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SCIENTIFIC IMPERATIVES FOR SOLAR RESEARC

Howard C. Hoover sr
entcv6@hotmail.com

Abstract for scientific Imperatives for solar research


These conclusions and assertions are, no doubt, an incomplete compilation of sci
entific imperatives for those impelled to do solar research into where nuclear m
ass energy is transmuted from Proton to Proton-thermonuclear fusion reactions in
to the electromagnetic state as photons.
Conclusions (a) or ascertains (b)
A: Mass and mass energy are equivalent.
B: Mass energy exists in the mass state or the electromagnetic state.
A: Mass energy in the electromagnetic state (photons) is in dipole configuration
s.
B: The force component in lines (pathways) of force in all dipole magnetic field
s is provided
by the smallest particle of mass energy that can be known.
B: Where photons move linearly through space the direction of the circular pathw
ays for force
are predominately in the opposite direction of that photon through space.
A: The force component f in pathways for force cannot exceed light velocity.
The Planck length 1.616252x10-35)2 meter. f as adopted here, is the smallest d
imension by which any material object can be known. f is the Greek symbol used w
ithin this conjecture to mean the dimension of the smallest particle of mass ene
rgy in the electromagnetic state (emr) that can known. Material objects having a
single dimension are usually spherical or circular
S(4/3p)·(r/23)=231 -35metersº (f):
(f)º the spherical volume of space conserved for the smallest three-dimensional
partial of electromagnetic state mass energy that can be known. Discrete quanta
of (f) are the primary components of mass energy that make up the mass of Proto
ns, neutrons and electrons as well as providing the force* components the in all
magnetic fields. This assertion is borne out by the fact that mass energy is tr
ansmuted from thermonuclear reaction into the electromagnetic state (em) as phot
ons. Mass energy in the (em) state provides the force components in all circular
virtual pathways of force in magnetic fields. Each line of force in magnetic fi
elds encodes a specific quanta of f for each wavelength of electromagnetic radia
tion.
(mv=F)\ ((f)·v))º*293-6 jou
les
There is indirect evidence that electron mass energy is transmuted into heat car
ried by photons. Just as specific heat of vaporization; (º3413 Btu) is the imper
ative for the chemical reaction that transforms 212o F* water molecule particle
s into the vapor state; nuclear reactions require a specific quantum of latent h
eat derived from thermonuclear reactions to transmute atomic mass energy from th
e mass state into the electromagnetic state (emr) in photons. The fact such heat
is detected from reflected sunlight is ample evidence that photons carry heat f
rom where thermonuclear reactions occur. Where sunlight is focused through a mag
nifying lens the latent heat aspect of photons become focused and amplified enou
gh to ignite a fire. Photoelectric effect is also utilized by photovoltaic cells
to transform electromagnetic energy into electricity. There is some anecdotal e
vidence that the photoelectric effect may interact with silicone in the Earth cr
ust so as to induce the Earth dipole magnetic field.[existing dynamo theory as t
he origin of the Earth magnetic field is incompatible with Curie point. However
evidence has been found that the Earth magnetic field has changed direction many
times. *The square root of 212oF is, within an acceptable margin of error, atm
ospheric pressure (14.7 psi);S (Ö 212)º14.56 psi); this is empirical evidence th
at our mathematics are in agreement with nature’s schemes.
The conclusion is asserted here that mass energy in the electromagnetic (dipole)
configurations in photons can provide the angular momentum to propel photons th
rough the void of space. Magnetic poles of photon dipole magnetic fields are a
t opposite ends of a straight line through each magnetic core. Magnetic polar r
egions are not points but areas that encompass all pathways (lines of force). S
cientific imperatives for magnetic field energy are: Conservation of energy and
momentum. Where opposite magnetic poles of each photon magnetic field are in a
plane parallel to the direction of motion and with the ‘north*’ pole facing in t
he direction of motion of arrays of f at rest, touching one another along each
of vast numbers of virtual lines of force in that magnetic field core will be de
nsely concentrated internally between the north and south magnetic poles. f are
evenly distributed along each circular, external, pathway (line) of force. f m
ove along each circular line of force at or near light velocity. The angular mom
entum of a returning (f) at the south magnetic pole will be transferred to (f)
at rest in line of f in the core of the South magnetic pole; An equal (f) will
be displaced from the internal core at the North Pole in the same direction and
velocity as the impacting (f); obeying Newton’s third law**. It is mass energy i
n the electromagnetic state energy that propels that photon linearly through spa
ce at light velocity. There are as many simultaneous impacts as there are lines
of force; simultaneous impacts may be in the thousands. The number of lines of f
orce in each magnetic field is a function of magnetic field strength. (A classic
demonstration of Newton s third law of equal and opposite reaction is where a s
eries of steel balls (each representing one (f) are suspended linearly by thread
from a frame. Where a ball at the end of that stationary line of balls impacts
an adjacent ball a ball at the opposite end of that line of touching suspended b
alls will be displaced, at the same velocity as the initial impact.) * (f) move
along circular, external, lines of force of each photon magnetic field at or ne
ar light velocity. (f )in contact along the magnetic core move, incidentally f
rom impacts, in the opposite direction to external lines of force through the ma
gnetic core. The linear velocity of each magnetic field through space plus the
internal velocity of (f) along the magnetic core cannot exceed light velocity (
c).
