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Manuel L.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the Philippine president. For other uses, see Quezon (disambiguation).
This article has an unclear citation style. The references used may be made clearer with a
different or consistent style of citation, footnoting, or external linking. (July 2013)
This name uses Spanish naming customs: the first or paternal family name is Quezon and the
second or maternal family name is Molina.

Manuel L. Quezon

2nd President of the Philippines

1st President of the Commonwealth

In office
November 15, 1935 August 1, 1944

Vice President

Sergio Osmea

Preceded by

Abolished (Last title held byEmilio Aguinaldo)

Succeeded by

Jos P. Laurel (de facto)

1st President of the Senate of the Philippines

In office
August 29, 1916 November 15, 1935

Preceded by

Position established

Succeeded by

Manuel Roxas

Senator of the Philippines from the 5th Senatorial District

In office
October 16, 1916 November 15, 1935
Served with:
Vicente Ilustre (19161919)
Antero Soriano (19191925)
Jos P. Laurel (19251931)
Claro M. Recto (19311935)

Preceded by

Position established

Succeeded by

Position abolished

Secretary of National Defense

In office
July 16, 1941 December 10, 1941



Preceded by

Teofilo Sison

Succeeded by

Jorge B. Vargas

Resident Commissioner to the U.S. House of Representatives from

the Philippine Islands

In office
November 23, 1909 October 15, 1916
Serving with Benito Legarda

and Manuel Earnshaw


Preceded by

Pablo Ocampo

Succeeded by

Teodoro R. Yangco

Majority Leader of the Philippine House of Representatives

In office
October 16, 1907 November 23, 1909

Preceded by

Position Established

Succeeded by

Alberto Barreto
As Majority Leader of thePhilippine Assembly

Member of the Philippine Assembly fromTayabas' 1st District

In office
October 16, 1907 October 16, 1916

Preceded by

Position Established

Succeeded by

Filemon Perez

Governor of Tayabas

In office


Personal details


Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina

August 19, 1878
Baler, El Principe, Captaincy General of the
(now Baler, Aurora, Philippines)


August 1, 1944 (aged 65)

Saranac Lake, New York,United States

Resting place

Quezon Memorial Circle,Quezon City,




Political party

Nacionalista Party

Other political

Democratic Party



Aurora Aragn


Manuel L. Quezon III(grandson)


Ma. Aurora Quezon

Maria Zeneida Quezon-Avancea
Manuel L. Quezon, Jr.
Luisa Corazon Paz Quezon

Alma mater

Colegio de San Juan de Letran

University of Santo Tomas


Lawyer, Soldier, Politician


Roman Catholicism


Military service




Philippine Revolutionary Army

Philippine Commonwealth Army

Years of service




Major (18991900)

PhilippineAmerican War
World War II
* Philippines Campaign (19411942)
* Japanese Occupation of the Philippines (19421945)

Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (August 19, 1878 August 1, 1944) served as president of
the Commonwealth of the Philippines from 1935 to 1944. He was the first Filipino to head a
government of the Philippines (as opposed to other historical states), and is considered to have
been the second president of the Philippines, after Emilio Aguinaldo (18971901).
Quezon was the first Senate president elected to the presidency, the first president elected through a
national election and the first incumbent to secure re-election (for a partial second term, later
extended, due to amendments to the 1935 Constitution). He is known as the "Father of the National
During his presidency, Quezon tackled the problem of landless peasants in the countryside. Other
major decisions include reorganization of the islands' military defense, approval of recommendation
for government reorganization, promotion of settlement and development in Mindanao, dealing with
the foreign stranglehold on Philippine trade and commerce, proposals for land reform, and opposing
graft and corruption within the government. He established an exiled government in the U.S. with the
outbreak of the war and the threat of Japanese invasion.

It was during his exile in the U.S. that he died of tuberculosis at Saranac Lake, New York. He was
buried in the Arlington National Cemetery until the end of World War II, when his remains were
moved to Manila. His final resting place is theQuezon City Memorial Circle.
In 2015, the Board of The International Raoul Wallenberg Foundation approved a posthumously
bestowal of the Wallenberg Medal upon President Quezon and to the people of the Philippines for
having reached-out, between 1937 and 1941, to the victims of the Holocaust. President Benigno
Aquino III, and Mara Zeneida Quezon Avancea, who is 94 years old and daughter of the former
President, were duly informed about this recognition.

