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Telangana and Andhra Pradesh : History


and Politics
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Telangana, as you all know, is the proposed 29th state of


India. Telangana is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh
and is going to exist as separate state from 2 June 2014. It is
very important to know the history of Telangana and the
background of separate statehood demand. At a time of

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many statehood demands, Telangana issue is among the


most probable areas from which questions can come for
UPSC interview this year. As the matter deals with the federal
structure of India, the topic is important for IAS prelims as
well as mains too.

Telangana Region : Location and immediate


history

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Telangana was for a long time part of the erstwhile Nizams


princely state of Hyderabad. But in 1956 Telangana region of
Hyderabad State was merged with Andhra Pradesh state.
From 1956 to 2014, Telangana existed as part of Andhra
Pradesh.The region accounts for 119 seats of 294 in the
assembly of AP and 17 Loksabha seats out of 42.

Andhra Pradesh Map showing Telangana, Rayalaseema and


Coastal Andhra : Courtesy: FirstPost

Telangana Bill
Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014commonly
calledTelangana Billis anAct of Indian
Parliamentproclaiming the bifurcation of the Andhra
Pradesh state into two states, Telangana and residuary
Andhra Pradesh.The Bill was rejected byAndhra Pradesh
Legislative Assemblyon January 30, 2014, butwas passed in
theLok Sabhaand in theRajya Sabhaand got attestationby
the President of India,Pranab Mukherjee.

Seemandhra
Seemandhrais used to refer to the joint regions
ofRayalaseemaandCoastal Andhra(Costandhra) inAndhra
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Pradesh. Most of the area is void of industries and central


government establishments.The term came into wide use
during theTelangana movement,as a way to refer to the
parts of Andhra Pradesh that would remain if
theTelanganaregion separates from the state.

About Telangana History and Telangana


Movement
It is not easy to cover the entire Telangana-Andhra issue in a
single article. It has multiple dimensions, social, political,
economic and historical. This is a humble attempt to touch
only a few important points.
About the name: The name Telangana is believed to
have been derived from the word Trilinga Desa.
Telangana region is flanked by three ancient Shiva
Temples at Srisailam, Kaleswaram and Draksharama.
About the name : During the reign of the Nizams in
Hyderbad, there was both Telugu speaking as well as
Marathi speaking areas in the kingdom. The Telugu
spoken region was called Telugu Angana to differentiate
it from the Marathi speaking areas.
History : The region of Telangana has historical
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connections withAssakajanapada (considered one of the


16 greatjanapadasof early India),Satavahanas,
Vakataka,Vishnukundina,Chalukya,Rashtrakuta,Western
Chalukya, Kakatiyas,Qutbshahis and Nizams. Nizam
gave Rayalaseema and Coastal Andra regions to the
British under subsidiary alliance in 1799 ( which later
became part of Madras Presidency) while Telangana
region remained with Nizams Hyderbad.
Telangana Rebellion :Telangana revolt, was basically
started to secure a better deal for the peasants who had
to face many hardships under the Nizam and feudal
lords of that time known as Doras, mostly hailing from
the Reddy and Velama community. Telangana
rebellionsoon became a full-fledged struggle against the
Nizam himself and this resulted in the demand of
merging Hyderabad with India.
Operation Polo :WhenIndia became independentfrom
the British Empire in 1947, theNizam of Hyderabaddid
not want to merge with Indian Union and wanted to

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remain independent under the special provisions given

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to princely states. TheGovernment of Indiaannexed

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Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 inOperation


Polo. TheTeluguspeaking people were distributed in
about 22 districts, 9 of them in the former Nizams
dominions of the princely state of Hyderabad, 12 in

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theMadras Presidency, and one in FrenchcontrolledYanam.


