You are on page 1of 39

SCI/250

MICROBIOLOGY
The Latest Version A+ Study Guide

**********************************************

SCI 250 Entire Course Link


https://uopcourses.com/category/sci-250/
**********************************************

SCI 250 Week 1 Cell Division Template


Examine cell division in bacteria to determine how it relates to growth.
Complete Appendix A to explain the following in your own words:
The phases of growth in a bacterial culture
Methods used to measure bacterial growth
Physical and nutritional factors affecting bacterial growth
The processes of sporulation
The function of bacterial endospores

Appendix A Cell Division in Bacteria

After reading Ch. 6 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations, fill in the following
matrix.

List the four phases of bacterial growth and briefly describe what happens in each
phase.

List and describe at least four methods used to measure bacterial growth.

List at least two physical factors that influence bacterial cell growth. Briefly describe
how bacterial growth responds to changes in those factors.

List at least two nutritional factors that influence bacterial cell growth. Briefly
describe how bacterial growth responds to changes in those factors.

List and describe at least two events that occur during the process of endospore
formation (sporulation).
Note: Visit Chapter 6 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in WileyPlus to view the
Endospore Formation Animation found under the Animated Concepts Section.

What is the function of a bacterial endospore? Explain in your own words.

SCI 250 Week 1 Staining Lab and Quiz


Review Ch. 3 of Microbiology.
Review Staining Bacteria: The Gram Stain simulation.
Complete the open book quiz. The quiz will be provided by your instructor.

SCI 250 Week 1 Identifying Bacteria


Review Figure 6.25 and Table 9.5 of Microbiology.
Complete Appendix B to classify bacteria and identify a strain of bacteria responsible for
a simulated food poisoning outbreak.
Appendix B Identifying Bacteria
Bacteria identification is accomplished in a number of ways. Two common tools microbiologists use to
identify unknown bacteria include dichotomous key and biochemical tests. The dichotomous key is
useful when a microbiologist only needs to know which group an unknown microbe belongs to on a
general level. When a microbiologist needs to identify a specific bacterium, biochemical tests are used.
PART ONE: GENERAL BACTERIA IDENTIFICATION
Review the dichotomous key in Figure A, the bacterial shapes in Figure B, and the Gram stain
information below. You will use all three to determine to which major group unknown bacteria belong.

Figure A: A dichotomous key for classifying


major groups of bacteria.

Figure B: The most common bacterial shapes.


[Figure 4.1 in Microbiology text]

[Figure 9.4 in Microbiology text]

Shape Types:
Comma, or Club-shaped, rods = Vibrio
Rods = Coccobacillus, Bacillus
Spherical = Coccus
Spiral or Helical = Spirillium, Spirochete

Gram Stain Results:


Purple = Gram positive
Red = Gram negative
Neither purple nor red = No cell wall (neither
Gram positive nor Gram negative)

Review Figure C on the following page. Use Figure C to identify the type of arrangement displayed by

the unknown bacteria. Read through the Sample Identification on the following page for an example of
how to identify bacterial groups and arrangements using Figures A, B, C, and the Gram stain results.
Figure C: Arrangement of Bacteria
Sample Identification
Rods and Clubs
After performing a Gram stain, you observe

Single

the following under a microscope:


StreptoCording
Snapping
Palisades

Chinese Letters

(Cells are stained red.)

Cocci

Begin with item 1 on the


dichotomous key (Figure A). Because
the organisms are red, they are not

Single

Gram-positive. According to the key,

DiploTetrad

continue to item 3.

Because the organism is red (not


clear or another color), it is indeed
Gram-negative according to item 3.

Sarcinae

The key directs you to item 5.

Consider the shape of individual cells


for item 5. According to Figure B, the

Staphylo-

shape type is closest to spherical.


(Note: spherical is circular.)

Strepto-

The bacteria belong to the Gramnegative cocci group.

Now use Figure C to describe arrangement of bacteria. (The bacteria are not rod- or club-shaped,
so focus on the cocci arrangements.) Identify the arrangement that is most prominent.

The bacteria are arranged in a diplo- fashion.

Enter the group and arrangement in the table.

Application
Use Figures A, B, C, and Gram stain results to identify group and arrangement of bacteria. Continue to
Part Two after completing the table.

