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Creative practice and research: a literature review.

This literature review begins with texts which discuss practice-based research
generally and is then separated into loose, overlapping categories.

The name of the practitioner who contributed a citation OR the source of the
reference is in square brackets. Terms used to refer to practice-based research and
abbreviations, plus other bibliographies are listed at the end. Finally, I have included
a handful of selected extracts from the bibliography.

There are several creative writing texts included because many of the contributions
were from creative writers and also because much thinking in this area has been
done by Australian based writers working in academia, as exemplified by the journal
Text. However, under 'other bibliographies' you'll find literature reviews which aren't
biased in this fashion.

Practice-based research / research based practice. General themes.

Barrett, E. and B. Bolt. Practice as Research: Approaches to Creative Arts Enquiry.


London: I B Tauris, 2007. [LT and SE]

Knowles, J. G. and A. L. Cole. Handbook of the arts in qualitative research:


perspectives, methodologies, examples, and issues. Sage, 2008. Includes sections
on literary forms, performance, new media, visual arts, folk art and popular art forms.
[Web search]

Smith, H. and R. Dean. Practice-led Research, Research-led Practice in the Creative


Arts. Edinburgh UP, 2009. [LT]

Research as practice / practice as research. Further selected texts.

Baker, S., B. Buckley, and G. Kett. Creative Arts PhD: Future-Proofing the Creative
Arts in Higher Education. Project Final Report. Australian Learning and Teaching
Council, 2009. Available to download from:
http://www.creativeartsphd.com/docs/ALTC_Report_Final.pdf [This is the final report
of a project called 'Creative Arts PhD' which was funded by the Australian
government and higher education institutions.]

Biggs, M. 'The Role of ‘the Work’ in Research.' Presentation to the PARIP 2003
conference [online]: http://www.bris.ac.uk/parip/biggs.htm [SE]

Brien, D. L. 'Creative Practice as Research: A Creative Writing Case Study.' Media


International Australia. No. 118. February. 2006. pp. 53-59. [AK]

Brown, N. 'Art as a practice of research.' Proceedings of the 31st InSEA World


Congress: InSEA Member Presentations Papers and Workshops CD-ROM. New
York: The Center for International Art Education. Teachers College Columbia
University, 2003. [Eisner and Day 2004]

Brown, N. 'The representation of practice.' Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1,
Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index.]

Cahnmann-Taylor, M. and R. Siegesmund. Eds. Arts-Based Research in Education:


Foundations for Practice. London: Routledge, 2007. [BL search]

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Carter, P. Material Thinking: The Theory and Practice of Creative Research.
Melbourne University Press, 2004. [LT]

Douglas, A., K. Scopa and C. Gray. 'Research through practice: positioning the
practitioner as researcher.' Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000.
[Working Papers index]

Eisner, E. 'Does Arts-Based Research Have a Future?' Studies in Art Education,


October 2006. [Web search]

Kroll, J. ‘Creative practice and/as/is/or research: an overview’. The creativity and


uncertainty papers: the refereed proceedings of the 13th conference of the Australian
Association of Writing Programs. Ed. by Lucy Neve and Donna Lee Brien. AAWP,
2008. pp. 1-13. Available at http://aawp.org.au/creativity–and–uncertainty–papers
[AAWP]

Nelson, C. 'Research through practice: a reply to Paul Dawson.' Text: Journal of


Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 12, No. 2 October, 2008. [Text index]

Magee, P. 'Strange directions for future research (cultural studies as creative


writing).' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 10, No. 2. October, 2006.
[Text index]

McNiff, S. 'Research in new keys: An introduction to the ideas and methods of arts-
based research.' Journal of Pedagogy Pluralism and Practice. Vol. 9, Autumn 2004.
Available from: http://www.lesley.edu/news/publications/publications.toc.html [McNiff.
2008]

McNiff, S. Art-based research. London: Jessica Kingsley, 2008. [Amazon search]

O'Toole, J. 'Logos and Logic Under Siege: Performance and Research in the
Performing, Visual and Creative Arts.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses.
Vol. 2, No. 1. April, 1998. [Text index]

