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IOSR Journal of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences (IOSR-JPBS)

e-ISSN: 2278-3008, p-ISSN:2319-7676. Volume 9, Issue 4 Ver. IV (Jul -Aug. 2014), PP 21-29
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Effects of In-Season Combined Training on Running, Jumping,


Agility and Rate of Force Development in Pubertal Soccer Players
F. Zghal1, S. Gaied Chortane2, H. Gueldich3, I. Mrabet4, S. Messoud4,
Z. Tabka3 and F. Chour5
1

Faculty of Sport Sciences, Val dEssonne University, Evry, France


2
Faculty of Sport and Physical Education of Sfax, Tunisia
3
Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine of Sousse , Tunisia
4
Dpartement de Sciences et Technologie des Aliments, Pavillon Comtois, Universit Laval, Qubec, QC,
Canada, G1K 7P4.
5
Institute of Applied Biology of Mdenine, Tunisia

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of in-season combined resistance and
pliometric/sprint training with pliometric/sprint or conventional soccer training alone on field and laboratory
measurements expressing explosivity in pubertal soccer players. Thirty one young soccer players ([age (mean
SD) 14.5 0.52 years; height 172.25 6.66 cm; mass 60.25 6.52 kg] from one team were randomly assigned
to either combined-soccer (Combined, n = 14), pliometric-soccer (Pliometric, n = 9) or a control-soccer
(Control, n = 8). Two sessions added to habitual soccer regime consisting of one session of resistance exercises
combined with one session of plyometric/sprint training for combined group, two sessions of pliometric training
for pliometric group and two sessions based on soccer training for control group. Before and after 7-weeks
training, isomeric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC), rate of force development (RFD) in time intervals of
0-10, 0-200-250 ms from the onset of contraction, jumping ability, running speed and agility were assessed.
Combined group increased significantly their IMVC (from 296.6 74.07 to 339.87 78.9 N.m (p< 0.001) and
reduced their 5m-running time (from 1.06 0.07 to 1.01 0.06 sec; p< 0.001) without any significant
differences of maximal strength or running performance for other groups. Moreover, combined group revealed
a grater improvement of jumping performance mainly in Squat Jump (SJ) and Countermovement Jump (CMJ)
and the RFD in earlier phase than pliometric group with unchanged values for all measurements in control
group. We concluded for a more effectiveness of a combined resistance and pliometric/sprint training than only
pliometric/sprint or conventional soccer training for enhancing explosive actions performance and power.
Key words: in-season combined training, pliometric/sprint training, puberty, soccer, explosivity, rate of force
development.

I.

Introduction

Modern football is predominantly based on explosive actions, such as high-intensity intermittent


