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/* Program to implement an array. */


#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#define MAX 5
void insert ( int *, int pos, int num ) ;
void del ( int *, int pos ) ;
void reverse ( int * ) ;
void display ( int * ) ;
void search ( int *, int num ) ;
void main( )
{
int arr[5] ;
clrscr( ) ;
insert ( arr, 1, 11 ) ;
insert ( arr, 2, 12 ) ;
insert ( arr, 3, 13 ) ;
insert ( arr, 4, 14 ) ;
insert ( arr, 5, 15 ) ;
printf ( "\nElements of Array: " ) ;
display ( arr ) ;
del ( arr, 5 ) ;
del ( arr, 2 ) ;
printf ( "\n\nAfter deletion: " ) ;
display ( arr ) ;
insert ( arr, 2, 222 ) ;
insert ( arr, 5, 555 ) ;
printf ( "\n\nAfter insertion: " ) ;
display ( arr ) ;
reverse ( arr ) ;
printf ( "\n\nAfter reversing: " ) ;
display ( arr ) ;
search ( arr, 222 ) ;
search ( arr, 666 ) ;
getch( ) ;
}
/* inserts an element num at given position pos */
void insert ( int *arr, int pos, int num )
{
/* shift elements to right */
int i ;
for ( i = MAX - 1 ; i >= pos ; i-- )
arr[i] = arr[i - 1] ;
arr[i] = num ;
}
/* deletes an element from the given position pos */
void del ( int *arr, int pos )
{
/* skip to the desired position */
int i ;
for ( i = pos ; i < MAX ; i++ )
arr[i - 1] = arr[i] ;

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arr[i - 1] = 0 ;
}
/* reverses the entire array */
void reverse ( int *arr )
{
int i ;
for ( i = 0 ; i < MAX / 2 ; i++ )
{
int temp = arr[i] ;
arr[i] = arr[MAX - 1 - i] ;
arr[MAX - 1 - i] = temp ;
}
}
/* searches array for a given element num */
void search ( int *arr, int num )
{
/* Traverse the array */
int i ;
for ( i = 0 ; i < MAX ; i++ )
{
if ( arr[i] == num )
{
printf ( "\n\nThe element %d is present at %dth position.", num,
i+1);
return ;
}
}
if ( i == MAX )
printf ( "\n\nThe element %d is not present in the array.", num ) ;
}
/* displays the contents of a array */
void display ( int *arr )
{
/* traverse the entire array */
int i ;
printf ( "\n" ) ;
for ( i = 0 ; i < MAX ; i++ )
printf ( "%d\t", arr[i] ) ;
}
/*Program to merge two 1-D arrays. */
#include <stdio.h>

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#include <conio.h>
#include <alloc.h>
#define MAX1 5
#define MAX2 7
int *arr ;
int* create ( int ) ;
void sort ( int *, int ) ;
void display ( int *, int ) ;
int* merge ( int *, int * ) ;
void main( )
{
int *a, *b, *c ;
clrscr( ) ;
printf ( "\nEnter elements for first array: \n\n" ) ;
a = create ( MAX1 ) ;
printf ( "\nEnter elements for second array: \n\n" ) ;
b = create ( MAX2 ) ;
sort ( a, MAX1 ) ;
sort ( b, MAX2 ) ;
printf ( "\nFirst array: \n" ) ;
display ( a, MAX1 ) ;
printf ( "\n\nSecond array: \n" ) ;
display ( b, MAX2 ) ;
printf ( "\n\nAfter Merging: \n" ) ;
c = merge ( a, b ) ;
display ( c, MAX1 + MAX2 ) ;
getch( ) ;
}
/* creates array of given size, dynamically */
int* create ( int size )
{
int *arr, i ;
arr = ( int * ) malloc ( sizeof ( int ) * size ) ;
for ( i = 0 ; i < size ; i++ )
{
printf ( "Enter the element no. %d: ", i + 1 ) ;
scanf ( "%d", &arr[i] ) ;
}
return arr ;
}
/* sorts array in ascending order */
void sort ( int *arr, int size )
{

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int i, temp, j ;
for ( i = 0 ; i < size ; i++ )
{
for ( j = i + 1 ; j < size ; j++ )
{
if ( arr[i] > arr[j] )
{
temp = arr[i] ;
arr[i] = arr[j] ;
arr[j] = temp ;
}
}
}
}
/* displays the contents of array */
void display ( int *arr, int size )
{
int i ;
for ( i = 0 ; i < size ; i++)
printf ( "%d\t", arr[i] ) ;
}
/* merges two arrays of different size */
int* merge ( int *a, int *b )
{
int *arr ;
int i, k, j ;
int size = MAX1 + MAX2 ;
arr = ( int * ) malloc ( sizeof ( int ) * ( size ) ) ;
for ( k = 0, j = 0, i = 0 ; i <= size ; i++ )
{
if ( a[k] < b[j] )
{
arr[i] = a[k] ;
k++ ;
if ( k >= MAX1 )
{
for ( i++ ; j < MAX2 ; j++, i++ )
arr[i] = b[j] ;
}
}
else
{

