You are on page 1of 2

Endocrine Exam Review

1. Know the location of the following glands: pituitary, hypothalamus, pineal, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus,
adrenal, pancreas, testes, ovaries
2. Define endocrine gland
a. A gland that secretes hormones into the blood
3. Define hormone and target cell
a. Hormone – a substance secreted by an endocrine gland and transported in the blood
b. Target cell – A cell with specific receptors on which a hormone exerts its effect
4. Know the function of the following pituitary hormones:
Growth Hormone, Prolactin, Thyroid- stimulating hormone,
Antidiuretic hormone
a. Growth hormone – stimulates an increase in the size and division rate of body cells; enhances movement
of amino acids across membranes
b. Prolactin – sustains milk production after birth
c. Thyroid-stimulating hormone – controls secretion of hormones form adrenal cortex
d. Antidiuretic hormone – causes kidneys to conserve water; in high concentration, increases blood pressure
5. Know the function of the following Thyroid gland hormones
Thyroxine, Calcitonin
A. Thyroxine – increases rate of energy release from carbohydrates; increases rate of protein synthesis;
accelerates growth; stimulates activity in nervous system
B. Calcitonin – regulates concentrations of blood calcium and phosphate ions
6. Know the function of the parathyroid hormone
a. Increases blood calcium concentration and decreased blood phosphate ion concentration
7. Know the function of the adrenal gland hormones epinephrine, aldosterone and cortisol
a. Epinephrine- increase heart rate, force of cardiac muscle contraction, breathing rate, and blood glucose
level, elevate blood pressure, and decrease digestive activity
b. Aldosterone – causes kidney to conserve sodium ions and excrete potassium ions
c. Cortisol – decreases protein synthesis, increases of fatty acid release, stimulates glucose synthesis from
8. Know the function of the pineal gland hormone melatonin
a. Regulates the circadian rhythms (ex. Sleep – wake cycle)
9. What are circadian rhythms?
a. Pattern of repeated behavior associated with cycles of night and day
10. What is gestational diabetes
a. diabetes when a woman is pregnant
11. What are keytones how do they affect the body?
a. water-soluble compound produced as by-products when fatty acids are broken down for energy in the liver
and kidney; used as source of energy in the heart and brain
14. What are hypoglycemic, normal and hyperglycemic blood levels
a. Hypoglycemic - < 60mg/dL
b. Normal – 70-100 mg/dL
c. Hyperglycemic - > 126 mg/dL
15. What are the functions of glucagon and insulin?
a. Glucagon – stimulates the liver to break down glycogen and amino acids into glucose; the purpose is to
elevate glucose cells
b. Insulin – stimulates the liver to form glycogen ffrom glucose to decrease blood glucose concentrations,
promotes facilitated diffusion of glucose across the cell membranes that insulin receptors, promotes
transport of amino acids into cells which increases synthesis, stimulates adipose tissue to synthesize and
store fat, inhibits conversion of non carbohydrates into glucose
16. List 3 cells in the body that contain insulin receptors
a. Cardiac muscle, adipose tissue, resting skeletal muscle
17. List 2 cells in the body that do not have insulin receptors
a. Exercising skeletal cells, nerve cells
18. Why does too much insulin in the body affect nerve cells? What is this condition called?
a. Too much insulin can affect nerve function because it decreases the amount of glucose in the blood,
decreasing the supply of glucose to brain cells
b. Insulin shock
19. Differentiate Type I diabetes from Type II diabetes
a. Type I diabetes: insulin dependent, juvenile diabetes, considered autoimmune diseases, treatment: insulin
through injection
b. Type II diabetes: most common form of diabetes, often related to weight/obesity, treatment: diet, exercise,
oral medications, occurs later in life, pancreas produce insulin but cell receptors don’t recognize it