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he probability distribution of the phase angle between
two vectors perturbed by correlated Gaussian noises is studied in
detail. Definite integral expressions are derived for the distribution
function, andits asymptotic behavior for large signal-to-noise is found
for “small,” “near lt/2,” and ‘‘large’’ angles. Theresults are applied
to obtain new formulas for the symbol error rate in MDPSK, to
calculate the distribution of instantaneous frequency, to study the
error rate in digital FM with partial-bit integration in the postdetection filter, and toobtain a simplified expresion for the error rate
in DPSK with a phase error in the reference signal.In the degenerate
case in which one of the vectors is noise free, the results lead to the
symbol error rate in MPSK.

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Perturbed by Gaussian Noise

R. F. PAWULA, S. 0. RICE,

twovectors perturbed by correlatedGaussiannoises

is studiedin

detail. Definite integral expressions are derived

for the distribution

function, and its asymptotic behavior for large signal-to-noise is found

for small, near lt/2, and large angles. Theresults are applied

to obtainnew formulasforthesymbol

error rate in MDPSK,to

calculate thedistribution of instantaneousfrequency,tostudythe

errorrate in digital FMwithpartial-bitintegration

in thepostdetection filter, and toobtain a simplified expresion for the error rate

in DPSK with a phase error in the reference signal. In the degenerate

case in which one of the vectors is noise free, the results lead to the

symbol error rate in MPSK.

AND

J . H. ROBERTS

statistical properties Xi = yi = 0 and var xi = varyj = ui2 .x 1

and y1 are, in fact, theI and Q components at timet , , whereas

these components at time t, are the real and imaginary parts

of (x2 + i y 2 )exp (-ioct).

Here O 1 and O 2 are assumed to lie between -n and n.

Consequently, 19~ - d l can range from -2n to 277. However,

we shall be concerned with the angle $ defined as the modulo

271 difference between O 2 and e l ,viz.

$=(13~-e~)mod2n;

I. INTRODUCTION

HE distributionofthe phase angle between two vectors

arises

in avariety

of applicationsin

communications

systems [ 6 ] , [ l l ], andcommon cases are those inwhich

information is transmitted in the phase orfrequencyof

a

sinusoid.Typically,

thenoise-corrupted version of such a

sinusoid has the form

~<e1,e2<~.

(3)

to mean over some 2n interval where the appropriate choice

of the 2n interval may vary from application to application.

We shall consider theprobability P {$, < $ d $ 2 } where

G 1 < $ 2 and the interval ($,, G 2 ) is assumed to be contained

entirelywithin the particular 2n interval of definition being

used.

z ( t ) = A ( t ) cos [act+ $(t)] + n(t)

(1)

Previous workswhich have considered the distribution of

the

phase angle between two vectors perturbed by Gaussian

inwhich a, is the carrier radian frequency, A ( t ) and @(t)

noise have been concerned primarily with problems in angle

are the time-varying amplitudeand phase ofthesinusoid,

and

demodulation.

References [8] and [113

and n(t) is a narrow-band Gaussian noise. In dealing with modulation

contain

extensive

results

in

this

area

along with many refersignals ofthisform,the

vector (or phasor) representation

ences to related studies. Although the present paper may be

is convenient to employ. With subscripts to denote different

timeinstants,vectorformsof

z(t) for the two times t l = considered as extensions and generalizations of some of the

results found in these references, along with some new applit and t2 = t + T are

cations, we have attempted to make the paper self-contained.

Another areainwhich

the phase angle betweentwo noisy

vectors arises is that of phase comparison monopulse radar

~41.

Expressions for the probability P{G1 < $ < $z} are presented in Section I1 for three different cases of signal parameterconditionsand

noise correlation. Theseresultsare

derived by making use of an unconventional approach which

Graphical representations of these two vectorsare

shown relates the desired probability to a functionalofthejoint

of

the

narrow-band

waveform. A

in Fig. 1. The quantities xi and yj; j = 1, 2, are Gaussian vari- characteristic function

oneofthe simpler cases follows tradiables related to the in-phase and quadrature componentsin the secondderivationin

tional lines and isgiven in an Appendix. Using the results,

various asymptoticformulasfortheprobability

P{$ 2 $ o }

Paper approved by the Editor for Communication Theory

of the

that $ lies above some value $o are obtained in Section 111.

IEEE Communications Society for publication without oral presentation. Manuscript received September 29, 1981; revised March 25, 1982.

The results of Sections I1 and 111 are then applied in Section

The work of R. F. Pawula was performed under subcontract to RanIV to thestudy of the calculation oferror probabilities in

dom Applications, Inc., San Diego, CA.

MPSK, MDPSK, and digital FM communicationssystems,

R. F. Pawula is at 552 Savoy St., San Diego, CA 92106.

S. 0. Rice is withtheDepartment of ElectricalEngineering and

and to the distribution of instantaneous frequency. In particuComputerScience, University of California atSan Diego,LaJolla,

lar,

new formulas forthesymbolerror

ratein MDPSK are

CA 92093.

previously known results. The

J. H. Roberts is with Plessey Electronic Systems Ltd., Roke Manor, obtainedandcomparedwith

Romsey, Hants., England.

performanceofnarrow-band

digital FM is considered for

0090-6778/82/0800-1828$00.75 0 1982 IEEE

1829

- f c ) l / 2 , then

f c ) + S(-f

A = r , ( ~ sin

) W,T

Fig. 1.

Anglebetweentwovectorsperturbedby

Gaussiannoise.

in

the

postdetection

filter integrates for only a fraction of the bit time. In Section

V, the Fourier series approach is briefly compared, by way of

several examples, withthe preceding treatments.The final

section summarizes and discusses the results.

