds. Then, answer the questions.
a. The hens in group 3 live in the most crowded space.
b. The hens in groups 0 and 1 can spend time outside.
2. Look at the prices of the eggs in a supermarket and
write them.
OA

PAGE 62
1. Read and write tree, bush or grass. Then, match.
a. A bush has a short, woody stem.
b. Grasses have a soft, flexible stem.
c. A tree has a thick, woody stem called a trunk.
b; c; a.
2. Read and complete the words.
a. leaves; b. roots; c. stems.
3. Unscramble the words and label the diagram.
left column: stamen, sepal.
right column: petal, pistil.
4. Complete the sentences. Write male or female.
The pistil is the female part of the flower.
The stamens are the male parts of the flower.
PAGE 63
5. Complete the sentences about the stages of
reproduction of a plant. Then, write a, b, c and d next
to the drawings.
a. Pollen is formed in the stamens.
b. A grain of pollen reaches the pistil of another flower.
c. The ovary matures and turns into fruit. The fruit contains
the seeds.
d. When a seed falls to the ground, it germinates and a
new plant grows.
left column: a, d.
right column: b, c.
6. What do plants need to grow? Label the drawing.
left column: sunlight, mineral salts.
right column: carbon dioxide, water.
7. Read and match.
mosses and ferns: non-flowering plants.
angiosperms and gymnosperms: flowering plants.

EXTENSION
PAGE 64
1. Read the text and answer the questions.
a. Floral emblems are usually plants that grow in
abundance in the country.
b. The floral emblem of England is the rose.
c. OA
d. OA
e. OA

Natural Science 3

111

Answer key
PAGE 65
1. Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the
false sentences.

5. Find and circle five parts of a flower. Then, complete


the sentences.

a. T; b. F; c. T; d. T; e. F.
The plants sweet-scented leaves attract insects.
A Venus flytrap takes about a week to digest an insect.
2. Search the Internet for carnivorous plants. Choose one
and complete the index card.
OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 66
1. Label the plant. Then, answer the question.
left column: stem.

a. It is the female part of the flower. It contains the ovary. It


is the pistil.

right column: leaves, roots.

b. The sepals are the small green leaves that protect the
flower.

The stem is woody. Trees have a woody stem called


a trunk.

c. The stamens are the male parts of the flower. They


produce pollen.

2. Label the parts of the leaf. Then, read and tick ().
left: leaf blade.
right: petiole.
a. smooth; b. heart-shaped.
3. Read and complete.
Flowering plants produce flowers with seeds. The two
main groups are angiosperms, like apple trees, and
gymnosperms, like pine trees. Mosses and ferns are not
non-flowering plants. The roots of mosses are called
rhizoids.

6. Match the sentences to the life processes that plants


carry out.
a. nutrition; b. sensitivity; c. reproduction.

TEST
PAGE 68
1. c; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. c; 6. b; 7. b; 8. a; 9. a; 10. a.

INVESTIGATE
PAGE 69

PAGE 67

OA

4. Read and complete the text about plant nutrition.


Plants make their own food through photosynthesis. They
absorb water and mineral salts from the soil through their
roots. This mixture is the raw sap. Plants also absorb
sunlight and carbon dioxide from the air. They then
transform the raw sap into elaborated sap.

112

d. The petals are coloured leaves. They form the corolla.

Natural Science 3

Answer key
ANIMALS AND PLANTS

2. Search the Internet for three animal species from the


Arctic tundra. Write what they eat.

REINFORCEMENT

OA

PAGE 70

PAGE 73

1. Look and match the pictures to the areas.

1. Read the text and the table. Then, answer the


questions.

A. grassland; B. forest; C. desert; D. shrubland.

a. the sloth; b. the cheetah; c. on land; d. in the air.

