You are on page 1of 138

PRIMARY

Social
Science
TEACHERS RESOURCE BOOK

PRIMARY

Social Science
TEACHERS RESOURCE BOOK

TEACHERS RESOURCE BOOK


Social Science 3 is a collective work, conceived,
designed and created by the Primary Education
department at Santillana, under the supervision
of Teresa Grence Ruiz.

PRIMARY

Social
Science
WRITER
Cristina Quincy
MANAGING EDITOR
Sheila Tourle
EDITOR
James Price
PROOFREADING
Saffron Frankland
Vassilia Katte
Beatriz Garca Hiplito

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Natural Science 2

Contents
Nombre

Fecha

Introduction ...................................................................................................... III

Worksheets
Planet Earth ........................................................................................................ 6
Representing the Earth ....................................................................................... 14
The continents .................................................................................................... 22
The continent of Europe ..................................................................................... 30
Spanish territory ................................................................................................. 38
Air ...................................................................................................................... 46
Water ................................................................................................................. 54
Landscapes ........................................................................................................ 62
The landscapes of Spain .................................................................................... 70
Rivers in Spain .................................................................................................... 78
Villages and towns .............................................................................................. 86
Jobs in nature ..................................................................................................... 94
Jobs in industry and services .............................................................................. 102
The past ............................................................................................................. 110
Prehistory to the Middle Ages ............................................................................. 118
The Modern Age and Contemporary History ....................................................... 126

Introduction

Social Science 3 Teachers Resource Book


provides a wide variety of photocopiable worksheets
designed to complement Social Science 3
Students Book and Social Science 3 Teachers
Book. It is divided into 16 topics in order to cover the
main concepts of both the National Curriculum and
the curriculum established by the Community
of Madrid.
These worksheets facilitate a flexible approach in
the classroom. Students in the same class can be
given different worksheets. Students can expand
on the material learnt in class. Or they can use the
worksheets to revise. These worksheets can also be
assigned as homework.
There are four categories of worksheets:
Reinforcement, Extension, Assessment and tests,
and Investigate.
Answer keys are provided in the Aula Virtual and
on the website: http://www.evocacion.es

Worksheets
Reinforcement worksheets
There are two pages of Reinforcement worksheets for each topic. These worksheets are designed to
provide additional support for students in need of further practice. They can be used after the relevant
section in the Students Book, before the Final activities sections, or as extra preparation for the
Unit assessment. Students can complete the worksheets with or without consulting their Students Books,
in the classroom or at home, individually or in pairs.
Planet Earth

REINFORCEMENT

Name
1

REINFORCEMENT

Date

Label the inner planets in blue and the outer planets in red.

Colour the half of the Earth where it


is day in yellow, and the half where
it is night in grey.
WhichofEarthsmovements
causesdayandnight?

Sun

Complete the text.

TheEarthsr

causesdayandnight.Duringthismovement,
.IttakestheEarth

theEarthrotatesanticlockwiseonitsa
24h
2

a. WhatistheSun?
b. Whendoesacomethaveabrighttail?

d. Whatisthedifferencebetweenaplanetandasatellite?

tomakeacompleteo

causesthefours

Draw the phases of the Moon.

newMoon

waxingMoon

fullMoon

waningMoon

Match to make sentences about the Earth.


a. WecallEarththeblueplanet

givesitthecorrectamountoflightand
heatforlifetoexist.

b. Earthsatmosphere

becausemostofitssurfaceiscovered
withwater.

c. EarthsdistancefromtheSun

protectsitfromtheSunsharmfulrays.

Read and write the correct layer of the Earth.

a. TheMoonisanatural/artificialsatelliteofEarth.

hesolidpartoftheEarth.Itcontainsthe
T
continentsandislands.

heliquidpartofourplanet.Itcontainsthe
T
seas,oceans,rivers,lakesandgroundwater.

helayerofairthatsurroundstheEarth.It
T
containstheclouds.

b.

b. TheMoonorbitstheSun/Earth.
c. IttakestheMoon28/365daystomakeonecompleteorbitaroundtheEarth.
SocialScience3

a.

Circle the correct word in each sentence.

.This
:spring,summer,autumn

andwinter.

c. WhatisthenameofEarthsnaturalsatellite?

.IttakestheEarthone

EarthrevolvesaroundtheS

Answer the questions.

tomakeonecompleterotation.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

c.

SocialScience3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ES0000000023514 657159_Unidad 01_41481.indd 6-7

7
18/1/16 13:07

Extension worksheets
There are two pages of Extension worksheets for each topic. These worksheets can be used for fast
finishers or to expand on the material covered in class.

Planet Earth
Name

Planet Earth

EXTENSION

Date

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The space age

Laika the space dog

The space age began in 1946 when


scientists used rockets to study the
atmosphere. It wasnt until 1957,
however, that the Soviet Union
launched the first artificial satellite.
Its name was Sputnik 1.

At first, many experts believed that humans could


not survive a rocket launch, and could never live in
the hostile conditions of outer space. Before
human astronauts could fly, scientists needed to
discover how outer space affected living things.
So, they trained a dog named Laika as an
astronaut. One month after Sputnik 1 went into
space, Laika travelled to space on the satellite
Sputnik 2. The Soviets sent 12 more dogs after
Laika. Finally, in 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the
first human astronaut in space. Since then, more
than 500 people from all over the world have been
into space... all thanks to just one little dog!

Nowadays we have over 500,000


man-made objects orbiting our
planet! Most of these objects are
very small pieces of space debris.
These are man-made objects and
rubbish left in space from nearly
60 years of space exploration.
Among these objects, there are over 1,000 working satellites that we use for different
things, such as predicting the weather, tracking hurricanes, photographing our galaxy,
communicating by TV and telephone and navigating with GPS.

Read the text. Then put the events from the text in order on the timeline.
Sputnik 1 12 dog astronauts Yuri Gagarin Laika (Sputnik 2)

Read the text and answer the questions.

over 500
astronauts
in space

The space
age starts

a. When did the space age begin?


b. What was the name of the first artificial satellite?
1946

c. What is space debris?

1957

1961

d. Give an example of one way people use satellites every day.


2

Imagine you are an astronaut in outer space. Draw what you see out of the window
and complete the sentence.
I can see

Search the Internet for satellite images of the Earth. Then, write what you can
see in the images.

.
8

Social Science 3

ES0000000023514 657159_Unidad 01_41481.indd 8

IV

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

18/1/16 13:08

ES0000000023514 657159_Unidad 01_41481.indd 9

Social Science 3

9
18/1/16 13:08

Assessment worksheets
There are two pages of Assessment worksheets for each topic. They can be given out once
the topic has been completed, as a revision test, or to check progress during the year.
Planet Earth

ASSESSMENT

Name
1

Date

ASSESSMENT

Name the celestial bodies.

Write definitions for these words.

c. planet

d. satellite

10

1
4

9
2

a. solar system
b. star

Complete the table.


Planets
Inner planets

Outer planets

1.

6.

2.

7.

3.

Write three characteristics that make the Earth unique.

Label the layers of the Earth.

8.

4.

9.

5.

10.

Label the phases of the Moon.

Draw the Earths movement that causes the seasons.

hydrosphere
geosphere

Whatisthismovementcalled?

atmosphere

10

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ES0000000023514 657159_Unidad 01_41481.indd 10-11

11
18/1/16 13:08

Tests and Investigate


There is a multiple-choice test for each topic. The tests provide students with the opportunity to revise
the main concepts of each topic and to assess the knowledge they have acquired.
There is one Investigate worksheet for each topic. These worksheets provide opportunities
for students to carry out simple investigative tasks, either in the classroom or at home.

Planet Earth

Planet Earth

TEST

Name

Date

The solar system is made up of


a. the Moon and the celestial bodies that orbit it.

2. Choose one planet and complete the index card for your planet.

Earths only natural satellite is


a. the Sun.

b. Venus.

Make a class wallchart of our solar system.

1. Work in eight groups.

c. the Sun and the celestial bodies that orbit it.

Date

Instructions

b. the stars and eight planets.

INVESTIGATE

Name

Name:

c. the Moon.

It is an:

Earths rotation causes

inner planet.

a. the seasons.

outer planet.

(draw a picture)

How many satellites has it got?

b. the phases of the Moon.


c. day and night.
4

Earths movement around the Sun is called


a. revolution.

a. rotation.
6

b. 365 days

c. revolution.
It is made up of:
rock.

c. 28 days

b. it is a planet.

gas.

What other special characteristics has it got?

c. it has no oxygen.

The Earth is surrounded by


a. the poles.

b. orbit.

One of the reasons that there is life on Earth is because


a. it has water.

What are its movements?

c. rotation.

The Moon takes ... to orbit the Earth.


a. one day

b. seasons.

Earth takes 24 hours to make one complete

b. a layer of air.

3. Hang a large piece of paper on the classroom wall. Draw the Sun on the left side
and glue your index cards next to it in the correct order.

c. the geosphere.

Our Earth consists of three layers:


a. hydrosphere, geosphere and atmosphere.
b. Antarctica, geosphere and continents.
c. atmosphere, oceans and continents.

10 Clouds form in the

a. geosphere.
12

Social Science 3

ES0000000023514 657159_Unidad 01_41481.indd 12

b. oceans.

c. atmosphere.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

18/1/16 13:08

ES0000000023514 657159_Unidad 01_41481.indd 13

Social Science 3

13
18/1/16 13:08

Planet Earth

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Label the inner planets in blue and the outer planets in red.

2 Answer the questions.

a. What is the Sun? 


b. When does a comet have a bright tail? 
c. What is the name of Earths natural satellite? 
d. What is the difference between a planet and a satellite? 

3 Draw the phases of the Moon.

new Moon

waxing Moon

full Moon

waning Moon

4 Circle the correct word in each sentence.

a. The Moon is a natural / artificial satellite of Earth.


b. The Moon orbits the Sun / Earth.
c. It takes the Moon 28 / 365 days to make one complete orbit around the Earth.
6

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

5 Colour the half of the Earth where it


is day in yellow, and the half where
it is night in grey.

Which of Earths movements


causes day and night?

Sun

6 Complete the text.

The Earths r

causes day and night. During this movement,

the Earth rotates anticlockwise on its a


24 h

. It takes the Earth

to make one complete rotation.

Earth revolves around the S

. It takes the Earth one

to make a complete o

causes the four s

. This
: spring, summer, autumn

and winter.
7 Match to make sentences about the Earth.

a. We call Earth the blue planet gives it the correct amount of light and
heat for life to exist.
b. Earths atmosphere because most of its surface is covered
with water.
c. Earths distance from the Sun

protects it from the Suns harmful rays.

8 Read and write the correct layer of the Earth.

a.

The solid part of the Earth. It contains the


continents and islands.

b.

The liquid part of our planet. It contains the


seas, oceans, rivers, lakes and groundwater.

c.

The layer of air that surrounds the Earth. It


contains the clouds.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

Planet Earth
Name

EXTENSION

Date

The space age


The space age began in 1946 when
scientists used rockets to study the
atmosphere. It wasnt until 1957,
however, that the Soviet Union
launched the first artificial satellite.
Its name was Sputnik 1.
Nowadays we have over 500,000
man-made objects orbiting our
planet! Most of these objects are
very small pieces of space debris.
These are man-made objects and
rubbish left in space from nearly
60 years of space exploration.
Among these objects, there are over 1,000 working satellites that we use for different
things, such as predicting the weather, tracking hurricanes, photographing our galaxy,
communicating by TV and telephone and navigating with GPS.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. When did the space age begin? 


b. What was the name of the first artificial satellite? 
c. What is space debris? 
d. Give an example of one way people use satellites every day. 

2 Search the Internet for satellite images of the Earth. Then, write what you can
see in the images.




8

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Planet Earth

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Laika the space dog


At first, many experts believed that humans could
not survive a rocket launch, and could never live in
the hostile conditions of outer space. Before
human astronauts could fly, scientists needed to
discover how outer space affected living things.
So, they trained a dog named Laika as an
astronaut. One month after Sputnik 1 went into
space, Laika travelled to space on the satellite
Sputnik 2. The Soviets sent 12 more dogs after
Laika. Finally, in 1961, Yuri Gagarin became the
first human astronaut in space. Since then, more
than 500 people from all over the world have been
into space... all thanks to just one little dog!

1 Read the text. Then put the events from the text in order on the timeline.

Sputnik 1 12 dog astronauts Yuri Gagarin Laika (Sputnik 2)


over 500
astronauts
in space

The space
age starts

1946

1957 1961

2 Imagine you are an astronaut in outer space. Draw what you see out of the window
and complete the sentence.

 I can see



.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

Planet Earth

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Write definitions for these words.

a. solar system 
b. star

c. planet

d. satellite

2 Complete the table.

Planets
Inner planets

Outer planets

3 Write three characteristics that make the Earth unique.




4 Label the layers of the Earth.

hydrosphere
geosphere
atmosphere

10

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

5 Name the celestial bodies.

3
6

10

1
4

7
1.

6.

2.

7.

3.

8.

4.

9.

5.

10.

6 Label the phases of the Moon.

7 Draw the Earths movement that causes the seasons.

What is this movement called?




Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

11

Planet Earth

TEST

Name

Date

1 The solar system is made up of

a. the Moon and the celestial bodies that orbit it.


b. the stars and eight planets.
c. the Sun and the celestial bodies that orbit it.
2 Earths only natural satellite is

a. the Sun.

b. Venus.

c. the Moon.

3 Earths rotation causes

a. the seasons.
b. the phases of the Moon.
c. day and night.
4 Earths movement around the Sun is called

a. revolution.

b. seasons.

c. rotation.

5 Earth takes 24 hours to make one complete

a. rotation.

b. orbit.

c. revolution.

6 The Moon takes ... to orbit the Earth.

a. one day

b. 365 days

c. 28 days

7 One of the reasons that there is life on Earth is because

a. it has water.

b. it is a planet.

c. it has no oxygen.

8 The Earth is surrounded by

a. the poles.

b. a layer of air.

c. the geosphere.

9 Our Earth consists of three layers:

a. hydrosphere, geosphere and atmosphere.


b. Antarctica, geosphere and continents.
c. atmosphere, oceans and continents.
10 Clouds form in the

a. geosphere.
12

Social Science 3

b. oceans.

c. atmosphere.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Planet Earth

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Make a class wallchart of our solar system.

Instructions
1. Work in eight groups.
2. Choose one planet and complete the index card for your planet.
Name:
It is an:
inner planet.

outer planet.

(draw a picture)

How many satellites has it got? 




What are its movements? 


It is made up of:
rock.

gas.

What other special characteristics has it got?




3. Hang a large piece of paper on the classroom wall. Draw the Sun on the left side
and glue your index cards next to it in the correct order.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

13

Representing the Earth

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Label the parts of the globe.

North Pole
South Pole
axis
Equator

2 Number the parts of the map.

N
W

E
S

Tropic of Cancer

2. key

Equator

3. compass
rose

Greenwich Meridian

Tropic of Capricorn

1. labels

Scale
0

4. scale

2,700

kilometres

PRECIPITATION (in mm)


More than 3,000

From 500 to1,000

From 1,000 to 3,000

From 250 to 500

Less than 250

649249 U01 p08 elementos del mapa


3 Compare the two
ways of representing Earth in activities 1 and 2 and answer
the questions.

a. Which representation shows the Earths surface all at once? 


b. Which representation shows the Earths real shape? 
c. On a globe, can you see Europe and Oceania at the same time? 
d. Why or why not? 
14

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Label the pictures.

artificial satellite GPS globe compass

5 Unscramble the words and complete the text.

A (gbelo)

represents the Earth as a sphere tilted on an axis.

A (wrldo amp)

represents the Earth as a flat

surface. Both representations show the Earths (eaocns)


(ontitensnc)

: America, Africa, (orpEeu)

and
, Asia,

Oceania and Antarctica.


6 Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Political maps use different colours to show different heights of land.


b. World maps show the whole of the Earths surface.
c. Thematic maps can show weather.
d. Cartographers make satellites.


Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

15

Representing the Earth

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The goddess of the East


We use the points of the compass to help find our way.
There are four compass points: north, south, east and
west. In the morning, we see the Sun rise in the east.
It sets in the west in the evening.
In Ancient Greece, Eos was the goddess of the sunrise.
Her brother was the Sun and her sister was the Moon.
The Germanic tribes later changed her name to Eostre
and named the direction of the rising Sun after her.
The word North comes from a word in their language that
means to the left of the Sun.

1 Circle the correct words.

a. There are four compass points / equators: north, south, east and west.
b. The Sun rises in the east / west and sets in the east / west.
c. Eos was the goddess of the sunset / sunrise.
d. The compass points in English come from the Greek / Germanic tribes.
2 Read and label the compass points in the picture.

Look, the Sun is rising!


What a beautiful
morning!

16

Social Science 3

east north south west

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Representing the Earth

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The magical Viking stone


In the past, sailors would stay close to the coast because
they were afraid they would get lost at sea. How could
they know where they were if all they could see was
water?
They used the position of the Sun in the sky to see if they
were travelling north, south, east or west. But what about
cloudy days? Legends say the Vikings could cross the sea
in any weather because they had a mysterious stone that
told them where the Sun was.
Scientists now think the legends are true and that the
Vikings used a transparent stone which showed the Suns position
when held up to the sky. True or not, the Vikings were amazing sailors.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. In the past, why did sailors sail near the coast? 

b. How did sailors know in which direction they were sailing? 


c. Which culture had legends about a magical stone? 


2 Look at the map and complete.

a. Look at the Viking ships. In which direction


are they sailing?
b. On the map, mark a new route for the
ships to the Iberian Peninsula.
c. In which direction will they sail?

Viking route.

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

17

Representing the Earth

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Read the definitions and write the correct part of the map.

It explains what the symbols and colours of a map mean.

It is a picture that shows the compass points.

These are the words on the map.

It explains what the real distances are.

2 Match the words to the part of the globe. Then, write a definition for each.

Equator: 


Southern Hemisphere: 


B

North Pole: 

Axis: 


3 Which of these two maps is a world map? Why?

Scale
0
1,400

Scale
0
4,000

kilometres

kilometres





534453_03_21a_planisferio

534453_03_21b_mapa Europa



18

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Answer the questions.

a. What is a map? 

b. What is a globe? 

c. What is one advantage of a map? 


d. What is one advantage of a globe? 


5 Look at the map and answer.


N
W

If the ship sails from point A to point B,


in which direction is it travelling?

E
S

And if the ship sails from point B to


point C? 

Scale
0
230

kilometres

6 Complete the crossword.


534453_03_21d_Espaa

ACROSS
1. A small scale representation of the
whole Earth.

3
1

2. Has a needle that always points north.

2
DOWN
3. Uses satellites to work out your position.
4. A flat representation of an area.

Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

19

Representing the Earth

TEST

Name

Date

1 We use globes and ... to represent the Earth.

a.the North Pole

b.GPS

c.maps

2 A globe represents...

a. part of the Earth.


b. the Moon.
c. the whole Earth on a small scale.
3 The imaginary line that connects the Earths two poles is

a. a hemisphere.

b. its axis.

c. a pole.

4 The Equator divides the Earth into

a.hemispheres.

b.poles.

c.an axis.

5 Maps

a. are flat representations of the Earth.


b. are small pictures of the Earth.
c. show the actual size of Earths oceans and continents.
6 Earths largest ocean is the...

a.Pacific.

b.Atlantic.

c.Indian.

7 The six continents of Earth are

a. Europe, Africa, America, Oceania, Asia, Antarctica.


b. America, Asia, China, Oceania, Africa, Europe.
c. Oceania, the North Pole, Europe, Asia, Australia.
8 The points of the compass are

a. the North and South poles.


b. north and south.
c. north, south, east and west.
9 The Sun rises in the

a.east.

b.west.

c.south.

10 The on a map tells you what its symbols and colours mean.

a.scale
20

Social Science 3

b.key

c.compass rose
Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Representing the Earth

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Make a map of your school and use a compass to find the direction
of different places.

Instructions
1. Work in small groups.
2. Use a compass to find the direction
of places in your school.

place

compass point

place

compass point

Main door

Classroom

Library

Gym

Playground

Dining room

3. Draw a map of your school and label the compass points.


Choose a place to begin and end your route and write directions to get there:
Start at the

. Go north / south / east /

west until you get to the

. Then, walk

north / south / east / west until you are near


the

. Next, go north / south / east /

west until you get to the

. Then, walk north /

south / east / west until you get to the

Finally, go north / south / east / west...


Where are you?
4. Give your directions to another group. They read and follow your directions.
Can they guess the place where your route ends?
Photocopiable material 2014 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

21

The continents

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Colour the continents. Then write the oceans on the map.

red

Asia

green

Europe

orange

America

blue

Oceania

purple

Africa

yellow

Antarctica

Arctic Ocean

A
E

G
Atlantic
Ocean

H
L

Write the correct letter for each relief feature.

22

Andes

Gulf of Guinea

Amazon Plain

Sahara Desert

Ural Mountains

Himalayas

Appalachian Mountains

Rocky Mountains

Sierra Madre

Cape of Good Hope

Arabian Peninsula

Madagascar

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

2 Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Asia is the most populated continent on Earth.


b. America extends from the Northern Hemisphere to the Equator.
c. Oceania has the largest desert in the world, the Sahara.
d. The largest island in Oceania is New Zealand.
e. Scientists study the ice in Antarctica.



3 Which continent are these countries in?

a. Mexico: 

c. Spain: 

b. Canada: 

d. India: 

4 Look at the satellite photograph of Earth. Answer.

What continents can you see in the photograph?


Match the names of the relief to the map.


Arabian Peninsula
Madagascar

A
C

Gulf of Guinea

5 Circle the correct words to complete the sentences about world rivers.

a. Rivers in Africa and America are long / short and with little / abundant flow.
b. The Nile in Africa is the longest / fastest river in the world.
c. The Amazon in North America / South America is the river with the most / least
abundant flow.
d. Rivers in Asia are long / short, but with varied flows.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

23

The continents

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Pangea the supercontinent


On a world map, the continents
look like pieces of a large puzzle.
This is because in prehistoric times
they were all connected, as part of
a supercontinent called Pangea.
Most of Pangea was in the
Southern Hemisphere. It was
surrounded by one enormous
ocean called Panthalassa. Over a
long period of time, Pangea broke
into different pieces and formed the
continents we have now. New
oceans and seas formed between
the new continents, and the world
we recognize today slowly took
shape. But the continents are still
moving, and one day they could be
even further apart!

Panthalassa

Panthalassa

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

What is the name of the large continent that existed in prehistoric times?

Why was there only one ocean? 

How did our oceans and seas form? 


2 Search the Internet for a world map and print it out. Cut out the continents. Then,
join the continents together like a jigsaw puzzle to see what Pangea looked like.

Stick your supercontinent on some card to make a poster. Call it Pangea the
supercontinent and label the ocean.
24

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The continents
Name

EXTENSION

Date

Natures laboratory
Antarctica is the coldest, driest and most southern
continent on Earth. It is almost twice as big as
Australia and most of it is covered with ice. There
is little vegetation, but many living things live there.
Antarctica is a perfect place for scientists to
conduct different experiments because there is
little human activity. Astronomers study the sky
during the long nights. Marine biologists study the
unique species of Antarctica. Environmental
scientists study the ice to learn about the climate, and to measure global warming.
Since 1961, governments all over the world have agreed to use Antarctica only for
scientific research. This continent belongs to everyone.
1 Read the text. Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Antarctica is the warmest continent on Earth.


b. Scientists use Antarctica to conduct experiments.
c. Most of Antarctica is covered in water.
d. Antarctica belongs to Spain.



2 Search the Internet for information about the penguins of Antarctica and complete
the index card.

Penguins
Where do they live?
What do they eat?
What are their natural predators?

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

25

The continents

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Write the names of these continents.


2 Match and write sentences about the continents.

a. Asia

has the largest mountain range, the Andes.

b. Africa

has 10,000 islands.

c. America

has the longest river, the Nile.

d. Oceania

has the worlds most populated country, China.





3 Complete the table with examples of each type of relief.

mountains

rivers

Asia
Africa
America
Oceania

26

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Answer the questions.

Which language is the most spoken in northern Africa? 


Which continents are bathed by the Indian Ocean? 

Which are the most populated countries in America? 

What is the name of the ocean that surrounds Antarctica? 
5 Look at the map. Write the letter for each country.

China

Russia

Morocco

Australia

USA

Brazil

South Africa

France

B
H

D
G
F

6 Complete the text about Oceania.


649238_final_mapamundi politico

Oceania is in the
10,000
and

Hemisphere. It consists of
that are in the
Oceans.

The largest extension of land is on the island of


Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

.
Social Science 3

27

The continents

TEST

Name

Date

1 The worlds largest and most populated continent is....

a. Asia.

b. America.

c. Africa.

2 Mount Everest, the worlds tallest mountain, is in the...

a. Himalayas, in Asia.
b. Rocky Mountains, in America.
c. Drakensberg Mountains, in Africa.
3 The Andes mountain range is in

a. Asia.

b. Africa.

c. America.

4 The longest river in the world is

a. the Yangtze.
b. the Amazon.
c. the Nile.
5 Three countries that are in North America are

a. Canada, the United States and Colombia.


b. Canada, the United States and Argentina.
c. Canada, the United States and Mexico.
6 The worlds largest desert is the

a. Arabian Desert.
b. Sahara Desert.
c. Great Victoria Desert.
7 Most of Africas population lives in

a. cities.

b. the countryside.

c. megacities.

8 The worlds smallest continent is

a. Asia.

b. Africa.

c. Oceania.

9 Except for Brazil, the most spoken language in South America is

a. English.

b. Spanish.

c. Portuguese.

10 The city of Los Angeles is in

a. America.
28

Social Science 3

b. Asia.

c. Oceania.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The continents

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 What time is it around the world? Read the text and look at the time zone map.

Did you know that the time of day depends on where you are in the world?
The time depends on the position of the Sun and the Earth. The Earth spins
on an axis, so we know it is day in one part of the planet and night in the other.
Look at the time zone map. The Earth is divided into 24 time zones. This way,
it is possible to calculate the difference in time from one place to another.
Instructions
1. Work in pairs.
2. Write down the time in Spain.
Then, search the Internet for
the time in New Zealand and
write it down. Now write
down the time in Cuba.
3. Calculate the difference
between the time in Spain
and New Zealand. We say
New Zealand is 12 hours
ahead, so Spain is always
behind New Zealand.
4. Now calculate the time difference between Spain and Cuba. Cuba is 6 hours
behind Spain.
5. Complete this table with your information.
country
Spain

continent

time

Europe
Oceania

Cuba
6. Complete the sentences. Say whether it is day or night. In Spain it is day.