1Early life careers

2Congressional career

2.1House of Representatives


3Personal life


4.1First term (19351941)

4.2Administration and cabinet

4.2.1Appointments 19351941

4.3Supreme Court appointments

4.3.1Government reorganization

4.3.2Social justice program


4.3.4Agrarian reform

4.3.5Educational reforms

4.3.6Women's suffrage

4.3.7National language

4.3.8Council of State

4.3.91938 midterm election

4.3.101939 plebiscite

4.3.11Third official language

4.3.121940 plebiscite

4.3.131941 presidential election

4.4Second term (19411944)

4.4.1War Cabinet 19411944

4.4.2Jewish refugees


4.4.4Talks of Post-war Philippines

4.4.5Quezon-Osmea Impasse


5Electoral history



8Portrayal in Media

9Recording of speech



12External links

Early life careers[edit]

Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina

Quezon, was born in Baler in the district of El Prncipe[1] (now Baler, Aurora). His parents were Lucio
Quezon (died 1898) and Mara Dolores Molina (June 7, 18401893), both of whom were SpanishMestizos. His father was a primary grade school teacher from Paco, Manila and a retired Sergeant
of the Spanish colonial army, while his mother was a primary grade school teacher in their
Although both his parents must have contributed to his education, he received most of his primary
education from the public school established by the Spanish government in his village, as part of the
establishment of the free public education system in the Philippines, as he himself testified during his
speech delivered in the House of Representatives of the United States during the discussion of
Jones Bill, in 1914.[2] He later boarded at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran where he completed
secondary school.
In 1898, his father Lucio and his brother Pedro were ambushed and killed by armed men while on
their way home to Baler from Nueva Ecija. Some historians believe they were murdered by bandits
who also robbed them, while others believe the killings could have been related to their loyalty to the
Spanish government.
In 1899, Quezon cut short his law studies at the University of Santo Toms in Manila to participate in
the struggle for independence against the United States, led by Emilio Aguinaldo. During
the PhilippineAmerican War he was anayuda-de-campo to Emilio Aguinaldo.[3] He rose to the rank
of Major and fought in the Bataan sector. However, after surrendering in 1900 wherein he made his
first break in the American press,[4] Quezon returned to the university and passed the bar
examinations in 1903, achieving fourth place.
He worked for a time as a clerk and surveyor, entering government service as an appointed fiscal
(treasurer) for Mindoro and later Tayabas. He became a councilor and was elected governor of
Tayabas in 1906 after a hard-fought election.

Congressional career[edit]
House of Representatives[edit]
In 1907, he was elected to the first Philippine Assembly later became the House of
Representatives where he served as majority floor leader and chairman of the committee on rules
as well as the chairman also of the committee on appropriations. From 1909 to 1916, he served as

one of the Philippines' two resident commissioners to the U.S. House of Representatives, lobbying
for the passage of the Philippine Autonomy Act or Jones Law.

Quezon returned to Manila in 1916 to be elected into the Philippine Senate as Senator and later
elected by his peers as Senate President, serving continuously until 1935 (19 years), becoming the
longest serving. He headed the first Independent Mission to the U.S. Congress in 1919 and secured
the passage of the Tydings-McDuffie Independence Law in 1934. In 1922, Quezon became the
leader of the Nacionalista Party alliance[5]

Personal life[edit]
Quezon was married to his first cousin, Aurora Aragn Quezon, on December 17, 1918. The couple
had four children: Mara Aurora "Baby" Quezon (19191949), Mara Zeneida "Nini" QuezonAvancena (born 1921), Luisa Corazn Paz "Nenita" Quezon (died 1923) and Manuel L. "Nonong"
Quezon, Jr. (19261998). His adopted grandson, Manuel L. "Manolo" Quezon III (born 1970), a
prominent writer and current undersecretary of the Presidential Communications Development and
Strategic Planning Office, was named after him.

Presidential styles of

Manuel L. Quezon
Reference style

His Excellency[6]

Spoken style

Your Excellency

Alternative style

Mr. President

First term (19351941)[edit]

First inauguration of Philippine Commonwealth President Manuel Quezon at the steps of the Legislative
Building in Manila on November 15, 1935.

Official car of Quezon, a 1937Chrysler Airflow (restored by Alfred Motorworks & Alfred Nobel R. Peres), atBaler,

In 1935, Quezon won the Philippines' first national presidential election under the banner of
the Nacionalista Party. He obtained nearly 68% of the vote against his two main rivals, Emilio
Aguinaldo and Gregorio Aglipay. Quezon was inaugurated in November 1935. He is recognized as
the second President of the Philippines. However, in January 2008, House Representative Rodolfo
Valencia of Oriental Mindoro filed a bill seeking instead to declare General Miguel Malvar as the
second Philippine President, having directly succeeded Aguinaldo in 1901. [7]

Administration and cabinet[edit]

Appointments 19351941[edit]





Manuel L. Quezon


Vice President

Sergio Osmea


Secretary of Agriculture and Commerce

Benigno Aquino


Rafael Alunan, Sr.