View from Microscope

(stained red)

(stained purple)

(stained purple)

(stained red)

(stained red)

(stained purple)

Group of Bacteria

Arrangement

Gram-negative cocci

Diplo-

View from Microscope

Group of Bacteria

Arrangement

(stained purple)

PART TWO: CASE STUDY SCENARIO: IDENTIFY SPECIFIC BACTERIA THROUGH


BIOCHEMICAL TESTING
To gain an understanding of the processes involved with identifying bacteria through biochemical tests,
access Chapter 6 of the text in WileyPlus located on the Week One course page. Once in WileyPlus
(Chapter 6), select the Bacterial Identification by API link located under the heading, Take Another
Look. Once selected, review the information and watch the Flash-animated movie (animation) located
within this link. Then, review the following scenario and answer the questions that follow.
Case Study
A recent outbreak of food poisoning has occurred in a community. One possible source
of contamination may be the produce that is grown and distributed locally at a farmers
market. A test sample of some of the produce revealed evidence of bacterial
contamination. The bacteria sample was tested in a microbiology lab and showed the
results that follow. The laboratory also performed a Gram stain of the isolated bacteria
and ran a number of biochemical tests to aid identification. The biochemical tests were
assayed using the Analytical Profile Index (API) 20E system for identification of
Enterobacteriaceae and other gram-negative bacteria.
Figure 1. Microbiology laboratory results Unknown bacteria present on produce (API
Results)

Figure 2. API Results of Unknown Bacteria in Text Format

Gram stain:

ONPG

ADH

LDC

ODC

CIT

H 2S

URE

TDA

IND

VP

GEL

GLU

MAN

INO

SOR

RHA

SAC

MEL

AMY

ARA

Gram-negative
Bacteria: Unknown

Based on Gram stain results and the knowledge that this bacterium caused food poisoning,
the laboratory is able to narrow down the possibilities to three bacterial strains. Figure 3
shows the API results:
Figure 3. API Results of Known Bacterial Strains in Text Format

Gram stain:

ONPG

ADH

LDC

ODC

CIT

H 2S

URE

TDA

IND

VP

GEL

GLU

Gram-negative
Bacteria: Salmonella

Gram stain:

MAN

INO

SOR

RHA

SAC

MEL

AMY

ARA

ONPG

ADH

LDC

ODC

CIT

H 2S

URE

TDA

IND

VP

GEL

GLU

MAN

INO

SOR

RHA

SAC

MEL

AMY

ARA

ONPG

ADH

LDC

ODC

CIT

H 2S

URE

TDA

IND

VP

GEL

GLU

MAN

INO

SOR

RHA

SAC

MEL

AMY

ARA

Gram-negative
Bacteria: Shigella

Gram stain:
Gram-negative
Bacteria: E. coli

Application

Compare the API biochemical test results in Figure 2 (unknown bacteria from produce) with
API test results in Figure 3 (known bacterial strains identified in the gray boxes on the left).
The bacterial strain in Figure 3 that matches Figure 2 will identify the bacterial strain causing
illness. Based upon your observations, which of the bacteria in Figure 3 is the most likely
cause of the food poisoning outbreak?

SCI 250 Week 2 Parasitology Matrix


Complete Appendix C to differentiate among parasites, fungi, helminths, and
arthropods.
Appendix C Parasitology

After reading Ch. 11 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations, complete the following
matrices to compare and contrast different parasitic organisms. You may need to use the
index to help you locate some of the information needed.
PROTOZOA/MASTIGOPHORANS
Organism

Common Name

Trypanosoma

Location in Host
Nervous system

Mode of

Geographic

Transmission

Location

Tsetse fly

(Ch. 24)
Giardia

Ingestion of fecal

(Ch. 22)

matter that contains

Worldwide

motile trophozoites
Trichomonas

Vaginal

(Ch. 20)

inflammation

Worldwide

Select one of the organisms in this section. Describe the disease it causes, then compare similarities
or contrast differences in modes of transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in
any other section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease
transmission successful:

SPOROZOANS
Organism
Plasmodium (Ch.
11 & 23)

Common Name

Location in Host
Red blood cells

Mode of

Geographic

Transmission

Location
Tropical areas

Toxoplasma

Toxoplasmosis

Worldwide

gondii
(Ch. 23)
Select one of the organisms in this section. Describe the disease it causes, then compare similarities or
contrast differences in modes of transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any
other section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease
transmission successful:

FUNGI
Organism

Common Name

Location in Host

Mode of

Geographic

Transmission

Location

Candida albicans

Can be sexually

Worldwide

(Ch. 19)

transmittted

Trichophyton

Poor hygiene or

(Ch. 19)

suppressed immune

Worldwide

system
Histoplasma

Inhalation

(Ch. 21)

Central and
eastern United
States and major
river valleys
worldwide

Select one of the organisms in this section. Describe the disease it causes, then compare similarities or
contrast differences in modes of transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in any
other section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease
transmission successful:

HELMINTHS/FLUKES
Common Name

Location in Host

Organism
Schistoma

Lungs, liver, and

japonicum

urinary bladder

Mode of

Geographic

Transmission

Location
Worldwide

(Ch. 23)
Describe the disease caused by Schistoma japonicum, then compare similarities or contrast differences
in modes of transmission of the organism in this section with any other organism in any other section in
this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease transmission
successful:

TAPEWORMS
Organism

Common Name

Taenia saginata

Tapeworm

(Ch. 22)

disease

Location in Host

Mode of

Geographic

Transmission

location

Uncooked beef

Describe the disease caused by Taenia saginata, then compare similarities or contrast differences in
modes of transmission of the organism in this section with any other organism in any other section in
this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease transmission
successful:

ADULT ROUNDWORMS
Organism

Common Name

Location in host

Wucheria

Mode of

Geographic

transmission

location

Mosquitoes

Tropical areas

bancrofti (Ch. 23)


Describe the disease caused by Wucheria bancrofti, then compare similarities or contrast differences
in modes of transmission of the organism in this section with any other organism in any other section
in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease transmission
successful:

ROUNDWORM LARVAE
Organism

Common Name

Symptoms in host

Borrelia

Mode of

Geographic

transmission

location

Ticks

Parts of the

burgdoreri (Ch.