In Cuba it is

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

. In New Zealand it is

Social Science 3

29

The continent of Europe

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Colour the continent of Europe in red. Then, answer the question.

What are the geographical borders


of Europe?
a. To the south: 

b. To the east: 

c. To the west: 

d. To the north: 
2 Write an example of each landscape feature in Europe.

landscape feature

example in Europe

plains
mountain range
peninsula
cape
gulf

3 Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Rivers in Europe only flow into the Atlantic Ocean.


b. The biggest lakes are in the south.
c. The longest river in Europe is the Volga.


30

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Write the names of these mountain ranges.

A. 


A

B. 

C. 

D. 

Write the numbers on the map above.


1 Italian Peninsula 2 North Cape 3 Iceland 4 Great Britain
5 Look at the map in your Students Book and write the capital cities.

capital

country
Austria
France
Hungary
Italy
Romania
Switzerland
Ukraine

6 Complete the sentences about Europe.

The largest country in Europe is


in Europe is

. The highest mountain


, in the

The longest river in Europe is called the


Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

mountain range.
.
Social Science 3

31

The continent of Europe

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Changing borders
If you look at a political map of Europe from 100
years ago, you will see it looks very different from
the Europe we know today. The names of countries
and their political borders can change for many
reasons: sometimes because of war, sometimes
because territories join together or separate.
Sometimes these changes can be violent, but they
can also be peaceful. For example, in 1949,
Germany was separated into two different countries
as the result of war. However, it was reunited
peacefully in 1990.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What can change on a political map over time? 


b. Why do borders change? 


c. Can borders change peacefully? Give an example. 


d. For how many years was Germany divided into two different countries? 

2 Although political borders can change, geographical ones stay the same. Match and
make sentences about European geographical borders.

a. The Ural Mountains

separates

Europe from Asia.

b. The Mediterranean Sea

separate

Europe from Africa.



32

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The continent of Europe


Name

EXTENSION

Date

St. Bernards rescue dogs


The Great St. Bernard Pass is a very dangerous
path through the Alps. In the Middle Ages,
monks built a monastery and a hospice on the
pass to help travellers. The St. Bernard Hospice
became famous for its rescue dogs.
St. Bernard dogs have an excellent sense of
direction in bad weather, and high resistance to
the cold. The dogs looked for travellers stuck in
the snow. They dug them out and lay on top of
them to keep them warm. The most famous
dog was Barry der Menschenretter. One day
the dog found a boy in the snow. He kept the
boy warm by licking him, and then carried him
to the hospice.
The last rescue was in 1955. During the 200
years the hospice used rescue dogs, they
saved over 2,000 people!

1 Find and underline the sentences in the text. Then, write the words
in the correct order to make sentences.

a. The / Hospice / became / St. Bernard / for / rescue / its / famous / dogs.
b. dog / The / Barry der Menschenretter. / was / most / famous
c. in / The / was / rescue / last / 1955.



2 In what other ways do dogs help humans? Write.




Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

33

The continent of Europe

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Look at the map. Write the letter for the mountain chains.

Ural Mountains
Balkan Mountains

Pyrenees
Alps

Carpathians

Scandinavian
Mountains

F
B

Caucasus Mountains
2 Write the name of two large plains in Europe.



3 Write an example of these coastal features in Europe.

a.gulf: 

c.peninsula: 

b.cape: 

d.island: 

4 Complete the table about European rivers.

European rivers
that flow into the...
Arctic Ocean

characteristics

examples

abundant flow, freeze


in winter

Atlantic Ocean
Mediterranean Sea

Ebro, Rhone

Black and Caspian Seas

34

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

5 Match the rivers to the correct sea or ocean.

Ebro Pechora Tajo Loire Rhine


a. Arctic Ocean: 
b. Atlantic Ocean: 
c. Mediterranean Sea: 
6 Write an example of a lake.

a. In northern Europe: 

b. In southern Europe: 

7 Write the names of the countries.

1. 
4
2. 

3. 
3
1

4. 
5. 

8 Write the names of the capital city of the countries from Activity 7.

1. 
2. 
3.  649238 U03 p19 h01 Europa
4. 
5. 

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

35

The continent of Europe


Name

TEST

Date

1 The most common landscapes in Europe are

a. flat lands.

b. mountains.

c. volcanoes.

2 Europes highest peak, Mount Elbrus, is in the...

a. Alps.

b. Balkan Mountains.

c. Caucasus Mountains.

3 Europes most northern peninsula is the Peninsula.

a. Iberian

b. Balkan

c. Scandinavian

4 European rivers that drain into the Mediterranean Sea have a

a. abundant flow.

b. low flow.

c. long flow.

5 Europes longest river is the

a. Danube.

b. Volga.

c. Vistula.

6 The island of Great Britain is in the

a. Atlantic Ocean.
b. Mediterranean Sea.
c. Arctic Ocean.
7 Europes biggest lakes, such as Lakes ..., are in northern Europe.

a. Constance and Mayor


b. Ladoga and Onega
c. Superior and Ontario
8 The capital of Germany is

a. Berlin.
b. London.
c. Paris.
9 Europe is a continent with more than

a. 40 countries.
b. 70 countries.
c. 100 countries.
10 The largest and most populated country in Europe is

a. Russia.
36

Social Science 3

b. Germany.

c. Ukraine.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The continent of Europe

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Make a puzzle of Europes countries.

Instructions
1. Photocopy a blank map of Europe and
glue the map to a piece of card.
2. Label and colour the countries.
3. With a ruler, draw 4 vertical lines (1-4)
on your map about 6 cm apart.
4. Then, use your ruler to draw 3 horizontal
lines (a-c) about 5 cm apart.
5. Cut along the lines to make your puzzle.
You will have 20 square pieces.
6. Mix up all the pieces. Then complete your puzzle.
7. Look at your finished puzzle and complete the text about Europe.
I live in (country)

. Its capital city is


. I live in (continent)

It is in the

Hemisphere. It has water on three sides:

the

Ocean to the north,

the

Sea to the south, and

the

Ocean to the west. The Ural Mountains are its

border to the
of

. They separate it from the continent


. There are more than

countries in my continent.

8. Check your answers with a partner. Then, swap puzzles and race to be the first to
finish each others puzzle!

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

37

Spanish territory

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Complete the chart about Spanish territory.

most of the
Spanish territory
consists of:

the

Islands

the

Islands

the cities of
2 Write the letter of the province.

Almera

Salamanca

Lugo

Albacete
Burgos

Badajoz

D
H

F
G

Balearic Islands
Teruel

3 Complete the text about Spains borders with the correct words.

Portugal Mediterranean Sea Pyrenees Africa west France

649238_04_24_h1_mudo
provincias
Spain has many natural borders. Its north-eastern
border is the
mountain range, which separates the country from

. The

in the south-east separates it from the continent


of
with the country of
38

Social Science 3

. It has a political border to the


.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Match and write the sentences.

a. Spain is divided into 17 autonomous

towns or villages.

b. Autonomous communities are divided into

provinces.

c. Spain has 50 one or more provinces.


d. A municipality has one or more communities.




5 Find and circle seven words. Then, complete the text.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The
council is governed by the
and
the

Municipal
from the town hall include
,

and

Social Science 3

39

Spanish territory
Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Spanish peseta


Imagine you buy some sweets at a sweet shop and
the shopkeeper says: The price is three duros,
please! How much is that?
Nowadays, we pay in euros. But, for over 130 years,
the peseta was the currency used in Spain. The
peseta, like the euro, was divided into 100 cents.
All the different coins had nicknames. For example,
the 5 and 10 cent coins were called perra chica or
perra gorda because the lions printed on them
looked more like dogs. The brass peseta coin looked
yellow, so the people nicknamed it una rubia. The
duro was the name people gave to the 5 peseta coin.
The euro is the official currency in many European
countries. Spain joined the eurozone in 2002.

1 Read the text and answer.

a. What currency did Spain use for 130 years? 


b. In which year did Spain change its currency to the euro? 
c. Write the nicknames for these Spanish coins and then number them in order, from the
smallest to the biggest.
1 peseta: 

10 cents: 

5 cents: 

5 pesetas: 

d. How many pesetas is one duro? 

2 Which other European countries use the euro? Search the Internet. Write their
names. How many countries are there in total?




40

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Spanish territory
Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Camino de Santiago


The Camino de Santiago is a pilgrimage route to Santiago de
Compostela. Legends say the remains of Saint James are buried
there. Since the Middle Ages it has been an important religious
journey for Christians.
Nowadays, many people enjoy the Camino de Santiago for
reasons other than religion, such as sports, nature or tourism.
The different routes pilgrims can take are marked by signs with
shells. Shells are the symbol for pilgrims. Pilgrims often wear a
shell around their necks. When they are tired, they rest at private
or public hostels. These places stamp their pilgrims passport to show all the places the
pilgrims have visited. When they arrive in Santiago, they receive a certificate that says they
have walked or cycled between 100 to 200 kilometres!

1 Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. The remains of Saint John are buried in Santiago de Compostela.


b. The Camino de Santiago was an important religious journey since the Middle Ages.
c. The different routes are marked by signs with a cross.
d. Travellers receive a certificate at the end of the Camino de Santiago.


2 Search the Internet for information about the original pilgrimage to Santiago
de Compostela, called the Original Way. Answer the questions.

a. Where is the starting point? 


b. Which city marks the half-way point? 
c. In which town does the Original Way join up with the French Way? 

d. Which two autonomous communities does the Original Way go through? 


Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

41

Spanish territory

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Look at the map and write the names of the Spanish territories.

a. 

b. 

c. 
d. 

e. 

2 Complete the sentences about Spains borders.

Pyrenees
Atlantic Ocean

649238_final_p65_Espaa Mudo
Mediterranean Sea

France

Portugal

Cantabrian Sea

a. The Iberian Peninsula is bordered by two countries: 


b. The Ocean to the west is 
c. The country to the North of the Iberian Peninsula is 
3 Complete the table about the territorial organization of Spain.

consists of

governed by

province

municipality

autonomous community

42

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Look at the map and answer the questions.


S e a

Santander THE BASQUE


Oviedo
Santiago
COUNTRY
de Compostela THE PRINCIPALITYCANTABRIA VitoriaGasteiz
OF ASTURIAS
Logroo
RIOJA

Pamplona/
Irua
THE CHARTED
COMMUNITY
OF NAVARRE

ANDORRA

Zaragoza
ARAGN

Barcelona

EXTREMADURA

CASTILE-LA MANCHA

Valencia
THE COMMUNITY
OF VALENCIA/

C
RI
EA
Palma
L
BA

ea

Madrid

e
Se rra
n
a

L
A

DS
AN
L
IS

Toledo

T
P

it

Mrida

ed

COMMUNITY
OF MADRID

ANDALUSIA

THE REGION
OF MURCIA
Murcia

Seville

ATLANTIC OCEAN
Santa Cruz
REGINISLANDS
MridaCANARY
DE MURCIA
de Tenerife
Las Palmas
de Gran Canaria

CATALONIA

CASTILE
AND LEN

A T
L A
N T
I C
O C
E A
N

GALICIA

C a n t a b r i a n

Capital of Spain
Autonomous community capital
Country boundary
Autonomous community boundary
Provincial boundary
Autonomous city

Ceuta

Scale
Melilla

A L G E R I A

89

kilometres

M O R O C C O

a. Write the name of four inland autonomous communities.




649249_T04p14 Mapa de Espaa

b. Write the name of four coastal autonomous communities.



c. Write the name of the autonomous communities and cities that are not
on the Iberian Peninsula.


5 Tick () the municipal services organized by your local council.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

43

Spanish territory

TEST

Name

Date

1 Spains territory includes

a. the Iberian Peninsula and two archipelagos.


b. most of the Iberian Peninsula, two archipelagos, Ceuta and Melilla.
c. most of the Iberian Peninsula and two cities.
2 The Mediterranean Sea borders Spain on the

a. east and south.

b. west and south.

c. north and east.

3 Spains territory is organized into

a. autonomous communities, provinces and municipalities.


b. provinces and towns.
c. autonomous communities and municipalities.
4 Two coastal Spanish Communities are

a. Galicia and La Rioja.

b. Navarre and Madrid.

c. Galicia and Catalonia.

5 Provinces are

a. groups of municipalities.
b. several autonomous communities.
c. Ceuta and Melilla.
6 Spain has

a. 51 provinces.

b. 49 provinces.

c. 50 provinces.

7 An autonomous community is governed by

a. the president of Spain.

b. a mayor and councillors.

c. its parliament and president.

8 A municipality is

a. one or more cities, towns or villages governed by a local council.


b. one or more provinces governed by a mayor.
c. many capital cities.
9 A local council has a mayor and

a. councillors.

b. presidents.

c. municipal services.

10 Fire and police services are

a. municipal services.
b. provincial services.
c. autonomous community services.
44

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Spanish territory

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Lets help change our community.