11. THE DISTRIBUTION P{ $ 1

the analysis:

(44

A@ is the signal phase change in the absence of noise and will

be referred to simply as the signal phase change. Note that

A@ includes the carrier phase shift o c r , forgenerality,

although this term is frequently eliminated by receiver processing. The parameter U is the average signal-to-noise ratio of

the two vectors and W is their geometric mean. i V I is a measure of the spread in the SNR values.

When the noises perturbing the ends of the two

vectors

are correlated, the correlations between the x and y components will be assumed to take on the specialized forms

process, r and A can be expressed in terms of the noise power

1 Again, the modulo 27r is to be interpreted so that the resulting

A@ lies within the 27r interval of interest. However, in practical cases,

A@ will usually be determined first, and the interval of definition then

chosen. Frequently, this interval will be (A@ - 7r, A@ + n). It is suf-

-7r

values of A@ require that the intervals

appropriately modified.

f

rs(T) = :1 S o

sin (2nfr)df and the spectral density has been assumed t o be

normalized t o contain unity power.

Certain special cases of the above parameters will be considered in the following. In the case ofequal signal conditions, the two vectors will be meant to have equal SNRs

withnoise, andto lie in the same directionwithout noise,

so that p1 = p2and $1 = C#J2.Consequently A@ = 0 and

V = 0 (in this case, W = U also). In the case of uncorrelated

both = and A = O.

R

Distribution

of a Modulo2n Difference

.

.

Theprobabilitydensityfunction

p ( $ ) ofthemodulo

2n difference $ = (0, - 0,) mod 271;-n < 01, O2 < n, can

be found by integrating the joint probability densityp ( O 1 , 0,)

of the phase angles J1 and O2 over the regions of the 0 , , O 2

plane in which (0, - 0,) mod 2n lies between $ and $

d$ and O1 and O2 lie between k IT.These regions are indicated

in Fig. 2 for a particular value of $ and, in general, are determined by the intersections of two of the three lines O 2 = O1 t

$ + 2nk; k = 0 , f 1, with the square of side 2n centered at the

origin. Since the joint density p(O1, 0,) is of 2n periodicity2

in each of its arguments, the small shaded region in the lower

right-hand corner of the squarecan be raised by an amount

2n so that the resulting shaded region will be one continuous

strip. Consequently, p ( $ ) can be determined from p(O1, 0,)

by the integration

A@ = (O,T

of definition of e l and e2 be

to values in (-n, n), the density of $ = (0, - 0 , ) mod 2n can

be expressedinterms of the densityof $, = O2 - 01, the

actual phase difference without the modulo 2n condition.

The relation is

where pa($,) is the density of $,. In either case, the probability P{ $1 < $ < $ 2 } is then given by

rather a new function defined as the periodic extension

of the joint

densityfunctionthat

is periodic.Adistinctionwill

bedrawnonly

when necessary.

1830

signum fuction cancels thediscontinuity in F($), and the

-F($min)

term makes &($,in)

= 0, k($max)

= 1. At all

points of continuity o f q + ) , p ( $ ) = a~($)/a$ = a$+)/a$.

We shall find it more convenient to deal with F($) than with

$($). In this section F($) is stated for three4 different combinations of signal condliions and noise correlation. A derivationofthe

results will be given in Section 11-E. Particular

forms ofF($) are as follows.

Case 1-Equal Signal Conditions (A@ = 0, V = 0), Uncorrelated Noises (r = X = 0):

92

8,

F($)=-

-sin $

47-l

rt2

e- U(1- C O S $

cost)

(10)

dt

-n2

I - cos $ cos t

,-[U-~sint-Wcos(A~-$)cosf]

U- VS~~-WCOS(A@- $)cost

(1 1)

Fig. 2.

W sin (A@ - $)

JI = (e2 - e 1) mod 2n.

) also

be calculated without recourse totheintermediatestepof

first obtaining p($); however, (6) will indeed be employed in

an alternativederivationwhichfollows

themoretraditional

and conventional approach.

G 2 , with G1 < Gar be

C. Expressions for P( $

Letand

angles lying within

theparticular2n

interval of interest.Thentheprobability

P{$l < $ < G 2 } canbe expressed in terms of an auxiliary

function F($):

singular point $ = A@ with a jump

F(A@+) - F(A@-) = -1. When either G1 or $2 equals

A@, the value of F($) is to be interpreted as aright-hand

or a left-hand limit; i.e., F($,) = F(A@+) if G1 = A@, and

F ( I ~=~F(A@-)

)

if $2 = A@.

F($) and the classical distribution function of probability

theory, say $$), are related through3

U-Vsint-Wcos(A@-$)cost

r sin $ - X cos $

1 - (r cos $

+ X sin $) cos t

where

E=

(1 2)

U-Vsint-Wcos(A@--~)c~~t

1 - (r cos $

+ A sin $) COS t

however,this

simple relation no longer holdsin Case 111

because of the noise correlations. The behavior of F($) in

Case I is illustrated in Fig. 3.

Equations (10)-(12) are written ina

manner which illustrates how increasingly complex signal and noise conditions

affectthe results.Somesimplification

of the integrands, at

the expense of complicating the limits, is possible in the most

general case through a change of variables by a transformation

due to Euler and Legendre (see (3 1) in Section 11-E)which results in

Case 111-Simplified Integrand Representation:

4 The correspondingprobabilitydensityfunctionsaregiven

in

Appendix B [ c f .(B-1) and (B-6)].

5 A subscript i will be used to indicate explicitly $ dependence

whenever otherquantities in the sameexpressionare

J, dependent.

Also, because angles will be restricted to their principal values, the signum function is used in (14c) to give the correct sign of the square root.