Sullivan, G. Art Practice as Research: Inquiry in the Visual Arts. Sage, 2010.
[Amazon search]

Thomson, P., ed. 'Notes and Queries: Practice as Research. Studies Theatre and
Performance. Vol. 22:3, 2003. pp.159-180. [SE]

Academia, role within / links to teaching

Carroll, J. 'An investigation of the relation between artistic practice, teaching practice
and research in universities.' Working Papers in Art and Design. No. 4, 2006.
Retrieved <6th April 2010> from
<http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/artdes_research/papers/wpades/vol4/jcfull.html> [SG]

Cole, C. 'Henry James, Affect and the Writer/Researcher in the Academy. Text:
Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 10, No. 2. October, 2006. [Text index]

Dawson, P. Creative Writing and the New Humanities. London: Routledge, 2005.
[AK]

Dawson, P. 'Writing Programmes in Australian Universities: Creative Art or Literary


Research?' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 3, No 1. April, 1999.

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


[Text index]

Harper, G. 'Buying or Selling? Creative Writing Research in the University.' New


Writing: International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing. Vol. 2:
1, 2005. pp. 1 - 3. [New Writing search]

Harper, G. and J. Kroll, eds. 2008 Creative Writing Studies: Practice, Research and
Pedagogy. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters. [LT]

Harper, G. 'Creative Writers on Campus: Dead Spies, Living Lies: 1593 to the
Present.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 9, No. 2. October, 2005.
[Text index]

Jaskyte, K., H. Taylor and R. Smariga. 'Student and Faculty Perceptions of


Innovative Teaching.' Creativity Research Journal. Vol. 21:1, 2009. pp. 111 – 116.
[Creativity Journal search]

Kroll, J. 'The Resurrected Author: Creative Writers in 21st-century Higher Education'.


New Writing: The International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative
Writing. Vol. 1: 2, 2004. pp. 89 -102. [New Writing search]

Kroll, J. 'Creative Writing as Research and the Dilemma of Accreditation: How do we


prove the value of what we do?' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 6,
No. 1. April, 2002. [Text Index]

Owen, C. 'Academic Research and Creative Writing: Redrawing the Map and Finding
One's Allies (and avoiding the Corbett phenomena).' Text: Journal of Writing and
Writing Courses. Vol. 10, No. 2. October, 2006. [Text index]

Perry, G. 'The Double Life.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 4, No.
2. October, 2000. [Text index]

Reynolds, C. 'The Role of the Writer in the Academy.' Journal of General Education.
Vol. 47: 1, 1998. pp.18 - 30. [Web search]

Ritter, R. and S. Vanderslice. 'Teaching Lore: Creative Writers and the University.'
Profession, 2005, pp. 102–112. [BL search]

Action-research

Brown, T. and L. Jones. Action research and postmodernism. Buckingham: Open


University Press, 2001. [Eisner and Day 2004]

Carr, D. 'Thought and Action in the Art of Dance.' British Journal of Aesthetics. 7:4,
1987. pp. 345-357. [SE]

Creativity

Boden, M. The Creative Mind: Myths and Mechanisms. London: Routledge, 2004.
[Kroll, 2009]

Curtis, A. 'Rethinking the Unconscious in Creative Writing Pedagogy.' New Writing.


Vol. 6: 2, 2009. pp. 105 — 116. [AC]

Freiman, M. 'Dangerous Dreaming: Myths of creativity.' Text: Journal of Writing and

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Writing Courses. Vol. 7, No. 2. October, 2003. [Text index]

Mcintosh, P. 'What do we mean by creativity?' Action Research and Reflective


Practice: Creative and Visual Methods to facilitate Reflection and Learning. London:
Routledge, 2010. Discusses health and social science. [BL search]

Marks, T. 'Creativity Inside Out From Theory to Practice.' Creativity Research


Journal. Vol. 2: 3, 1989. pp. 204 – 220. [Creativity Journal search]

May, A. 'The Writer's Dark, Secret Desire: Creative Writing, Publication and Cultures
of Creativity'. New Writing: International Journal for the Practice and Theory of
Creative Writing. Vol. 1: 1, 2004. pp. 37 - 46. [New Writing search]

Nelson, B. and D. Rawlings. 'How Does It Feel? The Development of the Experience
of Creativity Questionnaire.' Creativity Research Journal. Vol. 21: 1, 2009. pp. 43 –
53. [Creativity Journal search]

Smith, G. 'The Creative Personality in Search of a Theory.' Creativity Research


Journal. Vol. 20: 4, 2008. pp. 383 – 390. [Creativity Journal search]

Townley, B. Managing Creativity: Exploring the Paradox. Cambridge: CUP: 2010.


