You are on page 1of 27

IMO CMO

1 ab R a > b a b > 0 a = b a b = 0 a < b a b < 0

a
> 1
b
3 a > bb > c a > c
4 a > b a + c > b + c
5 a > cb > d a + b > c + da > cb < d a b > c d
6 a > bc > 0 ac > bc a > bc < 0 ac < bc
7 a > b > 0c > d > 0 ac > bd
2 ab > 0 a > b

8 a > b a n > bn (n N + ) .
9 a > bab > 0

1 1
< .
a b

10 a > b > 0 n a > n b (n N +n > 1) .


1
2

1
3
1
3
1 a > 0b = a + c = b + abc
2
a
2
b
a = 3

a=b=c

0< a < 3
a > 3

a<c<b

c<b<a

2 abc R a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ab + bc + ca
1
1
1
a 2 + b 2 + c 2 (ab + bc + ac) = ( a b) 2 + (b c) 2 + (c a) 2 0
2
2
2
3 xyz R ABC ABC

x 2 + y 2 + z 2 2 xy cos C + 2 yz cos A + 2zx cos B


x 2 + y 2 + z 2 (2 xy cos C + 2 yz cos A + 2 zx cos B )
= ( x y cos C z cos B) 2 + ( y sin C ) 2 + ( z sin B) 2 2 yz cos B cos C + 2 yz cos A
= ( x y cos C z cos B) 2 + ( y sin C ) 2 + ( z sin B) 2 2 yz sin B sin C

= ( x y cos C z cos B) 2 + ( y sin C z sin B) 2 0


x = y cos C + z cos B

y sin C = z sin B
x
y
z

=
=
sin A sin B sin C
4 xyz xy + yz + zx + 1 = 0 x 2 + 5 y 2 + 8 z 2 4

x 2 + 5 y 2 + 8z 2 4
= x 2 + 5 y 2 + 8 z 2 + 4( xy + yz + zx)
= ( x + 2 y + 2 z )2 + ( y 2 z )2 0
5 abc a 2a b 2b c 2c a b + c b a +c c a +b
a b c > 0

a 2 a b2b c 2 c
a
=
a b + c b a + c c a +b b

a b

b

c

bc

a

c

ac

6 abxy (a 2 + b 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) (ax + by )2

(a 2 + b 2 )( x 2 + y 2 ) (ax + by )2
= (a 2 x 2 + b2 y 2 + a 2 y 2 + b2 x 2 ) (a 2 x2 + b2 y 2 + 2abxy)
= (ay bx)2 0
7 abc

a
b
c
3
a2
b2
c2
a+b+c

+
+
2
+
+

b+c a+c a+b 2


b+c a+c a+b
2
a
b
c
3
1
+
+

b+c a+c a+b 2


1

1 b
1 c
1
a
=
+
+

b+c 2 a+c 2 a+b 2
1ab ac 1 bc ba 1 ca cb
=
+
+
+
+
+

2 b +c b +c 2 a +c a +c 2 a +b a +b
1ab ba 1ac ca 1 bc cb
=
+
+
+
+
+

2 b +c a +c 2b +c a +b 2 a +c a +b
1
( a b) 2
1
( a c)2
1
(b c)2
=
+
+
0
2 (a + c )(b + c ) 2 (b + c )(a + b) 2 (a + c )(a + b )
2

a2
b2
c2
a+b+c
+
+

b+c a+c a+b


2

1
1 c
1
a
b
= a
+ b
+ c

b+c 2
a+c 2 a+b 2
a a b a c b b c ba c c a c b
=
+
+
+
+
+

2 b + c b + c 2 a + c a + c 2 a +b a +b
a ab b ba a ac c c a b bc c cb
=
+
+
+
+
+

2 b+c 2 2 2 b+c 2 a+b 2 a+c 2 a+b


(a + b + c)(a b)2 (a + b + c)(a c)2 (a + b + c)(b c)2
=
+
+
0
2(b + c)(c + a )
2(b + c )(b + a )
2(a + c )(a + b )
8 a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 = 1

(a + b) 4 + (a + c) 4 + (a + d ) 4 + (b + c) 4 + (b + d )5 + (c + d ) 4 6
(a + b) 4 + (a + c) 4 + (a + d ) 4 + (b + c) 4 + (b + d ) 4 + (c + d )4 6
= (a + b) 4 + (a + c ) 4 + (a + d ) 4 + (b + c ) 4 + (b + d ) 4 + (c + d ) 4 6(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 ) 2
= (a 4 + 4a3b + 6a 2b 2 + 4ab3 + b 4 ) + (a 4 + 4a 3c + 6a 2 c 2 + 4ac3 + c 4 ) + (a 4 + 4a3 d + 6a 2 d 2 + 4ad 3 + d 4 )
+ (b4 + 4b3 c + 6b2 c 2 + 4bc3 + c4 ) + (b4 + 4b3 d + 6b2 d 2 + 4bd 3 + d 4 ) + (c4 + 4c3 d + 6c2 d 2 + 4cd 3 + d 4 )
6(a 4 + b 4 + c 4 + d 4 + 2a 2b 2 + 2b 2c 2 + 2c 2 d 2 + 2a 2c 2 + 2b 2 d 2 + 2a 2 d 2 )
= ( a 4 4a 3b + 6a 2b 2 4ab3 + b 4 ) ( a 4 4a 3c + 6a 2 c 2 4ac3 + c 4 ) ( a 4 4a3 d + 6a 2 d 2 4ad 3 + d 4 )
(b 4 4b3c + 6b 2 c 2 4bc 3 + c 4 ) (b 4 4b3 d + 6b 2 d 2 4bd 3 + d 4 ) (c 4 4c3 d + 6c 2 d 2 4cd 2 + d 4 )
= (a b) 4 + (a c) 4 + (a d ) 4 + (b c) 4 + (b d ) 4 + (c d ) 4 0
9 abc a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = 1

1
1 1 2(a 3 + b3 + c 3 )
+ 2+ 2
3
2
a
b
c
abc

1
1
1 2(a 3 + b3 + c 3 )
+
+

3
a 2 b2 c2
abc
1
1 2(a 3 + b3 + c 3 )
1
= (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ) 2 + 2 + 2
3
b
c
abc
a
a 2 b 2 a 2 c 2 b 2 c 2 2(a 3 + b3 + c 3 )
= 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2 + 2
a
c
a
c b
abc
b
c 2 c 2 2c 2 b 2 b 2 2b 2 a 2 a 2 2a 2
= 2 + 2

