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The Greeks also relied on prostheta or pessos, which were very similar to the

Egyptian pessaries. They were made from linen, sponge, or wool and rolled into
a finger-like shape and coated with various drugs that could induce an abortion.
They were wound up with a thin thread that could be easily pulled out. Others
were in the shape of a small egg, nipple, or a tiny pencil or acorn. Greek
physician Hippocrates recommended the use of a sort of pumpkin pessary
which he described as they the inside of a pumpkin well crushed in cedar resin,
wrapped into a cloth leaving its end bare, then inserted as deep as possible,
after it is stained with blood, it is pulled out. (Bujalkova).

The Romans: 1st Century A.D.

WIld Carrot Roman physicians such as Galen listed about 12 plants that acted
as effective contraceptives, including Queen Annes Lace, juniper, and
Some Roman scholars such as Pliny recommended that women wear an
amulet made of the insides of hairy spiders wrapped in deerskin or mouse dung
applied in the form of a liniment. Other physicians, such as Dioscorides (c. 40
80) and Galen (129199), listed about a dozen plants that acted as effective
oral contraceptives. These included asafetida, juniper, pennyroyal, squirting
cucumber, and Queen Annes lace (wild carrot) (James and Thorpe).

These early forms of herbal birth control were effective; however, they did prove
to have dangerous side effects, which is why physicians like Soranus returned
to the traditions of Aristotle and ancient Egypt in his text Gynaecology, where he
favored the use of vaginal plugs of wool or smearing the orifice of the uterus all
over with old olive oil, honey, cedar resin, or the juice of the balsam tree, alone
or together with white lead; or with an anointment containing myrtle oil and
white lead (ibid).

Eastern Roman Empire: 6th Century

With the fall of the Roman Empire and the rise of Christianity and the Roman
Catholic Church, the history of birth control becomes harder to follow in Europe
because of, especially, its prohibition by the church. In the Eastern Roman

Empire, 6th-century Byzantine court physician Atio of Amida adapted from

Soranus the use of astringent, fatty, or cooling ointments to close the womb and
prevent sperm from entering. He also is on record as counseling men to wash
their genitals with vinegar or brine before intercourseand vinegar, with its high
level of acidity, has proven to be a very effective spermicide. However, he was
also highly influenced by church teachings and particularly recommended the
rhythm method, having intercourse during a safe period at the beginning or
end of menstruation (ibid).

The Islamic World 10th Century A.D.

Avicenna Canon Muslim physician Avicenna included 20 different birth control

methods in his Canon of Medicine
The Islamic world was also not affected by the Christian condemnation of birth
control practices or methods, and Arabic medical writers drew on Indian, Greek,
and Roman knowledge of the subject. In the 1st century, Avicenna included in
his Canon of Medicine 20 different contraceptive methods along with his
commentary on their effectiveness. He advised coating the penis with white
lead or pitch and putting the pulp of a pomegranate mixed with alum into the
vagina. He also recommended vaginal suppositories made of willow leaves or
colocynth pulp, mandrake, iron dross, sulfur, scammony, and cabbage seed. He
also believed that inserting pepper into the coitus prevented conception.

Avicennas text was the main source of medical information relied on by the
Western world until well into the 19th century, and Norbert Himes, the pioneer
historian of contraception noted as late as 1936 that Avicenna was as well
advanced as many modern physicians in understanding that traditional
contraceptives could actually be effective (ibid).

Spain: 13th Century

On September 13, 1276, a man named Peter of Spain was elected pope and
assumed his new name, John XXI. Born in Lisbon, Portugal, he studied at the
University of Paris and went on to teach medicine at the University of Siena in
Italy. Before he became pope, he wrote a medical treatise called Thesaurus
pauperum (Treasury of the Poor) in the 1270s while serving as physician to

Pope Gregory X. This text may be the greatest single source of information
about the practical methods of birth control that exists from the Middle Ages.

He first advocates sexual restraint, He advise men to place a hemlock plaster

on the testicles before coitus, which was supposed to decrease desire. He also
provides a long list of herbs taken from ancient Latin sources he had read
about, and then he added his own list, including sage but not figs (Riddle 1997).