Instructions
1. In small groups, decide what things need
improving in your community.
2. Write a survey to give to the class.
Draw a table like this:

Our community
Do we need?

yes

no

more play areas


more schools
more cycle lanes

3. Complete the letter to the town hall describing the changes you want in your
municipality. Make sure you mention why these changes will be good for the
people in your municipality.

Dear Mayor,
I think we need
because

Yours sincerely,

4. Share your letters in class. With the help of your teacher, make one
class letter to send to the town hall.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

45

Air

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Air is a liquid.
b. Air occupies space.
c. Air has no weight and no fixed shape.
d. Air has oxygen that living things need to breathe.


2 Complete the chart.

troposphere atmosphere stratosphere

3 Write the names of the different types of precipitation.

46

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Match to make sentences.

a. Weather is

moving air.

b. Wind is

how hot or cold it is.

c. Precipitation is

the state of the atmosphere at a particular time and place.

d. Temperature is

water that falls to Earth from clouds.

5 Explain the difference between these words.

a. Breeze and gale: 


b. Snow and hail: 


6 Colour the causes of air pollution in red, and the effects of pollution in blue.

respiratory illnesses
factory smoke
traffic

damage to monuments
climate and temperature change
volcanic eruptions

7 Many human activities cause air pollution. Draw one way you can help
to reduce air pollution. Explain.

To help reduce air pollution, I can









Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

47

Air

EXTENSION

Name

Date

A warmer Earth
Our atmosphere gives us the oxygen we need to breathe. It keeps
us warm. Without the atmosphere, heat from the Sun would
escape and the Earth would be too cold for us to live on.
Today, there are gases in the atmosphere that trap too much heat
from the Sun. This causes the temperature of the Earth to increase.
We call this global warming. Global warming can cause many
problems. In some places it will rain too much and cause floods. Other places will get very
little rain, creating more deserts. It also means the ice at the Poles will begin to melt.
These changes can be very dangerous, so we must be careful not to pollute our atmosphere.
1 Write the effects of global warming next to the correct picture.

higher temperatures more deserts more floods melting Poles

48

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Air
Name

EXTENSION

Date

The lungs of the Earth


When we breathe, our lungs take in oxygen and
exhale carbon dioxide. Trees act like lungs for our
planet because they take in carbon dioxide from
the air and produce oxygen.
The largest rainforest on Earth, the Amazon,
produces almost 20% of Earths oxygen!
However, people have been cutting down trees in
the Amazon to make room for crops. This is
called deforestation. Deforestation causes more
carbon dioxide and less oxygen to be in the air.
This is bad for all living things that breathe in air.
Local governments and organizations are now trying to protect the Amazon rainforest.

1 Look at the picture and answer the questions.

a. What is happening to the forest? 


b. What negative effects can this have? 

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

49

Air

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Look at the picture and match the uses of air.

C
A

B
D


to play and hear music

to inflate a boat

to cook with fire

to fly a kite

2 Answer the questions.

a. What are the main gases in air?


b. What are the properties of air?


c. Which property of air can you see in the picture? Explain.


d. Write two reasons why air is important.


3 Write the layers of the atmosphere.

50

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Describe the weather in these pictures.









5 Write the types of wind in order, from the most gentle to the strongest.

gale hurricane breeze

6 Label the weather symbols. Circle the symbol that shows the weather now
where you live.

7 Give an example of a natural and an artificial cause of air pollution.



Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

51

Air

TEST

Name

Date

1 The two most abundant gases in air are

a. carbon dioxide and oxygen.


b. nitrogen and oxygen.
c. oxygen and water vapour.
2 Air has...

a. a fixed shape.
b. no weight.
c. no smell.
3 The layers of gases that surrounds the Earth is called

a. the atmosphere.

b. oxygen.

c. the hydrosphere.

4 The troposphere

a. contains very little oxygen.


b. is where weather occurs.
c. is the upper layer of the atmosphere.
5 The layer of gases farthest from the surface of the Earth is the

a. atmosphere.

b. stratosphere.

c. troposphere.

6 A ... is an example of weather.

a. volcano

b. hurricane

c. river

b. hurricane.

c. gale.

b. changes every day.

c. measures wind.

7 A gentle wind is called a

a. breeze.
8 Weather

a. is always the same.


9 ... influence weather.

a. Temperature, water and the Poles


b. Temperature, precipitation and snow
c. Temperature, precipitation and wind
10 Air pollution

a. cannot destroy plants and monuments.


b. is not toxic.
c. can change the climate.
52

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Air

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Lets experiment with the properties of air!

Instructions
1. With a partner, blow up two balloons of
the same size.
2. Tie them with string to a coat hanger.
3. Balance the coat hanger on your finger.
Both balloons should be equally balanced.
4. Burst one of the balloons with a pin.
Observe what happens to the hanger
and the remaining balloon.
5. Complete your conclusion and draw the
hanger and balloons at the end of the experiment.
Conclusion
This experiment shows that air
has weight
does not have weight
occupies space
does not occupy space
When one of the balloons burst,
the coat hanger was
balanced

unbalanced.

This means the balloon full of air was


heavier

lighter

than the burst balloon.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

53

Water

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 What state is water in? Write.

a. rain

b. water vapour 
c. snow

2 Tick () the places where you can find frozen water.

at the top of a mountain

in a stream

in an iceberg

at the South Pole

on a beach

in an aquifer

3 Explain the difference between these words.

a. Salt water and fresh water: 


b. River and stream: 


c. Aquifer and well: 


4 Look at the pictures and complete the text.

In winter, it is very
c

and the water

In spring, the weather is


warmer and
the i

54

Social Science 3

melts.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

5 Label the stages of the water cycle.

precipitation condensation collection evaporation

F
C

D
E
A

Now, write the correct letter.


lake

aquifer

river

snow

rain

clouds

6 Write the stages.

a. Water falls from the clouds as rain, snow or hail. 


b. Water in the sea evaporates.

c. Water vapour condenses and forms clouds.

d. Rain falls into the rivers and goes to the sea.

Now, write the sentences in order.






Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

55

Water
Name

EXTENSION

Date

The unsinkable ship


An iceberg is a piece of frozen fresh water that
floats in the sea. Some icebergs that break off
from the land are as big as an island! They can
be very dangerous because 90% of an iceberg
is underwater, so they cannot be seen by ships.
Work began in 1909 to build the Titanic. It was
the largest ship in the world at that time. Many
people said it was so big and safe, it was
impossible to sink. But in 1912, on the Titanics
first voyage, the ship hit an iceberg in the
Atlantic Ocean. It sank within three hours. Since
then, organizations monitor and study icebergs
closely to make sailing safer.

1 Read the text and answer.

a. What is an iceberg? 

b. When did the Titanic sink? Why? 


c. Why are icebergs dangerous for ships? 


2 Search the Internet for pictures


of icebergs. Draw an iceberg
above and under the water.

56

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Water

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Saving a limited resource


97% of the water on Earth is in the oceans. This
means that only 3% of the water on our planet is
fresh water. Fresh water is the water we drink and
water plants with. It is a limited resource that we
need to use responsibly.
We can save water by turning off the tap when
we brush our teeth, or by taking showers instead
of baths. We can also collect rainwater to clean
floors and water plants with.
The government can pass laws to protect water.
For example, they can make companies clean
water in treatment plants. In this way, water can
be used for other purposes, such as in park
fountains, for watering streets, etc.

1 Read the text and answer.

a. Why is fresh water a limited resource? 


b. How can we help save water? 


c. What can the government do? 


2 Complete the pie chart representing the water


on Earth. Use the key.

red

97% salt water

blue

3% fresh water

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

57

Water
Name

ASSESSMENT

Date

1 Look at the pictures and write the state the water is in.

2 Find and circle examples of water in nature. Then, classify them in the table below.

water in a solid state

58

Social Science 3

water in a liquid state

water in a gaseous state

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

3 Label the stages of the water cycle.

4 How does water change state during the water cycle?



5 Answer the questions.

a. What is an aquifer? 
b. How do we bring groundwater to the surface? 

c. What is the difference between salt water and fresh water? Where can you find each?

6 Write three examples you do at home for each.

ways to save water

ways to use water




Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

59

Water

TEST

Name

Date

1 Water exists in three states:

a. condensation, snow and evaporation.


b. solid, liquid and gaseous.
c. solid, water vapour and gaseous.
2 Icebergs are

a. the ice at the top of a mountain.


b. pieces of frozen salt water that float in the sea.
c. pieces of frozen fresh water that float in the sea.
3 In nature, is when water goes from a gaseous state to a liquid state.

a. fusion

b. condensation

c. evaporation

4 The stages of the water cycle occur in this order:

a. condensation, evaporation, precipitation and collection.


b. evaporation, condensation, precipitation and collection.
c. evaporation, precipitation, condensation and collection.
5 In nature, you can find salt water in

a. oceans.

b. lakes.

c. icebergs.

6 A lake is

a. a body of fresh water surrounded by land on all sides.


b. a moving body of fresh water that empties into the sea.
c. salt water on the coast.
7 We use .... to extract groundwater from aquifers.

a. rivers

b. waterfalls

c. wells

8 When the Sun heats sea water, it ... into water vapour.

a. condenses

b. evaporates

c. collects

b. only snow.

c. rain, snow and hail.

b. you can play in it.

c. it will harm living things.

9 Precipitation is...

a. only rain.
10 If water is polluted

a. nature will clean it.


60

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Water

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 How long does water take to evaporate? Do this experiment.

Instructions
1. Work with a partner.
2. Pour 250 ml of water into a tall glass,
and pour another 250 ml of water into
a shallow bowl. Mark the water levels
on each container.
3. Place the glass and the bowl in
a sunny place.
4. Every two days, observe and mark
the water level in each container.
5. Make drawings of your observations
in the table.
today

in two days

in four days

in six days

tall glass

shallow bowl

6. Compare your results and answer the questions.


a. In which container did the water evaporate more quickly? 
b. Why do you think the water evaporated more quickly in this container?



Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

61

Landscapes

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Look at the colour key and circle the words.

mountain landscape green

flat landscape orange

coastal landscape blue


slopecliffhillvalleypeninsulaplainplateau
archipelagobeachmountain rangepeakbay

2 Unscramble the letters and label the parts of the mountain.

opels

tofo

apke

3 Circle the coastal features and write them next to their definition.

in
en

sulacliffba

yis

landa

ip
rch

elagobeac

a. A group of islands: 
b. A high area of rock next to the sea: 
c. A part of the sea that cuts into the land: 
d. A piece of land surrounded by water on all sides: 
e. An area of flat land with sand or pebbles next to the sea: 
f. A piece of land surrounded by water on all sides except one: 
62

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Look at the landscape. Write the natural and man-made features in the table.


natural features

man-made features


5 Write the sentences under the correct photo.

We should reduce pollution

We should recycle more

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

We should cut down fewer trees.

Social Science 3

63

Landscapes
Name

EXTENSION

Date

Sculpted landscapes
Wind and water continue to shape landscapes all over
the Earth. Wind is a powerful force that carries dust
and sand from one place to another. It also blows sand
against rocks with great force. This causes soft rock
to slowly wear down and sculpt amazing formations,
like rounded arches and buttes.
Moving water in streams and rivers, and waves in the
sea are the main causes of water erosion. Over time,
rivers can cut through rock to create huge canyons, like the Grand Canyon in the United
States. In coastal areas, waves break against cliffs, forming deep caves and tall columns.
Landscapes are constantly changing!

1 Read and circle the mistakes. Then, write the correct sentences.

a. Wind and water have shaped landscapes all over the Moon.
b. Wind is a powerful force that carries water and oxygen.
c. Waves in the sea cause wind erosion.




2 Read the sentences about erosion. Write T (true) or F (false).

a. Rivers create huge canyons.


b. Wind is the major cause of erosion.
c. Erosion only happens in coastal landscapes.
d. Ocean waves erode cliffs and change their shape.

3 In pairs, search the Internet for pictures of buttes. Make a poster


with the pictures. Write where buttes can be found.
64

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Landscapes

EXTENSION

Name

Date

An island is born
In 1963, fishermen were sailing south of Iceland when
they saw a column of smoke rising from the sea. They
thought it was another ship and went to help.
When they arrived, they saw that the smoke came
from a volcanic eruption. They were watching a new
island form!
The eruption expelled lava onto the sea bed, making
the underwater volcano grow little by little. Slowly, the
volcano grew above water and formed a small island.
The island is named Surtsey, after the god of fire in Icelandic mythology.

1 Read the information and write the parts of the volcano.

crater: the mouth of the


volcano where lava is expelled.

vent: magma comes up


through this tube.

magma: melted rocks from


inside the Earth.

lava: thick, hot liquid


expelled from volcanoes.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

65

Landscapes

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Look at the photos and write mountain landscape, flat landscape or coastal
landscape.

2 Write the landscape features next to the correct letter.


B
A

C
D

A. 

D. 

B. 

E. 

C. 

F. 