+ +
+ +

b
ab a 2 c 2 ac b2 c 2 bc
a
2

c c b b a a
= + + 0
a b a c b c
10 abc

b + c c + a a + b (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )(ab + bc + ca)
+
+

3
a
b
c
abc(a + b + c)

b + c c + a a + b (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )(ab + bc + ca)
+
+

3
a
b
c
abc( a + b + c)
2
2
2
b c c a a b
(a + b + c )(ab + bc + ca)
= + + + + + b
3
abc(a + b + c)
a a b b c c

2
2
2
b a
b c
c a
(a + b + c )(ab + bc + ac) 3abc( a + b + c)
= + 2 + + 2 + + 2
abc (a + b + c )
a b
c b
a c

2
3
3
3
3
3
3
( a b)
a c + ac + b c + bc + a b + ab 2abc( a + b + c)
=

ab
abc( a + b + c)

3
3
2
2
( a b) 2 a(c + b b c bc )

ab
abc( a + b + c)

( a b) 2
a(b + c)(b c)2

ab
bc( a + b + c)

1 abc xyz

x2 + y 2 + z 2 2

a+b
abc
b+c
c+a
xy +
yz +
zx

( a + b)(b + c)(c + a )
c
a
b

a
b
c
b
a
c

x
y +
y
z +
z
x 0
b+c b+c
a +b a +b
c + a
c+a
2 abc a + b + c = 1 a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + 1 4(ab + bc + ca)

a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + (a + b + c) 2 4(ab + bc + ca)
(a b) 2 + (b c) 2 + (c a) 2 0 .
3 xy 3( x + y + 1)2 + 1 3xy

3x 2 + 6( y + 1) x + 3( y + 1)2 + 1 3xy 0
3 x 2 + (3 y + 6) x + 3 y 2 + 6 y + 4 0
= (3 y + 6)2 12(3 y 2 + 6 y + 4)
= 27 y 2 36 y 12 = 3(3 y + 2)2 0 .
4 abc (a 2 + 1)(b 2 + 1)(c 2 + 1) (ab + bc + ca 1)2

a 2b 2 c 2 + a 2 + b 2 + c 2 2ab 2bc 2ca + 2a 2bc + 2ab 2 + 2abc 2


a 2b 2 c 2 + (a + b + c )2 2abc(a + b + c) 0
(abc a b c) 2 0

5 abc S a 2 + b 2 + c 2 4 3S

(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ) 2 48S 2 = 3( a 4 b 4 c 4 + 2a 2b 2 + 2b 2c 2 + 2c 2 a 2 )
4a 4 + 4b 4 + 4c 4 4a 2b 2 4b 2 c 2 4c 2 a 2 0
(a 2 b2 )2 + (b2 c 2 ) 2 + (c 2 a 2 ) 2 0

AM GM Cauchy

(1) n n0 0 1
(2) n = k k n0 n = k + 1 (1)(2)
n n n0 (1) n
n0 0 1(2) n k k n0
n = k + 1 (1)(2) n ( n n0 )
1

a1 a2 an

a1 + a2 + + an n
a1a2 an
n

a1 = a2 = = an AM GM
a1 + a2 + + an
Gn = n a1 a2 an An Gn
n
a + a2
1
(1) n = 2 1
a1a2 = ( a1 a2 ) 2 0 A2 G2 a1 = a2
2
2
An =

(2) n = k Ak Gk a1 = a2 = = an
n = k + 1

1
1
[(k + 1) Ak +1 + (k 1) Ak 1 ] = [(a1 + a2 + + ak +1 ) + (k 1) Ak +1 ]
2k
2k
a + (k 1) Ak +1 1
1
k 1
k 1
k
k
= Ak + k +1
2 Gk + ak +1 Ak +1 Gk ak +1 Ak +1
2
k

Ak +1 =

= 2 k a1a2 ak +1 Akk+11 = 2 k Gkk+11 Akk+11


Ak +1 Gk +1 a1 = a2 = = an ak +1 = Ak +1 Gk = k ak +1 Akk+11

a1 = a2 = = ak = ak +1 n = k + 1
1
2
1

a1 a2 an 1 a1 + a2 + + an n n a1a2 an 2

a1n + a2n + + ann na1a2 an a1 = a2 = = an


2

a1 a2 an p1p2pn
n

1/ pk
n
n p k =1
a1 = a2 = = an AM GM
pk xk pk xk

k =1
k =1 k =1

a1 a2 an b1 b2
bn

(a12 + a22 + + an2 )(b12 + b22 + + bn2 ) ( a1b1 + a2 b2 + + an bn ) 2

a
a1 a2
=
== n
b1 b2
bn

Cauchy
2

n
n
n

Lagrange ai2 bi2 ai bi = (ai b j a j bi )2


i =1 i =1 i =1
1i < jn
ai b j a j bi = 0

ai a j
a
a a
1 = 2 = = n
=
b1 b2
bn
bi b j

a1 a2 an b1 b2
bn

(a1 + a2 + + an )(b1 + b2 + + bn ) ( a1b1 + a2b2 + + anbn ) 2

a
a1 a2
=
== n
b1 b2
bn

1 1
1
a1 a2 an (a1 + a2 + + an ) + + + n 2
an
a1 a2

a1 = a2 = = an
3

a1 a2 an n(a12 + a22 + + an2 ) (a1 + a2 + + an ) 2

a1 = a2 = = an
a1 a2 an
n

aibi
i =1

i =1

bi
i =1

i =1

ai n
ai
bi i =1
2

ai2 n
ai
bi
i =1

1 abc
1 a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ab + bc + ca
2 3(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ) (a + b + c) 2 3(ab + bc + ca)
3

a 2 + b2 + c 2
a +b+c 3
3

abc

1 1 1
3
3
+ +
a b c

a 2 + b 2 2ab

1 b 2 + c 2 2bc
c 2 + a 2 2ca

21
3

1
1
1

= 3 abc
1 1 1
3
1
+ +
33
a b c
abc

2 abc a + b + c = 1

1 1 1
+ + 9
a b c
1 1 1
2 1 1 1 8
a b c
3 (1 + a )(1 + b )(1 + c ) 8(1 a )(1 b )(1 c )
1

bc a ac b ab c
4 + + + + +
10
a bc b ac c ab
1 1 1
1 + + ( a + b + c ) 9
a b c
2

b+c c+a a+b

8
a
b
c

2 bc 2 ca 2 ab

=8
a
b
c

= ( (a + b) + (a + c ) )( (b + c ) + (b + a ) )( (c + a )(c + b) )
2 (a + b)(a + c ) 2 (b + c )(b + a ) 2 (c + a )(c + b )

