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Which Orange

Juice is the
Z Wang and Brandon Iskander
Nelson Period 6
Table of Contents

Title Page _______________________________________________________________ 1

Table of Contents _________________________________________________________ 2

Acknowledgments ________________________________________________________ 3

Statement of Purpose ______________________________________________________ 4

Hypothesis ______________________________________________________________ 5

Background Information ___________________________________________________ 6

Procedure _______________________________________________________________ 9

Materials _______________________________________________________________ 10

Observation _____________________________________________________________ 11

Conclusion ______________________________________________________________ 12

Bibliography ____________________________________________________________ 13


Thanks to all our friends, family, and all our classmates who helped with the procedure and the

survey. Their feedback was helpful and supporting in every way.

Special thanks to Ms. Nelson and our parents, for without them, this project would not be at all


Statement of Purpose

We were interested in this topic due to the huge issue of which brand of orange juice is

the closest to fresh-squeezed, especially in Vitamin C concentration. Many people and brands

have debates and questions on this matter, so we thought a basic experiment would help us

understand more. Our test was to find out which brand has the most vitamin C concentrate, to see

if the percentage on the Nutrition label is actually helpful.

Many people care about this topic due to the fact that as they want to be healthier, orange

juice is a great and delicious way to get one’s full recommended daily amount of Vitamin C. We

think that through this experiment, many people will understand an open their eyes to a new

view on our typical but so interesting OJ.


When we first started our experiment, our hypothesis was that Minute Maid would beat

its competition of other orange juice brands by far. We based our assumption on the fact that

Minute Maid not only tastes good but is growing on the minds of very health-conscious people

like ourselves. From previously trying their orange juice, we agreed that it was closest in flavor

and sourness to fresh orange juice. Minute Maid is also growing on the market and is constantly

portrayed as “freshly squeezed” orange juice.

Background Information

Our test was based on finding out which orange juice brand was freshest based on vitamin C

concentrate levels.

Oranges originated from Southeast Asia, called Citrus × sinensis. This name was based on the

Sansript language for the orange tree. Oranges are citrus, so they have an acidic pH value of

around 2.5-3.

There are many types of oranges, including between types, but we used specifically navel

oranges. Navel oranges originated in Brazil as a result of a mutation.

Worldwide, Brazil is the leader in growing oranges, grows around 17.5 million tons annually.

The US follows with 8.4 million tons. The world total orange production in 2005 was around

61.7 million tons. (Data from UN Food and Agriculture Orginasation)

Oranges have around 9.14 grams of sugar per every 100 grams of juice. Like most other fruits,

they are low in fats and proteins, and is rich in vitamin C and calcium, containing 45 and 43 mg

of each, respectively.

Orange juice is highly popular, also due to the fact that it gives 25% of your daily value of fruit

and vegetable servings in every 8 oz cup. Orange juice typically has a pH of 3.5.

This is a diagram of a molecule of vitamin C.

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient for humans and many other animals, and is proved to be

significant in our immune system. Vitamin C, or absorbic acid, produces a sour taste in the

drinks and foods that contain high amounts of it, including orange juice. Although recommended

amounts vary, the World Health Organization recommends 45 mg per day, while the United

Kingdom recommends 75, and the North American Dietary Reference Intake recommends 90

milligrams per day.

Tropicana, one of the worldwide leaders of orange juice production, was founded in 1947 by

Anthony Rossi. Since then, it has worked with more than 400 established Florida orange groves.

The oranges are handpicked and then the orange oil is extracted from the outer cover to provide a

less sour taste. After obtaining the orange oil, the oil is blended into the juice later on in the


Minute Maid was created in 1945 by the National Research Corporation to help supply the US

army. The company is known for their creative technique of freezing the orange juice

concentration in order to better preserve its flavor.

Florida’s Natural was created in 1933. Its headquarters are located in Lake Wales, Florida hence

the name “Florida’s Natural”. Florida’s natural not only focuses on orange juice but includes

snacks in their line of production starting in 2006.

Last but not least, Simply Orange, is a branch of the Coca-Cola company that was launched in

2001. The company also specializes in making their own lemonade or limeade. In 2007, it

revolutionized their orange juice competiveness against other well known brands by introducing

other flavors. These flavors include mango, apple, pineapple, and grapefruit. In February of

2009, they started a new product known as Simple Rasberry. Simply Orange is known for their

eager ambition to expand and grow.