2. Read and complete.


a. Trees grow in fertile soil with high humidity. Many trees
together form a forest.
b. Bushes grow in places with poor soil and low humidity.
An area dominated by bushes is a shrubland.
c. Grasslands are areas with long periods of drought. Trees
and bushes are scarce because they need water all year
round.
d. Deserts do not have much water and the soil is arid.
There is little vegetation. Only plants that need little
water can live in deserts.
3. Where do these animals live? Explain.

2. Find your favourite animal on the Internet.


OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 74
1. Write the names of these areas.
A. desert; B. shrubland; C. forest; D grassland.
2. Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the
false sentences.
a. T; b. F; c. T; d. F; e. T.

MA
Seabirds spend most of their lives over the sea. They only
go to land to reproduce.
Squirrels live most of the time in trees and swing from
branch to branch.
PAGE 71

Pines, oaks and beeches are types of trees.


Deserts are areas with arid soil and low humidity.
3. What is vegetation? Explain.
Vegetation is all the plants in an area, region or country.
4. Read and complete the words.
a. vegetation; b. drought; c. savannah; d. shrubland.

4. Find and circle eight animals. Then, write.

5. Classify these marine animals.


They breathe through lungs: whales, seals, turtles.
They breathe through gills: sharks, sardines, tuna.
6. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. T; b. T; c. F; d. F; e. T; f. F.

PAGE 75
5. Read the text and complete.
Some aquatic animals live in the sea. They are marine
animals. Others live in fresh water, in lakes or rivers.
Aquatic animals spend most of their lives in water. Many
of them breathe in oxygen from the water through gills.
Others come to the surface of the water to breathe in air,
through lungs.
6. Circle the correct animal.
a. bat; b. mussel; c. skater; d. snake; e. duck.
7. Read, then write the correct word.
a. trees; b. slither; c. underground.

TEST
PAGE 76

EXTENSION

1. a; 2. b; 3. a; 4. b; 5. c; 6. b; 7. a; 8. a; 9. b; 10. a.

PAGE 72

INVESTIGATE

1. Read the text and circle the correct word.

PAGE 77

a. Tundras are found in the Arctic.

OA

b. In the summer, there are 24 hours a day of sunlight.

c. The top layer of the soil is the permafrost.

d. Winter in the Arctic tundra is extremely cold.

e. Global warming is harming the Arctic tundra.

Natural Science 3

113

Answer key
MATTER

2. Find and circle six ice cream flavours. Then, write.

REINFORCEMENT

PAGE 78

1. Complete the sentences.


Everything around us that takes up space is made up of
matter. All objects have two properties: mass, which is the
amount of matter in an object, and volume, which is the
amount of space an object occupies. The different types of
matter are called substances.
2. How do you measure mass and volume? Look and
match.
milk: volume.
cheese: mass.
3. What are the three states of water? Write solid, liquid
or gas.
A. solid.; B. gas; C. liquid.
4. Write yes or no and give an example.

PAGE 81
1. Read the text and answer the questions.
a. The Millennium Bridge is in London.

liquids: no, yes. MA. juice.

b. You can see many of Londons historical buildings, such


as St. Pauls Cathedral and the Globe Theatre.

gases: no, no. MA. oxygen.

c. The Millennium Bridge is made of concrete and steel.

solids: yes, yes. MA. ice.

d. It can hold up to 5,000 people at one time.

PAGE 79

e. It opened in 2000.

5. Use the clues to complete the changes of state.


a. melting; b. solidification; c. evaporation; d. condensation.
6. Label the diagram.
top: condensation, solidification.
bottom: evaporation, melting.
7. Which photo shows a chemical change? Tick ().
The photo of the candles shows a chemical change.

EXTENSION

f. Because when it opened in 2000, people said the


bridge moved under their feet.
g. OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 82
1. Answer the questions.
a. Matter is everything around us that takes up space.
b. Volume is the amount of space an object occupies.
c. Matter exists in three states: solid, liquid and gas.

PAGE 80
1. Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the
false sentences.
a. T; b. F; c. F; d. T.
Ice cream melts when the temperature increases.
When ice cream melts, there is a physical change.

d. A substance is each type of matter.