Potti Sreeramulu and demand for a separate Telugu

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speaking state: Telugu speaking population existed in


Madras presidency as well as Hyderbad state. Potti
Sreeramaulu, a freedom fighter, hailing from Nellore
district, led the agitation to carve out a separate state for
the Telugu speaking people of that state.
Andhra State in 1953 :The new Andhra state came into
being on October 1, 1953 with Kurnool as the capital,
comprising seven districts of the Coastal region (Nellore,
Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, East and West Godavari,
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Guntur, and Krishna) and four districts of the

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Rayalaseema region (Chittoor, Kadapa, Anantpur and

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Kurnool). [PS: Telangana was not part of the Andhra


State in 1953.]

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State Re-organisation Commission :The States


Reorganization Committee (SRC), which had Fazal Ali, KM
Panniker and HN Kunzru among others, recommended
the formation of Visalanadhra, which would merge the
Telugu speaking areas of the existing Hyderabad State

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with Andhra State. The recommendation was made on


the basis that having Hyderabad as a permanent capital

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would be more suited for Visalandhra, while also giving

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access to mineral resources, and the large GodavariKrishna basin under unified control.
Paragraph 382 of the State Re-organisation

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Commission : SRC said opinion in Andhra is

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overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit; public

delivered straight into your

opinion in Telangana has still to crystallize itself.


Important leaders of public opinion in Andhra
themselves seem to appreciate that the unification of

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Telangana with Andhra, though desirable, should be

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based on a voluntary and willing association of the


people and that it is primarily for the people of

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Telangana to take a decision about their future.


Nehru on Telangana : Prime ministerJawaharlal
Nehruinitially was sceptical of merging Telangana with
Andhra State, fearing a tint of expansionist imperialism
in it.He compared the merger to a matrimonial alliance
having provisions for divorce if the partners in the
alliance cannot get on well.
Gentlemens agreement:TheGentlemens

1. Essay Paper

agreementof Andhra Pradeshwas signed

2. GS 1 Paper

betweenTelanganaandAndhraleaders before the

3. GS 2 Paper

formation of the state ofAndhra Pradeshin 1956. The


agreement provided safeguards with the purpose of
preventing discrimination against Telangana by the

4. GS 3 Paper
5. GS 4 Paper

government of Andhra Pradesh. The alleged violations of


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this agreement are cited as one of the reasons for

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demands of separate statehood for Telangana.

PRELIMS CUM MAINS

Reason behind Telangana Movement:There was a

Indian History Notes- Indian

distinct difference between Andhra and Telangana

History and Culture.

regions. Since Andhra was part of a colonial Madras


Presidency, education levels and development of this

Geography Notes- Indian and

region were better than in feudal Telangana. People

World Geography.

from Telangana were against merger with Andhra state

Economics Notes- Indian

as they feared they would lose jobs to them. Cultural

Economy.

differences, too, remain even after 60 years of


togetherness. Under Nizams, and before that, under the

Indian Polity Notes-

Qutb Shahi rule, the culture and language in Telangana

Constitution, Social Justice etc.

bore influences of north India. Emphasis on festivals are

General Science Notes- Science

also different.With faster development in the rest of


Andhra, a strong feeling was gaining ground in
Telangana that it was being exploited and that the

and Technology.
Environment Notes-

regions surplus was being transferred to finance

Biodiversity, Climate Change

development in the rest of the state.

etc.

First Telagana Movement (1969) :The first Telangana

Current Affairs Notes- National

movement intensified in 1969.Primarily a studentdriven protest, it turned historical for the number of
people who took part in it. Over 350 students were killed
in police firing and lathi charge.

and international.

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Mains (Extra Topics)

Jai Andhra Movement (1972) :Jai Andhra movementis


a 1972political movementin support for the creation
ofAndhra state.The activists demanded that the
safeguards for Telangana region be removed for
continuation ofAndhra Pradesh.

World History Notes- GS paper


1.
Indian Society Notes- GS paper

Role of Telangana Rashtra Samithi (TRS): K

1.