** Such displacement is imperative to only where balls and lines of (f) are in
contact that Momentum is conserved.
Electromagnetic (photon) energy will pass through the sun’s photosphere and the
Earth atmosphere without radiating any photon heat to the Earth atmosphere or th
e sun’s photosphere. (Similar to where water molecules, in the vapor state, fill
bubbles that ascend though the liquid in a pot of boiling water). The convent
ion in contemporary theoretical physics is to mathematically analyze electromagn
etic radiation wavelengths by using continuous wavy lines (i.e. such wavelengths
are the linear distance from the crest of one wave to the next crest of that wa
ve; this is also true where a continuous line traces distance from the top of on
e circle or sphere to the bottom of the adjacent sphere or circle). Such wavelen
gths are incidental to the configuration of transmuted mass energy in such elect
romagnetic radiations (photons). The angle at which light is reflected is depend
ent on the angle of incidence; this is tacit affirmation that such waves are sph
erical not linear. The fact that wavelengths of electromagnetic waves can be Dop
pler shifted is ample evidence that quantum units of nuclear mass energy in each
wavelength of electrometric radiation is continuously discontinuous. All virtu
al lines of force in each photon dipole magnetic field form virtual pathways tha
t are populated by discrete quanta of (f). Collectively all attributes of the el
ectromagnetic spectrum populate all virtual lines of force in each photon dipole
magnetic field. An additional imperative for Proton mass energy to be transmute
d into electromagnetic radiation (photons) is that each Proton must absorb a dis
crete quantity of latent* heat before the transmutation process will occur. The
use of latent state heat as adopted here is understood to include the thermonucl
ear heat of transmutation.
*Heat abso
rbed by a body without a rise in its temperature; such heat in photons is in a c
haotic state.
One objective of this research is to provide a research tool of imperatives conc
erning the nuclear origins of electromagnetic (photon) energy. Such nuclear mas
s energy in an electromagnetic (dipole magnetic field) state encrypts signature
information about the nuclear energy from which photon energy is transmuted. An
imperative of proton mass energy to be transmuted is that the latent heat of tra
nsmutation must be absorbed by each Proton before that mass energy will be trans
muted into the electromagnetic state; Latent heat of transmutation is defined he
re as the amount of heat energy that must be absorbed by each proton mass energy
without increasing that proton temperature. (Transmutation of mass energy and h
eat are imperatives that increases heat and space for proton mass energy in the
electromagnetic state). Thermonuclear reaction heat is transmuted along with Pr
oton mass energy into the electromagnetic (photon) state. Such heat is the sourc
e of the warmth exhibited by Sunlight. Each of the many virtual lines of force
in photon dipole magnetic fields contains continuous elliptical virtual pathway
s (virtual lines of force) along which discrete quanta of mass energy are unifor
mly distributed. The fact that wavelengths of such electromagnetic wavelengths c
an shorten or lengthen in increments (become Doppler shifted) is compelling evid
ence that the nuclear mass energy in such wavelengths is continuously discontinu
ous. This may be visually illustrated: Hook one end of a rubber band, representi
ng a line of force, over the eraser end of a pencil. While stretching the rubber
band slightly scotch tape the other end of the rubber band so as to maintain th
at slight stretch. Using a pen draw closely separated marks, each mark represent
ing one mass energy element f, lengthwise along length of the slightly stretched
rubber band. Collectively, the marks and rubber band illustrate a quantified pa
cket (wavelength) of f and a virtual line of force (rubber band). Remove the ru
bber band from the pencil. By stretching and reducing the stretch of the rubber
band the frequency* of the marks (representing r) decrease by stretching and inc
rease in frequency* by relaxing the rubber band stretch. That is, the frequency
of the marks is incidental to the length of the rubber band. The quantity of vir
tual, elliptically shaped pathways, (virtual lines of force) in each photon magn
etosphere increases in length as virtual lines of force uniformly increase in nu
mber and decrease in length towards the center of that dipole magnetic field.