[Amazon search]

Wise, P. 'Writing, Creativity and the World: Possibilities of Articulation'. New Writing:
The International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing. Vol. 1: 2,
2004. pp. 124 - 132. [New Writing search]

Collaboration

Beck et al. 'Turning up the heat: collaboration as a response to a chilly research


environment.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 12, No. 2. October,
2008. [TEXT index]

Design, practice-based research and

Bird, E. 'Research in art and design: the first decade.' Working Papers in Art and
Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index]

Maffei, S. and F. Zurlo. 'Designing as a competence: design process as the result of


a "learning by interacting" practice. Evidence from Italy.' Working Papers in Art and
Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index]

Marshall, T. and S. Newton. 'Scholarly design as a paradigm for practice-based


research.' Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers
index]

Moloney, J. 'Studio based research in architecture: the legacy and new horizons
offered by digital technology.' Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000.
[Working Papers index]

Rendell, J. Site-Writing: The Architecture of Art Criticism. London: I.B. Tauris, 2010.
[EO]

Rosenberg, T. '"The reservoir": towards a poetic model of research in design.'


Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index]

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Embodiment and Contingency

Brown, C. Inscribing the body: feminist choreographic practices. Unpublished PhD


thesis. University of Surrey, 1994. [SE]

Ellis, S. Indelible: A Hypermedia Remembering. DVD-ROM, Melbourne, 2005.


Available in the Roehampton Library. [SE]

Ellis, S. 'The Timed Body.' Extensions Journal: The Online Journal of Embodiment
and Technology. Vol 4, June 2008. Available at:
http://www.extensionsjournal.org/the-journal/4 [SE]

Freeman, J. Blood Sweat and Theory: Research Through Practice in Performance.


London: Libri, 2010. [SE]

Fuschini, L. et al. eds. Practice-as-Research: In Performance and Screen. London:


Palgrave Macmillan, 2009. [EO and SE]

Kaye, N. Site Specifics: Performance, Place and Documentation. London: Routledge,


2000. [SE]

Lepecki, A. Of the Presence of the Body: Essays on Dance and Performance


Theory. Middletown, Connecticut: Wesleyan University, 2004. [SE]

Pakes, A. 'Art as action or art as object? the embodiment of knowledge in practice as


research.' Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 3, 2004.
Retrieved <20th April 2010> from:
http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/artdes_research/papers/wpades/vol3/apfull.html [SE]

Pakes, Anna. Dance Interpretation and the Cultural Institution: exploring the
condition(s) of British and French Contemporary Dance in the 1990s. Unpublished
PhD thesis. London: Laban / City University, 2001. [SE]

Exegesis

Brady, T. 'A Question of Genre: De-mystifying the Exegesis.' Text: Journal of Writing
and Writing Courses. Vol. 4, No. 1. April, 2000. [Text index.]

Fletcher, J. and A. Mann, eds. Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Special
Issue Number 3: Illuminating the Exegesis. Vol. 8, No. 1. April, 2004. Available from:
http://www.textjournal.com.au/speciss/issue3/content.htm [LT]

Paltridge, B. 'The Exegesis as a Genre: An Ethnographic Examination.' Ed. by L.


Ravelli and R. Ellis Analyzing Academic Writing: Contextualised Frameworks.
London: Continuum, 2004.

History

Berry, R.M. ‘Theory, Creative Writing, and the Impertinence of History.' Colours of a
Different Horse: Rethinking Creative Writing Theory and Pedagogy. Ed by. W.
Bishop and H. Ostrom. Illionois: National Council of Teachers of English, 1994.
[Johnstone, 2009]

Harper, G. 'A State of Grace?: Creative Writing in UK Higher Education, 1993-2003.'