Sergio Osmea

November 15, 1935 April 18, 1939

Jorge Bocobo

April 19, 1939 January 22, 1941

Elpidio Quirino

November 15, 1935 February 18,


Antonio de las Alas

February 18, 1936 November 15,


Manuel Roxas

November 26, 1938 August 28, 1941

Serafin Marabut

August 28, 1941 December 29, 1941

Elpidio Quirino


Rafael Alunan


Jos Yulo

November 15, 1935November 1938

Jos Abad Santos

December 5, 1938 July 16, 1941

Commissioner of Justice

Teofilo Sison

July 18, 1941-November 1941

Secretary of Public Works

and Communications

Mariano Jess Cuenco

Secretary of National Defense

Teofilo Sison

Secretary of Public Instruction

Secretary of Finance

Secretary of the Interior

Secretary of Justice


Serafin Marabut


Basilio Valdes

December 23, 1941

Jos Avelino


Sotero Baluyut


Secretary to the President

Jorge B. Vargas



Jaime Hernndez


Commissioner of the Budget

Serafin Marabut


Commissioner of Civil Service

Jos Gil


Resident Commissioner of the

to the United States Congress

Quintin Paredes


Joaqun Miguel


Secretary of Labor

Supreme Court appointments[edit]

President Quezon was given the power under the reorganization act, to appoint the first allFilipino Supreme Court of the Philippines in 1935. From 1901 to 1935, although a Filipino was
always appointed chief justice, the majority of the members of the Supreme Court were Americans.
Complete Filipinization was achieved only with the establishment of the Commonwealth of the
Philippines in 1935. Claro M. Recto and Jos P. Laurel were among Quezon's first appointees to
replace the American justices. The membership in the Supreme Court increased to 11: a chief justice
and ten associate justices, who sat en banc or in two divisions of five members each.

Ramn Avancea 1935 (Chief Justice) 19351941

Jos Abad Santos 1935

Claro M. Recto 19351936

Jos P. Laurel 1935

Jos Abad Santos (Chief Justice) 19411942

Government reorganization[edit]
To meet the demands of the newly established government set-up and in compliance with the
provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie law, as well as the requirements of the
Constitution, President Quezon, true to his pledge of "More Government and less politics", initiated a
reorganization of the government bodies.[8] To this effect, he established the Government Survey
Board to study the existing institutions and in the light of the changed circumstances, make the
necessary recommendations.[8]
Early results were seen with the revamping of the Executive Department. Offices and bureaus were
either merged with one another or outrightly abolished. Some new ones, however, were created.
President Quezon ordered the transfer of the Philippine Constabulary from the Department of
Interior, to the Department of Finance. Among the changes in the Executive Departments by way of
modification in functions or new responsibilities, were those of the National
Defense,Agriculture and Commerce, Public Works and Communications, and Health and Public
In keeping with other exigencies posed by the Constitution, new offices and boards were created
either by Executive Order or by appropriate legislative action. [8]Among these were the Council of
National Defense, the Board of National Relief, the Mindanao and Sulu Commission, and the Civil
Service Board of Appeals.[8]
Social justice program[edit]
Pledged to improve the lot of the Philippine working class and seeking the inspiration from the social
doctrines of Leo XIII and Pius XI, aside from the authoritative treatises of the world's leading
sociologists, President Quezon started a vigorous program of social justice, which he traduced into
reality through appropriate executive measures and legislation obtained from the National Assembly.

Thus, a court of Industrial Relations was established to mediate disputes, under certain conditions,
minimizing the inconveniences of the strikes and lockouts. A minimum wage law was enacted, as
well as a law providing for an eight-hour work day and a tenancy law for the Filipino farmers. Another
measure was the creation of the position of Public Defender to help poor litigants in their court suits.

Commonwealth Act No. 20 authorized Quezon to institute expropriation proceedings and/or acquire
large landed estates to re-sell them at nominal cost and under easy terms to tenants thereon, thus
enabling them to possess a lot and a home of their own. It was by virtue of this law that the
Buenavista estate was acquired by the Commonwealth Government. Quezon also launched a
cooperative system of agriculture among the owners of the subdivided estates in order to alleviate
their situation and to provide them greater earnings.[8]
In all these, Quezon showed an earnest desire to follow the constitutional mandate on the promotion
of social justice.[8]

Upon the advent of the Commonwealth, the economic condition of our nation was fortunately stable
and promising.[8] With foreign trade reaching a peak of four hundred million pesos, the upward trend
in business was accentuated and assumed the aspect of a boom. Exports crops were generally
good and, with the exception of tobacco, they were all in excellent demand in foreign trade markets.
Indeed, the value of the Philippine exports reached an all high of 320,896,000 pesos, the highest
since 1929.[8]
Manuel Quezon signing documents.