= 8( a + b)(b + c)(c + a ) =
4

bc ac
bc ca ab
+ 2c.
+ + a + b + c =1
a
b
a
b
c

a
b
2
a
b
c
1 1 1
+
+ + + +
bc ac c
bc ca ab a b c
3 xyz xyz = 1 x 2 + y 2 + z 2 + xy + yz + zx 2 x + 2 y + 2 z
1

= x2 +
x

2 x +2 y +2 z
4 a1a2an S = a1 + a2 + + an

an
a1
a2
n
+
++

S a1 S a2
S an
n 1

( a1 + a2 + + an ) 2
n

a (S a )
i

i =1

S2

S2

S 2 ai2

S2

i =1

S
n

n 1

5 a1a2an a1 + a2 + + an = 1

an
a1
a2
n
+
++

1 + a2 + a3 + + an 1 + a1 + a3 + + an
1 + a1 + a2 + + an 1 2n 1
=

an
a1
++
2 a1
2 an

( a1 + + an ) 2
a1 (2 a1 ) + + an (2 an )

1
1
n

=
2
2 (a + + an ) 2 1 2n 1
n
2
1

6 xyzw

x
y
z
w
2
+
+
+

y + 2 z + 3w z + 2 w + 3 x w + 2 x + 3 y x + 2 y + 3z 3

( x + y + z + w) 2
( x + y + z + w) 2
=
( y + 2 z + 3w) 4( xy + yz + zw + wx + xz + yw)

3( x + y + z + w) 2 8( xy + yz + zw + wx + xz + yw)
= ( x y )2 + ( y z )2 + ( z w)2 + ( w x )2 + ( x z )2 + ( y w)2 0
7 abc ab + bc + ca = 1
1 1 1
+ + ( ab + bc + ca ) 3(a + b + c)
a b c
bc ca ab

+ + a+b+c
a
b
c

bc ca
a + b 2c

ca ab
+ 2a
c
b
ab bc
c + a 2b.

8 xyz xyz = 1

x3
y3
z3
3
+
+

(1 + y )(1 + z ) (1 + z )(1 + x) (1 + x)(1 + y ) 4
x3
1 + y 1 + z 3x
+
+

(1 + y )(1 + z )
8
8
4

1 1 1
+ + 3(a + b + c)
a b c

x3

(1 + y)(1 + z ) 4 ( x + y + z) 4 (1 + x + 1 + y + 1 + z )
1
3
= ( x + y + z)
2
4
3
.
4

9 abc
a3
b3
c3
1

+
+

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
(2a + b )(2a + c ) (2b + c )(2b + a ) (2c + a )(2c + b ) a + b + c

(2a 2 + b 2 )(2a 2 + c 2 ) = (a 2 + b 2 + b 2 )(a 2 + c 2 + a 2 ) (a 2 + ab + ac ) 2 = a 2 (a + b + c ) 2


a
1
=
2
(a + b + c)
a+b+c
n
n

10 x1x2xn xi = 1
i =1

n
1
=
1 xi

i =1 1 xi

n2

1 xi

1 xi

i =1

i =1

n2
n(n 1)
n(n 1)
n

xi

n
n
i =1

=
=

n 1
n 1
n(n 1)
n

1 xi n(n 1)

i =1
n

x
i

n.

i =1

1 abc

a 2 b2 c2
+ + a + b + c
b
c a
1
1
1
1
1
1
2

+
+
+
+
2a 2b 2c a + b b + c c + a
1

i =1

xi
1 xi

xi

i =1

n 1

a2
+ b + 2a
b
b2
1 + c 2b
c
c2
+ a 2c.
a

1
1
1
4a + 4b a + b

1
1
1
2 +
4b 4c b + c
1
1
1
4c + 4a c + a .

1
1
1
2
2
2
+
+

+
+
.
1 a 1 b 1 c 1+ a 1+ b 1+ c
1
1
1
1 1
1
1
4
2

.
+
+
=
+
=

b+c c+a a+b
2b+c c+ a
2 (b + c )(c + a )
1+ c
2 abc a + b + c = 1

xy
yz
+
+
z + xy
x + yz

3 xyz x + y + z = 1

zx
3
.
y + zx
2

xy
1 x
y 3

+
= .
( z + x)( z + y )
2 z + x z + y 2

4 a1a2an a1 + a2 + +an = 1
2

1
1
1
(n 2 + 1) 2
1 a1 + + a2 + + + an +

a1
a2
an
n

1
1
1 n2 + 1
2 a1 + a2 + an +

a1
a2
an n

1
1
2 a1 + 2 n 2 an + 2 n 2
n a1
n an

1
(n 2 + 1) a1 2 n 2
n a1

n 2 +1

1
2

1 n n2 +1
2
( n + 1) an 2
n an

n
1

= ( n 2 + 1)
2 n3
n2 1
( n ) ( a1 an )

1
n2 +1

n3 +1

n
1
( n 2 + 1)

n 2 n3 1
3

nn n

n2 + 1
=
.
n
1

2 n
2

n 2 + 1 2 n n ( n 2 + 1)

1
1

=
1 n a1 + an +
n
.1
n

a1
an
n

1 + x2
1 + y2
1 + z2
5 xyz 1
+
+
2 .
2
2
1 + y + z 1 + z + x 1 + x + y2

1 + x2
2a
(a + b + c) 2
2(a + b + c ) 2
=

=
2
2c + b
1 + y2
a (2c + b) 3(ab + bc + ca)
2

1+ z +
2

a2
b2
c2
3
1 abc
+
+

(a + b)(a + c) (b + a)(b + c) (c + a)(c + b) 4

( a + b + c) 2
( a + b + c) 2
= 2
(a + b)(a + c) (a + b2 + c 2 ) + 3(ab + bc + ca)