Skin lesions and

United States,

23)

flu-like symptoms,

Australia, and

later arthritis and

Europe

heart damage
Rickettsia

Fever, headache,

rickettsii (Ch. 23)

rash

Rickettsia

Lice

Worldwide

prowazekii (Ch.
23)
Select one of the organisms in this section. Describe the disease it causes, then compare similarities
or contrast differences in modes of transmission of the selected organism with any other organism in
any other section in this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease
transmission successful:

ANTHROPODS/ARACHNIDS
Organism

Common Name

Location in Host

Trichinella

Larvae in striated

spiralis (Ch. 22)

muscle

Mode of

Geographic

Transmission

Location
Worldwide

Describe the disease caused by Trichinella spiralis, then compare similarities or contrast differences in
modes of transmission of the organism in this section with any other organism in any other section in
this document. Focus on structures, conditions, or behaviors that make disease transmission
successful:

SCI 250 Week 2 Epidemiology Presentation


Define epidemiology, in your assigned Learning Team, explaining its purpose and
methods of study.
Select an emergent disease to research.
Create a 7- to 10-slide Microsoft PowerPoint presentation that includes the following
details within speakers notes:
An explanation of the purpose and methods of study for epidemiology
A thorough description of the selected infectious agent
Incubation period
Signs and symptoms
Related diagnostic tests
Precautions that should be taken against the
A summary slide

SCI 250 Week 3 Virus Matrix


Watch the Viruses animation.
Describe the characteristics of viruses by filling out the matrix in Appendix D.
Appendix D - Viruses
Review Chapter 10 of Microbiology: Principles and Exploration and the following Virus
Animation to help you complete the matrix below.
http://higheredbcs.wiley.com/legacy/college/black/0471420840/animations/ch10/ch10_Viruses
/index.html

Review Figure 10.1 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations. Determine what the functions of
the following components are:
Component

Function

Capsid
Envelope
Nucleic acid
Spikes (glycoproteins)
Respond to Critical Thinking Question 1 in Ch. 10 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in
the space that follows.
Using two or three sentences, explain in your own words how viruses are classified by type of
nucleic acid, capsid shape, and presence of envelope.
Explanation
Nucleic acid
Capsid shape
Presence of envelope
Review Ch. 10 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations. Briefly describe each of the stages of
viral reproduction.
Stage

Description

Absorption
Penetration
Synthesis
Maturation
Release
Respond to the following question from Ch. 10 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in the
space that follows. Looking at the five steps in viral replication, can you identify some promising
ways to prevent or control viral infections?
Respond to the following question from Ch. 10 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in the
space that follows. Would you classify viruses as living, nonliving, or semiliving? Explain your

answer.
Review Table 10.7 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations. Define the following types of
viruses and viruslike agents.
Virus/Viruslike agent

Definition

Satellites
Viroids
Prions
Respond to the following questions in the space that follows. Can viruses cause cancer? Does it
matter if the virus is composed of DNA or RNA? Explain your answers.

SCI 250 Week 4 Innate Defenses Matrix


Complete the matrix in Appendix E to contrast types of innate host defenses. Be
sure to include specific information about how each can affect the human
body.
Appendix E Innate Defenses
Part One and Part Two focus on various types of innate defenses against infection. Use Ch. 16 in your
text to help you complete both parts.
PART ONE: PUNCTURE WOUND MULTIMEDIA ACTIVITY
After

completing

the

Inflammatory

Response

multimedia

activity

located

at

http://corptrain.phoenix.edu/hhs/SCI250/innate_defenses.html
complete the table below. List the four events of the inflammatory response covered in the activity in
the correct order of occurrence. As you re-write the events in your own words, add more detail and use
terms from Ch.16 of the text.
EVENTS IN AN INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE
Event
st

nd

rd

th

Description of event (from activity)

Detailed description of event

Type first event here. Copy this word-for-

Rephrase the event in your own words, using

word from the multimedia activity.

greater detail and terms from Ch. 16.

Type second event here. Copy this word-for-

Rephrase the event in your own words, using

word from the multimedia activity.

greater detail and terms from Ch. 16.

Type third event here. Copy this word-for-

Rephrase the event in your own words, using

word from the multimedia activity.

greater detail and terms from Ch. 16.

Type fourth event here. Copy this word-for-

Rephrase the event in your own words, using

word from the multimedia activity.

greater detail and terms from Ch. 16.