1831

$ol=

Pi$

if Go < A@

-F(Q0);

if $, > A @ .

F($) - F($ k 2n) = 0. This guarantees that the probability

density function p ( $ ) integrates t o unity over any 2ir interval

(containing A@).

In Case 111, the difference F($) - F($ - n) is expressible

in terms of tabulated functions. Upon forming the difference,

and using (13) and the definitions (14a)-(14d), the difference

terms can be combined into integrals with limits ranging over

2n intervals, and there follows

-.5

The function F ( $ ) in Case I (U = 1).

Fig. 3.

1 -F($o);

where

F($i) -F($i - n)

= 1 sgn [sin (A@ 2

[ 1- d-ze

(Oi/ei,ai)]

+ r sin $i - X cos $i

e- a 'Io(pJ

2 sin yi

where Zo(-) is a modified Bessel function. We note that this

last equation can also be expressed in terms of the Marcum

Q-function (171 and [ l l , p. 851).

of P{ $, < $ < $2}

E. Derivation ofP{

arctangent and arcsine on (-n/2, n/2), are t o be taken. This

form is notonlyhelpfulfor

numerical work,but will be

foundtobe

useful inSection 111 in obtainingasymptotic

formulas,andinSection

IV in deriving thedistributionof

instantaneous frequency.

A derivation

for the most gederal case,

Case 111, of a signal with unequal parameters and correlated

noises will be given using the followingunconventional approach which makes use of the joint characteristic function

of the

narrow-band

waveform under consideration. This

approach has found wide application to problemsrelated

to noise zero crossings, instantaneous frequency, and FM and

PM demodulation [ 111 . An alternate derivation for Case I1

is given in Appendix B.

For a general, noise-corrupted, narrow-band waveform with

sarilples Z , = R , COS (OJ e,), z2 = R 2 COS (act+ e,),

the jointcharacteristic function @(u,v) is [ 11, ch.21

~ ( u , = E[eiuzl+i"z21

In thissection,certain

special situations are identified

in which F($) andthe difference F(G2) - F($,) assume

simple forms.

First, in Case 1, F($) has the special values [see (lo)]

F(0k) = T

l

2'

F(+n/2)= ?;e-',

F(kn) = 0

0 we get

+ HF terms

(19)

in which the expectation in the final form is over the random

variables R i , R,, e l , and O2 and, also, the high-frequency

terms will be assumed t o vanish by virture of the expectation.6

By subtracting some angle, say E, from the argument of the

cosine prior to doing the expectation, a closely related conditional characteristic function @(u,u I t ) can be defined as

@(u,u IC;)

In Case 11, from (11)

F(A@ - n/2) =

+ [1 - (W/v)Ze (V/U,v)]

I,

=G

u-

vcose

(20)

that @(u,u) = @(u,u Ig = 0). This conditional characteristic

function may be regarded as the joint characteristic function

of the two random

variables z1' = R1 cos (act+ 81 + C;)

SO

e-(~-vC~~e)

de

=E.[Jo(tlu2R12+~2R22+2~~R1R2~os(ez-el-C;)))~]

(1 6 )

Case 11, F(A@ f n) = 0, so that if the interval of definition

can be assumed to have a uniformly distributed random phase; and, as

aconsequence, the highfrequencyterms

willvanishwhenaveraged

over this phase.

1832

Roberts' general result forthedistribution

of themodulo

2n reduced phase angle $ = ( 0 , - 8,) mod 2n can be stated

as [ l l , sect. 2.41

where

Aderivation of thisrelation is given in Appendix A. Physi- With the changes of variable 8' = n/2 - 8, z = tan (8'/2),

c.ally, G($) is related tothe classical distributionfunction

the integral in g($J can beevaluated straightforwardly and

yields'

F($) by F(JI) = G($) - G($min).

In order to apply this result, it is necessary first to calculate

the joint conditional characteristic function which,in the case

of independent signal and noise, can be written as the product

@ S + N F @s X @ N , where the subscripts "S'and "N" refer

to the signal and noise components, respectively. In the case

of the particular narrow-band waveform of interest [cf. (2)] ,

these signal and noise components are readily shown to be

(cf. [ll, eq. (2.10)])

Hence, for $1 < $ 2 ,

phase change asgiven by(4a). Now, it is a matter of using

these in (22) and performing the differentiation and integrations. These operations are simplified somewhat by first making a transformation to polar coordinates bymeans of

u=-

fiR

81

find

8

cos-;

u=-

fiR

a2

8

sin .2

(25)

follows from (1 2) by use of achange of variables due to

Euler and Legendre [4,p. 3 161

8, and where d = r cos Gi h s i n $i= -cos 7i.

The probability P{$ > IL0} that $ lies above some value

$o is frequently of interest in certain communications problems since this probability can often be related to the probability of making an error in detecting an information symbol.

In many cases this probability is not expressible in terms of

tabulated functions and, in addition, values of this probability

for a large parameter, the signal-to-noise ratio, are of primary

concern.Hence,in

this section,asymptotic

formulas for

P{$ > GoJ will beconsidered for large U. For the sake of

definiteness, the interval of definition of $ will be taken to

be A@ - 71 < $ < A@ n, since $ = A@ in the absence of

noise. Then, P( $ > J l 0 } = P{$, < $ < A@ n} so that (9)

employing Hankel's

exponential integrals (Appendix C) todothe

remaining

'The symbol "@" is beingusedboth

todenote acharacteristic

function and inthedefinition

of the signal phase change. The arguments of the characteristic function identify it and there should be no

danger of confusion.

of g($3 at the jump $ i = A@ has been chosen as the limit from theleft.