4(a + b + c) 2 3(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ) 9(ab + bc + ca)


1
1
1
= (a b) 2 + (b c) 2 + (c a) 2 0.
2
2
2
2 xyz x 4 + y 4 + z 4 = 1

( x 4 + y 4 + z 4 )2
=
x5 (1 x8 )

x13 +

x4
x4
+

+
x5
9
4
9
3
9
3

x3
y3
z3
9
+
+
43
8
8
8
1 x 1 y 1 z
8

5
(
x
x13 )

x13 + y13 + z13 +

8
94 3

x5 + y 5 + z 5

3 abcd a + b + c + d = 1

1
6(a 3 + b3 + c 3 + d 3 ) a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 +
8
( a 3 + b 3 + c 3 + d 3 ) ( a + b + c + d ) (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 ) 2
1
6(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 ) 2 a 2 + b 2 + c 2 + d 2 +
8

4 abc > 0 a n1 + b n1 + c n1 = 1 n 2

(a

(a n 1 + b n 1 + c n 1 ) 2
a n 2 (b + c) + bn 2 (c + a) + c n 2 ( a + b)

n2

n 1

b+b
+b

1
.
1+

n2

n 1

c+c

+c

n 1

n2

1
a ) + ( a n 2 c + bn 2 a + c n 2 b )

1
+ (a n 1 + b n 1 + c n 1 )

an
bn
cn
1

+
+

b + c c + a a + b 1 +

5 abc a + b + c = 1

a b c
+ + 3(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )
b c a

a 2 b2 c2
+ + (a + b + c) 3(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )
c a
b
3
3
a b c3 ab2 bc 2 ca 2

+ + +
+
+
2(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )
b
c a
c
a
b
a3 ab2 a 2 c
+
3a 2
+
c
b
b
a3 b3 c3
ab2 bc2 ca2
b3 bc 2 ab2
2
2
2
+
+
3b2 . + + + 2
+
+
3( a + b + c )
c
a
c
b
c
a
c
a
b

c 3 a 2 c bc 2
2
+
3c
+
b
a
a

a 3 b3 c 3
+ + a 2 + b 2 + c 2
b
c a
6 abc

a 4 + b 4 + c 4 + a 2b 2 + b 2c 2 + c 2 a 2 a 3b + b 3c + c 3a + ab 3 + bc 3 + ca 3
a 4 + a 2 b 2 2 a 3b
4
2 2
3
4
4
4
2 2
2 2
2 2
3
3
3
b + b c 2b c (a + b + c ) + ( a b + b c + c a ) 2(a b + b c + c a )
c 4 + c 2 a 2 2c3 a

2(ab3 + bc3 + ca3 )

( a 4 + b 4 + c 4 ) + ( a 2b 2 + b 2c 2 + c 2 a 2 ) (a 3b + b 3c + c 3a ) + (ab 3 + bc 3 + ca 3 )
(a 4 + b 4 + c 4 )(a 2b 2 + b 2 c 2 + c 2 a 2 ) (a 3b + b 3c + c 3a ) 2

4
4
4
2 2
2 2
2 2
3
3
3 2
(a + b + c )(c a + a b + b c ) (ab + bc + ca )
(a 4 + b 4 + c 4 )(a 2b 2 + b 2 c 2 + c 2 a 2 ) (a 3b + b 3c + c 3a )(ab 3 + bc 3 + ca 3 )

7 abc (a + b)3 + 4c 3 4( a 3b3 + b3c 3 + c 3 a 3 )


2a 2b + 2ab 2 4 a 3b 3

(a + b)3 + 4c 3 = a 3 + b3 + 3a 2b + 3ab 2 + 4c 3
a 3 + b3 + a 2b + ab 2 + 4c 3 + 4 a 3b 3
= (a 2 + b 2 )(a + b) + 4c3 + 4 a 3b3
4 (a 2 + b 2 )(a + b)c3 + 4 a 3b3

4 ( a 3 + b 3 ) 2 c 3 + 4 a 3 b3

= 4( a 3b3 + b3c 3 + c 3 a 3 )
8 abc a + b + c = 3

1
2 + ab

a 2 + 3b 2
b 2 3c 2
c 2 + 3a 2
+ 2
+ 2
4
2
ab (4 ab) bc (4 bc) ca (4 ca )

2ab + 2b2
2(a + b)
4 ab
1
=

= 4
ab2 (4 ab)
ab(4 ab)
ab(4 ab)
ab (2 + ab )(2 ab ) 2
4

9
4.
(a + ab )
2

1 1 1
+ +
a
a
t2
a b c
2

= 2

=
4 ab
ab (4 ab)
ab (4 ab)
4t 3
a
2

t =

1 1 1
+ +
a b c
2

1 1 1
+ +
b2
1
t2
a b c
ab2 (4 ab) = a(4 ab) 4 ab = 4t 3
a

4t 2
4. t 3
4t 3

9 xyz x + y + z = 1

x 2 + yz
2 x2 ( y + z)

x2

2 x ( y + z)

yz

y 2 + zx
2 y 2 ( x + z)

z 2 + xy
2 z 2 ( y + x)

( x + y + z )2

2( y + z )

yz
+

2 x ( y + z)

zx
xy
+

y
z
2( y + z )

2( y + z )

yz
zx
xy
=b
=a
=c
y
x
z

1 + ( a + b + c) 2
2( a + b + c)

= 1
2a(b + c) 2a + b + c
2

10 abcxyz (a + b + c)( x + y + z ) = 3 (a 2 + b 2 + c 2 )( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) = 4
ax + by + cz 0

a2 + b2 + c2
= k4
2
2
2
x + y +c

a
b
c
a1 = b1 = c1 =
k
k
k
x1 = kxy1 = kyz1 = kz
a12 + b12 + c12 = x12 + y12 + z12 = 2