3 Explain the difference between these landscape features.

a. gulf and bay: 


b. plain and plateau: 


c. hill and mountain: 



66


Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Read and complete the text about changes in landscapes.

disasters farming rain man-made natural change erosion construction


A landscape can

for many reasons. There are man-made

changes and

changes. Examples of natural changes include

the changing seasons,


and

such as droughts, or wind


, which is called

changes include

, transport networks and

5 Is this a natural or man-made landscape? Explain.



6 Look at the picture. Tick () the true sentences.

a. Natural changes are damaging this


landscape.
b. The river has toxic waste.
c. The smoke from the factory is causing
air pollution.
d. Recycling is damaging this landscape.
e. Deforestation is causing toxic waste.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

67

Landscapes

TEST

Name

Date

1 Landscapes far from the sea are

a. inland.

b. coastal.

c. natural.

2 A mountain has three parts:

a. a hill, a slope and a peak.


b. a mouth, a slope and a peak.
c. a foot, a slope and a peak.
3 An area of high, flat land is called a

a. plateau.

b. valley.

c. plain.

4 Land that is surrounded on all sides by the sea is...

a. a peninsula.

b. a bay.

c. an island.

5 A part of the sea that cuts into the land is called a

a. cape.

b. point.

c. gulf.

6 Natural features of a landscape are

a. relief, reservoirs and vegetation.


b. relief, water and vegetation.
c. relief, water, vegetation and buildings.
7 Landscapes that people have not changed are

a. flat.

b. mountains.

c. natural.

8 A natural landscape can have a

a. reservoir.

b. road.

c. lake.

9 The destruction of forests is called

a. pollution.
b. deforestation.
c. toxic waste.
10 Man-made changes to a landscape can be

a. farming.
b. the seasons.
c. wind.
68

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Landscapes
Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

1 What makes your region special?

Some regions have beautiful mountain scenery. Others have wonderful beaches. Some
have amazing buildings. Every region has something special to see!
Instructions
1. Work in groups of four.
2. Use books and magazines, and search
the Internet to find information.
3. One pair does research about natural
features in your region, such as
mountains, lakes, rivers or beaches.
4. The other pair does research about
man-made features, such as bridges,
airports, railway lines or factories.
5. Complete the table with your information.
natural features

man-made features

6. Together, make a poster with the title Our region. Include the information from your
table in two sections on the poster: Natural features and Man-made features. Add
some pictures.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

69

The landscapes of Spain

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Unscramble the words and complete the text.

The (Inern latePau)

covers about half

of the Iberian Peninsula. There are two (ntmuaoin gesran)


in the Inner Plateau and four surrounding it. Spain also has
two (rreiv sisnba)
(saraipcehlgo)

and two
.

2 Write the names of the mountain ranges surrounding the Inner Plateau.

a. 

c. 

b. 

d. 

3 Write the mountain ranges beyond the Inner Plateau.

A. 
B. 

C
D

C. 
D. 
E. 

4 Match the peak to the mountain range.

Moncayo
Aitxuri
Mulhacn
Aneto
Teleno
70

Social Science 3

Betic Mountain Chain


Mountains of Len
Pyrenees
Iberian Mountain Chain
Basque Mountains

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

5 Write the coasts to complete the sentences.

Cantabrian coast

Mediterranean coast

Atlantic coast

a. The

coast has many cliffs.

b. The

coast has long beaches.

c. The

coast can have ras, cliffs or sandy beaches.

6 Complete the chart about Spanish coasts.

In the north
In the

coast
Atlantic coast

In the east and south

Galician coast

coast

coast

coast

7 Tick () the correct information.

a. The Balearic Islands are in:

b. The Canary Islands are in:

the Atlantic Ocean.

the Atlantic Ocean.

the Mediterranean Sea.

the Mediterranean Sea.

This archipelago has:

This archipelago has:

five islands.

five islands.

seven islands.

seven islands.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

71

The landscapes of Spain


Name

EXTENSION

Date

Spains first National Park


National Parks are protected landscapes. They are special because of their relief and their
plants and animals. Spain has 15 National Parks. In 1918 the first Spanish National Park
was established in the Picos de Europa. It extends through parts of Castile and Len,
Asturias and Cantabria.
The Picos de Europa National Park has mountains that are
over 2,000 metres high, like Torre Cerredo. There are river
valleys, and lakes, such as Enokl and Ercina. In the park
there are also caves. Some are more than 1,000 metres
deep!
The park protects the rich plant and animal life. There are
oaks, orchids, vultures, and even brown bears and wolves!
1 Read and write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. National Parks are protected landscapes.


b. The Picos de Europa was Spains first National Park.
c. The Picos de Europa is in southern Spain.
d. Only lakes and mountains are protected in National Parks.



2 Choose another Spanish National Park and complete the index card.

National Park: 
Date established: 

Location: 
Special landscape features: 


Special plants and animals: 

72

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The landscapes of Spain


Name

EXTENSION

Date

Mulhacn mountain
Mulhacn is the highest mountain peak on the Iberian
Peninsula, at almost 3,500 metres high! It is in the
Sierra Nevada National Park in southern Spain. It is
the second tallest mountain in Spain, after Mount
Teide in the Canary Islands.
The name Mulhacn comes from Muley Hacn. He
was a king of Granada in the 15th century. Legends
say he is buried on the summit of the mountain.
The north face of Mulhacn is very steep, so visitors
climb its south face, which is more gentle. Until 1994, you could
drive up this face by car! Now, you can only walk up, or go by bike
or on horseback.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. Where is Mulhacn?

b. How high is it?


c. What is Spains tallest mountain?


d. Where does the name Mulhacn come from?


e. Which is the easiest face to reach the summit? What means of transport can you
use to go up that face now?

2 Search the Internet for information about the Sierra Nevada National Park. Make
a poster with information and pictures.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

73

The landscapes of Spain

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Find 7 words about landscapes and circle them with the correct colour from the key.

green

mountain landscape

red

flat landscape

blue

coastal landscape

2 Complete the chart with the mountain chains.

mountains
of the Inner
Plateau
mountains
beyond the
Inner Plateau
mountains
surrounding the
Inner Plateau

3 Classify the coasts. Write A for the Atlantic coast, M for the Mediterranean
coast and C for the Cantabrian coast.

74

Cape Palos

Gulf of Cdiz

Gulf of Valencia

Cape Peas

Tenerife

Bay of Biscay

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Look at the letters on the map. Write the names of the mountain chains.

C
A. 
A

B. 
C. 
D. 

Write the names of Spains two archipelagos.




5 Write definitions for the parts of a mountain.

a. peak: 
b. foot: 
c. slope: 
6 Match the description to the places.

a. The archipelago with Spains highest peak.

Atlantic coast

b. The river basin in the north of Spain.

The Canary Islands

c. It covers half of the Iberian Peninsula.

The Inner Plateau

d. Spains longest coast.

The Ebro river basin

e. A coast with many ras.

Mediterranean coast

7 Circle the correct words.

a. The Inner Plateau covers half / all of the Iberian Peninsula.


b. Spain has two / four archipelagos and two / four river basins.
c. The Cantabrian / Mediterranean coast is the longest in Spain.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

75

The landscapes of Spain


Name

TEST

Date

1 The features of an area of land is the

a. landscape.

b. coast.

c. relief.

2 We call several mountains in line a

a. mountain chain.

b. mountain range.

c. hill.

3 A cape is

a. a large piece of land that sticks out into the sea.


b. a large area of sea that cuts into the land.
c. a low, flat area of sand next to the sea.
4 The ... covers half of the Iberian Peninsula.

a. Inner Plateau

b. Inner Basin

c. Inner Plain

5 The two mountain ranges in the Inner Plateau are

a. the Iberian Mountain Chain and the Basque Mountains.


b. the Pyrenees and the Mountains of Len.
c. the Central Mountain Chain and the Mountains of Toledo.
6 The Cantabrian Range is to the... of the Inner Plateau.

a. south

b. east

c. north

7 Spains highest peak is ... in the Canary Islands.

a. Mulhacn

b. Mount Teide

c. Aneto

8 The ... river basin is in the south of the Iberian Peninsula.

a. Guadalquivir

b. Tajo

c. Ebro

9 The Cantabrian coast is

a. high and rocky with lots of capes and cliffs.


b. low and sandy with long beaches.
c. the longest in Spain with lots of gulfs and peninsulas.
10 The Balearic Islands are in the

a. Cantabrian Sea.
b. Atlantic Ocean.
c. Mediterranean Sea.
76

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The landscapes of Spain

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Make a 3D relief map of Spain.

Instructions
1. Work in pairs.
2. Glue a photocopy of a relief map
of Spain onto a piece of strong
card.
3. Cover the relief map with different
colours of plasticine. Use green
for the Inner Plateau and brown for
the mountains. Use blue for the
Guadalquivir and Ebro river basins.
4. Write the numbers 1 to 14 on labels and stick them onto toothpicks.
Stick the labels onto the Inner Plateau, the main mountains on, surrounding
and beyond the Inner Plateau, and the two river basins.
5. Write the key to the labels here:
main relief features of Spain
1

10

11

12

13

14

6. Show your map to another pair. On a separate piece of paper, they write
the names of the relief features according to the numbers. Use your key
to correct them.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

77

Rivers in Spain

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Read the definitions and complete the words.

a. A large, flowing body of fresh water.

__ __ v e __

b. A river that flows into a main river.

t __ __ __ u __ __ __ __

c. The ground that a river flows over.

__ i __ __ r b __ d

d. The volume of water in a river.

__ l __ w

e. A bend in a river.

__ __ a __ __ __ r

f. The journey a river takes.

c __ __ __ s __

2 Write the number for each part of the river.

upper course
middle course

lower course

meander
mouth

source

Now, use the words to write sentences describing the course the river takes.



3 Read and write landscape, climate or watershed.

a. It influences the length of a river. 


b. It is the typical weather of an area. 
c. It affects the amount of water in a river. 
d. All rivers in an area flow into the same sea. 
e. Spain has three of these, such as the Cantabrian Sea. 
78

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Match the letters to the rivers.

Jcar

Ebro

Guadalquivir
D

Tajo

Duero
F

Mio

Now, colour the watersheds according to the key.


red

Atlantic

blue

Cantabrian

green Mediterranean

5 Match the rivers to the tributaries.649238_06_31_h1_rios

a. Tajo

Genil

b. Ebro

Segre and Jaln

c. Guadalquivir

Jarama and Alagn

d. Duero

Pisuerga, Esla and Tormes

6 Complete the table.

river

source

watershed

Saja

tributaries
Besaya

La Mancha
Mediterranean Sea

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Jaln
Social Science 3

79

Rivers in Spain
Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Kings path


In Andalusia there is a deep canyon in the Betic Mountain
Chain, called the Gorge of Gaitanes. In the early 20th
century, workers at a local power station needed a path to
get to the station. They constructed a walkway along the
side of the gorge, 100 metres above the river Guadalhorce!
In 1921, King Alfonso XIII visited this amazing walkway.
Since then, it has been called the Caminito del Rey or the
Kings Path.
In 2015, the walkway was rebuilt. Now, tourists can go
along the walkway and enjoy the incredible views!

1 Put the words in order to make sentences. Then, underline them in the text.

a. deep / there / is / Betic Mountain Chain. / a / in / canyon / Andalusia / the / In


b. visited / In / King Alfonso XIII / walkway. / 1921 / amazing / this


c. the / rebuilt. / was / In / 2015, / walkway


2 Tick () the true sentences and cross out () the false sentences.

a. The Gorge of Gaitanes is in Andalusia.


b. The Gorge of Gaitanes is in the Pyrenees.
c. The walkway gets its name after a visit by King Philip VI.
d. The walkway is 100 metres above the river Guadalhorce.
e. Since 2015, tourists can visit the newly constructed walkway.
3 Would you like to visit the Kings Path? Why or why not? Explain.


80

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Rivers in Spain
Name

EXTENSION

Date

Going down the Sella


In Asturias, there is a special race that is celebrated on
the first Saturday in August. It is the International Descent
of the River Sella. Competitors travel 20 kilometres by
kayak or canoe, from Arriondas to Ribadesella. Asturias
has a wet climate, so the Sella has abundant flow. For
this reason, the competition takes place every year.
The Descent of the Sella started in 1929 when some
friends took a canoe down the river. By the following year
it had become an official race. Competitors race from the
middle course of the river down to its mouth.
The Descent of the Sella is now recognised by UNESCO
as a world heritage tourism event.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What is the Descent of the River Sella?


b. When does it take place?


c. When did it begin?


d. What parts of the river does the race go through?


2 Draw a river. Then, describe its course.

The river starts in






Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

81

Rivers in Spain

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Match and write sentences about rivers.

a. A river is

lakes or reservoirs.

b. Its course is the journey

downhill along a river bed.

c. It travels

a large, flowing body of fresh water.

d. The water it carries

it takes from its source to its mouth.

e. River water collects in

is called its flow.






2 Write the parts of the river.

1. 

2. 
3. 
4. 
5. 

3
2
4

3 Answer the questions.

a. What are gullies? Where can you find them?


b. Which river is the fastest-flowing in Spain?


c. Which river is the longest on the Iberian Peninsula?



82


Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Write the river next to


the correct letter.

A. 

B. 

C. 

D. 

