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MSc Drilling Engineering

DAM 5113 Basic Petroleum Geology

Geological Field Trip


Lenggong, Pengkalan Hulu, Bukit Merah, Perak
&
Baling, Kedah
(31 January 2 February 2016)

By
Lek Chun Hou (G03493)
Loh Chun Liang (G03498)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:

Thank you Ms Nur Huda binti Mohd Jamin (left) and Associate Professor Dr Askury bin
Abd Kadir (right) from Geosciences Department for organizing this field trip and teach us
valuable geology knowledge! Terima Kasih.
OBJECTIVES:
The main objectives of this fieldwork are as follow:
1. To identify igneous rock, sedimentary and metamorphic rock based on visual
examination of hand specimens and at outcrops in the field.
2. To develop ability to distinguish between the main types of rocks based on their
mineralogy, texture, physical and chemical properties and their mode of
occurrence and formation.
3. To develop ability to recognize simple geological structures and understand the
process leading to their formation.
4. To understand the geological processes in the formation of landforms and
geological landscapes that are observable on the surface of the Earth.
5. To acquire preliminary understanding of the major disciplines of geology such as
petroleum geology, engineering geology, economic geology, environment geology
and heritage geology.

PROGRAM SCHEDULE:
Day 1 - 31 January 2016, Sunday
Time
0800
0900
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700

Agenda
Depart from UTP
Breakfast at R&R Sg. Perak
1st Outcrop: Unconsolidated Conglomerate
2nd Outcrop: Granite
3rd Outcrop: Limestone
Lunch and Prayer
4th Outcrop: Andesitic Tuff
5th Outcrop: Phyllite
Checkin Rest House and Rest

Location
UTP bus Depot
R&R Sg. Perak
Enggor
Lenggong
Lenggong
Lenggong
Gerik
Gerik
Lenggong

Day 2 - 1 February 2016, Monday


Time
0800
0900
1100
1200
1300
1400
1500
1600

Agenda
Breakfast
6th Outcrop: Black Shale
7th Outcrop: Graphite
8th Outcrop: Hot Spring
9th Outcrop: Unconsolidated Sandstone
Lunch and Prayer
10th Outcrop: Impure Limestone
Checkin Hotel and Rest

Location
Lenggong
Pengkalan Hulu
Pengkalan Hulu
Baling
Pengkalan Hulu
Pengkalan Hulu
Pengkalan Hulu
Pengkalan Hulu

Day 3 - 2 February 2016, Tuesday


Time
0800
0900
1100
1400
1500
1600

Agenda
Breakfast
11th Outcrop: Hornfels
12th Outcrop: Baling Limestone
13th Outcrop: Sand Slit Interbed
Lunch and Prayer
Depart to UTP

Location
Pengkalan Hulu
Baling
Baling
Bukit Merah
Bukit Merah
UTP

LOCATIONS:

Day 1 (31 January 2016, Sunday)


Outcrop
: Unconsolidated Conglomerate
Location
: Enggor

Figure 1: Unconsolidated conglomerate structure


Type of rock: Sedimentary
Unconsolidated conglomerate is located at the hill slope.
This unconsolidated conglomerate outcrop is located at high ground because of the sea
level rise during the ice cap and now, the sea level has dropped. The outcrop is estimated
to be 1.2 million years old which considered as young rock. We observed that the texture
is medium sandy, lithology included quartzite, granite and sandstone, colour is reddish
grey, clasts are poorly sorted which make it a poor reservoir, cementing agents include
silica and iron oxide, the geological age is Quarternary.
The reddish colour presence in the outcrop is believed to be caused by the oxidation
process of iron oxide. Constant weathering by the rain water will lead to the oxidation of
the rock.
This unconsolidated conglomerate has big clast of grains with different sizes of gravel.
However, the clast is not well cemented because there is no overlying layer and
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overburden pressure acting on the rocks. The outcrop grain is classified as boulder with
sub-rounded shape. This explained that the energy of deposition is not strong and the
sediments have travelled from a very long journey.
The alignment of the clast is understood to be caused by the lubrication created by the
river channel flow in the environment.
The outcrop measurement is carried as shown in the figure below and it has an estimated
length of 6 metres and height of 3 metres. Its inclination angle clocked at 35 with direction
of 105E 285W.