(a1 + b1 + c1 )( x1 + y1 + z1 ) = 3

ax + by + cz = a1 x1 + b1 y1 + c1 z1 =

( x1 + a1 ) 2 + ( y1 + b1 ) 2 + ( z1 + c1 ) 2 4
2

1
4
( x1 + y1 + z1 + a1 + b1 + c1 ) 2 4
( x1 + y1 + z1 )(a1 + b1 + c1 ) 4
3
3

=0
2
2

1 a1a2an

a12 a22
an21 an2
a a
a
a
+
+

+
+ 2 1 + 2 + + n 1 + n .
2
2
2
a2 a3
an
a1
a2 a3
an
a1
a12
2a
+ 1 1
2
a2
a2

an2
a12
+

+
n
a22
a12

a
an2
a
a12
+

+
+ n 2 1 + + n .
2
2
a2
a1
a1
a2

a b c
1 1 1
2 abc + + ( a + b + c) + + .
b c a
a b c

a 2 b2 c 2 a b c
c a b
+ +
+ + + 3+ + +
b2 c 2 a 2 c a b
a b c

a 2 b2 c 2
a b c
+ 2 + 2 + + .
2
b
c
a
b c a
a b c
+ + 3
c a b
1

3 abc

(b + c a )2
(a + c b)2
(b + a c )2
3
+ 2
+ 2

2
2
2
a + (b + c ) b + (a + c ) c + (b + a )2 5

a(b + c)
6

2
2
a (b + c)
5

a (b + c )
a (b + c )
4a
a +b+c

=
= 12 12
2
3
(
b
+
c
)
3
4
a
+
3
b
+
3
c
4
a
+
3
b
+
3
c
2
2
2
a (b + c ) + (b + c )
a +
+ (b + c )
4
4
4

12 12

9(a + b + c)
6
=
(4
a
+
3
b
+
3
c
)
5

4 abc ab + bc + ac = 3

a + b2 c 2 b + a 2 c 2 c + a 2b2
+
+
3
b+c
a+c
a+b

b+c

(a + b + c) 2
(a + b + c) 2
(a + b + c) 2
=
=
6
a(b + c) 2(ab + bc + ca)

b2c 2
(bc + ca + ab) 2
9

=
b+c
(
b
+
c
)
2(
a
+
b + c)

(a + b + c) 2
9
3
+
2 (a + b + c) 3.
6
2(a + b + c)
4

(a + b + c 3)

n
n
1
S n
5 a1a2an S = ak ai + n +
a
n S
k =1
i =1
i
2

1
n2
S
+
S +

2
S
i =1 ai
S n

= n +
n
n
n s

a1 a2 an b1 b2 bn j1j2
jn 12 n

a1b j1 + a2b j2 + + anb jn a1b1 + a2b2 + + anbn


a1b j1 + a2b j2 + + anb jn a1bn + a2bn1 + + anb1

A = a1b j1 + a2b j2 + + an b jn jn n bn a jm

(am a jm )(bn b jn ) 0 anbn + a jm b jn anb jn + a jm bn jn n A bn b jn


anbn A A1 A1 A an 1bn 1
A1 A2 A2 A1 n 1 a1b1 + a2b2 + + anbn

a1b1 + a2b2 + + anbn A A a1bn + a2bn 1 + + an b1


a1 = a2 = =an b1 = b2 = =bn
2
n

Chebyshev a1 a2 an b1 b2 bn
n

n ak bn +1 k ak bk n ak bk
k =1

k =1

k =1

k =1

Jensen

ab f ( x ) x1 x2 ab

f ( x1 ) + ( x2 )
x + x2
f 1
f ( x ) ab x1 x2 ab
2
2

f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 )

x +x
f 1 2
2

f ( x ) ( ab ) f ( x ) 0 (ab)

f ( x) f ( x ) 0 (ab) f ( x)
3

f ( x) (ab) x1x2
xn (ab)

f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) + + f ( xn )
x + x2 + + xn
f 1
f ( x ) (ab)
n
n

f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) + + f ( xn )
x + x2 + + xn
f 1
x1 = x2 = = xn
n
n

n = 12
f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) + + f ( xk )
x + x2 + + xk
n = k
f 1
n = k + 1
k
k

x1 + x2 + + xk +1
x + x2 + + xk
x + (k 1) A
(k + 1) A + (k 1) A
B= 1
C = k +1
A=
k +1
k
k
2k
x + x + + xk +1 + (k 1) A B + C

= 1 2
=
2k
2
A=

f ( B) + f (C ) 1 x1 + x2 + + xk
B+C
f ( A) = f
= f

2
2
k
2

x ( k 1) A
f k +1

1 f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) + + f ( xk ) f ( xk +1 ) + (k 1) f ( A)

+

2
k
k

1
= [ f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) + + f ( xk +1 ) + (k 1) f ( A)]
2k

f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) + + f ( xk +1 )
x1 = x2 = = xk +1
k +1
n
f ( A)

f ( x) ab p1p2
pn n

x1x2
xn (a
b)

p1 f ( x1 ) + p2 f ( x2 ) + + pn f ( xn )

p1 + p2 + + pn

p x + p2 x2 + + pn xn
f 1 1

p1 + p2 + + pn

f ( x ) ab

p x + p2 x2 + + pn xn
p1 f ( x1 ) + p2 f ( x2 ) + + pn f ( xn )
f 1 1

p1 + p2 + + pn
p1 + p2 + + pn

x1 = x2 = =xn

1 abc
1

a
b
c
1 1 1
+
+ + +
bc ac ab a b c

2 a 2b 2 + b 2 c 2 + c 2 a 2 abc(a + b + c)
3

a
b
c
3
+
+

b+c a+c a+b 2

1 a b c

1
1
1

bc ac ab

1
1
1
1
1
1
+b +c a
+b +c
bc
ac
ab
ab
bc
ac
2 a b c ab ac bc
a

ab ab + ac ac + bc bc ab ac + ac bc + bc ab

a
b
c
1 1 1
+
+ + +
bc ac ab a b c

a 2b 2 + b 2c 2 + c 2 a 2 abc (a + b + c )