The actual values of g ( $ 2 ) - g($ ,)at the jumps A@ = $ and A@ = $ 2

are of noconsequenceincomputing

P($ 4 5 $2f ifthediscontinuity in g ( $ i ) is chosen 'to cancel thatin F($i), so thatthe sum

F($ J + g($ i) is continuous.

1833

BG GAUSSIAN NOISE

applies with

= $o and $ = A@ + n. In the following, where

we take $o > A@so that P{$ 2 $01 = F(A@+ T ) - f l $ o ) .

po = 4 ~ cos2

2 Go

V2 sin2$,

Furthermore, in Cases I and 11, F(A@+ T ) = 0; and in Case

111, F(A@ n) will be negligible in comparison to -F($o) and, in (35c), yi, ai,and pi are defined by (14a)-(I 4c) with

unless Go is near A@ + n. Thus, P{$

$0) = -F($o) in

$ i = $0.

Cases I and 11, and in Case 111, when $o is not near A@ n,

B. $0- A@ = n/2

PI$ > $01 -F($o).

A. Small J/o - A@

The term ai - pi cos 8 appearing in the exponents of the

integrands in (13) will have a minimum at 8 = 0 provided

that pi > 0. This minimum will lie within the range of integration whenever 0 < yi - 6i < 2yi, and the condition pi > 0

will be satisfied when [cf. (14c)l

point is a turning point in the vicinity of which the character of the asymptoticbehavior ofP{$ > $o} changes. In Cases

I and 11, closed-form expressions can be obtained and are

i) Case I:

P{ $ > n/2} = 1

e4

(36)

The left-hand side of this inequalityis largest when A@ - $ j =

0. Furthermore, at $i = A@, the minimum of ai - pi is zero

as can be seen from (14c), viz.

C. Go

A@Near n/2

(33)

Assuming the conditions for a minimum within the range of

integration to be fulfilled, cos 8 in (13) can be approximated

by 1 - 812, the range ofintegration extended to fm,and use

made of theidentity [l , eq. (7.4.1 l)]

(37)

Case I, withoutfurther assumptions aboutthe relative sizes

of the system parameters. For Cases I and 11, the asymptotic

formulas are

i) Case I:

P{ $ > $o}

+e-

+ L,(UCOS

$0)]

(38)

(34)

which then leads to the asymptoticformulas

i) Case I:

(39)

sin $o, 60 =

where Po = sgn (cos G0)@U2 cos $o + V

sin-l (V/o0),and V/U Q 1. Lo(-) is a modified Struve function [ I , ch.121 . These last twoequations followdirectly

from (IO) and (1 1) by approximating the denominators by

their values at $ = A@ + n/2.Equation (39) is notmuch

simpler than the exact expression (13) and, hence, for computational purposes (13) is t o be preferred.

D,Large Go

- A@

T , pi will have a negative sign in Cases I and I1 and also in

Case 111 for small correlations r and X. Asymptotic formulas

in these cases can be obtained directly from (13) by noting

that the major contributions to the

integrals come from the

endpoints; i.e., the minima of the exponent with a negative

pi. Expanding about these points, we are led to the asymptotic

formulas (cf. [8, Appendix]):

i) Case I:

iii)Case 111:

10 Equations (35a), (35b), and (35c) can be further simplified with,

the complementary error function; i.e., erfc z (l/z&) exp ( - z 2 ) for

large z .

1834

IEEE TRANSACTIONS

COMMUNICATIONS,

ON

formulacanbe

worked out in thiscase, the end result is longand cumbersome and will not be given here in detail. It can be shown that

P@

energy per bit-to-noise spectral density ratio by

P

---.

No - log2 M

(42)

nonzero t e p s and that of F($,) is composed of the sum of

WheriM= 2,(44) gives,upon inspection, pE(2) = exp (-p)/2.

four.

For large p , the asymptotic formula12 for PE(M) follows

IV. APPLICATIONS

from the results qf Section 111-A for Case I and small $,

Thissectionpresentssomeillustrativeapplications

of the and is [cf. (35a)l

preceding results. In the first of these, new formulas for the

symbol error. probability in MDPSK are given, and are compared with previously known formulas. The secondexample

shows howthedistributionoftheinstantaneousfrequency

of a narrow-band wave canbe obtainedfromthe

Case 111

M > 3.

(46)

simplified representation. In the third application, use of the

Case 111 distribution is illustratedinthe

calculation of the

Several otherapproximations

have been developed for

biterrorrateperformanceofnarrow-band

digital FM, with PE(M) and are listed herefor comparison withthe above

limiter-discriminator detection

and

partial-bit integration result. For large p , Fleck and Trabka [5] derived the approxipostdetection filtering.Theseresultsare

also compared with mation

those for an ideal frequency detector by making use of the

results forthedistributionofinstantaneous

frequency ob(47)

tainedinthe

second application. In a fourthapplication, a

simplified expression is obtained for the BER in DPSK with a

phase error in the reference signal. The final example considers

where X = d m ( n / n / r > lArthurs

.

and Dym [2] later

the error probability in MPSK.

gave the estimate

A . Symbol Error Rate i n MDPSK

In M-ary differential phase shift keying (MDPSK), information is 'transmitted as the phase difference between two consecutive sinusoidal pulses, and thus the. receiver decision variable can be viewed as being the phase difference between two and,finally, Bussgang and Leiter [3] obtainedtheupper

vectors perturbed by Gaussian noise. For a maximum p poster- bound

iori probability receiver employingdifferentially

coherent

detection of equiprobable, equal

energy MDPSK signals, the

(49)

probability of a symbol error is [6, ch. 51

'

'E(M) =

(43)

P ( $ ) db!'

sampling instants. Using the results of Section 11, for the Case I

distribution with $2 = n and $ 1 = n/M, we find the symbol

errorprobability' to be

(./M)

n/2

(?--PI

I--os(nlM)costl

PE(4 =

2n

L,,,

dt

1 -cos(n/M)

cos

(44)

these three approximations are good for large signal-to-noise

ratios, none is asymptotic in the sense that the error in using

it becomes vanishingly small as p becomes infinitely large.