PART TWO: TYPES OF INNATE DEFENSES


The table presents various innate, nonspecific immune responses to pathogen exposure. Use Ch. 16 to
help you identify and describe the type of defense in the Event column.
Event

Type

It is a very windy day, and you have inhaled

of

Innate

What is happening in the body

Defense

during the defense?

Physical Barrier

The nose contains mucous, which

all kinds of particles from dust to

helps to flush out microbes and

potentially harmful pathogens but a quick

particles when a person sneezes.

sneeze prevents you from coming down with


an illness.
A man

at

restaurant

ingests

food

contaminated with microbes that could


potentially cause disease. The microbes do
not survive very long in his stomach, so he
does not get sick.
A child gets a small cut on her foot while
running barefoot on the beach. The wound
becomes slightly red and swollen. Her wound
does not get infected, but it hurts a little, and
it feels a bit warm.
Yesterday, you suspected you might be
getting sick. Today, you feel very tired. When
you take your temperature, the thermometer
reads 100.2F.
Flesh-eating bacteria are present on your leg.
You do not have any wounds, so you do not
become infected in spite of exposure.
Your teenage brother has developed a zit on
his forehead. (Hint: Identify two types of
defenses, since infection has occurred.)

SCI 250 Week 4 Immunity Activity


Using the template in Appendix F define the following in your own words:
The difference between adaptive and innate immunity
The difference between cellular and humoral immunity
The factors that stimulate an immune response
The difference between active and passive immunizations
Appendix F Immunity Activity

After reading Ch. 16-18 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations, fill in the
following matrix.

Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations: Distinguish between active and passive immunity. Give examples of
each.

Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations: Distinguish between innate and acquired immunity. Give examples of
each.

Answer the following Checklist Exercise from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations: Distinguish between cellular and humoral immunity.

In your own words, briefly explain what happens in a primary immune response. Be
sure to incorporate the following terms into your explanation: antigen, B-cell,
antibody, plasma, and memory cell.

In your own words, briefly explain what happens in a secondary immune response.
Incorporate the following terms in your explanation: memory cell and antibodies.

In your own words, briefly explain why a secondary immune response is much faster
than a primary immune response.

In your own words, briefly explain what the difference is between active and passive
immunization. Incorporate the following terms in your answer: vaccine, antigen,
attenuated, primary immune response, antibodies, serum, and immediate immunity.

Answer the following Checklist Question from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations: What are some hazards of vaccines?

Respond to the following question from Ch. 17 of Microbiology: Principles and


Explorations: If you were born without T cells, would you have normal B cell
functioning? Why or why not?

SCI 250 Week 5 Integumentary System Lab and Quiz


Complete the Integumentary System Lab.
Complete the open book quiz about diseases of the integumentary system. The quiz will
be provided by your instructor.
Integumentary System Lab Week Five
INTRODUCTION
The integumentary system consists of skin, hair, nails, and nerves. As you learn about the
various diseases that affect the integumentary system, it is important for you to
understand the structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to
become familiar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to the skin.

PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONS


Provide brief answers to the following questions to help you get acquainted with the basic
functions of a healthy integumentary system. Refer to Ch. 19 in Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations.

1.
2.
3.
4.

How does the integumentary system prevent disease?


How do sweat, sebaceous (oil), and mucus secretions help prevent disease?
Which types of bacteria are considered normal skin microflora?
Suppose a sample of bacteria was taken from your skin. If you were to perform a Gram
stain on the sample, what is the likely Gram reaction positive or negative? Explain your
answer.

PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURES


Identify the selected integumentary system structures in the following diagram:

Type response here.


Type response here.
Type response here.
Type response here.
Type response here.

Type response here.

Type response here.

Type response here.


Type response here.
Type response here.

PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLY


Access the Public Diseases & Conditions A-Z Index on the Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention website at http://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/. Research one microberelated skin disease (excluding sexually transmitted diseases) and complete the following
activity.
Read the information on the CDC site and provide a brief, one- to two-paragraph summary of
the skin condition. Include the following in your description:

The skin condition

The microbe causing the condition

Which structures of the integumentary system are affectedUse one or more structures
included in Part Two.

Who is at risk

How serious the disease is

[Type your paragraph in the space below]

1. Staphylococcus aureus causes all of the following except


A) scalded skin syndrome
B) carbuncles
C) impetigo
D) erysipelas
2. The most common bacteria to cause infections from soaking in a hot tub
is__________.
A) Escherichia coli
B) Pseudomonas aeruginosa
C) Staphylococcus epidermidis
D) Staphylococcus aureus
3. The flesh-eating bacteria are
A) Staphylococcus
B) Streptococcus
C) Pseudomonas
D) Propionibacterium
4. Which of the following staphylococcal infections are matched correctly with
infection sites?
A) folliculitis deep internal pus-filled infection
B) furuncle massive lesion on neck and upper back