Europe and the Condom: 16th to 18th Centuries

The condom, one of the best known and still most popular contraceptive
devices used by men today, was named after Dr. Condom, a court physician for
King Charles II of England (Riddle 1992). The earliest known medical
description of a male condom is by the Italian anatomist Gabriel Fallopius in
1564. He was an early authority on syphilis and recommended that a linen
sheath covering the penis could be used specifically as an anti-venereal
disease precaution (Gordon). This linen sheath was soaked in a chemical
solution and then allowed to dry before being used. It was big enough to cover
the glans of the penis and was held in place with a ribbon (Collier).

Casanova Testing Condoms Giovanni Giacomo Casanova was one of the more
famous early users of condoms in the 18th century, and he had various names
for them, including English Riding Cap Other early types of condoms were
made out of dried animal skins that were sewn together. One of the more
famous users of animal skin condoms was Giovanni Giacomo Casanova
(17251798). According to his memoir, Casanova lists 116 lovers by name but
leaves nameless hundreds more women and girls he had sex with, ranging from
ages 9 to 70 and from every social status from chambermaids to noblewomen.
He claimed to use a half a lemon as a penis cap, and he admitted to using
condoms and had a variety of names for them, including English riding coat.
He reportedly liked to blow them up to test them to make sure they would not
leak and he compared his use of animal skin condoms to shutting himself up in
a piece of dead skin (Bullough).

The condom was revolutionized when Charles Goodyear and Thomas Hancock
invented the process to vulcanize rubber in 1833 1834. The earliest rubber
condoms had a seam and were about as thick as a bicycle inner tube (Collier).

However, these types of condoms covered only the glans of the penis and could
be easily lost or were too tight, constricting the penis.

In 1912, inventor Julius Fromm invented a new process for making condoms by
dipping glass molds into a raw rubber solution. This process was called cement
dipping and required the addition of benzene or gasoline to make the plastic
liquid (ibid). Then, latex was invented in 1920 and condoms made from this
material were finer and thinner and much cheaper to produce. Most condoms
are still made out of latex today.

Margaret Sanger: 1916 to 1960s

Comstock Law Symbol Birth control was technically illegal in the early 20th
century, so some women had to turn to the black market for womens
protection devices, or even turn to using Lysol as a vaginal douche
At the end of the 18th century in the United States, various birth control
methods and devicesincluding condoms, douching syringes and solutions,
vaginal sponges, diaphragms, and cervical spongescould be purchased
openly from mail-order houses and pharmacies. In 1873, the U.S. government
passed a broad anti-obscenity bill called the Comstock Law which was meant to
outlaw obscenity in general but also criminalized the use and sale of any and all
birth control devices.

Because of this law, birth control had to be purchased on the black market.
Some birth control devices had to be relabeled and sold as womens protection
devices, and some women even turned to using the popular household
disinfectant Lysol as a vaginal douche to prevent conception, which remained
popular throughout the 1920s and 1930s (Tone). It was into this climate that
Margaret Sanger arrived in the early 20th century. Her passion was providing
universal birth control.

Perhaps no person has had a greater impact on birth control in the United
States than Sanger, the founder of Planned Parenthood. She coined the term
birth control in an essay she wrote for Women Rebel in 1914 (Zorea). A
visiting nurse in the poorest sections of New York City in the early decades of
the 20th century, Sanger opened the first makeshift birth control clinic in a
tenement storefront in the Brownsville neighborhood of Brooklyn, NY, with her

sister Ethel (Chesler). She and her sister instructed eight women at a time on
how to use over-the-counter birth control, including condoms, suppositories,
and rubber pessaries. She was arrested in 1917 for illegally distributing Mizpah
pessaries, which were flexible, thimble-sized cervical caps made of ridged
rubber and reportedly Sangers favorite (Tone).

Planned Parenthood Founder Activist and nurse Margaret Sangster made the
term birth control a household word Sanger spent the next 50 years dedicating
herself to the proposition that access to a safe and reliable means of preventing
pregnancy was a necessary condition of womens liberation and, in turn, human
progress. She founded Planned Parenthood and spearheaded the
contraception movement of the 1920s and 1930s and made birth control a
household word. She lived to see the 1965 ruling of the Supreme Court in
Griswold vs. Connecticut, which guaranteed constitutional protection to the
private use of contraceptives.