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 7, No. 2. October, 2003. [Text
index]

Monteith, M. and R. Miles. 'Creative Writing: A Historical Perspective.' Teaching


Creative Writing Theory and Practice. Open University, 1992. [BL search]

Interdisciplinarity

Dawson, P. 'Creative Writing and Postmodern Interdisciplinarity.' Text: Journal of


Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 12, No. 1. April, 2008. [Text index]

Knowledge

Carr, D. 'Further Reflections on Practical Knowledge and Dance a Decade On.'


Dance, Education and Philosophy. Ed. by Graham McFee. Oxford: Meyer & Meyer
Sport, 1999. [SE]

Durling, D. 'Reliable knowledge in design.' Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1,
Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index]

Pakes, A. 'Original Embodied Knowledge: the Epistemology of the New.' Dance


Practice as Research, Research in Dance Education. Vol. 4:2, 2003. pp. 127-149.
[SE]

Zarrilli, P. 'Negotiating Performance Epistemologies: Knowledges ‘about’, ‘in’ and


‘for'.' Studies in Theatre and Performance. Vol. 21:1, 2001. pp. 31-46. [SE]

Play

Opie, G. 'Play: The Root of all Research.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing
Courses. Vol. 11, No. 2. October, 2007. [Text index]

Poetics

Hughes, R. 'The Poetics of Practice-Based Research Writing.' Journal of


Architecture. Volume 11. Issue 3. June 2006. pp. 283 - 301. [AK]

Sheppard, R. 'Poetics as Conjecture and Provocation'. New Writing: International


Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing. Vol. 5: 1, 2008. pp. 3 — 26.
[New Writing search]

Policy, frameworks, strategies, models

Eisner, E.W. and M. D. Day. Eds. Handbook of Research and Policy in Art
Education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2004. [Web search]

Franz, J. 'An interpretative framework for practice-based research in architectural


design.' Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers
index]

Haseman, B. 'Tightrope Writing: Creative Writing Programs in the RQF Environment.'


Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 11, No. 1. April, 2007. [Text index]

Krauth, N. and J. Webb. 'Creative Writing and the new Research Quality Framework.'
Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 9, No. 2. October, 2005. [Text

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Index]

Lycouris, S. 'The documentation of practice: framing trace.' Working Papers in Art


and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index]

Ryan, A. 'Connecting Two Research Strategies: A hybrid model.' Text: Journal of


Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 9, No. 1 April, 2005. [Text index]

Shannon, R. Mapping Landscapes for Performance as Research. Palgrave


Macmillan, 2009. [Amazon search]

Stewart, R. 'Practice vs Praxis: Constructing Models for Practitioner-Based


Research.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 5, No. 2. October,
2001. [Text index]

Wilson, M. Summary of the ‘state of play’ in practice-led research in Art, Design and
Architecture. AHRC/CHEAD joint initiative, 2008. [AHRC search]

Sensuous Scholarship

Stoller, P. Sensuous Scholarship. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania, 1997.


[SE]

Jackson, S. 'Touching Freud's Dog: H.D.'s Tactile Poetics', Angelaki. (Forthcoming,


2010). [SJ]

Text and Narrative

Aquilla, P. and M. Pallotta-Chiarolli. 'Truth or Fiction: Writing Narrative in Research.'


Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 1, No. 1. April, 1997. [TEXT index]

Avieson, B. 'Writing - a methodology for the new millennium.' Text: Journal of Writing
and Writing Courses. Vol. 12, No. 2. October, 2008. [TEXT index]

Beal, G. 'Mapping the Textual Genome: Post-Scripts, Post-Structuralism and


Chandler's Poodle Springs.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 9, No.
2. April, 2005. [TEXT index]

Hancock, P. ‘Novel Thinking.’ Times Higher. 7th October 2008. pp. 38-41. [Johnstone,
2009]

Therapy

Gilroy, A. Art Therapy, Research and Evidence-based Practice. Sage, 2006.


[Amazon search]

Theory and Analysis

Meehan, M. ‘Cross-Examination and Critique: Creative Writing as Analysis.’