* The marks becom
e Doppler shifted. Doppler shifts (lengthening or shortening the distance betwee
n marks) are a consequence of the time required for each array of f in each wav
elength to collectively exhibit electromagnetic attributes. The frequency of
waves are incidental to wavelength.
On the earth where water at sea level reaches 212° F (a) it is at 14.7 (b) pound
s of pressure. (the square root of 212° F is 12.56 psi) This pressure-temperatu
re ratio is: b\a=14.4217°F degrees per pound of pressure. Applying this ratio to
the sun: dividing c into one million (d) degrees we find that the ‘atmospheric’
pressure at the lowest point of the sun’s corona ought to be) 1000000\14.4217=6
9340 psi pounds per square inch. (d/c=psi). Using this formula the temperature
in the chromo sphere may be predictable; chromo sphere temperature 24000 k (4320
0 o F)= 207.85 psi:º atmospheric pressure in the sun’s corona. This calculated p
si is not precisely correct because the temperature that corresponds to a specif
ic pressure is nonlinear.8.
Where (f) are in photon dipole magnetic fields the (f) in the lines of force wi
ll move cyclically, at light velocity, within each dipole field. This mass energ
y provides the momentum to accelerate photons into space at light velocity?
Thermonuclear fusion reactions in the Sun fuse protons from two hydrogen atoms i
nto one helium atom. Since there is more mass energy in two hydrogen atoms than
one helium atom the residual mass energy is transmuted into a photon(s). Thermon
uclear reactions are both extremely hot and explosive. This is analogous to wher
e liquid state water molecules at, the bottom of the pot of water, are transform
ed into a vapor state by latent heat of vaporization. (3413 Btuº Latent heat of
vaporization is imperative to transforming of one pound of water at 212o F into
212oF vapor the state at sea level pressure without increase water in temperatur
e). As heat is applied to the pot bottom liquid water in contact with the bottom
of that pot of liquid state water molecules increase in temperature to 212  F.
and are transformed into 212  F vapor state by absorbing the latent heat of vapo
rization. That vapor creates spherical bubbles in the liquid and those bubbles a
scend through the liquid to the surface where the latent heat of vaporization is
radiated into the atmosphere that process returns those vapor state water molec
ules back into the liquid state. The ascending bubbles are what are observed as
boiling water.
An imperative for stars, such as our Sun, is the means to propagate residual ene
rgy from thermonuclear reactions out into space is absolute. This is imperative
lest that star become a gas giant. Where vapor state water molecules not contai
ned (under pressure) the vapor temperature will be the same as the liquid temper
ature. This does not imply the material substance of the sun s photosphere is l
iquid water. However, all heat carried by photons from the interior of the sun m
ust pass through the sun s photosphere (atmosphere) without raising the photosph
ere temperature. This is tacit evidence that photon mass energy is in a latent s
tate as it enters the photosphere. Where such latent state energy enters the cor
ona some of that energy is released as heat. This is the source of heat 106 degr
ees Kelvin heat in the sun’s corona.
The dynamics of latent state heat is easily observed. Where heat is continuousl
y applied to a vessel of water vapor filled hemispheres are visible on the sides
and bottom of the pot. Such hemispheres serve as heat containers to conduct lat
ent heat of vaporization through the liquid water. That is, the spheres serve
as containers which transport vapor state water molecules upward through the liq
uid to the surface where that latent heat is radiated into the atmosphere and th
e vapor condenses back into the liquid state. None of the latent state heat insi
de the bubbles is transmitted to the liquid during bubble ascent. It is the vert
ical motion of the bubbles and their accumulation on the liquid surface that is
the turmoil observed as boiling . As each bubble, containing latent heat ascend
s through the liquid its volume expands because the hydraulic pressure in a colu
mn of water decreases .5 pounds with each foot of bubble ascent. Increasing in v
olume the domain of each molecular electron absorbs the latent heat and their or
bital domains expand to attain a vapor state. The nuclei of H20 are not involved
vapor state water molecules. Latent state (vapor state) water molecules are a
bout 1400 time larger than liquid state water molecules. Where the vapor is not
contained (pressurized) the liquid and the vapor will be the same temperature.