actions, rapid changes in direction and sprinting, jumping as well as frequent body contact which are important
determinants of match-winning actions in soccer performance (10, 38, 40). These actions seem to be crucial to
optimal performance not only in adults, but also in children's games even though they represent only a small
percentage of a total match time (45). Considering their importance, a great attention was allocated in search of
the optimal training method that could improve explosive performance. Currently, its well established that
pliometric training can constitute a safety and appropriate tool for improving explosive actions as well as in
adults (13, 52) as young soccer players ranging from pre-pubertal to late-pubertal ages (16, 32, 39, 44, 47, 48,
50). Likewise, resistance training incorporated into regular soccer training has been already investigated and
demonstrated effective to enhance whole physical capacity and especially muscular strength and explosivity
performance of adolescents soccer players (14, 27). Recently, a combined resistance with pliometric training
has become an increasingly popular method training that has showed more interesting results on the explosive
actions when compared to the simple utilization of one of the two methods described above (19, 20, 34). In
soccer, the effectiveness of combined training was also well-established (23, 33, 35, 36, 41, 46, 54).
Nevertheless, the only investigation in soccer players attempting to compare this combination of resistance and
pliometric training to resistance training alone has not showed any significant differences of performanceenhancing effects elicited by the two training methods (46). Moreover, all these studies cited above have been
carried out in adolescents or adult soccer players. Whereas information about effects of combined resistance and
pliometric training in pubertal soccer players are still scarce although its effectiveness has been already revealed
in pubertal sedentary boys (19, 29). Only one study that has examined the effects of on-field combined
resistance and pliometric training on explosivity-related measurements has showed significant improvements of
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Effects of In-Season Combined Training on Running, Jumping, Agility and Rate of Force
jumping, running and agility performance. In fact, investigators have organized this training program in
preseason period and have concluded for its effectiveness to enhance explosive performances without any
concomittent interference on aerobic capacity. Thus, they have recommended performing such training method
during the preseason period rather than in-season to avoid insufficient recovery/rest or overtraining (54). In our
knowledge, none study has evaluated the effect of in-season combined resistance and pliometric/sprint training
in comparison with pliometric/sprint training alone in pubertal soccer players. Otherwise, explosive
performances in soccer players have been often evaluated by fields measurements such as jumping, running
speed, shuttle run or strength capacities from evaluation of (1 repetition maximum [1 RM]). It is also possible to
investigate explosive muscle strength with laboratory measurements by assessing the contractile rate of force
development (RFD) during isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) (1, 7). RFD is defined as the slope
of the force-time curve obtained under isometric conditions (1). It could constitute an important indicator of
explosive performance in several explosive-type sports (4) because in the majority of sports involving explosive
movements (e.g. sprint running, jumping, kicking...), the time allowed to exert force is typically very limited
(50-250 ms). While increases in contractile RFD have been well revealed following different forms of resistance
or pliometric training (1, 4, 12, 26, 30, 42, 49), the effects of its combination on this muscle mechanical
parameter is not totally clarified yet especially in soccer players. Only two studies that have attempted to assess
the effects of combined training on RFD (11, 21) and a unique investigation carried out in soccer (21). The
investigators have been concluded for the inability of 7wk of resistance combined with pliometric/sprint training
to affect IMVC and RFD. Nevertheless, this study has been conducted on adults amateur soccer players.
Therefore, the aim of this investigation was to offer the opportunity to superimpose different field tests such as
performance jump, sprint, agility test.. and laboratory tests by RFD measured during IMVC in order to evaluate
the effects of in-season combined training on explosive performance of pubertal soccer players.

II.

Materials and Methods

Subjects
Thirty one young soccer players with training experience of 4.9 2.07 years ([age (mean SD) 14.5
0.52 years; height 172.25 6.66 cm; mass 60.25 6.52 kg] volunteered for this study. They were randomly
allocated into a combined-soccer (Combined; n = 14), pliometric-soccer (Pliometric; n = 9) or soccer group
(Control; n = 8). All players followed a soccer training program 4 times a week plus the competition. Two
sessions a week of combined (strength-pliometric/sprint training), only pliometric/sprint or soccer training were
additioned to habitual program regimen for combined, pliometric and control groups, respectively. All players
who participated to the current study are in puberty and this was checked by the development of public hair,
according to tanner method (8) at the beginning and the end of training period by the same investigator. Players
who were not classified as Tanner stage 3-5 for pubic hair growth and genital development were excluded. For
all subjects, no significant differences for age or maturation status between pre and post-training evaluations
were revealed. Physical and anthropometric characteristics between pre and post-training for each group were
presented in table 1. Both players and their parents were fully informed of the procedure and the risks involved
and gave their written consent. The experimental protocol was approved by the Institutional Committee.

Table 1. Anthropometric characteristics of combined, pliometric and control groups before and after training.
Anthropometric
characteristics
Age (years)

Combined
Before
After

14.5 0.52
Height (cm)
172.2 6.6
Weight (g)
60.2 6.5
Thigh circumference (m) 0.49 0.03