International Journal of the Humanities. Vol. 3: 9, May 2009. pp. 191-197.
[Johnstone, 2009]

Melrose, A. ‘Reading and righting: carrying on the “creative writing theory” debate’.
New Writing: The International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Writing. Vol. 4.2, 2007. pp. 109-117. [New Writing search]

Melrose, S. 'Entertaining other options: Restaging ‘theory’ in the age of practice as


research.' [Susan Melrose's Inaugural Professorial Lecture delivered on 28 January
2002 at Middlesex University.] Available online at: http://www.sfmelrose.u-
net.com/inaugural [SE]

Stewart, R. '(Re)inventing Artists' Research: Constructing living forms of theory.'


Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 7, No. 2. October, 2003. [Text
index]

Webb, J. 'Research in perspective: the practice of theory.' Working Papers in Art


and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index]

Thesis writing, research training and postgraduate study

Arnold, J. ‘The PhD in Writing Accompanied by an Exegesis.’ Journal of University


Teaching and Learning Practice. 2.1, 2005. Available from:
http://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1022&context=jutlp [Kroll, 2009]

Biggs, I. Art as Research: Creative Practice and Academic Authority: A project-based


examination of the politics of art-led research in a doctoral context. Verlag Dr Muller,
2009. [Web search]

Brien, D. L. and R. Williamson, eds. Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses.
Special Issue Number 6. Supervising the Creative Arts Research Higher
Degree. Towards Best Practice. Vol. 13, No. 2. October, 2009.
http://www.textjournal.com.au/speciss/issue6/content.htm [LT]

Brophy, K. 'Writing PhDs: Integrational Linguistics and a New Poetics for the PhD.'
Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 11, No. 1. April, 2007. [Text index.]

Burr, S. 'Whoa! Reining in the research doctorate in creative practice.' Text: Journal
of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 11, No. 2. October, 2007. [Text index.]

Butt, M. 'Creative Writing Research Degrees: Range and Rigour'. New Writing:
International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing. Vol. 6: 1, 2009.
pp. 53 - 56. [New Writing search.]

Dibble, B. and van Loon, J. 'The Higher Degree Research Journey as a Three-
Legged Race.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 8, No. 2. October,
2004. [Text index]

Candlin, F. 'A proper anxiety? Practice-based PhDs and academic unease.' Working
Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index]

Candlin, F. 'Practice-based Doctorates and Questions of Academic Legitimacy.'


International Journal of Art and Design Education. Vol. 19:1, 2000. pp. 96-101.
[CAPhD bibliography]

Engels-Schwarzpaul, A-C. 'At a loss for words? Hostile to language? Interpretation in


creative practice-led PhD projects.' Working Papers in Art and Design. No. 5, 2008.
Retrieved <6th April 2010> from
<http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/artdes_research/papers/wpades/vol5/tesfull.html>
[SG]

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Frayling, C. Practice-Based Doctorates in the Creative and Performing Arts and
Design. UK Council for Graduate Education, 1997. Available from:
http://www.ukcge.ac.uk/publications/reports [LT]

Green, H. Ed. 'Research Training in the Creative and Performing Arts and Design.'
UK Council for Graduate Education, 2001. Available from:
http://www.ukcge.ac.uk/Resources/UKCGE/Documents/PDF/CreativePerformingArts
%202001.pdf [Web search]

Harper, G. ‘The Creative Writing Doctorate: Creative Trial or Academic Error?’ New
Writing: The International Journal for the Practice and Theory of Creative Writing.
Vol. 2: 2, 2005. pp. 79-84. [Johnstone, 2009]

Harper, G. 'What is a Postgraduate Degree in Creative Writing?' in Holland, S.