1
1
1

b+c a+c a+b


a
b
c
1
1
1
1

+
+
(a + b + c)
+
+

b+c a+c a+b 3


a+c a+c a+b
3 a b c

1
1
1
1 1 2 3
+
+
[(b + c) + (a + c ) + (a + b)]
3 =
6
2
b+c a+c a+b 6

2 a1a2an a1 + a2 + +an = 1

an
a1
a2
n

+
++

2 a1 2 a2
2 an
2n 1
a1 a2 an

1
1
1

2 a1
2 a2
2 an

n
ai
1 n
1
1 n 1
ai
=
n i =1
n i =1 2 ai
x =1 2 ai
i =1 2 ai

n
1
1 i =1
1 n2
n
.
n
=
=
n
n 2 n 1 2n 1
2

a
i
i =1

3 abc abc = 1
abc = 1

1
1
1
3
+ 3
+ 3

a (b + c) b (a + c) c (a + b) 2
3

1
a 2b 2 c 2
b 2c 2
=
=
a3 (b + c) ab + ac
a 3 (b + c )

1
1
1

ab + ac ab + bc ac + bc
2 2
bc
1
1


( b2 c 2 )

ab + ac 3
ab + ac
a b c a 2b 2 a 2c 2 b 2c 2

(1) 2
1 1
( bc) 2
3 3
ab + ac
=

1
9
( bc) 2
9
2 bc

1
bc
2

1
3
3 3 a 2b 2 c 2 =
2
2

a
b
c
3
+
+

1+ a 1+ b 1+ c 4
x+ y
f ( x ) + f ( y ) 2 f

4 abc R + a + b + c = 1
f ( x ) =

x
1+ x

yx
yx
x
y
x
y
x+ y
2
2

x+ y
x+ y
1+ x 1+ y 1+ x + y

(1 + x) 1 +
(1 + y ) 1 +

2
2
2

yx
yx
y (1 + x )
( y x )2 0
2
2
f ( x)
x(1 + y )

a+b+c
1 3
f (a ) + f (b) + f (c ) 3 f
= 3f =
3

3 4

1
1
1
+
+
1
1 + 2a 1 + 2b 1 + 2c
x+ y
f ( x ) + f ( y ) 2 f
( x + y 0)

5 abc R + abc = 1
f ( x) =

1
1 + 2e x

1
1
2
2 + 2e x + 2e y
+

1 + 2e x 1 + 2e y 1 + 2e( x + y )/ 2
(1 + 2e x )(1 + 2e y )

2(1 + e x + e y )(1 + 2e
1 + 2e
(2e

x+ y
2

x+ y
2

+ e x + 2e
x

x+ y
2

3 x+ y
2

2
1 + 2e

x+ y
2

) 2(1 + 2e x + 2e y + 4e x + y )
+ e y + 2e

x+3 y
2

1 + 2e x + 2e y + 4 e x + y

1)(e 2 e 2 )2 0

x + y 0

a b c a = e x b = e y c = e z x + y + z = 0 x y z z 0
1
1
2
2
x+ y

x + y 0 f ( x) + f ( y ) 2 f
+

2
1
+
2
a
1
+
2
b
1 + 2 ab 1 + 2

c
2

1+

2
c

1
1
1 + 2c

4c c + 3 c + 2 2c c + 4c + c + 2 2 c ( c 1)2 0
1
1
1
+
+
1
4 ab 4 bc 4 ac
x+ y
f ( x ) + f ( y ) 2 f

6 abc R + a 4 + b 4 + c 4 = 3
f ( x ) =

1
4 x

16

0 x
9
4 x

4 y

8 x y
2
2

x+ y
16 4 x 4 y + xy
x+y
4
4
2
2

x+ y
4
(8 x y ) 32 8( x + y + 2 xy )
2

a = x + y

x+ y
2

b=

2 xy = a 2 2b 2

(4 b)(8 a ) 32 8a + a 2 2b 2 (a + b 4)(a 2b) 0


0 x

16
9

0 y

16
a + b 40
9

x + y 2

x+ y
a 2b
2

a 4 + b 4 3 16
< <
2
2 9
1
3
3

=1
4 ab
2 2
2 2
2 2
4
a b +b c +c a
a + b4 + c4
4
4
3
3

a 2b 2

7 r1r2rn 1

f ( x) =

1
( x > a) f ( x ) + f ( y ) 2 f
1 + ex

1
1
+

1 + ex 1 + e y

2
1+ e

(2 + e x + e y )(1 + e
(e

x+ y
2

1
1
1
n

+
++

n r r r + 1
1 + r1 1 + r2
1 + rn
1 2
n

x+ y
2

x+ y
2

2 + ex + e y

1 + ex + e y + ex+ y

x+ y

2
1+ e

x+ y
2

) 2(1 + e x + e y ) + 2e x + y

1)(e 2 e 2 )2 0

xy 0

x + + xn
f ( x1 ) + f ( x2 ) + + f ( xn ) nf 1
( xi 0)
n

ri = e xi (ri 1)
8 abc R + a 2 + b 2 + c 2 = 1
S = a+b+c

f ( x) =

1
1 x

x (01)

a
b
c
3 3+3
f (a ) + f (b) + f (c )
s
s
s
2s

a
b
c
3 3+3

+
+

1 a 1 b 1 c
2

a 2 + b2 + c 2
a
b
c
1
f (a ) + f (b) + f (c ) f
= f
s
s
s
s
s

1
3
s = a + b + c 3(a 2 + b 2 + c 2 ) = 3 s 3
s
3
1
f
s

3 3 3+3
f
=
2
3
n
xik +1 n 1
1 n
x

i
k
i =1 1 + xi i =1
i =1 1 + xi i =1 xi
n

9 xi > 0 i = 1 2 n k 1
x1 x2 xn x1k x2k xnk

x1k
xk
xk
2 n
1 + xi 1 + x2
1 + xm

1 1
1
k k
k
x1 x2
xn

n
xk
n 1
xik +1 n 1
k = i xi k
i =1 1 + xi
i =1 xi
i =1 1 + xi
i =1 xi
n

n
n
1 n xik
1
xi k

n i =1 1 + xi i =1
i =1 xi

n
xk
1 n
xi i

n i =1 i =1 1 + xi

x
i =1

k
i

n
n
xk
1
xi i

1
+
x
x
i =1
i =1
i
ik

1
i =1 1 + xi

= xi
i =1

10 xyz x + y + z = 1 k

k +1

xk + 2
yk +2
z k +2
1
+ k +1
+ k +1

k
k
k
k
k
k
+y +z
y +z +x
z +x +y
7

x y z x k + 2 y k + 2 z k + 2 x k +1 + y k + z k y k +1 + z k + x k z k +1 + x k + y k

xk + 2
1
1
( x k + 2 ) k +1
k +1
k
k
k
k
x +y +z
3
x +y +z

1
k +1
9
( x)( x ).
k +1
9
( x + yk + zk )
= ( x k +1 )