14.6 0.5
173.1 5.7
62.3 7.2
0.52 0.06*

Groups
Pliometric
Before
After
14.58 0.51
175.6 7.1
58.3 6.5
0.48 0.03

14.6 0.54
176.1 6.1
60.2 7.7
0.49 0.04

Control
Before
After
14.6 0.53
177.1 7.3
61.3 4.3
0.48 0.02

14.7 0.55
177.7 7.1
60.2 6.7
0.48 0.02

Training program
The training period was programmed in-season and lasted 7-weeks. To avoid confusing between effects
of different training types and the effect that would be occur in response to additional training sessions, all
groups were performed two additional sessions per week to habitual soccer training. The load training impact of
each session was adjusted, based to RPE applied in soccer (CR10-scale) as proposed by Impellizzeri et al. (28),
to be almost the same for all groups although the additional sessions types of training were different among
groups. The two supplementary sessions were respectively organized at the beginning and in the middle of the
week to lead the players at a fresh physical condition in competition. Although the two additional sessions were
only based on soccer or pliometric/sprint training for respectively control and pliometric groups, these sessions
consisted of one strength session and one pliometric/sprint session for combined group. The weight of strength
session ranged from 30% to 60% of [1 RM] and progressively increased over the 7-weeks training period. Each
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Effects of In-Season Combined Training on Running, Jumping, Agility and Rate of Force
strength session was preceded by 10 minutes warm up and lasted ~45 minutes. During each repetition, all
players were instructed to lift the weight as fast as possible in concentric phase and to resist in eccentric phase
without completely letting the weights fall. Exercises in strength session were performed on leg extension and
back half squat. The pliometric/sprint exercises were introduced one or two times a week according to group
(respectively combined or pliometric group) into a soccer training session for at least 20-25 minutes. Each
repetition of pliometric work was followed by sprint at various distances ranged from 5 to 20 meters. All
sessions training were supervised in order to bring the necessary corrections to the best execution. In addition to
strength and pliometric/sprint training sessions described above, all groups carried out an habitual soccer
training five times a week with each lasting ~90 minutes focused on the development of technical and tactical
skills.
Testing procedures
Assessment of MVC and RFD
Isometric maximal voluntary contraction (IMVC) of the knee extensors muscles (KE) were evaluated
for all groups before and after training period. Subjects were seated on an isometric dynamometer (Good
Strength, Metitur, Finland) equipped with a cuff attached to a strain gauge. This cuff was adjusted ~2 cm above
the lateral malleolus using a Velcro strap. The subjects stabilized themselves by grasping handles on the side of
the chair during contractions. Safety belts were strapped across the chest, thighs and hips to avoid lateral,
vertical and frontal displacements. All measurements were taken from the subjects dominant leg, with the hip
and knee angles set at 90 and 70 from full extension (=0), respectively. Each testing session was preceded by a
warm-up consisting of several submaximal contractions of the KE muscles at a freely chosen intensity. Then,
three maximal isometric trials were performed with rest periods of two minutes in between. The subjects were
instructed to extend their knee as fast and as hard as possible (4) and each maximal contraction was sustained
for approximately 3 s. They were strongly encouraged during each trial. Online visual feedback of the KE force
was provided on a computer screen in front of them. Trials with an initial counter movement were discarded
(24). The dynamometer force signal was digitized using an acquisition card (Powerlab 16SP, ADInstruments,
Australia) and Labchart 7.0 software (ADInstruments, Australia). The sampling frequency was fixed at 2 kHz.
Data were stored in an external computer to further analysis. The force signal was subsequently multiplied by
the lever arm length to obtain knee joint torque. The torque signal was corrected for the effect of gravity on the
lower leg (2). Maximal voluntary strength was therefore defined as the highest peak torque value of the three
maximal attempts. RFD (Nm/s) was defined as the slope of the torquetime curve (i.e., Torque/Time) in
incrementing time periods of 0-10, 0-20, 0-300-250 ms from the onset of contraction (3). Onset of muscle
contraction was defined as the instant when the knee extensor torque exceeded the baseline by 2.5% of the
baseline-to-peak amplitude (3). For each time period, the highest value of the three maximal attempts was used
for further analysis.
Vertical jump performance
Vertical jump performance was measured with four types of jump: a squat jump (SJ; initiated from a
knee flexion of 90), a countermovement jump (CMJ) and a drop jump (DJ). During the performance of the
jumps, the hands of the boys were placed on the waist. The jumps were executed on a platform connected to a
digital timer (Optojump Next, Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) with manufacturer-declared accuracy of 0.001 s))
allowing to measure jump height, contact-time on ground and flight time. For each type of jump, 2-3 familiar
trials were practiced before performing 3 jumps interspersed by 1 minute rests in between, and the best (highest)
jump was kept to further analysis.
Sprint time
Players were asked to complete a 10 minute specific warm-up including several accelerations. Then,
they positioned from a standing position placing their forward foot just behind the starting line. They started on
a visual signal and ran the 20-m distance as fast as possible. They were instructed to continue their sprint and
not begin to slow down before reaching the 20m-line. Sprint time was measured using 4 electronic photo cells
connected to a timer (Brower Timing System, Salt Lake City, 174 UT, USA; accuracy of 0.01s). A photocell
was placed at the start, at 5, at 10 m, and at 20 m. The first photocell was positioned at a height of 50 cm from
the ground and the photocells of 5, 10 and 20 m were placed at the height of the head of the boys, in an attempt
to standardize the part of the body breaking the photocell (5). After 1 practice trial, 2 sprints were performed,
separated by a 5-minute recovery period, and the fastest was used for subsequent analysis. All performance
times were recorded with an accuracy of 0.001 seconds, and the time from 0 to 5 m, 0 to 10 m and total sprint
time from 0 to 20 m were recorded. These sprint distances were selected because they are the most common
during soccer games (6) but the two first sprint distances are the most indicative of explosivity.
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Effects of In-Season Combined Training on Running, Jumping, Agility and Rate of Force
Agility test
Agility was evaluated through the 505 Agility Test. This test aims at evaluating the capacity of the
subjects to quickly change direction. Marker lines were marked on the ground at 5 and 10 m. The subjects run
10-m in a straight line, touch with the foot (right or left) in a line placed at 10m and turned on the line, and run
back through the 5 m marker. The time was recorded from when the subjects first run through the 5-m marker
and stopped when they return through this marker (i.e., the time taken to cover the 5m up and back distance10
m total). The subjects were instructed to not overstep the line by too much, as this will increase their time. The
time spent from start to 5 and 10 m was measured by photoelectric cells (Brower Timing System, Salt Lake
City, 174 UT, USA; accuracy of 0.01s) and considered for analysis. Each subject performed 3 attempts, and
only the best one was considered.
Statistics
Means and SDs were calculated using standard statistical methods. A 3 (combined, pliometric and
control groups) X 2 (pre-training and post-training) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was
carried out with group and performance as factors (between and within factors, respectively). When the
ANOVA revealed significant effects or interactions between factors, a NewmanKeuls post-hoc test was
applied to test the discrimination between means. For each test, the significance level was set to p< 0.05. Results
are presented in the text as mean SD and in tables and figures as mean SE.