On the other hand, government revenues amounted to 76,675,000 pesos in 1936, as compared with
the 1935 revenue of 65,000,000 pesos. Even the government companies, with the exception of
the Manila Railroad, managed to earn profits. Gold production increased about 37% and iron nearly
100%, while cement production augmented by some 14%.[8]
Not withstanding this prosperous situation,[8] the government had to meet certain economic problems
besetting the country and which, if attended to, might jeopardize the very prosperity then being
enjoyed. For this purpose, the National Economic Council was created. This body advised the
government in economic and financial questions, including promotion of industries, diversification of
crops and enterprises, tariffs, taxation, and formulation of an economic program in the contemplation
of the future independent Republic of the Philippines.[8]
Again, a law reorganized the National Development Company; the National Rice and Corn
Company (NARIC) was created and was given a capital of four million pesos.[8]
Upon the recommendation of the National Economic Council, agricultural colonies were established
in the country, especially in Koronadal, Malig, and other appropriate sites in Mindanao. The
government, moreover, offered facilities of every sort to encourage migration and settlement in those
places. The Agricultural and Industrial Bank was established to aid small farmers with convenient
loans on easy terms. Attention was also devoted to soil survey, as well as to the proper disposition of
lands of the public domain. These steps and measures held much promise for improved economic
Agrarian reform[edit]
See also: Land reform in the Philippines
When the Commonwealth Government was established, President Quezon implemented the Rice
Share Tenancy Act of 1933.[9] The purpose of this act was to regulate the share-tenancy contracts by
establishing minimum standards.[9] Primarily, the Act provided for better tenant-landlord relationship,
a 5050 sharing of the crop, regulation of interest to 10% per agricultural year, and a safeguard
against arbitrary dismissal by the landlord.[9] However, because of one major flaw of this law, no
petition for the Rice Share Tenancy Act was ever presented. [9]
The major flaw of this law was that it could be used only when the majority of municipal councils in a
province petitioned for it.[9] Since landowners usually controlled such councils, no province ever
asked that the law be applied. Therefore, Quezon ordered that the act be mandatory in all Central
Luzon provinces.[9] However, contracts were good for only one year. By simply refusing to renew their
contract, landlords were able to eject tenants. As a result, peasant organizations clamored in vain for
a law that would make the contract automatically renewable for as long as the tenants fulfilled their
In 1936, this Act was amended to get rid of its loophole, but the landlords made its application
relative and not absolute. Consequently, it was never carried out in spite of its good intentions. In
fact, by 1939, thousands of peasants in Central Luzon were being threatened with wholesale

The desire of Quezon to placate both landlords and tenants pleased neither. By the early 1940s,
thousands of tenants in Central Luzon were ejected from their farmlands and the rural conflict was
more acute than ever.[9]
Indeed, during the Commonwealth period, agrarian problems persisted. [9] This motivated the
government to incorporate a cardinal principle on social justice in the 1935 Constitution. Dictated by
the social justice program of the government, expropriation of landed estates and other landholdings
commenced. Likewise, the National Land Settlement Administration (NLSA) began an orderly
settlement of public agricultural lands. At the outbreak of the Second World War, major settlement
areas containing more than 65,000 hectares were already established. [9]
Educational reforms[edit]
Turning his attention to the matter of education in the country, President Quezon by virtue of
Executive Order No. 19, dated February 19, 1936, created the National Council of Education,
with Rafael Palma, former President of the University of the Philippines, as its first chairman.[8] Funds
retained from the early approved Residence Certificate Law were devoted to the maintenance of the
public schools all over the nation and the opening of many more to meet the needs of the young
people. Indeed, by this time there were already 6,511 primary schools; 1,039 intermediate schools;
133 secondary and special schools; and five junior colleges. The total number of pupils enrolled was
1,262,353, who were placed under the charge of 28,485 schools teachers That year's appropriation
for public education amounted to 14,566,850 pesos.[8] The private institutions of learning, for their
part, accommodated more than ninety seven thousand students, thus considerably aiding the
government in solving the annual school crisis. To implement the pertinent constitutional provision,
the Office of Adult Education was also created.[8]
Women's suffrage[edit]
President Quezon initiated women's suffrage in the Philippines during the Commonwealth Era. [10] As
a result of the prolonged debate between the proponents of women's suffrage and their opponents,
the Constitution finally provided that the issue be resolved by the women themselves in a plebiscite.
If no less than 300,000 of them were to affirmatively vote in favor of the grant within two years, it
would be deemed granted the country's women. Complying with this mandate, the government
ordered a plebiscite to be held for the purpose on April 3, 1937.