E. 
F. 
G. 
5 Match each river to its source and watershed.

Atlantic Ocean

a. Cantabrian Mountains

Mio

b. Iberian Mountain Chain

Duero 649238_06_31_h1_rios
Mediterranean Sea

c. Galician Massif

Ebro

Atlantic Ocean

d. Iberian Mountain Chain

Eo

Atlantic Ocean

e. Cantabrian Mountains

Tajo

Cantabrian Sea

6 Complete the text with the correct words.

Ebro short Cantabrian long flow Mediterranean Atlantic


Rivers that flow into the

Sea are

but have a high water flow. Most of the rivers that flow into the
Ocean are

. Except for the

the rivers that flow into the


a low water

,
Sea are short and have

7 Do the Canary Islands have rivers? Explain.



Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

83

Rivers in Spain

TEST

Name

Date

1 A is a large, flowing body of fresh water.

a. river

b. tributary

c. gully

2 A river bed is

a. the volume of water in a river.


b. the ground that a river flows over.
c. the journey a river takes.
3 The middle course of a river is

a. wide and has a slower flow.


b. narrow and has a faster flow.
c. wide and has a faster flow.
4 A is a river that flows into another river.

a. tributary

b. reservoir

c. lake

5 Rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean are

a. short.

b. regular.

c. long.

6 Rivers that flow into the Cantabrian Sea are

a. short and carry lots of water.


b. long and carry lots of water.
c. short and have a low flow.
7 form in the Canary Islands when it rains a lot.

a. Tributaries

b. Gullies

c. Cliffs

8 The Duero flows into the

a. Cantabrian Sea.

b. Mediterranean Sea.

c. Atlantic Ocean.

9 The longest river on the Iberian Peninsula is

a. the Tajo.

b. the Guadalquivir.

c. the Ebro.

10 The source of the river Mio is in

a. the Galician Massif.


b. the Cantabrian Mountains.
c. the Pyrenees.
84

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Rivers in Spain
Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

1 Lets make a river diorama!

Instructions
1. Work in pairs. You need an empty shoe box, some card, and some stickers.
2. Plan your diorama. First, draw a landscape of a river. Include the following river
features: source, upper course, middle course, meander, tributary, lake, lower course
and mouth.

3. Stand an open shoebox on its side.


4. Decorate the back of the box with clouds and sky.
5. Now, copy your river drawings onto coloured card.
Cut out the drawings and arrange the parts in
the box to make a 3D version of your picture.
6. Use stickers to label the parts of your river:
source, upper course, middle course, meander,
tributary, lake, lower course and mouth.
7. Present your diorama to the class. Explain
the different river features.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

85

Villages and towns


Name

REINFORCEMENT

Date

1 Look at the photos and write the types of villages.

around a square - along a road - made up of isolated houses

2 Read the sentences and write village or city.

a. There is a lot of traffic. 


b. People work in industry or in services. 
c. Most people know each other. 
d. Many people work in farming. 
e. There are short, narrow roads. 
f. There are a lot of shops. 
3 Label the parts of the city: historic centre, modern district or suburbs.

86

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Tick () the municipal services. Then, write the name of these services.



5 Match the characteristics to either advantage or disadvantage.

more schools
more traffic
more museums

advantage
disadvantage

sports centres and cinemas


more noise
few natural landscapes

6 Complete the text about street maps.

streets - rows - key - buildings - columns


Street maps show an aerial view of the
, parks and
in a town or city. They are marked on a grid that has
numbered

and lettered
. They have a

that explains the symbols.


Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

87

Villages and towns

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The most populated city on Earth


Tokyo is the capital of Japan. It is also the most populated city in
the world, with 35 million inhabitants!
When we think of large cities, we usually imagine people living and
working in tall skyscrapers. But Tokyo has very few skyscrapers
because it is in a region that suffers from many earthquakes. Most
of the buildings are no more than ten stories high.
Tokyo is a city of contrasts. It has modern buildings, built using
the latest technology, next to quiet historic buildings and
temples. The city has the worlds largest railway network. More
than 20 million people travel by train every day.
1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What country is Tokyo in? 


b. How many people live in Tokyo? 
c. What makes Tokyo a city of contrasts? 

d. Why are there not many skyscrapers in Tokyo? 


2 Look at the picture and circle the correct answers.

a. What type of transport is this?


boat

taxi train car

b. Why do so many people travel this way in Tokyo?


its faster

cars are illegalits more expensive

c. Which type of transport do you use the most?


bus

taxi train car

3 Do you prefer a big city like Tokyo or a small town? Explain.


88

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Villages and towns


Name

EXTENSION

Date

Villages, towns and cities over time


Many villages and towns in Spain are
thousands of years old. Some of these
places started as small villages that grew
into towns, and then into big cities with a
large population.
Most of the population of Spain now lives
in towns and cities. Two Spanish cities,
Madrid and Barcelona each has more
than one million people. Madrid has
3 million inhabitants, and the population
of Barcelona is 1.5 million people. These
large cities grew from small villages.
However, some villages in Spain have
remained small. Some of them are almost abandoned, because the inhabitants
have moved to cities for jobs. The smallest villages have only a few inhabitants in winter.
There are more animals than people!

1 Answer the questions about the place where you live.

a. Do you live in a village, a town or a city? 


b. How old is it? 
c. What is the population now? 
d. Is the population increasing or decreasing? 

e. If it is decreasing, where are the people moving to? 


2 What is your favourite village, town or city? Write two reasons why you like it.




Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

89

Villages and towns

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Complete the table.

villages

cities

What are the streets like?


What are the buildings like?
Is there a lot of traffic?

2 Write the parts of the city.

A. 

B. 

C
B

C. 

3 Look at the pictures. Write three sentences about the differences between
villages and cities.





90

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Write the words in the correct order to make sentences about local councils.

a. and the mayor / in the town hall. / work / The local councillors

b. is the head / The mayor / of the local council.


c. organizes / The local council / the municipal services.


5 Write the municipal services in the picture.

1. 

2. 
3. 
Now, write two other municipal services
that are not in the picture.

6 Look at the map. Write the building for each square. Use the key.

fire station

museum

Green
Park

M
ain

St
re

et

hospital

car park

a. B-2:
b. C-1:

c. A-3:

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

91

Villages and towns

TEST

Name

Date

1 . are rural areas with a small population.

a. Cities

b. Towns

c. Villages

2 Villages have

a. wide and long streets.


b. low buildings.
c. more than 10,000 inhabitants.
3 The narrow streets of a city are usually in the

a. suburbs.

b. historic centre.

c. modern district.

4 Industrial estates and shopping centres are usually in the

a. suburbs.

b. historic centre.

c. modern district.

5 An advantage of living in a village is that

a. there is no mayor.
b. they have lots of cathedrals.
c. it is usually quiet.
6 The mayor and work in the town hall.

a. local councillors

b. doctors

c. teachers

7 Municipal workers

a. take care of the mayor.


b. organize the local festivities.
c. carry out municipal services.
8 Cultural and recreational services

a. organize the local school.


b. organize the local sports centre.
c. help prevent fires.
9 The police are responsible for

a. cleaning the streets.

b. keeping the streets safe.

c. running the library.

10 Rubbish collectors work for the

a. fire service.
92

Social Science 3

b. town planning services.

c. sanitation services.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Villages and towns

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Design a park for your community.

Instructions
1. Work in groups of four. Choose a place in your neighbourhood to build a new park.


2. Decide the activities for each area of the park. For example, an area for a playground,
a swimming pool, some gardens, some picnic benches, etc.
3. Draw symbols for each activity and write a key in your notebook. Draw the symbols
on the square where you want them to be in your park.
A

1
2
3
4
5
4. Give your park a name. Write four rules about how to behave in your park.
1. 
2. 
3. 
4. 
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

93

Jobs in nature

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Use the colour key to circle the words.

green

primary sector

red

secondary sector

blue

tertiary sector

mining industry tourism education crop farming transport


fishing health care livestock farming forestry construction commerce

2 Read the sentences and write A for active population or I for inactive population.

a. People of legal working age.


b. People not of legal working age.
c. People who do not get a salary.
d. People who earn money for their work.
e. Unemployed people who are looking for work.
3 Write the farming activities. Then, number them in order from 1 to 3.

Now, describe what is happening in the pictures.

94


Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Circle and write six crops. Then, underline the irrigated crops in blue
and the dry crops in green.








5 Write the types of livestock.


A

6 Match the jobs in the primary sector to the descriptions.

a. animal farming

fishermen fish near the coast

b. crop farming

farmers grow plants in fields

c. coastal fishing

farmers raise fish near rivers or the coast

d. deep-sea fishing

farmers raise animals for products

e. fish farming

fishermen fish a long way from the coast

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

95

Jobs in nature
Name

EXTENSION

Date

Where does paper come from?


Paper was invented in China 2,000 years
ago. In those days, paper was made from
rags of cloth, or even from old fishing nets.
Nowadays, most paper is made from
wood. Trees are grown especially for
paper production. The trees are cut down
and the trunks are chopped into small
chips of wood.
At paper factories, the chips of wood are
soaked in water and chemicals to make
wood pulp. The wood pulp is bleached to
make it clean and white. The water in the wood pulp is squeezed out and the pulp is left
to dry. Finally, the wood pulp is cut up in machines to become sheets of paper.
These days many factories use recycled paper to make their paper products. In this way,
we can save trees and help to reduce rubbish. With recycled paper, factories can make
anything from notebooks to toilet paper!

1 Read and write T (true) or F (false).

a. Paper was invented 2,000 years ago in India.


b. The first type of paper was made from cloth.
c. Today, paper is made from wood pulp.
d. Bleaching wood pulp cleans it and turns it white.
e. Recycled paper is only used to make toilet paper.

2 Search the Internet to find out how paper is recycled. Write sentences describing
the process.





96

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Jobs in nature

EXTENSION

Name

Date

The potato came from America


Do you like potatoes? Did you know that before the 16th
century there were no potatoes in Europe?
The potato comes from Peru, in South America. When
Spanish explorers first arrived there, they saw that the
potato was a popular food. They decided to bring potato
plants to Spain. The potato quickly became popular in
other European countries like Portugal, Italy and France.
At first, people grew potato plants for their pretty flowers.
Many people thought potatoes were poisonous and were
afraid to eat them. The Italians were the first to cook potatoes. Now, potatoes are
grown all over the world and chefs use them as an important ingredient in many dishes.
Not only is the potato a versatile food, it is also healthy and full of nutrients.

1 Complete the text about growing potatoes.

plough

harvest

First, farmers

spray

fertilize

plant

the soil to prepare it for planting. Then, they water and


the soil so that it has lots of nutrients. Next, they

the potatoes. To protect the plants from disease and insects, they
with pesticides. Finally, the farmers

them

the potatoes once they are ready.

2 Read the menu and answer the questions.

a. Which foods come from crop farming?


First course
Artichokes with
shellfish
Starters

Lentil stew

Asparagus with
tomatoes

Second course

Roasted green
peppers

Grilled trout

Roast lamb


b. Which foods come from livestock farming?

c. Which dishes on the menu come from the
fishing industry?


Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

97

Jobs in nature

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Write A (active population) or I (inactive population).

an unemployed person

a fireman

a retired man

a farmer

a student

a teacher

2 Write primary, secondary or tertiary sector.

3 Number the farming activities in order. Then, use the words to write sentences to
explain the process of farming.

harvesting

fertilizing

ploughing

sowing






4 Match the words to the products.

98

a. dry crops

plants for food and other products

b. livestock farming

wood

c. crop farming

rice and tomatoes

d. forestry

sheep, pigs and cows

e. irrigated crops

grapes and olives

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

5 Write the type of livestock under each picture.


A

What type of animal farming do the pictures represent? Explain.


Picture

represents extensive farming because 


Pictures

and

represent intensive farming

because 


6 Label the pictures C (coastal fishing) and D (deep-sea fishing).

Write three differences between these two types of fishing.





Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

99

Jobs in nature

TEST

Name

Date

1 People who get paid for their work belong to the

a. inactive population.
b. active population.
c. unemployed population.
2 Retired people belong to the

a. inactive population.
b. active population.
c. unemployed population.
3 The planting process for crop farmers is

a. sowing, ploughing and harvesting.


b. ploughing, sowing and harvesting.
c. harvesting, sowing and ploughing.
4 Crops that grow with just rainwater are

a. irrigated crops.

b. dry crops.

c. harvests.

b. harvests the crops.

c. plants the seeds.

5 are irrigated crops.

a. Corn, grapes and potatoes


b. Corn, rice and tomatoes
c. Grapes, wheat and olives
6 Sowing is when a farmer

a. prepares the land.

7 Products from livestock farming are

a. cotton and milk.

b. eggs and wool.

c. meat and corn.

8 Livestock living in open fields is

a. extensive farming.

b. cattle farming.

c. intensive farming.

b.goats.

c.cattle.

9 Cows, bulls and oxen are

a. poultry.

10 Fishermen in large boats with refrigerators carry out

a. coastal fishing.
100

Social Science 3

b. deep-sea fishing.

c. fish farming.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Jobs in nature
Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

1 Carry out a product survey.

When we go to the market or


supermarket, we can see hundreds
of amazing food products from all
over the world! Some food products
cannot be grown locally, but many
products can. It is important to support
local farmers by choosing their
products when possible. You are going
to carry out a product survey to find
out where food products in your local
market come from.

Instructions
1. Visit your local market or supermarket. Read the labels on
the products, or ask the shop assistants questions
to get information:

Where does this (fish) come from?

Where do these (olives) come from?

Are these (tomatoes) from a local farm?