Figure 2: Mixture of big and smaller clast presence in the unconsolidated conglomerate

Figure 3: Sandstone sample from


conglomerate

Figure 4: Grain size measurement

Outcrop
Location

: Granite
: Lenggong

Figure 5: Granite Structure


Type of rock: Igneous (Plutonic)
The second outcrop visited is the plutonic Granite situated in Lenggong highways. In
term of reservoir quality, granite has zero permeability and porosity which made granite
a very good seal rock instead of reservoir rock. This granite contained a thickness of 20m
with length of over 100m. The outcrop is directed at 0N and 180S from the compass
measurement.
A normal fault could be detected in the outcrop
of this granite and it can be explained by
touching on the surface of the rock. Smoother
surface of the rock could be identified as the
footwall which has travelled in a downward
direction in a normal fault.
Figure 6: Normal fault in the granite
outcrop
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We observed that the texture is porphyritic.


This rock has zero permeability and porosity
which make it poor reservoir. This granite rock
contained a mixture of five minerals which
could be observed from the rock. Among
them were Feldspar which glitters, Biotite
which is black, Quartz, Xenolith and Pyrite.

Figure 7: Granite rock sample

Figure 8 Presence of Pyrite mineral in


the granite rocka

Figure 9: Xenolith mineral included by the


granite

Xenolith could be found inside the rock of granite as shown in the picture above. From
the law of relative dating, law of inclusion said that the included rock (Xenolith) is older
than the rock that contained (granite) it.
In terms of oil and gas well drilling, it can cause loss of mud circulation as it has fractured
system. Other than that, it should not be a big problem for drilling activities.
Chemical weathering of granite by water (H2O) is through the hydrolysis process which
stained the granite rock with brownish colour as shown in the picture below. The brownish
stain is the product of the hydrolysis process which left the Iron Sulphate (Fe2SO4) on
the surface of the granite outcrop.
FeS2 + 3 O2 + H2O Fe2SO4 + H2SO4
Besides, there are series of joints formed in the granite outcrop and the real reason of the
joints could not be identified. The formation joints could be due to natural fracing in the
lithosphere caused by the forces. Other than that, it could be also formed by man-made
physically as blasting of rock for the road constructions are made.
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Figure 10: Joint and brownish stain on the granite outcrop

Outcrop
Location

: Limestone
: Lenggone

Figure 11: Limestone structure


Type of rock: Sedimentary (Chemical)
The third outcrop visit is the limestone cave in Lenggong. Limestone is a sedimentary
rock which composed of calcium carbonate, itconsists of 99% calcium carbonate, the
grain size is fine and the cementing agent is calcite. In terms of reservoir quality, it has
high permeability and porosity.
An acid test was carried out on the surface of limestone outcrop. A few drop of HCL was
dripped and the reaction was instantaneous. Bubbles was formed from the reaction of
HCL with limestone. The reaction equation was as shown below:
CaCO3 + 2HCL CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

It is formed in the clear, warm and shallow marine waters. Accumulation of shell, coral,
algal and fecal debris slowly formed this organic sedimentary rock. Besides, it can also
formed chemically by the precipitation of calcium carbonate from the lake or ocean water
environment.
As observed from the rock sample in the figure below, the limestone rock sample has a
fine grain. We can deduce that the rock deposition environment is from a deep
environment and it is formed by chemical process. The chemical process referred to the
chemical weathering that took place in the limestone outcrop. Calcium carbonate is very
favourable to dissolve at room temperature.
CaCO3 (Soluble) + H2O + CO2 Ca(HCO3)2
The product of this reaction form calcium bicarbonate which is soluble and dissolve easily
in a solvent. From the chemical weathering, Karstic morphology can be observed in the
limestone outcrop. For example, cave as shown in the figure below was formed by the
chemical weathering processes. On top of that, the formation of stalactite and stalagmite
also can be observed as a result of this weathering process. Karstic morphology is defined
as a landscape formed from the dissolution of soluble rocks.