She died on September 6, 1966, just before family planning became

incorporated into federal public health and welfare programs. While Margaret
Sangers name may no longer be as well known, she played an undeniable role
in how women are able to access birth control (Chesler).

The Pill: 1960s

The story of the birth control pill centers on two Harvard professors, Drs.
Gregory Pincus and John Rock. Pincus was a gynecologist practicing at
Harvard Medical School in the 1950s. In the 1930s, he was already
experimenting with in-vitro fertilization and did not hesitate to brag about his
research to the media. He was denied tenure and later fired by Harvard.

Pincus was then approached by Margaret Sanger and her colleagueChicago

socialite, MIT graduate, and fellow activistKatherine McCormick. Sanger
explained that she was looking for someone to invent an inexpensive, easy-touse, and completely foolproof method of contraception, preferably a pill. Pincus
agreed to try (Eig).

His colleague, gynecologist Dr. John Rock, was a devout Catholic who,
nevertheless, believed that the birth control pill was a natural way to prevent
pregnancies. He taught obstetrics at Harvard Medical School for more than 30
years and was a pioneer in in-vitro fertilization and the freezing of sperm cells.
He was also the first scientist to extract an intact fertilized egg from a human
female (Gladwell).

The Pill The birth control pill revolutionized contraception in the 1950s, and
today, four out of every five sexually experienced women have used the pill at
some point The birth control pill was the crowning achievement to Pincus and
Rocks careers. While Pincus and another colleague, Min-Chueh Chang,
worked on the mechanism of the pill, Rock used his name to shepherd it
through the scientific trials and bring it before the FDA. He believed it was a
natural form of birth control, in that it worked by natural means to suppress
ovulation. He argued that the birth control pill mimicked Progestin, the hormone
that pregnant women produce to prevent ovulation. The birth control pill was
simply Progestin in tablet form. It was instantly recognizable by its packaging, a
small, round, plastic dial pack that was the physical embodiment of the 28-day
cycle (ibid).

The pill (as it would simply come to be known) would prove to be one of the
greatest inventions of the 20th century. Women from around the world flocked to
their doctors offices for prescriptions. For the first time, women were taking a
medicine that was unrelated to prevention or illness. The Catholic Church
condemned it as immoral, and several African-American leaders denounced it
as technology of genocide (ibid).

Approved by the Food and Drug Administration for contraception in May 1960,
the pill revolutionized contraception. It was illegal for unmarried women to use
the pill in any state until Eisenstadt v. Baird in 1972. Nonetheless, by 1965, it
had become the most popular form of birth control in the country, used by more
than 6.5 million married women and an untold number of unmarried women

The IUD: 1970s to the Present

By the 1960s, evidence was mounting that the birth control pill was not going to
be the miracle solution that women had hoped for. It was proving to be just too
expensive, required ongoing medical monitoring, and was causing problems
from migraines to nausea to the threat of stroke.

The Intrauterine Device (IUD) was cheaper and did not mess with female
biochemistry like the pill. Plus, it was one-stop birth control. Once it was
inserted, a woman never needed to worry about conception again. It seemed
like a godsend because it was cheaper than the pill and women didnt need to
remember to swallow a pill every day. Once implanted, an IUD was also almost
impossible to remove and rarely, if ever, came out on its own.

Women in Europe and Japan had been using IUDs for birth control as early as
the 1930s. The first commercially manufactured modelcalled the Grfenberg
ring, after its inventor German gynecologist Ernst Grfenbergwas invented in
the 1920s and was made of silkworm gut shaped with silver wire into a ring
(ibid). It was very effective in its clinical trials, but due to its size and rigidity, it
was extremely painful to have inserted without anesthesia. It also caused
complications such as pelvic inflammatory disease and it worsened conditions
such as endometriosis.

American gynecologists were hesitant to recommend the use of IUDs well into
the 1950s. In the 1920s, an obstetrician named J. Whitridge Williams at Johns
Hopkins School of Medicine even carried a watch with a gold intrauterine ring
attached that he had personally extracted from a placenta at term. Its visibility
on his chain was proof that the IUD did not work (ibid).