1
k +1
x
+ 2 x k

= ( x k +1 )

1
k +1
x
+
2

x xk

( x k +1 )

k +1

+ x k +1 2 3

1
7

1 xiyi R i = 1 2 n x1 x2 xn y1 y2 yn z1z2zn
n

y1y2yn ( xi yi )2 ( xi zi )
i =1

i =1

xi2 + yi2 2 xi yi xi2 + zi2 2 xi zi


i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

i =1

z1z2 zn y1y2 yn
n

yi2 = zi2
i =1
n

i =1

xi yi xi zi
i =1

i =1

1
2 0 a b c d e a + b + c + d + e = 1 ad + dc + cb + be + ea
5
a b c d e d + e c + e b + d a + c a + b

ad + dc + cb + be + ea =

1
[ a( d + e) + b(c + e) + c(b + d ) + d ( a + c) + e( a + b)]
2

1 1
( a + b + c + d + e ) (d + e + c + e + b + d + a + c + a + b )
2 5
=

1
5

3 a1a2an a1 + a2 + + an = 1 a14 + a24 + + an4

n3

a1 a2 an a12 a22 an2a13 a23 an3

n
4
i

a
i =1

1 n n
1 1 n n
1 n
1
ai ai3 = ai3 ai ai2 = 2
n i =1 i =1 n i =1
n n i =1 i =1 n

n
2
i

a
i =1

1 1 n
1
ai =
n 2 n i =1 n3

4 abc a 2 (b + c a ) + b 2 (c + a b) + c 2 (a + b c ) 3abc
a b c a (b + c a ) b(c + a b) c (a + b c )

a 2 (b + c a ) = a a (b + c a ) ac (b + c a )

= 3abc + (b a)(c b)( a c) 3abc


5 abc a + b + c 3
x = a +1
f ( x) =

a +1
b +1
c +1
+
+
2
a (a + 2) b(b + 2) c(c + 2)

y = b +1 z = c +1 x + y + z 6

x
x2 1

( x 1)

x
y
x+ y
+ 2

x 1 y 1 x + y 2

2
2

x+ y
f ( x ) + f ( y ) 2 f

2
1
1
(3x 2 + xy )( y x )
( xy + 3 y 2 )( y 1)
4
4

x + y 2
x + y 2
2
2
1
( x 1)

1
(
y

1)


1
2

(3x 2 + xy )( y 2 1)( y x ) (3 y 2 + xy )( x 2 1)( y x )


(3 + xy )( y + x )( y x )2 0

x+ y+z
6
f ( x) + f ( y ) + f ( z ) 3 f
3 f = 2
3

x
a = x + yb = y + zc = z + x abc = 1 a =
y

z
y
c = x1 x2 x1 = x2 + ( 0)
z
x

A C B
A B C C B B A
A B B C

1 1 1
1
1
1
1 xyz xyz = 1 + + x + y + z k + k + k x k + y k + z k
x y z
x
y
z
b=

k
1 1 1
+ + x + y + z yz + zx + xy x + y + z
x y z

(1 x )(1 y )(1 z ) 0
(1 x)(1 x k ) 0
(1 x)(1 x k )(1 y )(1 y k )(1 z )(1 z k ) 0
(1 x k )(1 y k )(1 z k ) 0
xk y k + y k z k + z k xk xk + y k + z k

1
1
1
+ k + k xk + yk + z k
k
x
y
z

2 xyz x + y + z = 0 6( x3 + y 3 + z 3 ) 2 ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )3

z = ( x + y ) x 3 + y 3 + z 3 = 3xy ( x + y )
x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = 2( x 2 + y 2 + xy )
54 x 2 y 2 ( x + y )2 8( x 2 + y 2 + xy )3
3

1
27
3

8( x 2 + y 2 + xy )3 = 8 ( x + y )2 + ( x y )2 8 ( x + y )2 =
( x + y )6
4
8
4

27
( x + y )2 (4 xy )2 = 54 x 2 y 2 ( x + y )2
8

3 abc

a + 3c
4b
8c
+

17 + 12 2
a + 2b + c a + b + 2c a + b + 3c

a + 2b + c = x
a = x + 5 y 3z

a + b + 2c = y b = x + z 2 y
a + b + 3c = z
c = z y

2 y x 4x + 4z 8 y 8 y 8z
+
+
17 + 12 2
x
y
z

17 +

2 y 4x 4z 8 y
+
+
+ 17 + 12 2
x
y
y
z

2 y 4x
+ 2 8 = 4 2
x
y
4z 8 y
+ 2 32 = 8 2
y
z

4 xyz

xyz ( x + y + z + x 2 + y 2 + z 2 ) 3 + 3

( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )( xy + yz + zx)
9

1
( xy + yz + zx) 2
xyz ( x + y + z )
1 xy + yz + zx 1
3
2
= 2

2
2
2
2
2
( x + y + z )( xy + yz + zx) ( x + y + z )( xy + yz + zx) 3 x + y 2 + z 2 3

xyz x 2 + y 2 + z 2
xyz
xyz
1
3

=
=
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )( xy + yz + zx )
9
3 3
x + y + z ( xy + yz + zx )
33 x y z 33 x y z

5 abc

(2a + b + c) 2
(2b + a + c ) 2
(2c + a + b) 2
+ 2
+ 2
8
2
2
2
2 a + (b + c )
2b + (a + c )
2c + (a + b )2

a + b + c = 1
2
2

a+
1

( a + 1) 2
a2 + 2a + 1
2
4a + 1
2a 2 + (1 a)2 = 3a 2 2a + 1 = 3 + 3a32 2a3+ 1 = 1 + 3 3a 2 2a + 1