TheFleckandTrabkaapproximation

is closest inform

totheasymptoticformula,(46).

Neglecting the1/8inthe

denominator'of (47), employing theasymptoticexpansion

for the erfc function in both (46) and (47), and then forming the quotient of these two gives (for M > 3)

relation between the bit and symbol error probabilities in the

case of

quaternary DPSK, M = 4. In DQPSK, a symbol error results in a single

bit error whenever n/4 C I @ 1 Q 3n/4, and resultsin two bit errors when

3n/4 Q I @ I < n. Using these, we can show that the bif errof- probability

Pg(4) is related to thesymbol error probabilityPE(4)by

The probability P{3n/4 4 @ < n} can be evaluated exactly from ( 9 )

and (10);however, it is sufficient for our purposes to use the asymptotic

form given by (40), namely,

~ { 3 n / 4< $

cT}

e-~/(2np).

( 1 / 2 ) P ~ ( 4 with

)

little error. This approximation is then better than the

commonly used Pg(4) = (2/3)P,~(4),which corresponds to orthogonal

signals; i.e., PB(M) = MPE(M)/~(M

- 1) for M = 4.

+n with an error that

that the limits of integration can be extended to

becomes.vanishinglysmall

as p getsinfinitelylarge.This

gives the

asymptotic formula

PAWUL.4 PERTURBED

et al.: VECTORS

1835

NOISE

BY GAUSSIAN

of this ratio are

0.9186

0.9768

0.9987

16

in the strict sense of the term, it

differsin its leading term

from the asymptotic formulasby less than 9 percent in the

worst case when M = 3, and by less than 3 percent in the

more ordinary situation when M is a power of 2 [M> 2 is

tacitly assumed, since an exact expression is known forPE(2)].

the limits of integration in the integrals of (13) are over 2n

ranges and, consequently,

1) the values of lii in (13) are unimportant,

2) the algebraic sign of pi is unimportant, and

3) the integrals in (13) are

expressible in terms of Io and

l e functions as in (1 8).

Thus, employing(13)

to evaluate the limit of F ( 0 0 7 )

as 7 + 0, and using the result in (52), we find (cf.[ 11, eq.(6.6)])

(53)

Thedistributionoftheinstantaneousfrequency

of a in which a and are the limits as 7 + 0 of (14b) and ( 1 4 ~ ) ,

narrow-band signal may be regarded as a limiting case of the and are

distribution of the phase angle between two vectors perturbed

(wo - i ) 2

by Gaussian noise, if the vectors are appropriately regarded

a = qI+

(54)

as samples of a narrow-band waveform with vanishingly small

2

wo2 - r - 2wox

timeseparation.The

Case 111 simplified representationof

Section 11-C for P{ G1 Q $ < $2} provides a convenient mechU2(Oo - &)2

1'2

p=

(5 5)

anism for readily determining the probabilityP{w< w o } ,that

wo2 - i: - 2woX

theinstantaneous

radian frequency lies belowsome value

w o . In the remainder of this section, wewill consider only the

case that the noise power is not time-dependent so that u1 = and A = dA(t)/dt and U = U(t) [cf. ( l ) ] . Equation (53) can

also be written as

02.

+ (A/#

[?

of a narrow-band

Theinstantaneousradianfrequency

signal is thetime

derivative ofitsinstantaneousphase;

i.e.

O2 - O 1 has been replaced by its modulo 2n difference $ =

(8, - 8,) mod 277 (cf. [ l l , ch. 61).Then,formally,the

probability P { o < w o } can be determinedusing (a) as the limit

P{ 0 < wo}

=

1- P { o

= 1 - lim

x,

os,u s 2 , a n d w , . H e r e h = w , + G s a n d r 2 =-h2-u s 2 . The

quantities Gs and us2 dependonthe normalizedbaseband

power spectrum S(f) through YS; = f ? w u S ( f ) d f and us2 =

J:,(w

- Gs)2,S(f)d& The expressions for a and 0 corresponding to (53a) can be obtained by replacing w o - & by

v - in (54) and w o - Y- 2w0h by us2 + (v - Os)2in (54)

and (55). Equivalent results, expressed in terms of theMarcum

Q-function, were obtained by Salz and Stein [ 121 . l

> wo},

P{$ > w ,

7},

.

0

'

7

0'7

+ lim F(w07)-

7-f 0

if wo >a,

limiter-discriminator detection and integrate and dump (I&D)

output filtering is consideredindetailin

[8] ; however,this

reference exclusively treats

the

uncorrelated noises case

of an output filter (see Fig. 4) which integrates over the entire

bit time. The more involved problem ofpartial-bit integration,

i.e., that in which the output filterintegrates over less than

the full bit time, requires additional analytical tools that are

The limitsin(52)

can be evaluated using (13) byfirst

regarding all ofthe parameters U, V , W , A@,r, and X as

functions of T, and then letting T -+ 0. For small T , (7) x

1

iLr2/2, where i: = [d2r(T)/dT2]7=o;

X(7) 2 kr, where

= [ d X ( . r ) / d ~ ] , =and

~ ; (13) shows immediately that F(A@+

13 The probability density function of the instantaneous frequency,

n) + 0 as T + 0. Hence, only F(w07) needs to be further

which can beobtained by differentiating (53a),

has been given by Gatkin

considered. The key to the evaluation of the limit of F(w07) et al. [ 2 1 ] .