Plastic IUD Eighteen deaths and over 200,000 illnesses have been attributed to
the Dalkon Shield, the most infamous IUD, which was patented in 1971
However, in the 1950s, antibiotics were invented that cured pelvic inflammatory
disease, and American scientists began inventing IUDs made out of malleable
plastics that doctors could stretch into linear form before insertion but which
regained their shape once inside the uterus. They did not require anesthetics to
insert and were much cheaper to produce and, consequently, more affordable
for women.

Perhaps the most infamous IUD was the Dalkon Shield, patented in 1971. It
contained a fishhook-like barb and a balloon-like vane, which pierced the
uterus. It did not require painkillers to insert, and the woman was supposedly
safe from pregnancy afterward. It was never mass produced, though, because it
made hundreds of women sick and allowed numerous pregnancies. Eighteen
women died as a result of use of the Dalkon Shield (ibid). Its failure sent
shockwaves through the birth control community and resulted in litigation and
negative press that changed the face of research and development among the
contraceptive community.

Modern Developments: 1980 to the Present

The past three decades have introduced an array of new birth control devices.
Norplant, which consists of six soft plastic capsules containing synthetic
progesterone that are implanted into the patients upper arm, is capable of
releasing hormones for five years. There is also the Depo-Provera shot, which
is injected into the womans arms or buttocks every three months. The female
sponge has made a return. And there are hormone-releasing patches, gels, and
vaginal rings; a new IUD; a one-size-fits all diaphragm; a silicone-rubber
cervical cap; and even male injections and implants (Fishel).

As of 2010, the National Center for Health Statistics reports that 99% of
sexually experienced women ages 1544 have used some form of
contraception at least once in their lives and it is now almost universally
accepted (Zorea). Birth control may seem to be a very modern topic, but it has
ancient roots. Perhaps the first method was coitus interruptus, but various
methodssome fascinating and some dangeroushave been used by all
civilizations through the course of history and are still being developed today to
provide the best means to prevent unwanted pregnancies.da Os gregos
tambm contou com prostheta ou pessos, que eram muito semelhantes aos
vulos egpcias. Eles foram feitos de linho, esponja ou l e enrolada em forma
de dedo-como e revestido com vrios medicamentos que podem induzir um
aborto. Eles foram encerradas com um fio fino que poderia facilmente ser
puxado para fora. Outros estavam na forma de uma pequena ovo, bocal, ou
uma pequena lpis ou bolota. Mdico grego Hipcrates recomendou o uso de
uma espcie de abbora pessrio que ele descreveu como eles "o interior de
uma abbora bem esmagados em resina de cedro, enrolado em um pano
deixando sua extremidade nua, em seguida, inserido o mais profundamente
possvel, depois de ser manchada com sangue, ele puxado para fora.

Europa e os Condom: 16 a 18 sculos

O preservativo, uma das mais conhecidas e ainda dispositivos contraceptivos

mais populares usados por homens de hoje, foi nomeado aps o Dr. Condom,
um mdico da corte para o rei Charles II de Inglaterra (Riddle 1992). A
descrio mdica mais antiga conhecida de um preservativo masculino pelo
anatomista italiano Gabriel Falpio em 1564. Ele era uma autoridade cedo
sobre sfilis e recomendou que uma bainha de roupa que cobre o pnis poderia
ser usado especificamente como uma precauo doena anti-venreo
(Gordon). Esta bainha de linho foi embebido numa soluo qumica e, em
seguida, deixou-se secar antes de ser utilizado. Era grande o suficiente para
cobrir a glande do pnis e foi mantido no lugar com uma fita (Collier).

Testes Casanova Preservativos Giovanni Giacomo Casanova foi um dos mais

famosos precoce usurios de preservativos no sculo 18, e ele tinha vrios
nomes para eles, incluindo "Ingls Equitao Cap" Outros tipos iniciais de
preservativos foram feitas de peles de animais secos que foram costuradas
junto. Um dos mais famosos usurios de preservativos de pele animal era
Giovanni Giacomo Casanova (1725-1798). De acordo com seu livro de
memrias, Casanova lista 116 amantes por nome, mas deixa centenas sem
nome mais mulheres e meninas que ele teve relaes sexuais com, que vo
desde as idades de 9 a 70 e de todas as classes sociais a partir de camareiras
para mulheres nobres. Ele afirmou que usar um meio limo como uma tampa
de pnis, e ele admitiu o uso de preservativos e tinha uma variedade de nomes
para elas, incluindo "casaco de equitao Ingls." Ele teria gostado de explodilos para test-los para se certificar de que seria no vazar e ele comparou o
uso de preservativos de pele de animais para "fechando-se em um pedao de
pele morta" (Bullough).