Quezon broadcasting to his countrymen in Manila, from Washington, D.C., April 5. For the first 25 minutes on
air, Quezon discussedwomen's suffrage and urged that the 10-year independence program be limited to a
shorter period, 4/5/1937.

Following a rather vigorous campaign, on the day of the plebiscite, the turnout of female voters was
impressive. The affirmative votes numbered 447,725, as against 44,307 who opposed the grant. [10]
National language[edit]

Another constitutional provision to be implemented by President Quezon's administration dealt with

the question of The Philippines' national language. Following a year's study, the Institute of the
National Language established on 1936 recommended that Tagalog be adopted as the basis for
the national language. The proposal was well received, considering that the Director the first to be
appointed at the time, Jaime C. de Veyra, was an ethnic Visayan.
On December 1937, Quezon issued a proclamation approving the constitution made by the Institute
and declaring that the adoption of the national language would take place two years hence. With the
presidential approval, the Institute of National Language started to work on a grammar and
dictionary of the language.[10]
Council of State[edit]
In 1938, President Quezon enlarged the composition of the Council of State through Executive
Order No. 44.[10] This highest of advisory bodies to the President was henceforth to be composed of
the President, Vice-President, Senate President,House Speaker, Senate President pro
tempore, House Speaker pro tempore, Majority Floor leader of both chambers ofCongress, former
Presidents of the Philippines, and some three to five prominent citizens. [10]
1938 midterm election[edit]
Main article: Philippine legislative election, 1938
The Elections for the Second National Assembly were held on November 8, 1938, under a new law
that allowed block voting[11] which favored the governingNacionalista Party. As expected, all the 98
seats of the National Assembly went to the Nacionalistas. Jose Yulo who was Quezon's Secretary of
Justice from 1934 to 1938 was elected Speaker.
The Second National Assembly embarked on passing legislation strengthening the economy.
Unfortunately the cloud of the Second World War loomed over the horizon. Certain laws passed by
the First National Assembly were modified or repealed to meet existing realities. [12] A
controversial immigration law that set an annual limit of 50 immigrants per country which[13] affected
mostly Chinese and Japanese nationals escaping the Sino-Japanese War was passed in 1940.
Since the law bordered on foreign relations it required the approval of the U.S. President which was
nevertheless obtained. When the result of the 1939 census was published, the National Assembly
updated the apportionment of legislative districts, which became the basis for the 1941 elections.
1939 plebiscite[edit]
On August 7, 1939, the United States Congress enacted a law embodying the recommendations
submitted by the Joint Preparatory Commission on Philippine Affairs. Because the new law required
an amendment of the Ordinance appended to the Constitution, a plebiscite was held on August 24,
1939. The amendment was carried by 1,339,453 votes against 49,633. [10]
Third official language[edit]

C.A. Dewitt and Manuel Quezon.

On April 1, 1940, President Quezon officially authorized the printing and publication of the grammar
and dictionary prepared by the Institute of the National Language. Likewise, the Chief Executive
decreed that the national language was to be compulsorily taught in all the schools during the
forthcoming academic term. For its part, the National Assembly enacted Law No. 570 raising the
national language elaborated by the institute to the status of official language of the Philippines, at
par with English and Spanish, effective July 4, 1946, upon the establishment of the Philippine
1940 plebiscite[edit]
Main article: Philippine constitutional plebiscite, 1940
Coincident with the local elections for the 1940, another plebiscite was held this time to ratify the
proposed amendments to the Constitution regarding the restoration of the bicameral legislature, the
presidential term, which was to be fixed at four years with one re-election; and the establishment of
an independent Commission on Elections. With the Nacionalista Party, which had proposed said
amendment in their convention, working hard under the leadership of its party president,
Speaker Jose Yulo, the amendments were overwhelmingly ratified by the electorate. Speaker Yulo
and Assemblyman Dominador Tan traveled to the United States to obtain President Franklin D.
Roosevelt's approval, which was given on December 2, 1940. Two days later President Quezon
proclaimed the amendments.
1941 presidential election[edit]
Main article: Philippine presidential election, 1941
Quezon had originally been barred by the Philippine constitution from seeking re-election. However,
in 1940, constitutional amendments were ratified allowing him to seek re-election for a fresh term
ending in 1943. In the 1941 presidential elections, Quezon was re-elected over former Senator Juan
Sumulong with nearly 82% of the vote.

Second term (19411944)[edit]

War Cabinet 19411944[edit]
The outbreak of World War II and the Japanese invasion resulted in periodic and drastic changes to
the government structure. Executive Order 390, December 22, 1941 abolished the Department of
the Interior and established a new line of succession. Executive Order 396, December 24, 1941
further reorganized and grouped the cabinet, with the functions of Secretary of Justice assigned to
the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.





Manuel L.