III.

Results

Torque
The analysis didnt show any significant difference in baseline values of torque between groups.
However, a significant increase in moment of force from 296.6 74.07 to 339.87 78.9 N.m (p< 0.001) in
combined group was observed without any changes neither in pliometric nor in control group (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Evolution of isometric peak torque (N.m.s-1) of KE muscles between pre (white bars) and posttraining (black bars) for combined (COMB), pliometric (PLIO) and control (CONT) groups. All values are
expressed as means SE. ***: p< 0.001.
Rate of Force Development (RFD)
The ANOVA test didnt show any significant differences of baseline values of RFD between groups for
all intervals from 0-10 to 0-250 ms. However, a significant interaction effect group x training was observed.
Further post-hoc test showed an improved post-training RFD in the earlier time intervals at 0-10 ms (from
1421.1 216.6 to 2166 266.6; p< 0.001), 0-20 ms (from 2506.3 382.9 to 3348.9 302.2; p< 0.001), 0-30 ms
(from 3423.3 505.4 to 4148.2 281.8; p< 0.001), 0-50 ms (from 3776 404 to 4534.7 249.7; p< 0.01) and
0-100 ms (from 3735 302.1 to 4312 200.1; p< 0.05) in combined group and at 0-50 ms (from 3001.6 373.8
to 3880.7 351.1; p< 0.05), 0-100 ms (from 3219.5 214 to 3715.1 257.5; p< 0.05) in pliometric group.
There was a more pronounced increase in RFD in the combined group in comparison with pliometric group
mainly in the earlier intervals. None significant changes were revealed in control group (Figure 2).

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Effects of In-Season Combined Training on Running, Jumping, Agility and Rate of Force

Figure 2. Contractile Rate of Force Development (RFD) at different intervals from 0-10 ms to 0-250 ms
between pre-training (dotted square) and post-training (open circles) for combined (COMB), pliometric (PLIO)
and control (CONT) groups. ***: p< 0.001; **: p< 0.01; *: p< 0.05.
Sprint times
The ANOVA test didnt show any significant differences of baseline values of sprint performances at 5,
10 and 20 m between groups. Nevertheless, a significant group x training interaction was observed in sprint time
at 5 m. Post-Hoc test (Newman-keuls) showed a significant decrease of 5-m sprint time only in the combined
group (from 1.06 0.07 to 1.01 0.06 sec; p< 0.001) without any significant change for the two others groups
(Figure 3). However, no significant differences observed between pre and post values of both 10 and 20 m for
all groups.