1836

LimiterDiscriminator

; ; ;FI

t)

(+ clicks)

+(

onlypartto

beconsidered here, requires the evaluation of

P{$ < 0) for A@ > 0. The desired result for this probability

follows from P{ $ < 0) = F(0) - F(A@- n) and (12), and is

PI$ < 0)

provided by our results in Case 111 of the present paper. In this

example, we briefly indicate how the Case 111 results can be

used in the BER calculation in the partial-bit case.

Intheworst

case situation of an alternating one-zero

data stream, the operation of narrow-band digital FM can be

partlymodeledintermsofthe

phase angle betweentwo

vectors perturbedby Gaussian noise,when the underlying

sinusoid[cf. (l)] has an amplitudeandphase of theforms

(cf. [8, eqs. (12) and (13)] for a linear phase IF)

A ( t ) = d a o + a2 cos 2n

f_

7(

+

a,. sin n

(56a)

a, sinn-

1 - COS A@ COS t

dt

rsinA@

$ 7 -

/,,,

exp i-u

n/2

dt

1 +cost

1 + r cos A@ cos t

1 + r cos A@ cos t

sampler which samples the instantaneous radian frequency, say

o,of the discriminator output. The above probabilitythen

becomes P ( o < 0) , which can be found in the limit of the

above equation, but is more directly given by (53) with oo=

O,X=O,k=O,viz.

a.

cy2

1-rcost

(60)

and

$(t) = tan-

1 - COS A@ COS t

+ a2 cos 2n T

where aO, a,, and a2 are constants (ao > 0, a. -+ a 2 ) and Tis

the bit time. Letting 7, 0 < T < T , denote the partial-bit integration time, we can

express the phase angle of interest between thenoisy vectors as

and

i: = [d2r(~)/dr2],=o.

correlations of (5) are determinedbythe

system narrowband IF filter; and for ( ~ ~mod

7 ) 2n = 0 and for a filter with

a symmetric low-pass equivalent H ( f ) , h = 0 and r = (7) is

given by

(59)

J-

over various bitpatterns,andcontainscontributionsfrom

boththecontinuousandthe

click componentsofthe

In a recentpaper, Blachman [ 131 considers theeffect

of an error in the delay of the preceding signal, in calculating

the error probability in decoding the present signal, in differential phase-shiftkeying (DPSK). By recastingthis situation

in terms of the phase angle between two vectors perturbed by

Gaussian noise,asimplificationresults

fortheerrorprobability.

If we let 0 denote a constant phase error in the reference

signal, the error probability PB can be written as an infinite

series, withterms

involving modified Bessel functions as

[13, eq. (7)l

PAWULA PERTURBED

e t al.: VECTORS

1837

BY GAUSSIAN NOISE

of the two vectors. Using (18) with $ i = -n/2,r = h = 0, and

where

The equivalence between (62) and (63)14 can be shown directly by the following steps. From (4),(C-l), and Neumanns

additiontheorem(cf.

[ l , eq. (9.1.79)]), U-le(Y,

has

the representations

v>

U - Ze(Y,

-+

v>

rl

(-l)mem cos 2 m O

in which p = p 1 and -n < $ < n (A@ = 0 since MPSK is implicitly coherent signaling). The limit as p 2 -+ 03 (or u2 0) of

the function F($)will first be shown to be consistent with this

p ( $ ) , and will thenbe applied tothe MPSK symbolerror

probability calculation.

Taking the limitp 2 + m of (1 1) (with A@ = 0) leads to

m=O

dt

When (65) is used in (63), after some rearrangement (63) becomes a Fourier series in cos (2n + l)O, as is (62). Equality

follows by equating coefficients and use of the identity (which

can be verified by differentiation)

When M = 2, (71), with the aid of (69) and (34), reduces t o

the well-known form p ~ ( 2 )= (1/2) erfc

Also, from

(71), it is straightforward toshowthat P~(ln) erfc [&

sin (n/M)]f o r M > 2 (cf. 16,p. 2311).

(6).

Adegenerate case of the distribution of the

phase angle

betweentwo vectors perturbed by Gaussian noise is that in

which one of the vectors is noise free. This situation is representative of MPSK; hence, appropriate limits of our previous

results can be used to obtain the symbol error probability in

MPSK .

When the second vector, say, has zero noise, the probability

density function of the phase angle between the two vectors

14 We aregratefulto

N. M. Blachman fortheinterestingbit

history

that

a

special

case

of

( 6 3 ) was obtained,butapparently

published,

by

L. Lewandowski

in

1961.

both U and V + 00 as p 2 -+ 00 and that the integrand of (1 1)

becomespeaked in the vicinity of t = t o , to = tan- { V /

(W cos $)}. Expanding the integrand in powers of ( t - to) and

passing tothelimit

gives (69). Equation (70) then follows

by the change of variable x = tan 8 . That (68) and (69) are

consistent is readily verified byshowing that thesesatisfy

P($) = w $ ) / a $.

Turningnow t o MPSK: forequiprobable, equalenergy

MPSK signals, the symbol error probability for the optimum

receiver is PE(M)= 2P{$ > n/M}. Consequently, employing

(70) to evaluate F(n) - F(n/M) gives

of

not

In most of the preceding, definite integral expressions have

been presented for the probability densities, distributions, and

related quantities of interest.However, some of these densities

and distributions can be obtained in a quite general way as

Fourier series [22].It is the goal of this section to briefly explore the series approach and show its relation to our previous

work. Primarily the Fourier seriesmethod appears to be limited

to Cases I and I in which there is no

noises perturbing

endpoints

thevectors;

the

ofhowever,

the

between the

1838

IEEE TRANSACTIONS

COMMUNICATIONS,

ON

Additionally, the Fourier series method quite naturally allows

for extensions to situations which fall outside the scope of the

main part of this paper, situations in which the phase angle of

interest is the result of the modulo 277 combination of more

than two components.