Creative Writing: A Good Practice Guide. Report Series No. 6. February 2003.
http://www.englishacademy.ac.uk/explore/resources/creative/guide.php. [AK]

Johnstone, M. 'You do what? The Interdisciplinary Potential of the Creative Writing


PhD.' The Playful Paradox: Creative Writing on Campus 2009. [Proceedings of the
conference held at the University of Bedfordshire on 23rd May 2009.]
http://cwparadox.wikidot.com/papers

Krauth, N. 'The Creative Writing Doctorate in Australia: An Initial Survey.' Text:


Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 5, No. 1. April, 2001. [Text Index]

Kroll, J. 'The supervisor as practice-led coach and trainer: getting creative writing
doctoral candidates across the finish line.' Special Issue Number 6. Supervising the
Creative Arts Research Higher Degree. Towards Best Practice. Ed. by. Brien, D. L.
and R. Williamson. Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 13, No. 2.
October, 2009. http://www.textjournal.com.au/speciss/issue6/content.htm [Text
Index]

MacLeod, K. 'The functions of the written text in practice-based PhD submissions.'


Working Papers in Art and Design. Vol. 1, Nov. 2000. [Working Papers index]

Woods, C. 'The Art and Craft of the Honours Thesis: A rhetorical enterprise' Text:
Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 4, No. 2. October, 2000. [Text index]

Writing, practice-based research and.

Greenberg, S. 'Theory and Practice in Journalism Education.' Journal of Media


Practice. 9.2/3. 2007. pp. 289 [SG]

Krauth, N. and T. Brady, eds. Creative Writing: Theory Beyond Practice. Teneriffe:
Post Pressed, 2006. [Web search]

Orley, E. ‘Getting at and into place: writing as practice and research’ Journal of
Writing in Creative Practice. Vol. 2.2, 2009. pp. 159-171. [EO]

Webb, J. and D.L. Brien. 'Strategic Directions for Research in Writing: A Wish List.'
Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 10, No. 1. April, 2006. [Text index]

Writing the Self

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Bullough, R. V. and S. Pinnegar. 'Guidelines for Quality in Autobiographical Forms of
Self-Study.' Educational Researcher. Vol. 30:3, 2001. pp. 13–21. [Eisner and Day
2004]

Carey, J. 'Whose story is it, anyway? Ethics and interpretive authority in biographical
creative nonfiction.' Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 12, No. 2.
October, 2008. [Text index.]

Freeman, J. 'Writing the Self: the Heuristic Documentation of Performance.' Studies


Theatre and Performance. Vol. 22:2, 2002. pp. 95-106. [SE]

Starfield, S. and L. Ravelli. '"The writing of this thesis was a process that I could not
explore with the positivistic detachment of the classical sociologist": Self and
Structure in New Humanities Research Theses.' Journal of English for Academic
Purposes. Vol. 5: 3, 2006. pp. 222-243.

Other bibliographies and resources:

Arts Research website at Brighton: http://artsresearch.brighton.ac.uk/links/practice-


led

Creative Arts PhD (CAPhD) Bibliography:


http://www.creativeartsphd.com/docs/CAPhD_bibliography.pdf

Journal of Media Practice. Free issue available from:


http://www.intellectbooks.co.uk/journals/view-Journal,id=132 [MC]

Practice as Research in Performance at Bristol (Parip) Selective Bibliography:


http://www.bris.ac.uk/parip/bib.htm

AHRC / NAWE. 'Mapping Practice-led Research in Creative and Performing Arts.' [A


joint consultation involving the Arts and Humanities Research Council and the
National Association of Writers in Education.]
http://www.nawe.co.uk/metadot/index.pl?iid=34063

Terms used to describe practice-based research or reflection on practice-


based research by the texts cited:

Action research
Creative research
Embodied research
Exegesis
Interdisciplinary / cross-genre research
Performative research
Poetics
Practice-based research
Practice-led research
Praxis
Qualitative research
Reflexive practice
Site specific research

Abbreviations:

AC = Abi Curtis, Sussex

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


AK = Ariel Kahn, Roehampton
BL = British Library. www.bl.uk
EO = Emily Orley. www.roehampton.ac.uk/staff/EmilyOrley
LT = Louise Tondeur. www.roehampton.ac.uk/staff/louisetondeur
New Writing: New Writing: International Journal for the Practice and Theory of
Creative Writing. www.informaworld.com/smpp/title~content=t794020040~db=all
MC = Michael Chanan. www.roehampton.ac.uk/staff/MichaelChanan
SE = Simon Ellis. www.roehampton.ac.uk/staff/SimonEllis
SG = Susan Greenberg. www.roehampton.ac.uk/staff/SusanGreenberg
SJ = Sarah Jackson, Nottingham Trent
Text = Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. www.textjournal.com.au
Working Papers: Working Papers in Art and Design.
http://sitem.herts.ac.uk/artdes_research/papers/wpades