Figure 12: Reaction of limestone with


HCl acid

Figure 13: Limestone caves formed from


river flow

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Figure 14: Limestone sample

Figure 15: Formation of stalactite and


stalagmite

Figure 16: Series of fractures formed in


the limestone

Limestone is a good reservoir rock as it contains high permeability and porosity. Series
of joints can be seen on the limestone which provide good permeability for the fluids flow
in limestone rock.

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Outcrop
Location

: Andesitic Tuff
: Gerik

Figure 17: Andesitic Tuff rock structure


Tuff is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
Volcanic eruption depends on the composition of the magma. In the event of violent
eruption, the magma will be in the intermediate class where the gas and water will mix
within the magma surface. Then the gas will start to expand and resulting a huge blasting
due to the low pressure and low temperature. All the dust will be eventually fly out and
form clay size substance before binding together to become tuff. This type of volcanic
rock is formed when the air bonds settled by gravity and then undergo slow cooling proses
and thus, it is mainly made up of pyroclastic material, mainly tuff and can be classified as
sedimentary rock as well. This type of rock is believed to be existed during Permian
geological time where there was a very big volcano occurred in this place.

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Figure 18: Left hand rule method in calculating the strike and dip angle
Tuff is a relatively soft rock, so it is particularly used as construction material

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Outcrop
Location

: Phyllite
: Gerik

Figure 19: Phyllite structure


Phyllite is a type of foliated
metamorphic rock created from slate
that is further metamorphosed so
that very fine grained white mica
achieves a preferred orientation. It is
primarily composed of quartz,
sericite mica, and chlorite. Phyllite
has fine-grained mica flakes in a
preferred orientation, whereas slate
has extremely fine clay flakes that
Figure 20: Phyllite rock sample
achieve a preferred orientation, and
schist has large flakes in a preferred
orientation. Among foliated metamorphic rocks, it represents a gradation in the degree of
metamorphism between slate and schist.

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The phyllite from this outcrop is


categorized
as
low
grade
metamorphic rock. The rock tends
to change into phyllite in the
condition of low pressure and low
temperature. The parent material
for this type of rock is mud
dominated shale with the grain size
less than 1/6 mm. However, some
parent material also might be from
pyroclastic material.
Figure 21: The breakdown of big Phyllite rock
across the cleavage into smaller size

Phyllite has the tendency to be


easily breakdown across the
tendency plane eventually foliation
effect will be easily spotted. There is slightly shinning surface can be seen across the
cleavage as well as the foliation effect is in the straight pattern across the rock. The
texture of this phyllite is identified yet to be schistosity and only in the foliation texture.
Schistosity is the mode of foliation that occurs in a certain metamorphic rocks as a
consequence of the parallel alignment of platy and lath-shaped mineral constituent
reflects a considerable intensity of metamorphism. In addition to that, this type of phyllite
rock does not have a sandy surface and it is believed to contain a lot of clay which
beneficial for it to become seal rock in petroleum system.

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Day 2 (1 February 2016, Monday)