ThestartingpointfortheFourier

series approach is the

Fourier series of the periodic extension of the Bennett probability density, of Section IV-E, for the phase noise of the

angle of a single vector; i.e.,

-,MIG~.

=% k=O

k 5 k ( P l ) z i Z k ( P 2 ) 6 k ( P 3 ) COS

k$;

$ = ( 2- e 32 )- m

e 1o d 2 n .

(77)

Probabilities

stemming

from

the

series representations

of such densities can be determinedby termwiseintegration.Forexample,

Blachman's errorprobability PB given

by (62) is just the termwise integral of (76) over the intervals (-n, - n/2 - 0 ) and (n/2 - 0 , n), viz.

(72)

be (cf. Prabhu [22], Middleton [18, p. 4171 and Lindsey [19,

P. 1901)

.

p($)

where'

concern in previous parts of this paper, can be obtained as

definiteintegralexpressionsbydirectlysumming

theircorresponding Fourier series. However, the ii-coefficient of the

combination density

becomes

increasingly complicated as

themodulo

2n combination gets more involved, so that

it becomes more difficult to sumtheFourier

series. For

example, we have not as yet succeededinsumming

either

the series for p ( $ ) or its counterpart for P{$ 2= ll,o} in the

case of 11, = (202 - 0' - 0 , ) mod 2n.

VI. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

(74)

From this series, the series for the density

which leads to

$ = (20) mod2n.

of $ = (28) mod

+ p1($/2 + n)]/2,

(75)

between two vectors perturbed by correlated Gaussian noise

has been studied in detail. For various types of signal conditions and noise correlation, the distribution and its asymptotic

behavior have been presented. Some of the resultswere applied toproblemsinanglemodulationincommunication

systems,andinfinding

thedistributionofinstantaneous

frequency.

Even in the most complicated case, the expressions for the

distribution requireonly the numericalevaluation of single

integrals,andtheseare

easily done on a digital computer or

hand-held programmable calculator to ten digit accuracy

using the methods described in [ 101 . Such methods were used

to get numerical comparisons of the asymptotic formulas with

exact results and, ingeneral, the asymptotic results were found

to be quite good for U > 10 dB and over the entire range of

The secondingredientin

theFourier series approach is

the observation, made from (6), that the Fourier series for the

combination of twoindependent e's, with densities of the

$0.

form of (73) or ( 7 9 , has Gcoefficients which are just products

By following thetechniques used, the resultscanbeexof the Z-coefficients of the component pdfs. Then, series for tendedtoother

special situationsofinterestin

phaseand

the'densities of combinations such as $ = (0, - 0 , ) mod 2n frequency modulation (cf. [6, ch. 51).

and $ = (202 - e l - 0,) mod 2n" [all the 0's are independent with densities given by (73)] can be written by inspection,

APPENDIX A

viz .

CHARACTERISTIC FUNCTION METHOD

11, = ( e 2 - 0 , ) mod 2n

This combination arises in Manchester encoded digital FM [20].

1 5 ;El(p)

16

(76)

developmentin [ I 11 hasbeen changed somewhatand rearranged into a step-by-step procedure.

1)Defineaperiodic

sawtooth function s ( t ) of period 277

such that

PAWULA PERTURBED

et al.: VECTORS

1839

BY GAUSSIAN NOISE

- $i n)] that can be used in (A-2) t o get an expression for P{ $ 1 < $ G G2}. The desired equations (21)and

(22) now follow when (20) is used to express EIJo(*)] as

0,

and useconstruct

toit

the

function

1

+n)1.

- [($2-$1)+s($-$2+~)--s($-$l

2n

@(-u, conditional

u I $J, the

tion 11-E.

characteristic

of function

It is equal to 1 in $, < $ < G2 and to 0 elsewhere in - n <

$ < n. Then (cf. [l 1, eq. (2.26)])

ALTERNATE

DERIVATION

P{$lG$G$2}

$ 2 -IL1

1

+E E S ( ~-ol

,

2n

=

7

-s(02

-81

- $1

+ n)I

$2

+n)

(A-2)

where theexpectationextends

over therandom variables

0 , and 0 2 . By the periodicity of s(-), the mod 2n in

$ =

(0, - e,) mod 2n is accounted for.

2) Note the basic relation [ 11, eq. (2.20)]

Sec-

APPENDIX B

OF P{ $1

$ < tJ2} which follows more along classical lines thanthe

derivation given

Section

in

11-E.the

For

sake of simplicity,

only CaseI1is considered in some detail. The derivation can

be extendedto

Case 111, althoughthe

algebra involved becomes tedious.