Competition between these brands have been fierce, so we used surveys to find out exactly

which brand of orange juice had the popular support, in taste. This is a chart of different brands

and their ratings, something out of 5 stars.

Orange Juice Brand Popularity


Columbia Gorge


Donald Duck OJ

Sunny Delight

Simply Orange

Minute Maid

Florida's Natural


0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5

Average Rating (out of 5)


1) Make a vitamin C indicator solution by making a starch paste with corn starch and

distilled water.

2) Add 250 mL more of water.

3) Put the mixture in a glass beaker and boil in the microwave (for about 1:30).

4) In another beaker, add 75 mL of water and 10 drops of the boiled starch solution.

5) Add the 2% iodine in drops until the solution becomes a darkish purple/blue color

(around 4-6 drops). This is the vitamin C indicator solution!

6) Squeeze 100 mL of fresh orange juice.

7) Put 75 mL vitamin C indicator solution in a test tube.

8) Drop droplets of the first orange juice sample in the indicator solution.

9) Mix after every drop.

10) Count how many drops it takes for the indicator solution to become clear (or close).

11) Repeat for every sample.

12) Log the number of drops it takes.

13) Compare the amounts, (the less drops it needs- the larger the vitamin C concentration).


 2% iodine (tincture of iodine)

 Corn starch

 Distilled water

 Tap water

 Microwave

 Fresh oranges

 Juice squeezer

 4 brands store bought orange juice (We used Tropicana, Minute Maid, Simply Orange,

and Florida’s Natural)

 5 (75 mL) test tubes

 2 glass beakers

 5 pipettes

 Test tube rack

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This is a graph of our results from our test. The numerical data is the number of drops of the

specific orange juice brand needed to turn the indicator solution clear.

We found out that nothing was close to the fresh sample we tested, but that Tropicana was the

closest out of all the brands.

Orange Juice Experiment Results

Chart 1

7% Fresh
Minute Maid
31% Florida's Natural
16% Simply Orange

Orange Juice Experiment Results

Chart 2

Amount of Drops Needed





Fresh Minute Maid Tropicana Florida's Natural Simply Orange
Orange Juice Brands

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The order of freshest turned out to be Tropicana, Simply Orange, Minute Maid, and

Florida’s Natural. Our hypothesis was not correct, as Minute Maid got 3rd place. We were

slightly surprised since we believed strongly that our hypothesis was correct by far. Nothing

went wrong with the experiment, although we excluded many factors to make our project

workable. If we were to again perform this procedure, we would probably test more samples and

be more precise with the comparing and measuring amounts. With more factors, we would be

more careful and make our project harder and wide-ranged. Other than that, we concluded a

successful experiment.

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EHow Inc. "How to Make a Vitamin C Indicator |" EHow | How To Do Just About

Everything! | How To Videos & Articles. Demand Media. Web. 11 Feb. 2010.


This was one of the articles I found that told us how to make a simple Vitamin C

Indicator solution. We ended up using this one due to its simplicity, and it worked. This

also was part of our procedure and materials part.

Google. "Orange Juice - Google Search." Google Images. Web. 07 Apr. 2010.



This specific search provided good images and cartoons of oranges and orange juice,

which we used in our poster and in the titles in the poster and the written report.

"Orange - Fruit." Senior Study- Fruits and Nuts. Ed. Rosie Lerner. Purdue University. Web. 07

Apr. 2010. <>.

Although this was short and simple, it gave information about oranges and their origin

and facts about their growth and the orange tree. It provided possible facts for

background info.

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Rateitall. "Orange Juice Reviews - RateItAll." Consumer Reviews - RateItAll. Web. 8 Feb. 2010.


This was a key and valuable website we used, as it gave the popularity ratings of which

brand of orange juice was most popular. It also gave us ideas of which orange juice

brands to buy and test.

Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. "Orange (fruit)." Wikimedia. Wikipedia. Web. 12 Feb. 2010.


We used Wikipedia articles to find statistics and charts, which we used in our background

information. It provided info for charts, and gave specific data that added detail.

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