2. Use the clues to complete the text.
All objects have two properties in common: mass and
volume. Objects also have other properties, depending on
what substances they are made of. These properties are:
colour, smell, lustre and hardness. These properties help us
to distinguish one substance from another.
3. Label the illustrations.
A. solid; B. liquid; C. gas.

114

Natural Science 3

Answer key
PAGE 83

MATERIALS AND MACHINES

4. Write T (true) and F (false). Then, correct the false


sentences.

REINFORCEMENT

a. T; b. F; c. F.

PAGE 86

Liquids have a fixed volume, but their shape can change.

1. Classify the materials.

Gases do not have a fixed shape nor a fixed volume.


5. Read and cross out the wrong words.
a. Chemical changes / Physical changes are when
substances change into different substances.
b. Contraction / Combustion is a physical change.
c. Matter / A mixture is when two or more substances are
mixed together.
6. What physical change takes place? Write mixture,
change of shape, change of size or change of state.
a. mixture; b. change of shape; c. change of size;
d. change of state.
7. Complete the chart with solidification, condensation,
melting and evaporation.

natural materials: granite, wood, leather.


man-made materials: paper, glass, pottery.
2. Tick () the materials that come from animals.
wool, leather, silk.
3. Read and match.
a. Hemp is used to make fabrics.
b. Wood is used to make furniture.
c. Cotton is used to make fabrics.
4. Complete the stages involved in making paper.
a. Wood is broken up into small pieces.
b. The pieces are mixed with other substances to make
pulp.

top: melting, evaporation.

c. The pulp is filtered to get rid of impurities.

bottom: solidification, condensation.

d. The paper pulp is spread onto a moving belt.


e. The final product is wound onto spools.

TEST
PAGE 84
1. b; 2. c; 3. a; 4. c; 5. c; 6. b; 7. b; 8. a; 9. b; 10. a.

INVESTIGATE
PAGE 85
OA

PAGE 87
5. How do these machines work? Use the key and circle.
red: hi-fi, fan, computer.
blue: scissors, stapler, pencil sharpener.
6. Choose two machines from Activity 5. Explain what
they are used for.
a. MA. We use scissors to cut things.
b. MA. We use a computer to communicate and to work.
7. Classify these machines.
simple machines: pliers, pulley.
compound machines: fan, telephone.
8. Complete the crossword about simple machines.
1. inclined plane; 2. lever; 3. wheel; 4. pulley.

EXTENSION
PAGE 88
1. Circle the illustration of the oldest wheel. Then, answer
the question.
C.
MA. I think it is the oldest wheel because wheels with
spokes and wheels made of metal were invented later.
2. Think about life before the invention of the wheel. How
do you think people moved heavy objects?
MA. People used animals to transport heavy objects.
PAGE 89
1. Read and write True or False.
a. False; b. True; c. True; d. True; e. False.

Natural Science 3

115

Answer key
2. Search the Internet. How is paper recycled? Write three
or four sentences describing the process.
OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 90
1. Name the materials used to make these objects.
Then, write N (natural) or M (man-made) next to each
material.
top row: plastic (M), leather (N).
bottom row: wool (N), wood (N), rubber (M), glass (M).
2. Write the raw materials.
a. paper: wood; b. iron: minerals; c. plastic: petroleum.
3. Write T (true) or F (false).
a. F; b. T; c. T; d. F; e. T.
4. Name one invention for each category. Then, write
what energy it uses.
MA

ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT


REINFORCEMENT
PAGE 94
1. Complete the crossword about forms of energy.
1. electrical; 2. thermal; 3. chemical; 4. nuclear;
5. mechanical; 6. light.
2. Circle six energy sources and classify them.
sun, petroleum, wind, natural gas, coal, water.
renewable energy sources: sun, wind, water.
non-renewable energy sources: petroleum, natural gas,
coal.
3. Complete the sentences.
a. In a toaster, electrical energy transforms into thermal
energy.
b. In a light bulb, electrical energy transforms into light
energy.
c. In a torch, chemical energy transforms into light energy.

invention: bicycle, radio, vacuum cleaner.