Outcrop
: Black Shale and Graphite
Location
: Pengkalan Hulu

Figure 22: Dimension Scale of the Black Shale Structure


Shale is a rock composed mainly of clay-size mineral grains where these tiny grains are
usually clay minerals such as illite, kaolinite and smectite. Shale usually contains other
clay-size mineral particles such as quartz, chert and feldspar. The shale is black in colour
due to the carbon contain within the rock and the carbonate metal similar to the clay.
Black shale has the characteristics of 60% micro-porosity as the pores are exist between
the clay crystals. However, it has zero permeability which only allows it to generate
hydrocarbons and become the source rock in petroleum industry. Throughout the
conversion of kerogen to hydrocarbons within the rock pores, a force of expulsion will be
eventually created. In order for the carbon to change into kerogen, it must be occurred
at certain temperature within the oil window which is between 60C to 120C and the
proses of generation need to be few kilometres down from the surface. The environment
of deposition for the black shale is deep marine. Originally, this shale is white in colour
but the oxidation proses had changed the rock into reddish colour. Fracture will cause
the surface to be shinning and eventually will change to graphite after the metamorphism
proses. In the other case, the anaerobic bacteria will consume the carbon and lastly
phyllite will be formed with the sulphur as bi-product which is corrosive to the drill-pipe.
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Figure 23: Black shale rock sample

In this case, the main component of the


shale is clay minerals and 10%-15% of
organic metals within the shale are sufficient
to change into kerogen. However, only one
portion of the organic metals will change to
kerogen instead of the whole organic metals.
Once the generation of kerogen complete, it
will be travelled by sea bed and accumulate
at the reservoir. In the event that no trapping
system is present, there will definitely no
accumulation of kerogen will be occurred
and result in the exposure to the surface and
lastly the proses of evaporation will take
place to contribute to the carbon cycle. The
black shale has a very old age which is
believed to be existed during the Ordovician
geological time scale, roughly around 400
million years ago. Hence, this black shale
contains some index fossil called graptolite
which is the extinct marine creatures that
formed twig-like or net-like colonies
composed of one or more branches.

In term of geological structure, this black


shale is in a bedding plane which likely to be
almost vertical. Meantime, due to the
uplifting and plate tectonic effect, a lot of different structures had been formed. By
identifying the sequence way up, the young sequence of structure can be easily identified.
Furthermore, there are also few other ways to differentiate the age of the sequence
including fossil assembly and sedimentary structure sequence whereas for volcanic rock,
a different method called radiometric dating by half life is being applied.
Figure 24: The structure sequence of
black shale

Graphite is a crystalline form of carbon, a semimetal, a


native element mineral, and one of the allotropes of
carbon. Graphite is the most stable form of carbon under
standard condition. Black shale will change to graphite
at fault zone where there must be water flow. Graphite
is used in thermochemistry as the standard state for
Figure 25: Graphite rock
defining the heat of formation of carbon compounds. sample
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Graphite occurs in metamorphic rocks as a result of the reduction of sedimentary carbon


compounds during metamorphism. Minerals associated with graphite include quartz,
calcite, micas and tourmaline.

Figure 26: Graphite Structure in fault zone

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Outcrop
Location

: Hot Spring
: Baling

Figure 27: Hot spring


A strong smell of sulfur is noticed at the hot spring, thus it is believe the hot spring contain
high sulfur content. The hot spring in this area is not as active as few years ago.
As shown in the figure, where the point
of small bubbles indicates that the hot
spring is dead, where the flow rate of
hot spring is greatly reduced as
compared to few years ago. This is
because hot spring is very sensitive to
the environment. If source water
disturbed, hot spring will stop. Thus
normally hot spring will have buffer
zone, for example within 1 km of hot
spring, mankind should not disturb. So
in this case, the water source is
probably disturbed.

Figure 28: Bubbles in the hot spring

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Hot spring is a natural phenomenon related to fracture system, mainly fault system. It
formed when there is a deep fracture system / deep seated fault. Surface water from a
water source, eg: lake, river or sea, will seep into underground through the deep fracture
to an aquifer and mix up with magmatic water. The magmatic water will geothermally heat
up to certain temperature (less than boiling point) and due to the buoyancy effect, the
geothermally heated water will seek another different route to flow back up to the earth
crust, where the hot spring is formed. The cycle of from the source water to hot spring is
shown in the following figure.

Water Source
(eg: lake, river or sea)

Hot Spring

surface
Flow to surface to through different route

Flow through deep seated fault

Aquifer
(Magmatic Water)
Figure 29: The formation of hot spring
Malaysia hot springs fracture system is mainly North-South faults. It is caused during the
continental - continental convergence of Sibumasu and Indochina continents where the
Dataran Titiwangsa was formed.