19411944 (extended, 1943)

Vice President

Sergio Osmea

19411944 (extended, 1943)

Secretary of Finance

Jos Abad Santos December 30, 1941 March 26, 1942

Secretary of Justice

Jos Abad Santos March 26, 1942 May 2, 1942

Secretary of Finance, Agriculture, and


Andrs Soriano

March 26, 1942 July 31, 1944

Secretary of National Defense, Public Works,

Communications and Labor

Basilio Valdes

December 23, 1941 August 1, 1944

Secretary of Public Instruction, Health, and

Public Welfare

Sergio Osmea

December 24, 1941 August 1, 1944

Secretary to the President

Manuel Roxas

December 24, 1941 March 26, 1942

Arturo Rotor

June 13, 1942 August 1, 1944

Secretary to the Cabinet

Manuel Nieto

May 19, 1944 - August 1, 1944

Secretary without Portfolio

Andrs Soriano

March 226, 1942

Treasurer of the Philippines

Andrs Soriano

February 19, 1942 March 26, 1942

Manuel Roxas

March 26, 1942 May 8, 1942


Jaime Hernndez December 30, 1941 August 1, 1944

Resident Commissioner of the Philippines to

the United States Congress

Joaqun Miguel

December 30, 1941 August 1, 1944

(given cabinet rank, May, 1942)

Secretary of Information and Public Relations Carlos P. Rmulo 19431944

The Sixth Annual Report of the United States High Commission to the Philippine Island to the
President and Congress of the United States, Covering the Fiscal Year July 1, 1941 to June 30,
1942 Washington D.C. October 20, 1942
Executive Orders of the Commonwealth of the Philippines, Manila, Bureau of Printing 1945
Jewish refugees[edit]
In a notable humanitarian act, Quezon, in cooperation with United States High Commissioner Paul V.
McNutt, facilitated the entry into the Philippines of Jewish refugees fleeing fascist regimes in Europe.
Quezon was also instrumental in promoting a project to resettle the refugees in Mindanao.[citation needed]

President Quezon, with some of his family members, are welcomed in Washington, D.C. by President

After the Japanese invasion of the Philippines during World War II[14] he evacuated to Corregidor,
where he was formally inaugurated for his second term, then the Visayas and Mindanao, and upon
the invitation of the US government,[15] was further evacuated to Australia and then to the United
States, where he established the Commonwealth government in exilewith headquarters in

Washington, D.C.. There, he served as a member of the Pacific War Council, signed the declaration
of the United Nations against the Axis Powers, and wrote his autobiography (The Good Fight, 1946).

To carry on the government duties in exile, President Quezon hired the entire floor of one of the wing
of the Shoreham Hotelto accommodate his family and his office. On the other hand, the offices of the
government were established at the quarters of the Philippine Resident Commissioner, Joaquin
Elizalde. The latter was made a member of President's wartime Cabinet. Others likewise appointed
were Brigadier-General Carlos P. Romulo, as Secretary of the Department of Information and Public
Relations, and Jaime Hernandez as Auditor General.[10]
On June 2, 1942, President Quezon addressed the United States House of Representatives,
impressing upon them the vital necessity of relieving the Philippine front. Before the Senate, later,
the Philippine President reiterated the same message and urged the senators to adopt the slogan
"Remember Bataan". Despite his precarious state of health, President Quezon roamed the States to
deliver timely and rousing speeches calculated to keep the Philippine war uppermost in the minds of
the American nation.[10]
Talks of Post-war Philippines[edit]
Washington, D.C. Representatives of 26 United Nations at Flag day ceremonies in the White House to reaffirm
their pact. Seated, left to right: Francisco Castillo Najera, Ambassador of Mexico; President Roosevelt; Manuel
Quezon, President of the Philippine Islands; and Secretary of State Cordell Hull.