C) boil an exterior pus-filled infection


D) abscess base of an eyelash
5. All of the following statements refer to German measles except
A) they may cause rubella syndrome
B) a vaccine has reduced the incidence of rubella birth defects
C) mild virus infection with exanthema
D) only girls are immunized with the rubella vaccine
6. Smallpox
A) was eradicated worldwide
B) could be used in biological warfare
C) vaccine is a live non-virulent smallpox virus
D) two of the above
7. Genital warts are caused by
A) moluscum contagiosum
B) human papillomavirus
C) cowpox
D) HZV
8. What is the difference between rubella and rubeola?
A) only rubeola causes exanthema (skin rash)
B) rubella causes skin rash and rubeola crosses the placenta
C) both cause skin rashes but only rubella can cross the placenta
D) no difference; they are simply different names for same viral skin disease
9. Which pair of fungal skin infections is matched incorrectly?
A) Tinea crurisjock itch
B) Tinea unguiumringworm of the nails
C) Tinea capitisscalp ringworm
D) Tinea corporisringworm of the face
10. Pediculosis is an infestation of
A) lice
B) ticks
C) chiggers
D) mites

SCI 250 Week 5 STD Informational Pamphlet Appendix G


Resources: An information pamphlet from a doctors office and Appendix G

Create a tri-fold pamphlet, such as one you would find at a doctors office, about a
sexually transmitted disease of your choice using the template provided in Appendix G
located on the student website.
Address each of the elements in the grading form provided in the document titled
Appendix G Rubric located on the student website, and answer the following questions:
Is the disease transmitted exclusively through sexual contact or can it be spread
nonsexually?
What are its symptoms, and how can it can be diagnosed? (Be sure to compare a
healthy system to one affected by the infection or disease.)
What epidemiological and clinical impact does the disease or infection have?
How can the infection or disease be prevented?
Note. Feel free to modify the template by changing font sizes and colors and adding
graphics or pictures. If, however, you use graphics or pictures, please be sure to cite their
sources according to APA standards. Formatting help is available
at http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/default.aspx

SCI 250 Week 6 Respiratory System Lab and Quiz


Complete the Respiratory System Lab.
Complete the open-book quiz about the respiratory system and associated diseases.
The quiz will be provided by your instructor.
Respiratory System Lab Week Six
INTRODUCTION
The respiratory system consists of the upper respiratory tract (the nasal cavity, pharynx,
larynx, trachea, and bronchi) and the lower respiratory tract (the lungs). As you learn
about the various diseases that affect the respiratory system, it is important for you to
understand the structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to
become familiar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to both the
upper and lower respiratory tracts.

PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONS


Provide brief answers to the following questions to help you get acquainted with the basic
functions of a healthy respiratory system. Refer to Ch. 21 in Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations.

1. How do body reflexes like coughing and sneezing help prevent or fight infection?
2. What role do cilia play in maintaining a healthy respiratory system?
3. Compare normal microflora of the upper respiratory tract with normal microflora of the
lower respiratory tract.
PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURES
Visit Chapter 21 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth
presentation of a healthy respiratory system by completing the following steps:
Select the Chapter 21 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.
Locate the heading Chapter Review.
Select the Anatomy Overview: The Respiratory System link.
Complete this lab as you explore the Respiratory System multimedia piece.
Overview
Roll over each component of the Conducting and Respiratory portions of the Respiratory
System multimedia piece. Take note of how the preserved trachea and lung photograph on
the left compares to the illustrated diagram on the right.
Upper Respiratory System (Conducting Portion: Nasal Cavity)
Roll over and click either the nasal cavity or pharynx components of the Conducting portion
of the Respiratory System multimedia piece to navigate to the Nasal Cavity. Refer to Nasal
Cavity component of the multimedia piece and Ch. 21, Figure 21.8 in Microbiology: Principles
and Explorations to label the structures in the following diagram of a healthy upper respiratory
system.

Type answer
here.

Type answer here.

Type
here.

answer

Lower Respiratory System (Respiratory Portion: Lungs)


Click the icon in the upper left corner of the Nasal Cavity diagram to return to the main menu
in the Respiratory System multimedia piece. Click the lungs component of the Respiratory
Portion to navigate to the Lung diagram. Refer to Lung diagram of the multimedia piece and
Ch. 21, Figure 21.1 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations to label the structures in the
following diagrams of a healthy lower respiratory system. Please note: The first diagram that
follows is found only in Ch. 21, Figure 21.1, and not in the Lung component of the multimedia
piece.

Type answer here.


Type
here.

answer

Type answer here.

Type
here.

answer

Type
here.

answer

Type
here.

answer

Type answer here.

PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLY


Visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Access the Public Diseases &
Conditions A-Z Index at http://www.cdc.gov/DiseasesConditions/ Scroll down to the section
titled Top Requested Diseases & Conditions. Review the list of diseases about that the
general public is most frequently requesting information about. You will notice some familiar
diseases from your assigned readings. Click on at least one microbe-related respiratory
system disease and complete the following activity.
Read the information on the CDC site and provide a brief, 1-2 paragraph summary of the
respiratory illness. Include in your description:

The respiratory illness

The microbe causing the illness

Which structures of the respiratory system are affectedUse one or more structures
included in Part Two.