O preservativo foi revolucionada quando Charles Goodyear e Thomas Hancock

inventou o processo de vulcanizao de borracha em 1833-1834. Os primeiros
preservativos de borracha tinha uma costura e foram sobre to grosso quanto
um tubo interior de bicicleta (Collier). No entanto, estes tipos de preservativos
coberto apenas glande do pnis e pode ser facilmente perdido ou eram
demasiado apertado, comprimindo o pnis.

Em 1912, Julius Fromm inventor inventou um novo processo para a fabricao

de preservativos por imerso moldes de vidro em uma soluo de borracha em
bruto. Este processo foi chamado de "imerso cimento" e necessria a adio
de benzeno ou gasolina para tornar o lquido plstico (ibid). Em seguida, o ltex
foi inventado em 1920 e preservativos feitos com esse material foram mais fino
e mais fino e muito mais barato para produzir. A maioria dos preservativos
ainda so feitas de ltex hoje.

Margaret Sanger: 1916 a 1960

O controle da natalidade Comstock Lei Smbolo era tecnicamente ilegal no

incio do sculo 20, por isso algumas mulheres tiveram de recorrer ao mercado
negro de "dispositivos de proteco das mulheres", ou at mesmo virar a usar
Lysol como uma ducha vaginal
No final do sculo 18 nos Estados Unidos, vrios mtodos de controle de
natalidade e dispositivos-incluindo preservativos, seringas douching e solues,
esponjas vaginais, diafragmas, cervical e esponjas-poderia ser comprado
abertamente de casas de venda por correspondncia e farmcias. Em 1873, o
governo dos EUA aprovou uma lei anti-obscenidade ampla chamada Lei
Comstock, que pretendia proibir a obscenidade em geral, mas tambm
criminalizou a utilizao e venda de qualquer e todos os dispositivos de
controle de natalidade.

Devido a esta lei, o controle de natalidade tiveram que ser comprados no

mercado negro. Alguns dispositivos de controle de natalidade tiveram que ser
remarcado e vendidos como "dispositivos de proteco das mulheres", e
algumas mulheres ainda se virou para usando o popular, desinfetante
domstico Lysol como uma ducha vaginal para evitar a concepo, que
permaneceu popular ao longo dos anos 1920 e 1930 (tom). Foi nesse clima
que Margaret Sanger chegou no incio do sculo 20. Sua paixo estava
fornecendo controle de natalidade universal.

Talvez nenhuma pessoa teve um impacto maior sobre o controle de natalidade

nos Estados Unidos do que Sanger, fundadora da Planned Parenthood. Ela
cunhou o termo "controle de natalidade" em um ensaio que escreveu para
Mulheres Rebel em 1914 (Zorea). A enfermeira de visita nas camadas mais
pobres da cidade de Nova York nas primeiras dcadas do sculo 20, Sanger
abriu a primeira clnica de controle de natalidade improvisado em uma loja

cortio no bairro de Brownsville de Brooklyn, NY, com sua irm Ethel (Chesler).
Ela e sua irm instrudo oito mulheres em um momento em como usar overthe-counter controle de natalidade, incluindo preservativos, supositrios e
pessrios de borracha. Ela foi presa em 1917 por distribuir ilegalmente
pessrios Mizpah, que eram flexveis, tampas de porte dedal cervicais feitas de
borracha de papelo ondulado e, segundo informaes favoritos de Sanger

Planned Ativista Parenthood Fundador e enfermeira Margaret Sangster feito o

termo "controle de natalidade" uma palavra de casa Sanger passou os
prximos 50 anos dedicando-se proposio de que o acesso a um meio
seguro e confivel de evitar a gravidez foi uma condio necessria para a
libertao das mulheres e, em por sua vez, o progresso humano. Ela fundou a
Planned Parenthood e liderou o movimento contracepo de 1920 e 1930 e fez
"controle de natalidade" uma palavra de casa. Ela viveu para ver a 1,965
deciso do Supremo Tribunal em Griswold vs. Connecticut, que garantiu
proteo constitucional ao uso privado de contraceptivos.