2. In small groups, prepare a table of about ten different food


products you can find in the market. Use this example as
a model:
product

where it comes from

trout

fish farm in Galicia

olives

dry crop from Andalusia

meat

livestock farm in vila

3. Complete your table with the food products you have found.
4. Compare your table with another group. Together, decide the
best way to complete this sentence:

Most of the products in my local market are / are not produced


locally.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

101

Jobs in industry and services


Name

REINFORCEMENT

Date

1 Circle the jobs. Then, classify them into sectors in the table.

il
minerp

factoryw

e
ork

primary sector

rm
tfa

ac
rte

erbuilderfisherm

herlumberjackh

an

ote

mu

lre

sicia

cept

secondary sector

ionist

tertiary sector

2 Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. The secondary sector gets raw materials from nature.


b. Primary industries make raw materials for other industries.
c. Consumer industries make manufactured products for consumers.
d. Craftsmen make handmade products in large factories.



3 Match to make sentences about jobs in the secondary sector.

102

a. Factory workers

can be bricklayers, engineers or architects.

b. Craftsmen

work on assembly lines.

c. Construction workers

turn raw materials into handmade products.

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Look at the pictures. Tick () the jobs that belong to the tertiary sector.

5 Write the type of industry under each picture.

food industry textile industry chemical industry construction industry

6 Unscramble the jobs. Then, classify them in the table.

rotu eidgu
intra rerdvi
hops stisnsata

education

health care

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

transport

sitnetd
cerhate
nseur

retail

tourism

Social Science 3

103

Jobs in industry and services


Name

EXTENSION

Date

From factories to museums


The textile industry was very important during the
19th century. In Spain, there were many textile
factories in Catalonia, especially in Barcelona.
Textile factories were built near rivers so that the
moving water could power water mills and machines.
The workers lived in communities near the factories.
These communities were small villages with houses,
shops, churches and schools. There was also a large
mansion where the factory owner lived.
As the years went by, the textile factories closed
down and the workers left the communities.
Nowadays, some of these old factories and the
buildings around them have become museums. When visiting the museums you can find
out what life was like in industrial areas during the 19th century.

1 Making clothes in factories is similar today to in the past. Number the pictures
in order.

104

Shopkeepers sell the


jumper.

Factories prepare the wool.

Factory workers pack the


jumpers.

Workers sew the jumpers.

Farmers take wool from


sheep.

Lorries transport the


jumpers.

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Jobs in industry and services


Name

EXTENSION

Date

Firefighters
Did you know that being a firefighter is not a modern
job? There were firefighters as far back as Ancient Rome!
In some countries, firefighting is carried out by
volunteers; but in others, it is full-time work. Firefighting
is a dangerous job, so firefighters have to be physically fit
and strong. They wear special suits to protect them from
the extreme heat, flames and gases caused by fires.
These suits can weigh more than 30 kilograms!
Firefighters work closely with other public and emergency
services, like the police and ambulances. In fact, there is
one number, which coordinates all the emergency
services in all the countries of the European Union. The
number is 112. Memorize it!

1 Look at the picture. Circle public services in blue and private services in green.

2 Write a list of public services where you live.



Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

105

Jobs in industry and services

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Circle the manufactured products.

F
D

2 Use the words to complete the text.

craftsmen industrial process raw materials factories


manufactured products handmade assembly lines
In the

, workers turn

takes place in

into

. This

. where many workers work on

In workshops,

turn raw materials into

.
products.

3 Complete the chart about types of industries.

chemical

Primary


steel, aluminium

food

Consumer


106

Social Science 3

motorcycles

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Write S (secondary) or T (tertiary) for each picture.

potter

doctor

construction worker

taxi driver

assembly worker

5 Write the type of service that is provided when you do these activities.

a. travel by plane

b. get a vaccination

c. buy some shoes

d. order a hamburger

e. learn to read

6 Find and circle five places where you would use the services in Activity 5.
Write the words to match Activity 5.

d. 

e. 

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

a. 
b. 
c. 

Social Science 3

107

Jobs in industry and services


Name

TEST

Date

1 The construction industry is part of

a. the secondary sector.

b. the tertiary sector.

c. no sector.

2 The industrial process is

a. a building where they make industrial products.


b. a series of activities in factories that turn raw materials into manufactured products.
c. the workshop of a craftsman.
3 Craftsmen

a. make lots of products every day in factories.


b. use simple machines to make handmade products.
c. turn manufactured products into raw materials.
4 Industries that turn raw materials into products for other industries are

a. primary industries.

b. metal industries.

c. consumer industries.

5 Industrial estates are often built

a. far from transport networks.


b. in city centres.
c. outside cities near transport networks.
6 Hotel receptionists work in

a. retail.

b.tourism.

c.education.

7 Commerce is

a. a service that moves people and products from one place to another.
b. a service that helps people in emergencies.
c. the buying and selling of products.
8 Public transport includes

a. buses, trains and planes.

b. motorcycles and bicycles.

c. cars and trains.

9 Ships leave from and travel along sea routes.

a. airports

b seaports

c. railway stations

10 The people who buy products are called

a. consumers.
108

Social Science 3

b.producers.

c.traders.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Jobs in industry and services


Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

1 Carry out a survey about jobs.

What jobs are the most popular?


Do a survey.

Instructions
1. Ask your classmates: What do you want to be when you grow up?
2. Record your results in a table like this one. Add columns for other jobs.
doctor

teacher

fisherman

TV presenter

singer

farmer

fireman

singer

farmer

fireman

3. Make a bar chart like this one with the class results.
number of children

8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

doctor

teacher

fisherman TV presenter

4. Interpret the results and answer the questions in your notebook.


a. What is the most popular job in your class?

b. Which job is the most popular with girls? Which job is the most popular with boys?

c. Which sector is the most popular: the primary, the secondary or the tertiary?

5. What job do you want to do when you are older? Which sector is it? Write sentences.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

109

The past

REINFORCEMENT

Name

Date

1 Circle the units of time. Then, write them in order from the shortest
to the longest.

centurym

w
inute

de
eek

cadeh

ouryearmont

a. 

f. 

b. 

g. 

c. 

h. 

d. 

i. 

e. 

j. 

hda

ym

illen

niums

econd

2 Write the historical source.

written

non-written

oral

3 Complete the table about non-written sources.

non-written sources
type
example

110

Social Science 3

building

object
Guernica

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Match the year to the century.

a. 1905

13th century

b. 600

20th century

c. 50

21st century

d. 1222

16th century

e. 1560

7th century

f. 2015

1st century

5 Write the period of history next to the correct number.

1. 

4. 

2. 

5. 

3. 
6 Write the event that started each period of history.

a. Prehistory 
b. Ancient History 
c. The Middle Ages 
d. The Modern Age 
e. Contemporary History 
7 Match the unit of time to either calendar or clock.

a. hour
b. month
c. second
d. minute
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

clock

calendar

Social Science 3

111

The past

EXTENSION

Name

Date

Saint Patricks Day


Festivals and traditions are a way of
preserving the past. Saint Patricks Day
is a festival in the Republic of Ireland
and in Northern Ireland. It is celebrated
on 17th March in honour of Saint Patrick,
the patron Saint of Ireland.
Saint Patricks Day is now an international
cultural celebration. People all around
the world celebrate it with traditional Irish
food, drink and folk music. People wear
green to symbolize the countryside of
Ireland. People also wear a three-leaf clover, which is an Irish symbol for spring.
Many cities organize St. Patricks Day parades and events. In Chicago, in the United
States, the Chicago River is dyed green on St. Patricks Day!

1 Read the text and write T (true) or F (false).

a. Saint Patricks Day is a Scottish festival.


b. Saint Patricks Day is celebrated in the summer.
c. It is celebrated all around the world.
d. People wear green because it symbolizes hope.
e. The clover is an Irish symbol for spring.

2 Spain also has many traditional festivities. Find out about a local festival
and complete the index card.

traditional festivals in Spain


name and date of festival:
events that take place:

112

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The past

EXTENSION

Name

Date

World Heritage Sites


The United Nations Educational, Scientific
and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) is an
international organization that promotes
education and cooperation.
UNESCO identifies cultural and natural
sites of outstanding universal value, and
includes them in the World Heritage List.
These sites are unique places that need to
be preserved for future generations. The list
contains over 900 sites. It includes historic
monuments and natural landscapes.
Europe has the most World Heritage Sites, including cathedrals, castles, ancient ruins,
and the centres of many historic cities. Spain is home to 43 World Heritage Cultural Sites,
including the Alhambra, the Cave of Altamira, the city of Toledo and El Escorial Monastery.

1 Circle the correct words.

a. UNESCO is an international organization that promotes


education and cooperation / art and food.
b. The World Heritage List includes sites of universal / national value.
c. Europe has the most / best World Heritage Sites.
2 Search the Internet for information about the the Cave of Altamira.
Draw the cave paintings and complete the sentences.

The Cave of Altamira is in the autonomous


community of C

in the north

of Spain. The paintings were made in the


period of history called P
The paintings are

.
years

old.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

113

The past

ASSESSMENT

Name

Date

1 Number the events in order, from the oldest to the most recent.

a. My sister was born a decade ago.


b. The cathedral was built eight centuries ago.
c. My grandparents married five decades ago.
d. Writing was invented five millennia ago.
2 Write these dates in order, from the oldest to the most recent.

523 B.C.

124 A.D.

1123 A.D.

2 A.D.

2 B.C.

3 Look at the pictures and write the time period.


A

4 Write the periods of history in the correct places on the timeline.

114

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

5 Write the type of historical source.

written

non-written

oral

6 Find and circle three historical sources in blue. Then circle


three monuments in green.

7 What is a timeline used for? Explain.




Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

115

The past

TEST

Name

Date

1 We use a to measure short periods of time.

a. calendar

b. century

c. clock

b. ten years.

c. 100 years.

2 A decade is

a. five years.

3 The year 1492 was in the

a. 21st century.

b. 13th century.

c. 15th century.

4 are people who study historical sources.

a. Historians

b. Doctors

c. Romans

5 Written historical sources are

a. images that tell us about the past.


b. old texts from the past.
c. old objects from the past.
6 Historical sources can be

a. written or oral.

b. written, non-written or oral.

c. non-written or physical.

7 The periods of history in order are:

a. Prehistory, Ancient History, the Middle Ages, Contemporary History, the Modern Age.
b. Prehistory, Ancient History, the Middle Ages, the Modern Age, Contemporary History.
c. Ancient History, Prehistory, the Middle Ages, the Modern Age, Contemporary History.
8 During Prehistory, people lived in

a. caves.

b. domus.

c. castles.

9 The time period we live in nowadays is called

a. the Modern Age.

b. the Middle Ages.

c. Contemporary History.

10 A timeline puts

a. past events in order. b. shorter events before longer events. c. future events in order.

116

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The past

INVESTIGATE

Name

Date

1 Make a scrapbook of your personal history.

History is not just events that happened to other people a long time
ago. Your personal history is all the events that have happened to
you in your life. You are going to make a scrapbook of all the
important events that have happened to you. It will tell the story
of your life so far!
Instructions
1. Ask family members to help you with the important events
of your life.
2. Create a timeline of your personal history and put the events
in order, from the earliest to the most recent.

Started
Primary
school

Was born
Started
school
2007

2008

2009

Broke my
arm
2010

2011

2012

2013

Got a bike

2014

2015

3. Find photos or make drawings for each event.


4. Get a blank scrapbook. Give it the title My history.
5. Use a page for each event. Stick the pictures next to the event.
Write a brief description of the event and the pictures.
6. Show your scrapbook to your classmates.

What events are similar?

Were you the same age when they happened?

What events are different?

7. Continue to add important events


as they happen to you.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

117

Prehistory to the Middle Ages


Name

REINFORCEMENT

Date

1 Read and circle the mistakes. Then, write the correct sentence.

a. When people learned to farm the land, they became nomads.


b. Humans began to work with metals a million years ago.


c. The first metalworkers lived in caves.


d. The first humans gathered wild plants, caught fish and raised cows.

2 Write the correct people for each sentence.

the first farmers

the first metalworkers

the first human beings

a. They lived in the first villages. 


b. They discovered fire. 
c. They became sedentary. 
d. They invented the wheel. 
e. They lived in caves. 
3 Tick the picture that shows Prehistory. Explain why.



118

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Unscramble and match the Roman buildings to complete the sentences.

a.

ircucs

b.

ubicpl abths

c.

pletem

d.

ducaueqt

e.

eatreaphmith

f.

trehaet

carried water to the cities.

were dedicated to their gods.

were for entertainment.

were used for chariot races.

were used for bathing.

were used for gladiator fights.

5 Read the clues and write (A) for Ancient History or (M) for the Middle Ages.

People lived in domus, villas and insulae.

They decorated buildings with mosaics.

Monks and nuns lived in monasteries.

Peasants lived in small villages.

6 Look at the picture and answer the questions.

What type of building is this?



What period of history is it from?

Who lived here?