CaseII: Initially,the derivationproceeds along the lines

followed by Fleck and Trabka [SI, who start with the fourdimensional joint Gaussian probability density function

p ( x l , y l , x2,y2) of the four noise variables in (2). A change

is made to polar coordinates, and the resulting radius vectors

integrated over,leading to the joint density p(8,, 0,). Employing (6), the result for p ( $ ) , $ =

- e,) mod 2n, can

be written as (cf. [8, Appendix])

(19,

cos @,

y = R sin @.Then the integration with

respect to

R can be performed immediately (since it is equivalent to

integrating Jo(cR), c being a constant).Theintegration

with respect to 4 can be done by setting 2@= n/2 - t and

using

where E = U - V sin t - W cos (A@ - $) cos t. The observation is made that the negative exponent E satisfies the

identity

3) Replacein

(A-3) by O 2 - O 1 - E and change the

variables of integration to u , u where x = uRl , y = vR2 and

R , , R 2> 0. This carries (A-3) into

E, using (B-2), and integrating over ($1, G2) gives

+-4n

dt

-n12

t = $i - n (SO a/a$ = a/aJli) gives a form17 for E[s(O2 17 Interchanging the order of expectation and integration

canbe

[16]). If thedouble

justifiedbystandardmethodsofanalysis(see

integral is first expressed in the polar coordinates (R,@)then the most

difficult step to justify is the interchange of the expectation with the

R-integration. The validity of this step can be shown by first writing

the R-integral as one from 0 to M plus a second from M to m. Then

the interchange can be made in the first part with the finite limits and,

as M

-, the contribution from the second part can be shown to be

nil by use of the Riemann-Lebesguelemma (or theasymptotic behavior of the Bessel function).

--f

(___-)(T

a$

-1

$I

aE

d$)

~cost

03-31

Uponintegrating thesecond integral by partswithrespect

to t , and the third integral by parts with respect to $, it will

be found formally that all of the remaining double integrals

cancel, and that there results the single integral

1840

IEEE TRANSACTIONS

COMMUNICATIONS,

ON

within the range of integration, for then the steps performed

in going between the last two equations would not be valid.

This singularity occurs when

for (C-2)].

2) Hankel Exponential Integrals

( [ I , eq. (Z1.4.28)]:

rm

$ =A@,and

t=tan-

(B-5)

and will be avoided if A@ lies outside the range of integration. If A@ lies withinthe range of integration,thenthe

abovederivation

mustberepeatedforthecomplementary

probability P{$ <

or $ > $2). Evaluating the integrand

of (B-4) then leads to (9) and(1 l), which completesthe

proof.

CaseZIZ: Inextendingthis

derivation to Case 111, the

probability density functionp($) becomes

tJo(at)e-bf2 dt = - e2b

I

Jl(at)e-bf2 dt =-(1

a

a2/4b

-e-a2/4b).

the Euler-Legendre transformation, (3 1):

exp[a+bsint+ccost

4-

1 + d cos t

2ir

I,

1 + d cos t

dt

[+

a

4-2

277

L,,

dt

= e-aIo(13)

+ c cos t

1 + d cost

b sin t

a+bsint+ccost

where

where

E=

U--~sint-W~os(A@-$)co$t

1 - (r cos J/

+ x sin $) cos t

REFERENCES

M.Abramowitzand

I . A. Stegun, Handbook of Mathematical

Functions. New York:Dover,1972.

[2]E.

Arthurs and H. Dym,On the optimum detection of digital

signals in thepresence of whiteGaussian noise-A geometric

of threebasicdata

transmission sysinterpretationandastudy

tems, IRE Trans. Commun. Syst.,vol. CS-IO, pp. 336-372, Dec.

1962.

[3] J. J . Bussgangand M. Leiter, Error rate approximations for

differential phase-shift keying, IEEE Trans. Commun. Syst., vol.

CS-12,pp. 18-27, Mar. 1964.

[4] J. Edwards, A Treatise on the Integral Calculus, Vol. 11. London,

England:Macmillan.1922.

[5] J. T. Fleck and E. A. Trabka, Error probabilities of multiple-state

differentially coherent phase-shift keyed systems in the presence of

white, Gaussian noise, in Investigation of Digitul DataCommunication

Systems,

Rep. UA-1420-S-1, J.G.

Lawton,Ed.,

Cornell Aeronaut. Lab.,Inc., Buffalo, N Y , Jan.1961, Detect

Memo 2A; available as NTIS Doc. AD256584.

[6] W . C. Lindsey and M. K . Simon, TelecommunicationSystems

Engineering. EnglewoodCliffs. NJ: Prentice-Hall,1973.

[7] J. I . Marcum, A statisticaltheory of target detection by pulsed

vol.IT-6,Apr.

1960, pp.

radar, IRE Trans.Inform.Theory,

59-267.

[SI R. F. Pawula, On the theory of error rates for narrow-band digital

FM, IEEE Trans. Commun.. vol. COM-29, pp. 1634-1643, Nov.

1981.

[9] S. 0. Rice, Statisticalproperties of asine wave plus random

noise, Bell Syst. Tech. J . , vol. 27, pp. 109-157, Jan. 1948.

Efficient evaluation of integrals of analytic functions by the

[IO] -,

trapezoidal rule, Bell Syst. Tech. J . , vol. 52, pp. 707-122, MayJune 1973.

[I]

E[2U-2W(rcosA@++sinA@)-E(1-r2-A2)]

(B-7)

APPENDIX C

This Appendix sumniarizes certain integral results needed in

the main part of the paper.Also listed are two interestingdefinite integrals which are related to the analysis, and which do

not appear tobe given in most tables.

1) TheIe(k, x) Function: This function isdefined and

tabulated in [9], and [ l l ] containsadditionaltabulations.

For Ik I< 1

(C-1)

__

77

e-x(~--kco~e)

de

1--cos0

(C-2)

1841

and

demodulation, and error correction codingand

decoding. Heis also

interested in long-range avionics development.

Dr. Pawula is a member of Sigma Xi, Tau Beta Pi. Eta Kappa N u , Phi

Eta Sigma. Rho Epsilon, and Alpha Eta Rho.He was an Alfred Sloan

Fellow at M.I.T. and aHowardHughes

Fel.low at Caltech. He also

belongs to the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. the Experimental

Aircraft Association, and the Baja Bush Pilots.

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