Ela morreu em 6 de setembro de 1966, pouco antes de planejamento familiar

passou a ser incorporada nos programas de sade pblica e bem-estar
federais. Enquanto o nome de Margaret Sanger j no pode ser to conhecido,
ela desempenhou um papel inegvel na forma como as mulheres so capazes
de acessar o controle da natalidade (Chesler).

A plula: 1960

A histria da plula anticoncepcional gira em torno de dois professores de

Harvard, Drs. Gregory Pincus e John Rock. Pincus era ginecologista praticando
na Harvard Medical School em 1950. Na dcada de 1930, ele j estava
experimentando com a fertilizao in vitro e no hesitou em se vangloriar sobre
sua pesquisa para a mdia. Ele foi negada a posse e, posteriormente, demitido
por Harvard.

Pincus foi ento abordado por Margaret Sanger e seu colega socialite-Chicago,
MIT ps-graduao, e companheiro ativista de Katherine McCormick. Sanger
explicou que estava procurando algum para inventar um mtodo barato, fcil

de usar, e completamente prova de falhas da contracepo, de preferncia

um comprimido. Pincus concordou em tentar (EIG).

Seu colega, ginecologista Dr. John Rock, era um catlico devoto que, no
entanto, acredita que a plula anticoncepcional foi um caminho natural para
evitar a gravidez. Ele ensinou obstetrcia na Harvard Medical School para mais
de 30 anos e foi um dos pioneiros na fertilizao in-vitro eo congelamento de
espermatozides. Ele tambm foi o primeiro cientista a extrair um vulo
fertilizado intacto de uma fmea humana (Gladwell).

A plula A plula anticoncepcional revolucionou a contracepo em 1950, e hoje,

quatro em cada cinco mulheres sexualmente experientes usaram a plula em
algum momento a plula anticoncepcional foi o coroamento de Pincus 'e
carreiras balanam. Enquanto Pincus e outro colega, Min-Chueh Chang,
trabalhou no mecanismo da plula, Rocha usou seu nome para pastorear-lo
atravs dos ensaios cientficos e traz-lo antes do FDA. Ele acreditava que era
uma forma natural de controle de natalidade, em que ele trabalhou por meios
naturais para suprimir a ovulao. Ele argumentou que a plula
anticoncepcional imitou Progestin, o hormnio que as mulheres grvidas
produzir para impedir a ovulao. A plula anticoncepcional foi simplesmente
Progestin em forma de comprimido. Foi imediatamente reconhecvel pela sua
embalagem, um pequeno, redondo, pacote de marcao de plstico que era a
personificao fsica do ciclo de 28 dias (ibid).

A plula (como seria simplesmente veio a ser conhecido) viria a ser uma das
maiores invenes do sculo 20. Mulheres de todo o mundo reuniram-se para
os escritrios do mdico para prescrio. Pela primeira vez, as mulheres
estavam a tomar um medicamento que no estava relacionado com a
preveno ou doena. A Igreja Catlica condenou-o como imoral, e vrios
lderes afro-americanos denunciaram como "tecnologia de genocdio" (ibid).

Aprovado pela Food and Drug Administration para contracepo em maio de

1960, a plula revolucionou a contracepo. Era ilegal para as mulheres
solteiras de usar a plula em qualquer estado at Eisenstadt v. Baird, em 1972.
No entanto, em 1965, tornou-se a forma mais popular de controle de natalidade
no pas, usada por mais de 6,5 milhes de mulheres casadas e uma nmero
incontvel de mulheres solteiras (tom).

O DIU: 1970 to the Present

Na dcada de 1960, evidncias crescentes de que foi a plula anticoncepcional

no ia ser a soluo milagrosa que as mulheres esperavam. Ele estava
provando ser muito caro, necessrio acompanhamento mdico contnuo, e
estava causando problemas de enxaqueca, a nuseas e a ameaa de acidente
vascular cerebral.