The temperature of pressurized (contained) water vapor will correspond to a spe
cific pressure. At the surface where bubbles burst their encapsulated latent hea
t is released. A bursting bubble creates a “spicule”; a minute quantity of wate
r is observed above where each bubble bursts. Conduction and convection provide
the means for radiant heat to move around and through a medium. Containment of
heat provides the means for heat to accumulate as pressure.
A discovery, in the 1940's, by Swedish astronomer Bengt Edien, revealed the coro
na (atmosphere) of the sun is hotter than the sun's photosphere (surface); the i
mperative for the corona (atmosphere) to be hotter than the photosphere (surface
) is that the heat of thermonuclear reactions in the corona are in a latent conf
iguration in order to pass through the sun’s photosphere with out increasing the
photosphere temperature. This is analogous to where latent heat in the vapor st
ate passes through boiling water. The bubbles that ascend through the liquid in
a pot of water are incidental to the latent heat of vaporization.
In the Sun thermonuclear reactions produce heat in the form of explosive radiati
on pressure. As hot* (*below Curie point) electromagnetic energy in the form of
spherical electromagnetic radiations are ejected from Sun surface opposite magne
tic poles of their dipole magnetic fields couple in parallel; thus those magneti
c fields are transverse. Where opposite magnetic poles of dipole fields are adja
cent either serially or in parallel their magnetic energy becomes shared across
such boundaries. Photon energy is Proton nuclear mass energy transmuted by hot,
violent thermonuclear (fusion) reactions into electromagnetic configurations (di
pole fields) Spectrographic analysis of such electromagnetic radiations reveals
the nuclear origin of photon energy as well as all wavelengths of visible and in
visible light and heat. That is, each virtual line of force in photon magnetic f
ield carries a different wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum in linear co
nfigurations along virtual elliptically configured lines force. Each wavelength
and heat is conducted along separate lines of force. The imperative for models o
f photon energy is that those models must provide for Doppler shifts of electrom
agnetic radiations and heat without loss of heat or (r). This imperative of phot
ons is that each continuous elliptical line of force in each magnetic field is p
rogressively longer as they recede in distance away from the magnetic poles. Suc
h lines of force form pathways for each discrete wavelength of electromagnetic r
adiation and heat along which a discrete quantity of (f) are equally distributed
.
Conclusions derived from the fact that electromagnetic waves can be Doppler shif
ted in finite increments is compelling evidence that discrete quanta of (f) in s
uch waves is continuously discontinuous. There is anecdotal evidence that photon
energy may exhibit attributes associated with spherical waves where they are re
flected. The imperative of spherical photons is that the wavelengths (pathways f
or discrete quanta of (f) along lines of force) be partitioned into individual i
nto layers. In photons each virtual line of force is the wavelength (l) along wh
ich a finite number of hot (r) move cyclically. Each line of force is analogous
to the lines formed in each layer of a spherical Bermuda onion where each layer,
representing a wavelength, progressively diminishes in length toward the onions
center.
*The imperative of the warmth of Sunlight being felt on the Earth i
s that such heat not be dissipated (radiated) during propagation of that electro
magnetic radiation through space. That such heat is not reflected in Sunlight re
flected from the Moon to the Earth is not sited where photon energy (mass energy
in the electromagnetic state) is memorialized in published studies of photons.
The conclusion is asserted that such heat is absorbed into the moon mass.

From the foregoing we are made aware energy of which mass is composed has a thre
e dimensional existence only in discrete quantum units. An imperative that permi
ts wavelengths of visible, invisible light and heat in electromagnetic radiation
s to be Doppler shifted is that (r) in each of those wavelengths are continuousl
y discontinuous.
An imperative of electromagnetic radiation energy is that mass energy and heat i
s transmuted into the electromagnetic state. Where (f) are within dipole magneti
c fields they follow elliptical paths formed by virtual lines of force along whi
ch (f) move. This conclusion is based on the fact that all electromagnetic radia
tion energy is transmuted from thermonuclear fusion reactions into photon energy
. (f) provide the force components (momentum) of lines of force in a dipole conf
iguration. Incorporated within each photon magnetic field lines of force are di
screte quanta of (f) that encode all wavelengths of visible and invisible light.