Selected extracts from the bibliography

Different versions of knowledge

"Toward the end of the millennium, the canons of science were being cast
into doubt, the assumption that there was an objective world 'out there' that
was separate from experience did not adequately explain the world as we
knew it. The positivist legacy […] assumed that outcomes of inquiry were
mostly seen within the limits of what was already known. Knowledge in this
sense was expressed as a difference in degree or quantity and was
compared to other things we knew. Anticipating expected outcomes, of
course, did not necessarily mean that valuable, unintended consequences
were not possible - one just has to be curious and open to the unexpected.
[…] For researchers interested in the rich complexity of people and cultures,
other, more qualitative, methods were explored. In these cases, problems
were not solved but surrounded, because this was the only way to dig deep
into human experience. Here knowledge emerged as a difference in kind,
rather than degree, where insights were local and particular […] but how do
we create knowledge and theory that explores what is possible? Rather than
seeing inquiry merely as a linear procedure, or an enclosing process, how
might research be seen as a creative and critical practice where imaginative
insights confirm, challenge, and change our understanding? Oftentimes what
is known can limit the possibility of what is not and this requires creative
practice to see things from a new view. If it is assumed that a primary goal of
research is the creation of new conceptions of knowledge, then this requires
rethinking how inquiry can be a search for probably, plausible, and possible
outcomes. That this can be achieved by using practices that are not only
systematic and rigorous but also creative and critical is an exciting prospect."

Sullivan, G. Art Practice as Research: Inquiry in Visual Arts. Thousand Oaks. Sage,
2010, 2nd ed, pp. 31 - 32.

"It is now commonly accepted that the genres through which a discipline
embodies its knowledge are not essentialist types by socially constructed
codes of behaviour: they are the necessary language and customs one must
learn when entering the territory of any disciplinary community […] It is also
true of course, that the territorial boundaries dividing disciplines are
commonly understood as socially constructed rather than as pre-existing
distinctions between different types of knowledge […] Nevertheless, despite
their constructed nature, genres - and the disciplines they constitute - are
powerful operative categories with real historical, rhetorical, and even political

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


force. Genres allow disciplinary communities to do their work. They embed
and encode communal assumptions and values, thus enabling groups of
people with shared interested to advance claims and move toward
consensus. Genres bring together not only discursive forms and vocabulary,
but the common problems or representations of reality, the preferred methods
and techniques, and the whole range of theoretical, methodological and
epistemological commitments that constitute a discipline."

Journet, D. 'Boundary Rhetoric and Disciplinary Genres: Redrawing the Maps in


Interdisciplinary Writing.' Genre and Writing: Issues, Arguments, Alternatives. Ed by
W. Bishop and H. Ostrom. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann, 1997, pp. 56 - 69, p. 56.

Performative Research

"Two models of scholarly research dominate the academy, quantitative and


qualitative research. Traditionally, both have naturalised the perspective of
the researcher. Similarly, research, as a process, has conventionally been
taken as self-evident. Quantitative and qualitative research use different
paradigms to report their results. Quantitative research uses measurement:
numbers, graphs or formulas. Qualitative research, on the other hand, deals
mainly with texts. It emphases 'written outcomes' and disseminates research
results in 'discursive prose' […] specifically the author-evacuated analytical
prose of the Anglo-American scholarly tradition. […] 'performative research',
[…] has been gathering momentum with the proliferation of new media and
the entry of other creative practices into the academy. This third category […]
largely constitutes a renovation of qualitative research. Performative research
(a term [Haseman] uses interchangeably with 'practice-led research') is
distinguished by privileging practice in the research process and by arguing
for the status of practice as a research outcome. It uses the 'symbolic
language and forms' […] of the media in which the research is undertaken to
report research results. Haseman defends the concept of performative
research by arguing for the 'primacy' of the medium in which the practice
takes place (computer code, audio data, video, theatrical performance, dance
or graphic arts) and suggests that the research output should be assessed
according to the rubric of these media. 'Claims to knowing', he argues, are
made through 'the symbolic language and forms of the practice."