Who is at risk

How serious the disease is

[Type your paragraph in the space below]

Section: Matching (Highlight or indicate the correct response)

.25 points each

question
1. Catarrhal stage with fever, sneezing, vomiting, and mild cough; paroxysmal stage with
ropy mucus and violent cough; convalescent stage with mild cough

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respirator syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory disease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

2. Inflammation of bronchi or alveoli of lungs with fluid accumulation and fever

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory disease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

3. Inflammation of the lungs, fever, chills, headache, diarrhea, vomiting, and fluid in lungs

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary disease

Acute respiratory disease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

4. Tubercles in lungs and sometimes in other tissues; organisms can persist in walled-off
lesions and be reactivated

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory disease

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

5. Viruses subject to antigenic variation, with new strains causing epidemics; inflammation of
oropharyngeal membranes, fever, malaise, muscle pain, cough, nasal discharge, and
gastroenteritis

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory disease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

6. Febrile disease of the respiratory tract; can cause viral pneumonia

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory disease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

7. Fever, kidney abnormalities; in severe cases shock, bleeding, and pulmonary edema

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory disease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

8. Mild cough and nasal discharge; can cause viral pneumonia

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory disease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

9. Granulomatous lesions in lungs and spleen in susceptible individuals; can cause


pneumonia

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory disease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Apsergillosis

10. Usually a mild pulmonary disease; pneumonia and dissemination to meninges can occur

Whooping cough

Classic pneumonia

Legionnaires' disease

Tuberculosis

Influenza

Respiratory syncytial virus infection

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

Acute respiratory diesease

Histoplasmosis

Cryptococcosis

Aspergillosis

SCI 250 Week 6 Cardiovascular System Lab and Quiz


Complete the Cardiovascular System Lab.
Complete the open-book quiz about the cardiovascular system and associated diseases.
The quiz will be provided by your instructor
Cardiovascular System Lab Week Six
INTRODUCTION
The cardiovascular system consists of blood, blood vessels, and the heart. As you learn about
the various diseases that affect the cardiovascular system, it is important for you to
understand the structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to become

familiar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to this system.
PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONS
Provide brief answers to the following questions to help you get acquainted with the basic
functions of a healthy cardiovascular system. Refer to Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations.
5. What are the main functions of the cardiovascular system?
6. Which types of bacteria are considered normal cardiovascular system microflora?
7. Which structure of the cardiovascular system is particularly susceptible to bacterial
infection?
PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURES
Refer to Ch. 23 in Microbiology: Principles and Explorations to help you identify the selected
cardiovascular system structures in the following diagram.

Type answer here.


Type answer here.

Type answer here.

Type answer here.

Type answer here.

Type answer here.


Type answer here.

Type answer here.

Visit Chapter 23 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth


presentation of a healthy cardiovascular system by completing the following steps:
Select the Chapter 23 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.
Locate the heading Chapter Review.
Select the Anatomy Overview: The Cardiovascular System link.
Complete this lab as you explore the Cardiovascular System multimedia piece.

Cardiovascular System: The Heart


Roll over each component of the Cardiovascular System multimedia piece. Roll over and click
the heart. Refer to the Heart component of the multimedia piece and Ch. 23 in Microbiology:
Principles and Explorations to label the structures in the following diagrams of a healthy
cardiovascular system.

Type answer here.

Type answer here.

Type
here.

answer

Type
here.

answer

Type
here.

answer

Type answer here.

PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLY


Select one of the following diseases related to the cardiovascular system, discussed in Ch. 23
of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations:

Rheumatic fever

Bacterial endocarditis

Describe the causal agent of the selected disease, mode of transmission, disease
characteristics, and the component(s) of the cardiovascular system that are damaged by the
disease.

Type answer here.

[Type your response below]


Section: Multiple Choice
1. The normal microflora of the heart includes species of ________

Gram-positive bacteria.

Gram-negative bacteria.

fungi.

viruses.

None of the above

2. What causes septic shock?

Staphylococcus aureus

Any organism growing in the bloodstream

Lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria

Teichoic acids from Gram-positive bacteria

None of the above

3. What organism can cause cutaneous infections and can be transmitted by endospores?

Staphylococcus aureus

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Yersinia pestis

Bacillus anthracis

Streptococcus pyogenes

4. A pathogen of both humans and cattle that causes undulant fever is a member of the
genus ________

Yersinia.

Borellia.

Brucella.

Pediculus.

Streptococcus.

5. Both deer and black-legged ticks are involved in the transmission of the agent of Lyme
disease, which is caused by ________

Ixodes scapularis.

Borrelia burgdorferi.

Rickettsia akari.

Bartonella bacilliformis.

Yersinia pestis.