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arr[i] = b[j] ;
j++ ;
if ( j >= MAX2 )
{
for ( i++ ; k < MAX1 ; k++, i++ )
arr[i] = a[k] ;
}
}
}
return arr ;
}
/* Program to perform some basic operations on string. */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <string.h>
int xstrlen ( char * ) ;
void xstrcpy ( char *, char * ) ;
void xstrcat ( char *, char * ) ;
int xstrcmp ( char *, char * ) ;
void show ( char * ) ;
void main( )
{
char s1[ ] = "kicit" ;
char s2[ ] = "Nagpur" ;
char s3[20] ;
int len ;
clrscr( ) ;
printf ( "\nString s1: %s", s1 ) ;
len = xstrlen ( s1 ) ;
printf ( "\nlength of the string s1: %d", len ) ;
printf ( "\nString s2: %s", s2 ) ;
xstrcpy ( s3, s1 ) ;
printf ( "\nString s3 after copying s1 to it: %s", s3 ) ;
xstrcat ( s3, s2 ) ;
printf ( "\nString s3 after concatenation: %s", s3 ) ;
if ( xstrcmp ( s1, s2 ) == 0 )
printf ( "\nThe strings s1 and s2 are similar" ) ;
else
printf ( "\nThe strings s1 and s2 are not similar" ) ;

getch( ) ;
}
/* finds the length of the string */
int xstrlen ( char *s )
{
int l = 0 ;
while ( *s )
{
l++ ;
s++ ;
}
return l ;
}
/* copies source string s to the target string t */
void xstrcpy ( char *t, char *s )
{
while ( *s )
{
*t = *s ;
t++ ;
s++ ;
}
*t = '\0' ;
}
/* concatenates the two strings */
void xstrcat ( char *t, char *s )
{
while ( *t )
t++ ;
while ( *s )
*t++ = *s++ ;
*t = '\0' ;
}
/* compares two strings s and t for equality */
int xstrcmp ( char *s, char *t )
{
while ( *s == *t )
{
if ( ! ( *s ) )
return 0 ;
s++ ;
t++ ;
}

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return ( *s - *t ) ;
}
/* Program to maintain a linked list */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <conio.h>
#include <alloc.h>
/* structure containing a data part and link part */
struct node
{
int data ;
struct node * link ;
};
void append ( struct node **, int ) ;
void addatbeg ( struct node **, int ) ;
void addafter ( struct node *, int, int ) ;
void display ( struct node * ) ;
int count ( struct node * ) ;
void delete ( struct node **, int ) ;
void main( )
{
struct node *p ;
p = NULL ; /* empty linked list */
printf ( "\nNo. of elements in the Linked List = %d", count ( p ) ) ;
append ( &p, 14 ) ; append ( &p, 30 ) ;
append ( &p, 25 ) ; append ( &p, 42 ) ;
append ( &p, 17 ) ; display ( p ) ;
addatbeg ( &p, 999 ) ;
addatbeg ( &p, 888 ) ;
addatbeg ( &p, 777 ) ;
display ( p ) ;
addafter ( p, 7, 0 ) ;
addafter ( p, 2, 1 ) ;
addafter ( p, 5, 99 ) ;
display ( p ) ;
printf ( "\nNo. of elements in the Linked List = %d", count ( p ) ) ;
delete ( &p, 99 ) ; delete ( &p, 1 ) ;
delete ( &p, 10 ) ;
display ( p ) ;
printf ( "\nNo. of elements in the Linked List = %d", count ( p ) ) ;
}
/* adds a node at the end of a linked list */
void append ( struct node **q, int num )
{
struct node *temp, *r ;
if ( *q == NULL ) /* if the list is empty, create first node */
{
temp = malloc ( sizeof ( struct node ) ) ;

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temp -> data = num ;
temp -> link = NULL ;
*q = temp ;
}
else
{
temp = *q ;
/* go to last node */
while ( temp -> link != NULL )
temp = temp -> link ;
/* add node at the end */
r = malloc ( sizeof ( struct node ) ) ;
r -> data = num ;
r -> link = NULL ;
temp -> link = r ;
}
}
/* adds a new node at the beginning of the linked list */
void addatbeg ( struct node **q, int num )
{
struct node *temp ;
/* add new node */
temp = malloc ( sizeof ( struct node ) ) ;
temp -> data = num ;
temp -> link = *q ;
*q = temp ;
}
/* adds a new node after the specified number of nodes */
void addafter ( struct node *q, int loc, int num )
{
struct node *temp, *r ;
int i ;
temp = q ;
/* skip to desired portion */
for ( i = 0 ; i < loc ; i++ )
{
temp = temp -> link ;
/* if end of linked list is encountered */

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if ( temp == NULL )
{
printf ( "\nThere are less than %d elements in list", loc ) ;
return ;
}
}
/* insert new node */
r = malloc ( sizeof ( struct node ) ) ;
r -> data = num ;
r -> link = temp -> link ;
temp -> link = r ;
}
/* displays the contents of the linked list */
void display ( struct node *q )
{
printf ( "\n" ) ;
/* traverse the entire linked list */
while ( q != NULL )
{
printf ( "%d ", q -> data ) ;
q = q -> link ;
}
}
/* counts the number of nodes present in the linked list */
int count ( struct node * q )
{
int c = 0 ;
/* traverse the entire linked list */
while ( q != NULL )
{
q = q -> link ;
c++ ;
}
return c ;
}
/* deletes the specified node from the linked list */
void delete ( struct node **q, int num )
{
struct node *old, *temp ;
temp = *q ;
while ( temp != NULL )
{

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if ( temp -> data == num )
{
/* if node to be deleted is the first node in the linked list */
if ( temp == *q )
*q = temp -> link ;
/* deletes the intermediate nodes in the linked list */
else
old -> link = temp -> link ;
/* free the memory occupied by the node */
free ( temp ) ;
return ;
}
/* traverse the linked list till the last node is reached */
else
{
old = temp ; /* old points to the previous node */
temp = temp -> link ; /* go to the next node */
}
}
printf ( "\nElement %d not found", num ) ;
}