7 Match the words to the people who lived there.

a. monastery

noblemen

b. small village

merchants

c. castle

peasants

d. medieval city

monks and nuns

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

119

Prehistory to the Middle Ages


Name

EXTENSION

Date

A Roman domus
In Ancient Rome, rich families lived in
big, comfortable houses called domus.
They were homes for one family with
just one storey. They were decorated
with wall paintings and mosaics
on the floors.
The windows were small to keep out
city noise. So, for more sunlight,
Romans built the rooms around an
open courtyard (atrium). This central
courtyard had a small pond that
collected rainwater.
The entry from the street (vestibulum) led to the courtyard, the most important part of the
house. The bedrooms (cubicula), dining room (triclinium) and the office surrounded the
courtyard. Some domus had a very large courtyard with gardens and even baths!
1 Label the parts of a domus.

entry courtyard pond bedroom dining room


vestibulum or

atrium or

food pantry

cubicula or

triclinium or

2 Look at the photo. What part of the domus can you see?
120

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Prehistory to the Middle Ages

EXTENSION

Name

Date

History in a comic
The Bayeux Tapestry was created in the 11th
century. It uses pictures to tell the story of how
William the Conqueror became King of England.
Most people at that time could not read, so a
story in pictures was the best way for people to
learn about the King. The tapestry shows many
scenes, one after another, making it the first
comic book in history!
The pictures were embroidered onto a very long piece of cloth with threads of brightcoloured wool. The whole tapestry is 70 metres long!
The Bayeux Tapestry is an important historical source because it shows many important
events in history. It also gives us an idea about life, society and war in the Middle Ages.

1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. In which period of history was the Bayeux Tapestry created? 


b. Who does the tapestry tell a story about? 
c. Why was it important to tell the story using pictures? 

d. Why is the tapestry an important historical source? 


2 Imagine you are a historian studying the Bayeux Tapestry.


Look at this section of the tapestry and answer the questions.

What means of transport is being used?



How did this transport move?

What is being transported?

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

121

Prehistory to the Middle Ages


Name

ASSESSMENT

Date

1 Match to make sentences about Prehistory.

a. The first humans were

inventors

and built the first farms and villages.

b. The first farmers were

sedentary

and moved to find food and shelter.

c. The first metalworkers were

nomads and invented the wheel, carts and


sail boats.

2 Look at picture and circle the correct answers.

What material are the swords made of?


bonemetalceramic
Who in Prehistory used these?
the first humans the first farmers the first metalworkers
How long ago were these objects made?
8,000 years ago 100,000 years ago a million years ago
3 Classify the words in the table.

temple
horse

Latin

slaves

sailing boat

Roman buildings

122

Social Science 3

bridge

insulae

public baths
forum

Roman transport

cart

villas
domus

people and languages

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Find and circle five words from Ancient History and the Middle Ages.
Then, write.

Ancient History

The Middle Ages

5 Put the words in order to make sentences about the Middle Ages.

a. Merchants / sold / in markets. / their products


b. of the Roman Empire / in the 15th century. / and ended / It started / with the fall

c. kings and knights / There were rich / and poor / peasants.


d. Monks / in / monasteries. / lived


6 Read the events and write the period of history they belong to.

a. The construction of monasteries 


b. The invention of sailing boats 
c. The invention of the wheel 
d. The construction of villages 
e. The construction of villas 
f. The discovery of fire 
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

123

Prehistory to the Middle Ages


Name

TEST

Date

1 The first humans were

a. nomads that moved from place to place.


b. sedentary and built houses in small villages.
c. travellers that liked visiting other cultures.
2 Over a million years ago, the first humans were

a. hunters and gatherers.

b. farmers.

c. metalworkers.

3 People built the first villages and cities because of

a. farming.

b. fire.

c. trade.

4 There was a large square in the centre of Roman cities called a

a. villa.

c. public bath.

b. forum.

5 Ancient Romans watched gladiators fight in

a. theatres.

b. circuses.

c. amphitheatres.

b. villas.

c. insulae.

b. Latin.

c. Italian.

6 Poor Romans lived in...

a. domus.
7 Romans spoke

a. Spanish.

8 Merchants and craftsmen in the Middle Ages lived in

a. villages.

b. monasteries.

c. cities.

9 In the Middle Ages, knights

a. fought in wars.
b. copied books.
c. sold products in markets.
10 Monks and nuns in the Middle Ages lived in...

a. churches.
124

Social Science 3

b. monasteries.

c. cathedrals.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Prehistory to the Middle Ages


Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

1 Build a castle.

Instructions
1. Work in small groups. You need empty cereal and shoe boxes,
cardboard tubes and some strong card, glue and scissors.
2. Search the Internet for images of castles. In your notebooks,
draw a castle you like as a model.
3. Find out the names of the different parts of the castle, such as: drawbridge,
tower, keep, battlements, etc. Write labels for the different parts.
4. Use the boxes to make a 3D castle, using your
drawing as a model. Stick the pieces
of your castle together with glue
or transparent tape. Decorate and paint
your castle and add the labels to the
different parts.
5. Invent a name for your castle. Share
your castle with your classmates.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

125

The Modern Age and Contemporary History


Name

REINFORCEMENT

Date

1 Read the sentences about the Modern Age and write T (true) or F (false).
Then, correct the false sentences.

a. There were new inventions like the printing press.


b. Trade developed only on land.
c. Merchants and craftsmen lived in villages.
d. New products arrived from Africa.
e. Explorers discovered that the Earth was flat.
f. The telescope was invented.




2 Complete the chart about the Modern Age.

in the cities
In the
Modern Age,
these people
lived...
in the villages

3 Tick () the inventions from the 19th century.

126

piano

street lighting

telescope

automobile

potato

computer

palace

vaccines

sailing boat

wheel

steam engine

train

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

REINFORCEMENT

4 Circle the correct words to complete the sentences about the 19th century.

a. In the 19th century, workers / craftsmen worked in factories.


b. They made many products because they used machines powered by hand / steam.
c. Many peasants / slaves left their villages to work in factories in the countryside / city.
5 Label the means of transport M (Modern Age) or C (Contemporary History).

aeroplane

steamboat

high-speed train

horse-pulled cart

automobile

spacecraft

6 Unscramble the letters. Then, label the inventions.

lanopaere
aptlop uteorcmp

orbto
scftecrapa

artphsonme

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

127

The Modern Age and Contemporary History


Name

EXTENSION

Date

The worlds first underground trains


In 1863, the worlds first underground train line opened
in London. It was called the Metropolitan Railway. The
line ran between Paddington and Farringdon Street.
The trains were powered by a steam locomotive which
filled the tunnels with smoke! Later, electric trains were
introduced, which were cleaner.
On its opening day, the Metropolitan Railway carried more than 30,000 passengers on the
6 kilometre journey. The underground transformed the way people travelled within the city.
During its construction, many people were worried there would be problems digging under
the city. However, the London Underground expanded and new lines were built.
Nowadays, there are 280 stations on 12 lines. It is the largest metro system in Europe!

1 Put the words in order to make sentences. Then, find and underline the sentences
in the text.

a. the worlds first / In 1863, / underground train line / opened in London.


b. people travelled / The underground transformed / the city. / the way / within

c. Nowadays, / 280 / stations on / there are / lines. / 12


2 Search the Internet for information about the first metro system in Spain
and complete the index card.

First metro in Spain


Where was it built? 
When was it opened? 
How many stations are there now? 

128

Social Science 3

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The Modern Age and Contemporary History


Name

EXTENSION

Date

The Industrial Revolution


The invention of the steam engine in the 18th century
revolutionized the way products were made. Steam
engines were used to power large machines. These
machines could make many products very quickly.
Factories were built to house the large and noisy
machines. This started a time of great economic and
technological development, known as the Industrial Revolution.
The Industrial Revolution started in Great Britain. Factories replaced small craftsmens
workshops. People left their farms in the country for factory jobs in the cities. The growing
city populations needed better transport, improved health services and more food. These
needs inspired new inventions like vaccines and more efficient farming equipment. This led
to more and more jobs in the cities, and fewer people in the countryside.
By the early 20th century, the Industrial Revolution had spread to other countries.
1 Read the text and answer the questions.

a. What was the Industrial Revolution? 


b. Where and when did the Industrial Revolution begin? 


c. What happened to the population during the Industrial Revolution? 

2 Look at the photos of textile factories from the 19th century and 21st century.
Label the sentences A or B.

A factory from the 19th century.

Many people work the machines.

A factory from the 21st century.

Computers work the machines.

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

129

The Modern Age and Contemporary History


Name

ASSESSMENT

Date

1 Write T (true) or F (false). Then, correct the false sentences.

a. Contemporary History started 50 years ago.


b. In the 20th century, houses installed running water, heating and lighting.
c. Cities became smaller in the 19th century.
d. Vaccines were invented in the 19th century.


2 Colour the phrases that describe the Modern Age in red, and phrases
that describe Contemporary History in green.

it started in 1492

peasants left their villages

new products arrived from America

it started with the French Revolution

people had telescopes and pianos

3 Complete the table with the words.

Internet first vaccines steamboat high-speed train automobile


piano sailing boat first street lighting tomatoes and corn printing press

Modern Age

130

Social Science 3

Contemporary History
19th century

20th and 21st centuries

Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

ASSESSMENT

4 Look at the photo and circle the correct word for each sentence.

a. The streets are wide / narrow.


b. The buildings are low / tall.
c. The automobiles are modern / old.
d. This picture belongs to the Modern Age /
Contemporary History.
e. The photograph of the city is from the
19th / 21st century.
5 Complete the sentences about these two telephones.

This is a

from the

This is a

century. It stayed
in the room.

from the
century. You can

carry it with you.

6 Write the main periods of history. Colour the timeline. Then, write the period
you like best. What do you like from that period?




Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

131

The Modern Age and Contemporary History


Name

TEST

Date

1 Christopher Columbus discovered America in

a.1992.

b.1492.

c. 1592.

2 The was an invention of the Modern Age.

a.aeroplane

b.camera

c.printing press

3 During the Modern Age, the kings and noblemen lived in

a.castles.

b.palaces.

c.insulae.

4 The first factories opened

a. 200 years ago.

b. 400 years ago.

c. 600 years ago.

5 The machines used in the first factories were powered by

a.steam.

b.electricity.

c.petrol.

6 During Contemporary History peoples health improved thanks to

a. paved roads.
b. medicines and vaccines.
c.automobiles.
7 Nowadays, perform many tasks in factories, instead of workers.

a. machines and robots


b. machines and craftsmen
c. animals and robots
8 The steam engine, cars and the camera were invented in the

a 19th century.
b. 20th century.
c. 21st century.
9 Inventions in Contemporany History that have changed peoples lives include

a. the Internet, the wheel and the piano.


b. the telescope, the radio and markets.
c. aeroplanes, computers and the MRI scanner.
10 Transport nowadays is

a.more uncomfortable.b. slower.


132

Social Science 3

c. faster and safer.


Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

The Modern Age and Contemporary History


Name

INVESTIGATE

Date

1 Which traditional Spanish dishes use products originally from America?

When European explorers returned from the New World, they brought back many new
foods with them. For the first time, Europeans started growing potatoes, tomatoes,
sunflowers, courgettes, aubergines, avocados, sweet potatoes, peanuts, pineapples,
papayas, vanilla, beans, chocolate, and many other foods. Many of these new foods are
used in traditional Spanish dishes.

Instructions
1. Conduct a survey of your classmates to find out what Spanish dishes are most popular.
Ask your classmates: What is your favourite traditional Spanish dish?
2. Record your results in a table like this one. Add different foods.
paella

fabada

cocida

croquettes

Spanish
omelette

meatballs

gazpacho

3. As a class, decide on the most popular dish and the least popular dish.
4. In pairs, search the Internet to find out which ingredients came from America.
5. In your notebook, write a list of the main ingredients of the most popular Spanish
dish. Circle the ingredients from America in red on your list.

Then, write the ingredients of the least popular dish. Circle the ingredients from
America in green.

6. Interpret the results and complete the sentences.


a. The most popular traditional Spanish dish is

You can / cannot make it without using foods originally from America.

b. The least popular traditional Spanish dish is

You can / cannot make it without using foods originally from America.
Photocopiable material 2015 Santillana Educacin, S.L.

Social Science 3

133

NOTES



























NOTES



























Art director: Jos Crespo


Design coordinator: Rosa Marn
Design team:
Cover design: Estudio Pep Carri
Cover photograph: Leila Mndez
Design development coordinator: Javier Tejeda
Design development: Ral de Andrs and Jorge Gmez
Art coordination: Carlos Aguilera
Technical director: Jorge Mira
Technical coordinators: Marisa Valbuena
Layout: Jorge Borrego and Eva Hernndez
Photo research: Nieves Marinas and Maril Rodriglvarez
Photographs: ARCHIVO SANTILLANA

All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or transmitted in any
form, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise without the prior permission in writing of the copyright
holders. Any infraction of the rights mentioned would be considered a violation of the intellectual property
(Article 270 of the Penal Code). If you need to photocopy or scan any fragment of this work, contact CEDRO
(Centro Espaol de Derechos Reprogrficos, www.cedro.org).

2015 by Santillana Educacin, S. L. / Richmond Publishing


Avda. de los Artesanos, 6 Tres Cantos. 28760 Madrid
Richmond Publishing is an imprint
of Santillana Educacin, S. L.
Printed in Spain
CP: 657159
ISBN: 978-84-680-2864-4
D.L.: M-1757-2016

Richmond Publishing
58 St Aldates
Oxford OX1 1ST
United Kingdom