Figure 3. Evolution of 5 m time performance between pre (white bars) and post-training (black bars) for
combined (COMB), pliometric (PLIO) and control (CONT) groups. ***: p < 0.001.
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Effects of In-Season Combined Training on Running, Jumping, Agility and Rate of Force
Vertical jump performances
No significant effects between groups in baseline for all tests. Group x training interaction effect was
found for squat jump [F (2, 28) = 7.57; p= 0.002]; CMJ [F (2, 28) = 13.24; p< 0.001] and DJ height [F (2, 28) =
3.58; p= 0.041]. Nevertheless, no significant interaction effect group x training for DJ contact time was found.
Further, post-hoc test showed a significant increase in SJ performance in both combined (from 29.54 3.80 to
34.67 4.12 cm; p< 0.001) and pliometric groups (from 29.49 5.44 to 32.86 5.53; p< 0.01) with more
pronounced improvement in combined group whereas no significant change for control group. Post-hoc test
showed an improved CMJ height (p< 0.05) in both combined group (from 35.26 4.06 to 39.54 4.66, p<
0.001) and pliometric group (from 35.23 6.39 to 38.30 6.12, p< 0.01) but with a greater extend in the first
group. No significant change was shown in control group (Figure 4). Post-hoc test revealed a significantly
increased height of DJ in both combined and pliometric groups with more pronounced improvement in
combined group. Unchanged values were verified in control group between pre and post training tests. The
height of DJ was significantly increased for both combined (from 27.55 4.4 to 31.18 3.80 cm; p< 0.05) and
pliometric groups (From 24.79 5.95 to 28.79 5.51 cm; p< 0.05).

Figure 4. Evolution of jump performance (SJ: Squat Jump on the left of figure and CMJ: Cunter Movement
Jump on the right of figure) between pre (white bars) and post-training (black bars) for combined (COMB),
pliometric (PLIO) and control (CONT) groups. ***: p< 0.001; **: p< 0.01.
Agility performance
No significant differences were found in terms of agility performance after the training period and for
all groups.

IV.