On the occasion of his first birthday celebration in the United States, Manuel Quezon broadcast a
radio message to the Philippine residents in Hawaii, who contributed to the celebration by
purchasing four million pesos worth of World War IIbonds.[10] Further showing the Philippine
government's cooperation with the war effort, Quezon officially offered the U.S Armya Philippine
infantry regiment, which was authorized by the U.S. Department of War to train in California. He also
had the Philippine government acquire Elizalde's yacht, which, renamed "Bataan" and totally
manned by the Philippine officers and crew, was donated to the United States for use in the war.[10]
Early in November 1942, Quezon held conferences with President Roosevelt to work out a plan for
the creation of a joint commission to study the economic conditions of post-war Philippines. Eighteen
months later, the United States Congresswould pass an Act creating the Philippine Rehabilitation
Commission as an outcome of such talks between the two Presidents. [10]
Quezon-Osmea Impasse[edit]
By 1943, the Philippine Government-in-exile was faced with a serious crisis. [10] According to the 1935
Constitution, the official term of President Quezon was to expire on December 30, 1943 and VicePresident Sergio Osmea would automatically succeed him in the Presidency. This eventuality was
brought to the attention of President Quezon by Osmea himself, who wrote the former to this effect.
Aside from replying to this letter informing Vice-President Osmea that it would not be wise and
prudent to effect any such change under the circumstances, President Quezon issued a press
release along the same line. Osmea then requested the opinion of U.S. Attorney General Homer
Cummings, who upheld Osmea's view as more in keeping with the law. Quezon, however,
remained adamant. He accordingly sought President Roosevelt's decision. The latter choose to
remain aloof from the controversy, suggesting instead that the Philippine officials themselves solve
the impasse.[10]
A cabinet meeting was then convened by President Quezon. Aside from Quezon and Osmea,
others present in this momentous meeting were the resident Commissioner Joaquin Elizalde, Brig.
Gen. Carlos P. Romulo, and his cabinet secretaries, Andres Soriano and Jaime Hernandez.
Following a spirited discussion, the Cabinet supported Elizalde's opinion favoring the decision, and
announced his plan to retire in California.[10]

After the meeting, however, Vice-President Osmea approached the President and broached his
plan to ask the American Congress to suspend the constitutional provisions for presidential
succession until after the Philippines should have been liberated. This legal way out was agreeable
to President Quezon and the members of his Cabinet. Proper steps were taken to carry out the
proposal. Sponsored by Senator Tydings and Congressman Bell, the pertinent Resolution was
unanimously approved by the Senate on a voice vote and passed the House of Representatives by
the a vote of 181 to 107 on November 10, 1943. [10]
Quezon suffered from tuberculosis and spent his last years in hospitals, such as at a Miami Beach
Army hospital in April, 1944.[16] That summer, he was at a "cure cottage" in Saranac Lake, New York,
where he died on August 1, 1944. He was initially buried in Arlington National Cemetery. His body
was later carried by the USSPrinceton and re-interred in Manila at the Manila North Cemetery on
July 17, 1946 before being moved to Quezon City within the monument at the Quezon Memorial
Circle on August 19, 1979.

Electoral history[edit]

Summary of the September 16, 1935 Philippine presidential election results




Manuel L. Quezon

Nacionalista Party (Nationalist Party)



Emilio Aguinaldo

National Socialist Party



Gregorio Aglipay

Republican Party



Pascual Racuyal







Valid votes



Votes cast

Registered voters






Summary of the November 11, 1941 Philippine presidential election results



Manuel L. Quezon


Nacionalista Party (Nationalist Party)

Juan Sumulong

Popular Front

Hilario Moncado

Modernist Party










France: Officer of the Legion of Honour

Mexico: Collar of the Order of the Aztec Eagle

Belgium: Grand Cross of the Order of the Crown

Spain: Grand Cross of the Orden de la Repblica Espaola

Taiwan: Grand Cordon of the Order of Brilliant Jade

Philippine 20 peso bill with a portrait of Manuel L. Quezon.

Quezon City, the Quezon Province, Quezon Bridge in Manila and

the Manuel L. Quezon University, and many streets are named after
him. The highest honor conferred by the Republic of the Philippines
is the Quezon Service Cross. He is also memorialized on Philippine
currency. He appears on the Philippine twenty peso bill. He also
appears on two commemorative one peso coins, one
alongside Frank Murphy and another with Franklin Delano

The "Open Doors" is a holocaust memorial in Rishon LeZion, Israel.

Its is a 7 meter high sculpture designed by Filipino artist Luis Lee Jr.
and erected in honor and thanks to President Manuel Quezon and
the Filipinos who saved over 1,200 Jews from Nazi Germany.[18][19]

Portrayal in Media[edit]

Portrayed by Benjamin Alves in the 2015 film, Heneral Luna.

Recording of speech[edit]
President Quezon delivered a speech entitled "Message to My People" in English and in Spanish.
According to Gemmel L. Dizn III, the speech was "recorded in the 1920s, when he was first
diagnosed with tuberculosis and assumed he didn't have much longer to live."[20]

Wikisource has original
works written by or about:
Manuel L. Quezon

McArthur, Douglas (1964). Reminiscences.

Quezon, Manuel L. (1946). The Good Fight.

Perret, Geoffrey (1996). Old Soldiers Never Die: The Life of

Douglas MacArthur.


Jump up^ National Historical Commission of the Philippines. "History

of Baler". National Historical Commission of the Philippines.

Retrieved 2012-03-09. When military district of El Prncipe was

created in 1856, Baler became its capital...On June 12, 1902 a civil
government was established, moving the district of El Prncipe away
from the administrative jurisdiction of Nueva Ecija...and placing it
under the jurisdiction of Tayabas Province.