Other discrete arrays of photon energy reveal the nuclear energy from which ea
ch photon is transformed into kinetic state mass energy. These facts provide in
sight into the capability of quantum units of (f) to encrypt sequences that reve
al (through spectroscopic analysis) the nuclear energy from which each photon is
transmuted. Where photons are directed through a prism such electromagnetic rad
iations emerge in discrete wavelengths. This is convincing evidence that (f) in
each photon remain in discrete packets (quanta). That fact also reveals the dura
bility of (f) in packets (quanta). (Think of each array of discrete quanta of a
s analogous to where specific amounts (discrete quanta) of beads are stung on th
read, representing lines of force, and the ends of the thread are tied to form a
n ellipse. Such discrete quanta of (f) (represented by beads) move cyclically, a
long lines of force (represented by thread) within each magnetosphere.

The primary components of all dipole magnetic fields are: a magnetosphere, a gen
erally elliptical volume of space, where virtual lines of force form pathways al
ong which (f) move cyclically*. In each magnetopause virtual lines of force idea
lly form generally elliptical pathways along which discrete quanta of are conduc
ted. The magnetic core of each magnetosphere is centered along the magnetic cor
e between the magnetic poles through the magnetic core to the other magnetic pol
e. Virtual lines of force and (f) are at their maximum density inside each magn
etic core. As (f) are conducted away from a North magnetic pole along lines of f
orce paths their density decreases as to the distance squared from that pole out
ward to apogee. From apogee the density of lines of force increase in density as
to the distance squared from the apogee toward the South pole. Inside the mag
netic core between the ‘North’ and ‘South’ poles (f) are at maximum density. Thi
s circulating motion along lines of force of spherical (f) provides substance to
the lines of force in all dipole magnetic fields. *Such circulation of (f) is e
ssential to Conservation of momentum and energy. Virtual lines of force permit u
niform cyclic movement of (f) within each magnetosphere. Following virtual a lin
e of force path is analogous to ones route being guided by a rope inside a dark
cave.

Where mass energies are transmuted by thermonuclear reactions in the Sun discret
e packets of (r) are released in the form of photons. Where photon energy transm
uted from such hot, explosive thermonuclear reactions produce radiation pressure
. On the Earth where electromagnetic radiation energy that strikes a reflector i
t heats the reflector and creates a measurable pressure of about to 13-1bs9 or 5
897-grams/sq mile. The conclusion is asserted that radiation pressure is how pho
tons self propel themselves through the void of space.
Where a Magnetosphere (dipole magnetic field) surrounds and moves within each ph
oton it serves as the medium to transport virtual lines of force that guide elec
tromagnetic energy through space. Each magnetosphere is composed of virtual line
s of force, a magnetopause (outer boundary) and a magnetic core.
Conceptually put forth by Max Planck in his Quantum Concept4 the idea of the pho
ton (packets of (f) has evolved into discrete bundles (quanta); each discrete q
uantum of (f) collectively, has attributes of an elastic solid. A discrete quant
ity (array) of (f) in each photon conveys heat as well as visible and invisible
electromagnetic radiation. Discrete arrays f) collectively impart the nuclear s
ignature from which each photon is transmuted. This is convincing evidence that
(f) follow cyclic paths along each virtual line of force within each photons mag
netic field are continuously discontinuous. Lines of force and (f) are imperati
ve components of each dipole magnetosphere.
Since 1620 when Christaan Huygens5 postulated the concept of aluminiferous aethe
r a notion persisted that space is filled with a substance, such as ether, that
enable electromagnetic radiations to be transported through the void of space.
The aether concept was disproved in the late 1800 by the Michaelson-Morely exper
iment that was designed to detect such aether.
In the Sun photons are a product of proton-to-proton (fusion) reactions. Photons
energy transmuted from such hot, explosive thermonuclear reactions is nuclear m
ass energy transmuted into the electromagnetic state. Photons are ejected from
the Sun by explosive radiation pressure, generated from thermonuclear reactions
on the sun. Photon momentum must be considerably greater than the Sun’s gravity.