6. A tumor of the jaw and viscera (Burkitt's lymphoma) occurs approximately six years after
a primary infection with what virus?

Yellow fever virus

Rift Valley fever virus

Ebola virus

Dengue virus

Epstein-Barr virus

7. Filoviruses have an unusual shape that may be U- or fishhook-shaped. One disease


caused by a filovirus is ________

yellow fever virus.

Rift Valley fever virus.

Epstein-Barr virus.

Ebola virus.

dengue virus.

8. A childhood disease (fifth disease) is caused by ________

Epstein-Barr virus.

Coxsackie viruses.

Streptococcus pyogenes.

Staphylococcus aureus.

Erythrovirus B19.

9. The presence of a single gene for sickle-cell anemia protects individuals against malaria
by ________

neutralizing the toxin produced by malarial parasites.

preventing malarial parasites from growing in erythrocytes.

stimulating the individual to produce an excess of red blood cells.

interfering with the ability of mosquitoes to detect individuals.

coding for antibodies against the malarial parasite.

10. Mild lymph node inflammation in adults; can cross placenta and cause serious damage to
nervous system of fetus; also causes damage in small children and immunosuppressed
patients

Dengue fever

Yellow fever

Infectious mononucleosis

Malaria

Toxoplasmosis

SCI 250 Week 7 Nervous System Lab and Quiz


Complete the Nervous System Lab.

Complete the open-book quiz about the nervous system and associated diseases. The
quiz will be provided by your instructor.
Nervous System Lab Week Seven
INTRODUCTION
The nervous system has two components: the central nervous system, which consists of the
brain and spinal chord; and the peripheral nervous system, which is composed of nerves. As
you learn about the various diseases that affect the nervous system, it is important for you to
understand the structures that can be affected by disease. Complete this lab to become
familiar with a healthy system and to identify diseases related to the brain, spinal chord, and
nerves.
PART ONE: BASIC FUNCTIONS
Provide brief answers to the following questions to help you get acquainted with the basic
functions of a healthy nervous system. Refer to Ch. 24 in Microbiology: Principles and
Explorations.
4. How do the meninges and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) function together in a healthy
nervous system; what are their roles?
5. What is the blood-brain barrier?
6. What normal microflora reside in the nervous system?
PART TWO: BASIC STRUCTURES
Visit Chapter 24 of Microbiology: Principles and Explorations in WileyPlus to view an in-depth
presentation of a healthy nervous system by completing the following steps:
Select the Chapter 24 WileyPlus reading link located on your student Web page.
Locate the heading Chapter Review.
Select the Anatomy Overview: The Nervous System link.
Complete this lab as you explore the Nervous System multimedia piece.
Nervous System: The Brain
Roll over each component of the Nervous System multimedia piece. Click on the brain. Refer
to the Brain component of the multimedia piece to label the structures in the following diagram
of a healthy brain.

Type answer here.


Type answer here.

BONUS: Meninges

Type answer here.

Nervous System: The Spinal Cord


Click the icon in the upper left corner of the Brain diagram to return to the main menu in the
Nervous System multimedia piece. Click the Spinal Cord component to navigate to the
Spinal Cord diagram. Refer to the Spinal Cord diagram of the multimedia piece to label the
following structures of a healthy spinal cord.
Type
here.

answer

Type answer here.

PART THREE: INVESTIGATE AND APPLY


Several different pathogenic bacteria can cause bacterial meningitis, an infection and
inflammation of the meninges. Select any form of bacterial meningitis discussed in Ch. 24 of
Microbiology: Principles and Explorations, and answer the following:
1. Which form of bacterial meningitis did you select and what is its causal agent?

2. What symptoms are typical of this form of meningitis?


3. Which age group or population is most susceptible to this form of meningitis and do
typical activities within that age group have any influence on a person contracting the
disease?

SCI250 Week 7 Chapter 24 Nervous System Quiz each question worth .25 point (10

questions x .25 point per question = total 2.5 points


10/10 Correct
Section: Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following is associated with serious infection of the meninges?

Clogging of blood vessels

Increased pressure within the skull

Decreased cerebrospinal fluid flow

Impaired central nervous system function

All of the above

2. Which of the following is a common cause of meningitis in non-immunized young


children?

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Escherichia coli

Staphylococcus

Haemophilus influenzae

None of the above

3. Which of the following bacteria that may cause meningitis is Gram positive and therefore
does not cause endotoxin shock in infected individuals?

Escherichia coli

Neisseria meningitidis

Listeria monocytogenes

Haemophilus influenzae

None of the above

4. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) has replaced the older test for the presence of
inclusions in neurons (Negri bodies) for the detection of infections caused by ________

Neisseria meningitides.

Enteroviruses.

Mumps virus.

Rabies virus.

Haemophilus influenzae.