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Outcrop
Location

: Unconsolidated Sandstone
: Pengkalan Hulu

Figure 30: Unconsolidated sandstone structure


Unconsolidated sandstone is a sand formation in which individual grains do not adhere
to one another. In another word, the cementation process is still incomplete. The age of
the outcrop is still uncertain, but it is believe to be very young which is in tertiary or
quaternary.
The age of the unconsolidated sandstone can be determined by studying the pollen in the
formation using paleontological study. Paleontological study is the scientific study of life
existent prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch roughly 11,700
years before present. It includes the study of fossils to determine organisms' evolution
and interactions with each other and their environments. Although efforts have been done,
the age of the sandstone here is still undetermined.

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Figure 32: Sandstone sample from bottom


of the structure

Figure 31: Sandstone sample from top of


the structure

It is noticeable that the grains at the bottoms is coarser then the grains of the rock sample
from the tops, which shows a fining upwards sequence. It means that its a graded
bedding. The rock sample from the top is very fine and suspected to be silt because of
the fine grain size. Both samples are easily break up and crumple due to the incomplete
cementation.
Mud cracks are observed everywhere at
here. Mud crack is sedimentary structure
formed as muddy sediment dries and
contracts.

Figure 33: Mud cracks of the sandstone


structure

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Outcrop
Location

: Impure Limestone
: Pengkalan Hulu

Figure 34: Impure limestone structure


The limestone here is not 100% calcium carbonate. It contains impurities such as clay
mineral, which is mainly shale and carbonate materials. Since it is not 100% calcium
carbonate, there will be some solids left behind after chemical weathering. This is a
plucking of the fault plane. Based on the texture of surface of the fault plane, which is
fining downward, indicate it is a foot wall with the hanging wall falling off. IN another word,
it is a normal fault system.
The limestone content is tested with acid and shown in
the figure that it is reactive with acid.

Figure 35: Limestone sample


tested with acid
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Whitish minerals is observed from the


rock. It is the recrystallization of calcite.
Calcite has a hardness of 3 which can be
easily scratched. It will react with acid too
due to the content of calcium. Besides,
calcite have 3 perfect cleavages. Thus,
calcite is easily break along the cleavages
results in certain particular shapes. From
the figure, it is observed that the sample
calcite is not pure. The greyish area
indicates some contamination and the
brownish area along the fracture is result
of the oxidation of iron oxide.

Figure 36: Calcite sample

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Day 3 (2 February 2016, Tuesday)


Outcrop
: Hornfels
Location
: Baling

Figure 37: Hornfels structure


Hornfels is a metamorphic rock produced by contact metamorphism. Contact
metamorphism occurs adjacent to igneous intrusions and results from high temperatures
associated with the igneous intrusion. Since only a small area surrounding the intrusion
is heated by the magma, metamorphism is restricted to the zone surrounding the intrusion,
called a metamorphic or contact aureole. Outside of the contact aureole, the rocks are
not affected by the intrusive event. The grade of metamorphism increases in all directions
toward the intrusion. Because the temperature contrast between the surrounding rock
and the intruded magma is larger at shallow levels in the crust where pressure is low,
contact metamorphism is often referred to as high temperature, low pressure
metamorphism. The rock produced is often a fine-grained rock that shows no foliation,
which is known as hornfels (Nelson, 2011).
Hornfels is older than granite in age. The parent rock of this outcrop is black shale.
Hornfels consists of dead carbons and has zero porosity. It is brittle and hard.
During the contact metamorphism that changes black shale to hornfels, the beddings of
black shale disappeared and formed hornfels. Hornfels has no visible bedding. For the
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texture of hornfels, it is granular, platy or elongated crystals that are randomly oriented,
therefore no foliation can be seen. Hornfels is very fine grained; grains need to be
observed under a microscope; can contain rounded porphyroblasts. In this outcrop, the
hornfels is smooth to touch.