Radiation pressure is the source of photon angular momentum that propels them t
hrough the vacuum of space linearly at light velocity.
The discrete quanta of transmuted mass energy in each wavelength of electromagne
tic radiation, following virtual elliptical pathways, along virtual lines of for
ce move around and through each magnetosphere core that is centrally located lin
early between opposite magnetic poles in each photon magnetopause. The virtual l
ines of force are generally elliptical except along a straight line between oppo
site magnetic poles of a magnetic core. In the central magnetic core all virtual
lines of force converge along central core in each magnetopause. Virtual lines
of force in the Earths field, form elliptical paths along which (f) move cyclic
ally on the outside from the magnetic core diverging as to the distance squared
outward from the North pole core to the apogee and continue back along those pat
hs to the perigee; converging in density as to the distance squared toward the S
outh magnetic pole core.
Experiments on Earth have revealed that a measurable amount of radiation pressur
e is imposed on a light reflector by electromagnetic radiation pressure. This is
an example of where the particle (f) aspect of electromagnetic radiation energ
y reveals itself. Where all radiation energy that strikes a reflector is reflect
ed the radiation pressure imposed by those impacts is about 13lbs9 or 5897-grams
/sq mile. This is an example of Newton s third law of equal and opposite reactio
n and is conclusive evidence of the cohesive quanta of (f) in each discrete pack
et of photon energy, which collectively exhibit attributes of an elastic particl
e.
The Faraday Effect4, discovered by Michael Faraday 5, 1845, was the first experi
mental evidence that light energy and electromagnetic related generically. The t
heoretical basis for that relationship, now called electromagnetic radiation, (e
mr) and was formalized by James Clerk Maxwell6 in the 1860 s and 1870 s. From 18
56 through 1873 Maxwell developed the laws of electromagnetism, beginning with M
ichael Faraday s concept of a magnetic field (dipole magnetosphere) comprised of
“…tubes of force…”. Such discrete wavelengths of (r) move, cyclically, along
virtual lines of force within each magnetopause. This circulating motion of eac
h discrete quantity of spherical (r) provides substance to the many lines of fo
rce in each dipole magnetic field. Such circulation of charged magnetic (r) is e
ssential to Energy conservation. Maxwell’s calculations showed that electromagne
tic waves, in a vacuum, travel at the same speed as light. Maxwell concluded cor
rectly, that light is a form of electromagnetic wave. The primary energy compone
nt of virtual lines of force are (r) that follow generally elliptical paths that
take them away from the magnetic core of that dipole field and back to the oppo
site magnetic pole core from whence those lines of force came. Such paths of dis
crete quanta of Quantons is, within the context of this research, the imperative
that provides the spectroscopic attributes, which reveal the atomic nuclei from
which each photon is transmuted. Michael Faraday [1791 1867] discovery that a m
agnetic field can affect the polarization of light is conclusive evidence of the
dipole field aspect of electromagnetic radiation. He proposed in 1845 that ligh
t might be waves [undulations] in the lines of force of electromagnetism. Exampl
es of these undulations may be observed by viewing movies of the Aurora Borealis
(northern lights). Plasma, from space, may glow brightly as it responds to lin
es of force of magnetic fields such as those at the north and south geomagnetic
poles on the Earth. Plasma from the Sun emulates the in lines force of Earth mag
netism. In solar flares, originating from the Sun, plasma is carried along the l
inear paths of the Suns magnetic energy. Pictures taken by NASA s SOHO satellite
of solar prominences reveal solar plasma illuminates the linear aspects of magn
etic lines of force. Such solar prominences on the Sun may extend hundreds of th
ousands of miles outward from the photosphere of the Sun. Mass ejections from th
e Sun that reach the Earth have wrought havoc on communications and power grids
on Earth. Power grids may be damaged by electrical induction imposed on grid swi
tchgear by electromagnetic energy from the Sun.
References:
1: Fabric of Knowledge: Intellectual property of Howard Hoover sr
2: website: answers.com\Planck Length
3: Principle of equivalence of mass and mass energy: answers.com Wikipedia
4. Website: answers.com\Planck quantum
5. Christaan Huygens: website: answers.com
6. A
term coined Michael Faraday website: answers.com/Michael Faraday.
7. Swedish astronomer Bengt Edien.
8. Van Nostrands Scientific encyclopedia, sixth ed Sun (The)
9. answers.com wikipedia radiation pressure