5. What viruses most likely cause encephalitis?

Togaviruses

Enteroviruses

Mumps virus

Rabies virus

Hepatitis viruses

6. What is the only bacterium known to damage peripheral nerves?

Naegleria fowleri

Mycobacterium leprae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Neisseria meningitidis

Haemophilus influenzae

7. Preventing African sleeping sickness is nearly impossible because ________

the trypanosomes change their surface glycoproteins evading the host immune
response.

the tsetse fly has a wide range and eradication is difficult.

vaccines must target many antigens.

All of the above

A and B

8. A major difference between infections with prions and other agents is that infections with
prions:

Do not lead to an inflammatory response

Are not transmissible

Do not cause an increase in the size of astrocytes

Are not fatal

All of the above

9. Invades nerves and brain; headache, fever, nausea, partial paralysis, coma, and death
ensue unless patient has immunity

Bacterial meningitis

Listeriosis

Rabies

Encephalitis

Hansen's disease

Tetanus

Botulism

Pliomyelitis

Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

Chagas' disease

10. Shrinkage and lysis of neurons of the central nervous system; headache, fever, and
sometimes brain necrosis and convulsions

Bacterial meningitis

Listeriosis

Rabies

Encephalitis

Hansen's disease

Tetanus

Botulism

Poliomyelitis

Transmissable spongiform encephalopathies

Chagas' disease

SCI 250 Week 7 Final Exam


Complete the final exam. The final exam will be provided by your instructor.
SCI250 Week 7 Final Examination each question worth .5 point (20 questions x .5
point totals 10 points)

20/20 Correct
Section: Multiple Choice
1. Which of the following is NOT true of microorganisms?

They produce antibiotics.

They are used in the production of many types of food and beverages.

They decompose dead animals.

They all cause disease in humans.

2. Which of the following is NOT one of the phases of bacterial growth?

lag phase

stationary phase

doubling phase

log phase

3. Which of the following is NOT a differential stain?

Gram stain

Schaeffer-Fulton

acid-fast stain

flagellar stain

4. In a properly executed Gram stain, Gram positive organisms appear ______ while Gram
negative organisms appear ______

pink, clear.

pink, purple.

purple, pink.

purple, blue.

5. Classification is necessary to _________

establish criteria for identifying organisms.

arrange related organisms into groups.

provide information about how organisms evolved.

All of the above

6. An organism that lives at the expense of another organism is a ________

host.

commensal.

parasite.

symbiont.

7. Undercooked pork is most likely to pass along ________

Schistosoma.

Tania.

Wuchereria.

Trichinella.

8. Arthropods are responsible for transmitting _____ pathogens.

viral

bacterial

protozoan

viral, bacterial, and protozoan

9. All of the following are true of the relationship between microorganisms and diseases
EXCEPT:

Sickle cell anemia patients are resistant to malaria.

Bacterial infections can lead to endocarditis.

Viral infections invariably lead to nutritional deficiency.

Infections in the brain can result in mental disease.

10. Which of the following represents the correct order of steps in a typical viruses replication
cycle?

Maturation, adsorption, penetration, release

Adsorption, penetration, release, maturation

Adsorption, penetration, synthesis, maturation

Adsorption, penetration, maturation, synthesis

11. What special group of chemical substances are used to treat diseases by microbes?

Antibiotics

Synthetic drugs

Semi-synthetic drugs

Antimicrobial agents

Chemotherapeutic agents

12. Which of the following is NOT considered a mode of action by antimicrobial agents?

Action as an antimetabolite

Inhibition of protein synthesis

Inhibition of cell wall sysnthesis

Inhibition of membrane permeability

Disruption of selective toxicity

13. All of the following characteristics are components of nonspecific host defenses EXCEPT:

Fever

Mucus

Antibodies

Interferon

Inflammation

14. What name is given to a substance that is recognized by the body as foreign and
normally produces an immune response?

Antibody

Antigen

Agglutinin

Antitoxin

Apoptosis

15. There are a number of different species that can live on the skin as resident microflora.
Which of the following is NOT considered resident microflora of the skin?

Staphylococcus

Corynebacterium

E. coli

Demodex

All of the above

16. Defense mechanisms in the urogenital system are numerous and include ________

normal flora complete with opportunists.

sphincter muscles.

flushing action of fluids.

low pH.

All of the above

17. Food poisoning can be caused by a variety of microbes. Which of the following pairs is
incorrect?

Clostridium botulinum enterotoxin which is heat liable

Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin which is heat stable

Pseudomonas cocovenenans bongkrek disease

Bacillus cereus toxin is an emetic

Clostridium perfringens enterotoxin and wound infection

18. Group B Streptococcal disease include ________

early onset neonatal sepsis and meningitis.

late onset neonatal meningitis.

etiology is Streptococcus agalactiae

All of the above

Only A and C

19. In closed environments, such as military bases, dormitories, and day-care centers, 90%
of the population can be carriers of this organism, yet only 1 per 1000 develops the
meningitis. What is the etiology?

Neisseria meningitidis

Haemophilus influenzae

Haemophilus influenzae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Listeria monocytogenes

20. Food contamination occurs as a result of ________

unsanitary practices by food handlers.

improper storage.

importation.

All of the above

Only A and B