O dispositivo intra-uterino (DIU) era mais barato e no mexer com a bioqumica

do sexo feminino como a plula. Alm disso, era o controle da natalidade onestop. Uma vez que foi inserido, uma mulher nunca precisou se preocupar com
a concepo de novo. Parecia uma ddiva de Deus porque era mais barato do
que a plula e as mulheres no precisam se lembrar de engolir uma plula todos
os dias. Uma vez implantado, o DIU tambm era quase impossvel de remover
e raramente, ou nunca, saiu por conta prpria.

As mulheres na Europa e no Japo estava usando DIU para controle de

natalidade to cedo quanto a 1930. O primeiro-modelo chamado fabricado
comercialmente o anel de Grfenberg, aps a sua inventor ginecologista
alemo Ernst Grfenberg-foi inventado na dcada de 1920 e foi feita de
intestino em forma de bicho da seda e fio de prata em um anel (ibid). Era muito
eficaz nos seus ensaios clnicos, mas devido ao seu tamanho e rigidez, era
extremamente doloroso ter inserido sem anestesia. tambm causou
complicaes, tais como doena inflamatria plvica, agravando-se condies,
tais como a endometriose.

Ginecologistas americanos estavam hesitantes para recomendar o uso de DIU

bem na dcada de 1950. Na dcada de 1920, um obstetra chamado J.
Whitridge Williams na Universidade Johns Hopkins School of Medicine ainda
carregava um relgio com um anel intra-uterino ouro anexado que ele tinha
pessoalmente extrado de uma "placenta a termo." Sua visibilidade em sua
cadeia era a prova de que o DIU no funcionou (ibid).

DIU de plstico Dezoito mortes e mais de 200.000 doenas tm sido atribudas

ao Escudo Dalkon, o DIU mais infame, que foi patenteado em 1971 No entanto,
na dcada de 1950, os antibiticos foram inventados que curou a doena
inflamatria plvica, e os cientistas americanos comearam a inventar DIU feito

de plsticos maleveis que os mdicos poderiam se estendem em forma linear

antes da insero, mas que recuperaram a sua forma, uma vez dentro do
tero. Eles no requerem anestsicos para inserir e foram muito mais barato
produzir e, consequentemente, mais acessvel para as mulheres.

Talvez o DIU mais infame foi o protetor Dalkon, patenteado em 1971. Ele
continha uma farpa anzol-like e um cata-vento em forma de balo, que perfurou
o tero. Ele no exigia analgsicos para inserir, ea mulher era supostamente
segura da gravidez depois. Ele nunca foi produzido em massa, embora, porque
ele fez centenas de mulheres doentes e permitiu inmeras gestaes. Dezoito
mulheres morreram como resultado do uso do protetor Dalkon (ibid). Seu
fracasso enviou ondas de choque atravs da comunidade de controle de
natalidade e resultou em litgio e imprensa negativa que mudou a face da
investigao e desenvolvimento entre a comunidade contraceptivo.

Desenvolvimentos modernos: 1980 at o presente

As ltimas trs dcadas tm introduzido uma srie de novos dispositivos de

controle de natalidade. Norplant, que consiste de seis cpsulas de plstico
mole contendo progesterona sinttica que so implantadas no brao do
paciente, capaz de libertar hormonas durante cinco anos. H tambm a tiro
Depo-Provera, que injetado nos braos da mulher ou ndegas a cada trs
meses. A esponja fmea tem feito um retorno. E existem manchas libertao da
hormona de, gis, e os anis vaginais; um novo DIU; um one-size-fits all
diafragma; um silicone de borracha da tampa do colo do tero; e mesmo
injeces macho e implantes (Fishel).

A partir de 2010, o Centro Nacional para Estatsticas de Sade relata que 99%
dos sexualmente experientes mulheres com idades entre 15-44 tm usado
alguma forma de contracepo pelo menos uma vez em suas vidas e agora
quase universalmente aceite (Zorea). O controle da natalidade pode parecer
ser um tema muito moderno, mas tem razes antigas. Talvez o primeiro mtodo
era o coito interrompido, mas vrios mtodos, alguns fascinante e alguns
perigoso-tm sido utilizados por todas as civilizaes atravs do curso da
histria e ainda esto sendo desenvolvidos hoje para fornecer o melhor meio
para evitar a indesejada pregnancies.da