Figure 38: Hornfels sample with banding


Referring to the above figure, in this outcrop, it can be observed that it has banding. The
darker colour banding is black shale and the lighter colour banding is sandstone. The
blinking substance is feldspar.
It is worth noting that during contact metamorphism, silica turns into quartz, alumina turns
into feldspar and carbon turns into graphite.

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Figure 39: Hornfels rock sample


Hornfels can be used as aggregate in the construction and roading industries.

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Outcrop
Location

: Baling Limestone
: Baling

Figure 40: Baling limestone structure

Figure 41: The fracture plane on the limestone structure


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Limestone consists of calcium carbonate, CaCO3. Compared to clastic sedimentary rocks,


limestones deposition process is much slower. Limestone is a chemical sedimentary rock.
The hollow space (cave) is due to chemical weathering. In this outcrop, we can see the
brown colour, which is iron siderite.
Health, safety and environment regulations state that for places with limestone, the
surrounding area should be cleared of human activities, such as residence, commercial
area or industrial zone. The radius of the area should be at least 2 times the total height
of the limestone outcrop.

Figure 42: Limestone marble

Figure 43: Arch of the limestone structure

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Figure 44: Column of the limestone structure


The above figure shows arch and column. Column is where a stalactite combines with
stalagmite.
A stalactite is a type of formation that hangs from the ceiling limestone formation. Any
material which is soluble, can be deposited as a colloid, or is in suspension, or is capable
of being melted, may form a stalactite (Wikipedia, 2016). Stalactites may be composed
of amberat, lava, minerals, mud, peat, pitch, sand, and sinter. A stalactite is not
necessarily a speleothem, though speleothems are the most common form of stalactite
because of the abundance of limestone caves. The most common stalactites are
speleothems, which occur in limestone caves. They form through deposition of calcium
carbonate and other minerals, which is precipitated from mineralized water solutions.
Limestone is the chief form of calcium carbonate rock which is dissolved by water that
contains carbon dioxide, forming a calcium bicarbonate solution in underground caverns.
The chemical formula for this reaction is:

This solution travels through the rock until it reaches an edge and if this is on the roof of
a cave it will drip down. When the solution comes into contact with air the chemical
reaction that created it is reversed and particles of calcium carbonate are deposited. The
reversed reaction is:

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An average growth rate is 0.13 mm (0.0051 inches) a year. The quickest growing
stalactites are those formed by fast-flowing water rich in calcium carbonate and carbon
dioxide, these can grow at 3 mm (0.12 inches) per year.
The corresponding formation on the floor of the cave is known as a stalagmite.

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Outcrop
Location

: Interbedded sandstone, siltstone and shale & Chert


: Bukit Merah

Figure 45: Interbedded sandstone, siltstone and shale & Chert


This interbedded sandstone, siltstone and shale is of Permian or Triassic age. From the
above figure, dipping can be seen. This is due to the tectonic movement of SibumasuIndochina where Indochina plate subducted below Sibumasu plate.

Figure 46: Illustration of the indication of the relative age of the bedding
Referring to the above sketch, the beddings towards the left is younger than the beddings
on the right.
In this formation, chert can also be found. Chert is a hard and compact sedimentary rock,
consisting dominantly of very small quartz crystals. It is a common rock type which occurs
mostly in carbonate rocks either in nodular form or in layers (bedded chert). Chert is in
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most cases a biogenic rock, it is made of siliceous tests of diatoms, radiolarians, siliceous
sponge spicules, etc. Sometimes microscopic fossilized remains of these sea creatures
may be preserved in these rocks. Their siliceous tests are not made of quartz initially, but
after burial, compaction, and diagenesis, opaline siliceous sediments transform to quartz.
Although the material it is made of ultimately came from siliceous tests of marine species,
the rock itself is often not deposited in situ. It may move as a silica-rich liquid and form
nodules in rocks by replacing the original (usually carbonate) material. So chert is also
sometimes said to be a rock of chemogenic origin. Bedded variety seems to be often
associated with turbidity currents (Sandatlas, 2015).

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