=1+

2
4a + 1
2 4a + 1
=1+
= 1 + (4a + 1) = 1 + 7 = 8

4
2
3
3
1 2

3 a +
3
3 3

6 abcd a + b + c + d = 4

a 2 b2 c 2 d 2
+ + + 4 + ( a b) 2
b
c d
a

a2
4 ( a b) 2
b
a2
+ b a ( a b) 2
b

a2

+ b 2a ( a b) 2
b

( a b) 2
( a b) 2
b

2
(a b) 2 ( | a b |)
(| a b | + | b c | + | c d | + | d a |)2

=
b
4
b

(| a b | + | b c | + | c d | + | d a |) 2
= ( a b) 2
4
1
1
1
3
7 abc a + b + c = 3
+
+

2
2
2
2
2
2
2+a +b
2+b +c
2+c +a
4

2
3
a 2 + b2 3
1

2
2
2
2
2+a +b
2
2+a +b 2

a 2 + b2
3

2
2
2+a +b
2

( a 2 + b 2 ) 2 2 a 2 + 2 (a 2 + b 2 )(a 2 + c 2 )
a2 + b2

=
2 + a2 + b2
6 + 2 a 2
(2 + a 2 + b2 )

2 a 2 + 2 (a 2 + bc)
6 + a

8 0 a1a2an 1

4 a 2 + 2 ab
6 + 2 a

3 a 2 + ( a )2
2

2 a + 6

3 a 2 + 9
2

2 a + 6

an
a1
a2
+
++
+ (1 a1 )(1 a2 )(1- an )1
a2 + a3 + + an + 1 a1 + a3 + + an + 1
a1 + a2 + + an 1 + 1
n

a1 a2 an

S = ai
i =1

ai
+ (1 a1 )(1- an )
1
+
S
ai
i =1

ai
S
+ (1 a1 )(1- an ) =
+ (1 ai )? (1 an )
1 + s an
i =1 1 + S an

=1

1 an
+ (1 a1 )(1 an )
1 + S an

=1

1 an
[1 (1 + S an )(1 a1 )(1- an 1 )]
1 + S an

=1

1 an
1 + S an

1 + S an + 1 a1 + + 1 an 1 n
1

n

1 an
(1 1)
1 + S an

=1
9 abc
x=

y=

a + 8bc

b
2

b + 8ac

1
1
1

2 1 2 1 2 1 = 512
x
y
z

a
2

b
2

a + 8bc
b + 8ac
c
z=
2
c + 8ab

c + 8ab

(1 + x)(1 x )(1 + y )(1 y )(1 + z )(1 z )


= 512
x2 y 2 z 2

x + y + z <1
(1 + x)(1 x )(1 + y )(1 y )(1 + z )(1 z )
> ( x + x + y + z )( y + z )( x + y + y + z )( x + z )( x + y + z + z )( x + y )
4 4 x 2 yz 2 yz 4 4 xy 2 z 2 xz 4 4 xyz 2 2 xy

= 512 x 2 y 2 z 2

(1 x )(1 + x )(1 y )(1 + y )(1 z )(1 + z )


= 512
x2 y 2 z 2

x + y + z 1
10 xyz x 2 + y 2 + z 3 = 1 1

x
y2 + z2
x 2 x + xyz = 1 x + xyz x + x
1 + yz
2

1 x2
1
1
x = 2 ( x 1) 2 ( x + 2) 2 = 1
2
2
2
x

x2 = 1
1 + yz
= x+

x
y
z
+
+
2
1 + yz 1 + xz 1 + xy

x
2x

x + y + z 2 + 2 yz
1 + yz
x+ y+z

( x + y + z ) 2 2(1 + yz )2 2( xy + yz + zx ) 1 + 4 yz + 2 y 2 z 2
( y + z x)2 + 2 y 2 z 2 0

x
2x

= 2
1 + yz
x+ y+z

1 xyz

x+ y+z 3
2 x+ y

xyz
xy
3
3 2

z + xy + xy 3 3 xyz

a 7 + b7 b7 + c 7 c 7 + a 7 1
+
+

b 5 + c 5 c 5 + a 5 a 5 + b5 3
1
1
1
a b c a 7 + b 7 a 7 + c 7 b 7 + c 7 5
5
5
5
5
a +b
a +c
b + c5
2 abc a + b + c = 1

a 7 + b7
a 7 + b7

a 5 + b5
b5 + c 5
1
a 7 + b 7 (a 2 + b 2 )(a 5 + b 5 )
2

2
a 7 + b7
1
1
1
( a 2 + b2 ) = a 2 ( a ) =
5
5
a +b
2
3
3

3 abc a + b + c

a (bc + c + 1) b(ca + a + 1) c(ab + b + 1)

+
+
ca + a + 1
ab + b + 1
bc + c + 1

a(bc + c + 1)
0
ca + a + 1
ab + b ( ac + a)
ab + b + 1

=
1 0
ca + a + 1
ca + a + 1
b

ab + b + 1

3
ca + a + 1
4 xyz xyz = 1
1
1
1
1
1
1

+
+

+
+
1 + 2x 1 + 2 y 1 + 2z 2 + x 2 + y 2 + z


x=

a
b

1
1
1
1 + 2x
2+ x

y=

b
c

z=

c
a

( b) 2
( b) 2
1
b

=
=1
1 + 2x
b + 2a (b 2 + 2ab) ( a) 2

1
12 + 4( x + y + z ) + ( xy + yz + zx )
=
1 xy + yz + zx 3
2 + x 9 + 4( x + y + z ) + 2( xy + yz + zx)

5 xyz

( x + y + z ) 2 ( xy + yz + zx) 2 3( x 2 + xy + y 2 )( y 2 + yz + z 2 )( z 2 + zx + x 2 )
3
x 2 + xy + y 2 ( x + y ) 2
4
3
y 2 + yz + z 3 ( y + z )2
4
3
z 2 + zx + x 2 ( z + x)2
4
81
( x + y ) 2 ( y + z ) 2 ( z + x) 2 ( x + y + z )2 ( xy + yz + zx )2
64
9( x + y )( y + z )( z + x ) 8( x + y + z )( xy + yz + zx )

9 x 2 ( y + z ) + 18xyz 8 x 2 ( y + 1) + 24 xyz
x 2 ( y + z ) 6 xyz