Jump up^ Quezon, Manuel Luis (1915), "Escuelas pblicas durante

el rgimen espaol" [Public schools during the Spanish
regime], Philippine Assembly, Third Legislature, Third Session,
Document No.4042-A 87 Speeches of Honorable Manuel L. Quezon,
Philippine resident commissioner, delivered in the House of
Representatives of the United States during the discussion of Jones
Bill, 26 September-14 October 1914 [Asamblea Filipina, Tercera
Legislatura, Tercer Perodo de Sesiones, Documento N.o 4042-A 87,
Discursos del Hon. Manuel L. Quezon, comisionado residente de
Filipinas, Pronunciados en la Cmara de representantes de los
Estados Unidos con motivo de la discusin del Bill Jones, 26,
septiembre-14, octubre, 1914] (in Spanish), Manila, Philippines:
Bureau of Printing, p. 35, archived from the original on July 18, 2010,
retrieved July 24,2010, ...there were public schools in the Philippines
long before the American occupation, and, in fact, I have been
educated in one of these schools, even though my hometown is such
a small town, isolated in the mountains of the Northeastern part of the
island of Luzon. (Spanish). [...haba escuelas pblicas en Filipinas
mucho antes de la ocupacin americana, y que, de hecho, yo me
haba educado en una de esas escuelas, aunque mi pueblo natal es
un pueblo tan pequeo, aislado en las montaas de la parte Noreste
de la isla de Luzn.]


Jump up^ Office of History and Preservation, United States

Congress. (n.d.). Quezon, Manuel Luis, (18781944). Biographical
Directory of the United States Congress. Retrieved September 30,


Jump up^ Reyes, Pedrito (1953). Pictorial History of the Philippines.


Jump up^


Jump up^ "Official Program Aquino Inaugural (Excerpts)".


Jump up^ Maricel Cruz (January 2, 2008). "Lawmaker: History wrong

on Gen. Malvar". Archived from the original on 6 April 2008.
Retrieved May 2, 2008.


^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Molina, Antonio. The Philippines:

Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative,
1961. Print.


^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k Manapat, Carlos, et al. Economics,

Taxation, and Agrarian Reform. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print.

10. ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q Molina, Antonio. The Philippines:

Through the centuries. Manila: University of Sto. Tomas Cooperative,
1961. Print.

11. Jump up^ "Block voting Philippine Daily Inquirer". Retrieved2012-09-10.
12. Jump up^ Commonweatlh Act (CA) No. 494 amended CA 444 "Eight
Hour Law" authorizing the President to suspend the law.
13. Jump up^ Immigration Act of 1940 (CA No. 613), Sec. 13. Accessed
on April 13, 2007
14. Jump up^ Evacuation flights may be identified at
the site by searching for Quezon
15. Jump up^ 1st Lt William Haddock Campbell, USAAF, received the
DSC for his role as co-pilot in the evacuation of the Philippine
president from the Philippines, as reported in a local Chicago
newspaper, The Garfieldian, 1 April 1943 edition.
16. Jump up^ "The Miami News - Google News Archive
17. Jump up^ "Picture of commemorative coin". Retrieved 2012-09-10.
18. Jump up^
19. Jump up^
20. Jump up^ "Talumpati: Gemmel L. Dizon". Retrieved June 26, 2010.

External links[edit]
Wikimedia Commons has
media related to Manuel L.

Bonnie Harris, Cantor Joseph Cysner: From Zbaszyn to Manila.

Online E-book of Future of the Philippines : interviews with

Manuel Quezon by Edward Price Bell, The Chicago Daily News
Co., 1925

Online E-book of Discursos del Hon. Manuel L. Quezon,

comissionado residente de Filipinas, pronunciados en la
cmara de representantes de la discusin del Bill Jones (26,
Septiembre-14, Octubre, 1914), published in Manila, 1915

Manuel L. Quezon on the Presidential Museum and Library

United States House of Representatives

Resident Commissioner of the Philippines


Preceded by
Pablo Ocampo

Teodoro R.

Served alongside: Benito Legarda and Manuel Earnshaw

Political offices

Gil Mon

President of the Senate


New office

Preceded by
Emilio Aguinaldo
as president of the Republic of the Philippines

as Speaker of the Na

President of the Philippines

November 15, 1935 August 1, 1944

Jos P. L

as president of the Repub


Articles related to Manuel L. Quezon

VIAF: 69727107
LCCN: n50050542
ISNI: 0000 0000 8150 1114
GND: 118866753

Authority control

SUDOC: 079488706
BNF: cb14555598r (data)
NLA: 35491453
US Congress: Q000009


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