PAGE 95

energy: human, electrical, electrical.

4. How do we know these things have got energy? Write


an example for each.

PAGE 91
5. Complete the sentences.
a. Machines save us time and effort.
b. A telephone is a machine that lets us communicate.
c. All machines need energy to work.
d. Scissors need energy from people to work.
6. Write what type of energy these machines use.
A. energy from people; B. electrical energy;
C. energy from fuel; D. energy from wind.
7. Complete the text.
A bicycle is a complex machine because it is made up
of many operating parts. It has got two wheels, a handle
bar that helps steer the bicycle, and two pedals that act
as levers. The pedals turn a gear that moves a chain.
The chain connects the pedals to the back wheel.
The bicycle needs energy from people to work.

TEST
PAGE 92
1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. a; 5. a; 6. b; 7. b; 8. a; 9. b; 10. c.

MA
a. the wind: It can move the sails of a windsurf.
b. a football player: He/She can run around and kick a ball.
5. Read and correct this sentence.
Wind, water and sunlight are renewable energy sources.
They will never run out!
6. What fossil fuels are they? Read and answer.
a. petroleum; b. coal; c. natural gas.
7. Read and match.
a. thermal power plants; b. solar power plants;
c. wind farms; d. hydroelectric power plants.
8. Look at the photos and describe the environmental
problem.
MA
Pollution is the accumulation of harmful substances and
waste products in soil, water and air. These harmful
substances cause many problems: harmful smoke from
cars and factories, dirty soil and water, and global warming.

EXTENSION
PAGE 96

INVESTIGATE

1. Read the text and answer the questions.

PAGE 93

a. The steam engine was invented in the 18th century.

OA

b. James Watt invented the steam engine.


c. The steam engine was used in many different ways.
For example, it was used in factories, in mines and for
means of transport, especially trains.

116

Natural Science 3

Answer key
2. Explain how the steam engine works. What kind of
energy does water vapour have?
Water vapour is produced by burning coal to heat water to
extremely high temperatures. The energy from the water
vapour moves the wheel at a steady rhythm.
Water vapour has thermal energy.
PAGE 97
1. Read the text and answer the questions.

8. Write three different ways to save energy.


MA
Switch the tap off while brushing your teeth.
Use public transport.
Control the temperature of the heating and the air
conditioning.

TEST

a. Windmills use energy from wind to work.

PAGE 100

b. Windmills were used to grind grains of wheat and make


flour.

1. a; 2. a; 3. b; 4. b; 5. a; 6. b; 7. a; 8. b; 9. c; 10. a.

c. mechanical.

INVESTIGATE

d. Modern windmills still have big sails.

PAGE 101

e. No, modern wind farms arent used to grind grain. They


are used to generate electricity.

OA

ASSESSMENT
PAGE 98
1. What is energy? Define in your own words.
MA
Energy is something that has the power to move or change
the position of something else.
2. Complete the forms of energy.
a. mechanical; b. chemical; c. thermal; d. electrical;
e. nuclear; f. light.
3. What type of energy have they got?
a. chemical; b. nuclear; c. light; d. mechanical;
e. mechanical; f. thermal.
4. Write energy transformations in each object.
A. chemical into mechanical; B. electrical into light;
C. electrical into mechanical.
5. Write the names of the power plants.
A. solar power plant; B. hydroelectric power plant;
C. wind farm.
PAGE 99
6. Classify the types of energy sources. Then, answer the
questions.
renewable energy sources: sunlight, wind, water.
non-renewable energy sources: coal, petroleum, uranium.
a. Renewable energy sources will never run out but
non-renewable energy sources will.
b. Fossil fuels are non-renewable because they will run out
one day.
7. Match the type of power station to its source of energy.
thermal power station: fossil fuels.
hydroelectric power station: water.
wind farm: wind.
nuclear power station: uranium.

Natural Science 3

117

Art director: Jos Crespo


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