Chandrasekhar Rao (KCR), a member of the Telugu

Foreign Relations Notes- GS

Desam Party, quit TDP in 2001 to champion the cause of

paper 2.

a separate Telangana state and founded Telangana


Rashtra Samithi.
Srikrishna Committee (2010) :The report discussed six

International Affairs Notes- GS


paper 2.

solutions to the problem. The preferred option was

Internal Security Notes- GS

keeping the State united by simultaneously providing

paper 3.

certain definite constitutional and statutory measures


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for socio-economic development and political


empowerment of Telangana region through the creation
of a statutorily empowered Telangana Regional Council.
The second best option was bifurcation of the State into
Telangana and Seemandhra as per existing boundaries,

Disaster Management NotesGS paper 3.


Ethics,Integrityand Aptitude
Notes- GS paper 4.

with Hyderabad as the capital of Telangana and


Seemandhra to have a new capital.
Grievances of Telangana proponents :Proponents of

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a separate Telangana state site perceived injustices in


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the distribution of water, budget allocations, and


jobs.There are allegations that in most years, funds
allocated to Telangana were never spent.As
perSrikrishna committee on Telangana, since 1956,
Telangana held the position of CM for 10.5 years while
Seema-Andhra region held it for the rest (47+ years as of
2014), with Rayalaseema region holding the post for 27
years and coastal Andhra representing 20 years.
Opposition against formation of separate Telangana
State:There was amovement in Seemandhra
regionopposing the Telangana state formation. Though
only an opinion is required under Article 3 of the Indian

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Constitution, a resolution was adopted by voice vote and

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the bill was rejected by theAndhra Pradesh Legislative

IAS Officer?

AssemblyandCouncilon 30 January 2014 as the


majority of the legislators were from Seemandhra

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region.

Services Exam Prelims,

Constitutionality on state creation power : According

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to Article 3 of the Constitution of India, the power to


form a new State vests with the Parliament, provided

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that the Bill creating such a State is introduced on the


recommendation of the President and he has referred it
to the legislature of the affected State for expressing its
views thereon. This linear interpretation of the Article

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would render the view that the Andhra Pradesh


Assembly will have no legal effect and the formation of
Telangana is solely the prerogative of the Government of
India.
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Important provisions of Telangana Bill :The Bill


envisages Hyderabad as the common capital for ten
years. The Andhra Pradesh Governor will be Governor
for both successor States of Andhra Pradesh and
Telangana.The Polavaram Irrigation Project will be
declared as a national project and the Center will take
under its control the regulation and development and
the Tungabhadra Board will continue to monitor the
release of water to high level canal, low level canal and
Rajolibanda diversion scheme.
Six Point development Package : PM had announced
6-Point Package for APs Successor States.In a bid to

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address concerns of the Seemandhra region,

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government announced grant of special category status

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including tax incentives to the residuary state as part of

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the six-point development package.


Presidents rule : The President signed the

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proclamation to impose Presidents rule in Andhra

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Pradesh following the Union Cabinets

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recommendation.Mukherjee gave his nod to place

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under suspended animation the Andhra Pradesh


assembly whose term is slated to end on June two.The
decision to impose the Presidents Rule in Andhra

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Pradesh was necessitated by N Kiran Kumar Reddys


resignation as the chief minister on February 19, 2014 as
he was opposed to division of the state to carve out
Telangana.
Politics and Political Parties :Main players in AP
areIndian National Congress,Telugu Desam

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Party,Telangana Rashtra Samithiand YSR Congress. It


wont be the usualCongressversus Telugu Desam Party
(TDP) fight anymore as in the united AP.Telangana
Rashtra Samithi (TRS) under K Chandrasekhar Rao
(KCR)has emerged as the main party of the region,
taking credit for the achievement of the new state.
Elections in 2014 :Andhra Pradesh will have Lok Sabha
and assembly polls as an undivided unit and the
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candidates elected will automatically become legislators


of their respective states after Telangana comes into
being on June 2.

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