Brewster, A. 'Beachcombing: A Fossicker's Guide to Whiteness and Indigenous


Sovereignty.' Practice-led Research, Research-led Practice in the Creative Arts. Ed.
by H. Smith and R. Dean. Edinburgh UP, 2009. pp. 126 - 149, pp. 126 - 7, citing
Haseman, B. 'A Manifesto for Performative Research'. Media International Australia
Incorperating Culture and Policy. No. 118, pp. 98 - 102.

"In his taxonomy of practice-led research Haseman used creative writing as an


example of performative research in textual studies. In discussing the writing of
research outcomes he makes a distinction between discursive (analytical) and
non-discursive (creative) writing. The former he positions within qualitative
research, the latter, performative research […] According to Haseman the
research output for creative writing is the novel. But is creative writing the only
textual mode in which performative research can be undertaken?"

Brewster, A. 'Beachcombing: A Fossicker's Guide to Whiteness and Indigenous


Sovereignty.' Practice-led Research, Research-led Practice in the Creative Arts. Ed.
by H. Smith and R. Dean. Edinburgh UP, 2009. pp. 126 - 149, pp. 129, citing
Haseman, B. 'Tightrope Writing: Creative Writing Programs in the RQF Environment.'

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010


Text: Journal of Writing and Writing Courses. Vol. 11, No. 1. April, 2007.

The novelist's understanding of research

"'Research' is something of a buzzword among writers of popular novels. It is


a topic often brought up at literary festivals among panels of authors who are
concerned about being taken seriously. Specialist knowledge of certain kinds
has a high value in the book-selling stakes: any fiction writer who has flown
an aircraft or conducted brain surgery, who has a background in foreign
affairs or espionage, or who has traveled in extreme environments is seen to
have 'done their research' and is respected accordingly. In other words,
research is assumed to be practice-led and understood to be the factual
dimension of a fictional work; the writer's job is to make that dimension
intriguing or adventurous." Nightmares in the Engine Room. Jane Goodall.
Practice-led Research, Research-led Practice in the Creative Arts. Ed. by H.
Smith and R. Dean. Edinburgh UP, 2009. p. 200

The Exegesis

"The exegesis is a written text which accompanies a visual project submitted


at the research component of the Masters degree. These texts are similar in
some ways to what is called the thesis genre, but, in many ways, are also
quite different. The exegesis expands on the methodology, parameters, and
context of the visual project, rather than being a stand-alone piece of work in
its own right. […] the study draws on the notion of the ethnography of writing
[…] where key participants in the production and evaluation of the genre are
asked about its role, purpose, and discourse community expectations. […] the
interaction between texts, roles, and contexts [are] a way of understanding
the characteristics of the particular genre and the role it plays in its particular
academic setting."

Paltridge, B. 'The Exegesis as a Genre: An Ethnographic Examination.' Ed. by L.


Ravelli and R. Ellis Analyzing Academic Writing: Contextualised Frameworks.
London: Continuum, 2004. pp. 84 - 103, 84. Cites Grabe, W. and R. Kaplan. Theory
and Practice of Writing: An Applied Linguistic Perspective. London: Longman, 1996.

Creative Research

"Yet, while 'creative research' ought to be a tautology, in the present cultural


climate it is in fact an oxymoron. A research paradigm prevails in which
knowledge and creativity are conceived as mutually exclusive. In the
universities this paradigm is said to be derived from scientific method. But this
is incorrect: as related, even convergent, applications of ingegno, scientific
and poetic creativity both suffer under it. Be that as it may, a narrowly
reductive empiricist notion of research, which, by insisting on describing the
outcomes in advance, defines the new in terms of a present 'become more
extreme,' now influences the framing of research questions across all
disciplines. Interpretative sciences (traditionally the humanities), and even
applied disciplines, architecture and design, find they can describe what they
do only in condition that they leave out invention."

Carter, P. Material Thinking. Melbourne UP, 2004. pp. 7 - 8.

Compiled by Louise Tondeur, Roehampton University. April 2010