Discussion

The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of two types of training on fields and
laboratory tests expressing explosivity performance in pubertal soccer players. The main finding was the better
effectiveness of combined training in comparison with pliometric/sprint or conventional soccer training in
improvement of explosivity quality in pubertal soccer players.
Our results showed unchanged strength capacities of pliometric group after training program. Among
the studies that have examined the influence of pliometric training on performance of pre-adolescents childrens
aged from 5 to 14 years (e.g 16, 17, 18, 29, 32, 38, 47, 48), only two studies have measured strength outcomes
(19, 29) and have showed significant improvements. Our findings were not in line with these results. However,
the informations resulting from these two studies should be made with caution since the first study (18) has
recruited inactive participants and this implies that the least physical activity could influence their muscle force.
As for the second study (29), the authors were introduced some resistive exercises to the pliometric training and
this could be at the origin of this force improvement demonstrated in this study. Thus, we can speculate for a
better efficiency of combined training adding strength to pliometric training on the amount and quality of force
production. In fact, the more effectiveness of combined vs. only pliometric training in force enhancement has
been already found by previous study (21) but our study is the first to compare these two different training forms
on IMVC and RFD during isometric contractions in pubertal soccer players. The effects of combined resistance
and pliometric training have been previously assessed on female volleyball players demonstrating an increased
RFD at both early and late RFD (11). Nevertheless, this training method seems to be ineffective to enhance
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Effects of In-Season Combined Training on Running, Jumping, Agility and Rate of Force
maximal and explosive force production in adults soccer players (21). Conversely, our results showed a better
improvement of only early RFD (< 100 ms) in combined group in comparison with pliometric group without
any significant differences at late RFD (> 100 ms) for all groups. In the literature, it was currently admitted that
RFD in different time epochs from contraction onset is influenced by different physiological parameters. While
the early phase is influenced by intrinsic muscle contractile properties (4) and neural drive (25), the late phase is
influenced by muscle cross-sectional area (49), neural drive (1) and stiffness of tendon-aponeurosis complex (9).
Thats implies that our experimental training is more effective than simple pliometric training in explosive force
muscle capacity and that was showed by the significant better improvement of early RFD in combined group.
Besides, we chose a light-load resistance training (ranged from 40% to 60% of 1RM) for a combined group
although the high-load one was known more effective for force increase (31). In fact, while increased MVC
positively influenced the early phases of RFD as an indicator of explosivity, the high-load resistance training has
been revealed accompanied by a decreased type-IIX muscle fibers, a decreased early relative RFD and an
increased late phases RFD (4). That means that to improve explosive muscle strength or power, it is
recommended to avoid a heavy-load of resistance training. Thats why, our resistance training has proposed low
intensities ranged from 40% to 60% RM and that have already demonstrated more effective to power
improvement through a better increase in jumping and running performance when compared to heavy-load
resistance training (31, 37).
We also instructed subjects in combined group to maximally accelerate each repetition during the
concentric phase because this method has been shown in previous study effective (15) mainly when combined
with lighter resistance training loads (40-60% 1RM) in improvement of peak power and peak velocity in the
lower-body leg and hip extensors (31). Moreover, our pliometric/sprint training showed an increase of jump
performance. The effect of such combination of sprint and jump training has been recently assessed on jumping
and has been revealed effective (36). Our results are therefore in coherence with literature. Nevertheless, we
showed a greater improvement of jumping performance in combined group. Such finding confirms the scientific
evidence suggesting that the best way to improve jump performance is through the combination of strength and
pliometric training (42). To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has been attempted to compare
combined vs. pliometric/sprint training on jumping performance in young soccer players.
In addition, the pliometric group didnt improve their sprint time for all distances at 5, 10 and 20 m.
The effectiveness of this training method on acceleration performance always made object of a great debate
within the scientific community. While some studies have been demonstrated a decrease sprint time and then an
improved speed capacities in pre-pubertal to adolescents soccer players (16, 32, 37, 38), others have not (17, 29,
50). These discrepancies might be due to the differences of exercise types proposed in pliometric training. The
results obtained in our study are consistent with those of Thomas et al. (50) and that found no improvement in
any sprint distances from 5 to 20 m in youth soccer players although increases jump performance. The authors
have explained their findings by the fact that the reduced ground contact times at the origin of improved vertical
jump performance in CMJ and DJ were not short enough to elicit an increased ability to generate explosive
ground-reaction forces during sprinting.
Nevertheless, a marked improvement only in the initial phase of velocity running was found following
combined training in our study. These results were consistent with those obtained in RFD demonstrating an
improvement only at early phase of rising muscle force. A recent study has been found an enhanced sprint
performance over 5, 10, 20 following combined isometric strength and pliometric training but at the same
extend than control group performing only conventional soccer training (43). Conversely, our pliometric and
control group didnt reduce their sprint times for all distances and this is reflected by unchanged values of RFD
in the earlier and later phase.
As for results concerning agility, none group revealed any changes of agility performance. Our findings
are in disagreement with previous studies showing improvement of agility performance assessed with the same
test in response to pliometric (34, 36, 38, 48) or combined training (23, 35, 41) in young soccer players.
However, some previous studies have also demonstrated unchanged agility performance although significant
improvement of sprinting (35, 51). They argued these opposite results by the fact that the performance in
movements that demand agility is more dependent from motor control factors than from maximum strength or
muscular power. Moreover, Alves et al. (35) thought that their training didnt proposed any additional exercise
in which athletes had to perform changes in direction, breakings, and starts-movements, as demanded in the
agility 505 Agility Test. That was the case for our training programs what explains the similar results obtained
in our study.

V.

Conclusion

The results of the present study showed that 7-week in season combined resistance and
pliometric/sprint training is more effective than only pliometric/sprint or habitual soccer training alone in
improvement of strength, earlier phase of rising muscle force, jumping and running performance in youth
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Effects of In-Season Combined Training on Running, Jumping, Agility and Rate of Force
competitive soccer players. Therefore, soccer and fitness coaches could apply easily this form training but
should combined it with regular soccer training to benefit of its gains and transferred them into specific activity
in order to increase the performance of their soccer players in explosive actions. As there is currently some
evidence of large benefits of combined resistance training on explosive performance in both adults and young
soccer players, it would be interesting to compare differences between adaptations-related to combined
resistance and pliometric/sprint training in pubertal and adults soccer players.
Conflict of interest
No funding was received for this research project. The authors of this article do not have any conflict of
interest.

Acknowledgements
We would like to think all participating players and coaches for their excellent compliance.

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