You are on page 1of 19

Introduction

CIVIC AMENITIES DEFINED

Civic amenities are cultural elements of a community with which residents and visitors engage; which
enhance our quality of life; which promote life-long learning and social exchange; which promote
regional economic development.
Examples of these amenities are facilities and programs that span the arts, entertainment, theaters,
museums, cultural attractions, sports, parks and recreation areas.
In order for the region to fully leverage its extraordinary potential, it needs to expand and enhance
existing amenities as well as add new civic amenities. The investment in our civic amenities aid the Next
Economy effort through:
Helping the region retain and grow existing businesses
Attracting and retaining a creative work force
Inspiring students to reach their full potential
Creating a desirable community in which to live, work and play

LITERATURE SURVEY
According to the first Annual Survey of India's City-Systems, conducted by Bangalore-based nongovernmental organization Janaagraha in 11 cities, Chennai is the third safest but ranks low in terms
of cleanliness, transport and clean drinking water.
In the first edition of the survey conducted by the NGO to gauge residents' perception of the city they
live in, Chennai ranked fifth overall on quality of life with a score of 5.87 on 10. It fell behind Surat
(6.56), Mumbai (6.43), Ahmedabad and Pune (6.02). It has fared much better than Delhi, Kolkata,
Bangalore and Hyderabad. Kanpur has got the lowest overall rankings on all parameters. A total of
400 people were surveyed in Chennai across 20 wards.
Residents have rated the city well on at least four of the seven basic parameters. Though the city
comes in third for crime and safety, behind Surat and Pune, it is the safest metro to live in. It has
ranked fourth in terms of public amenities, pollution control and greenery, and ease of processes in
government offices. "The coast acts as a buffer for green cover. The greenery here is our natural
habitat and not avenue trees like Bangalore," says Jayashree Vencatesan of non-governmental
organisation Care Earth. Ahmedabad, Surat and Pune came out ahead of Chennai in public amenities
and greenery.
Across cities, people are willing to suffer near-term inconveniences, if the systems are fixed for a
sustainable and high quality of life, says the survey. Among the demands most residents have are
robust urban planning , prevention of building violations and knowledgeable civic officials . Water
and transportation get high priority in all cities. The survey said Chennaiites were concerned about
low number of critical issues handled by the city corporation.

3
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 INTRODUCTION:
The process used

to

collect information and data for

the

purpose

of making business deciions.The methodology mayinclude publication research, interviews, surv


eys and other research techniques and could include both present and historical information.

Quantitative research aims to measure the quantity or amount and compares it with past
records and tries to project for future period. In social sciences, quantitative research refers to
the systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their
relationships. The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical
models, theories or hypothesis pertaining to phenomena. The process of measurement is central
to quantitative research because it provides fundamental connection between empirical
observation and mathematical expression of quantitative relationships. Statistics is the most
widely used branch of mathematics in quantitative research. Statistical methods are used
extensively with in fields such as economics and commerce. Quantitative research involving the
use of structured questions, where the response options have been Pre-determined and large
number of respondents is involved.
We have used Quantitative research methodology to capture the effectiveness of smartphone
usage, purpose for it is used and awareness about the features in smartphone among the people.

3.2 RESEARCH DESIGN


3.2.1 Descriptive Design:

Descriptive research designs help provide answers to the questions of who, what, when, where,
and how associated with a particular research problem; a descriptive study cannot conclusively
ascertain answers to why. Descriptive research is used to obtain information concerning the
current status of the phenomena and to describe "what exists" with respect to variables or
conditions in a situation.
The subject is being observed in a completely natural and unchanged natural environment. True
experiments, whilst giving analyzable data, often adversely influence the normal behavior of the
subject
Descriptive research is often used as a pre-cursor to more quantitative research designs with the
general overview giving some valuable pointers as to what variables are worth testing
quantitatively.
If the limitations are understood, they can be a useful tool in developing a more focused study.
Descriptive studies can yield rich data that lead to important recommendations in practice.
Approach collects a large amount of data for detailed analysis.

We have used Descriptive design in our report. We have conducted survey among 120 people
of various age groups. The age groups among which we split our survey is 15 to 20, 21 to 25, 26
to 30, 31 to 50 and above 50. In which we got equal response for each category of people.
Around 25 people answered various questions of our questionnaire for each age category of our
survey.

3.3 SAMPLING TECHNIQUE


3.3.1 QUOTA SAMPLING:

The

sampling

method

which

is

used

in

our

report

is

Quota

Sampling.

A sampling method of gathering representative data from a group. As opposed to random


sampling, quota sampling requires that representative individuals are chosen out of a specific
subgroup. Here we have split our survey into five groups and targeted them specifically for our
survey. The groups consists of the people of different age group,such as 15 to 20, 21 to 25, 21 to
30, 31 to 50 and 50 and above.

3.4 PILOT TESTING:

Pilot testing is a small-scale trial, where a few examinees take the test and comment on the
mechanics of the test. They point out any problems with the test instructions, instances where
items are not clear, and formatting and other typographical errors and/or issues. In the case of
computer-based testing, pilot-test examinees also comment on any issues with the computer
interface. Once all issues with the test items and forms have been addressed, the tests are ready
for

large-scale

field

testing.

We did our pilot testing by getting reviews from 20 people, 4 from each age category to which
we split our survey. Based on the issues, inconvenience and thoughts of the reviews of people of
various age groups, we have designed our final questionnaire and proceeded with survey.

Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS):


SPSS is a widely used program for statistical analysis in social science. It is also used by market
researchers, health researchers, survey companies, government, education researchers, marketing
organizations, data miners, and others. In addition to statistical analysis, data management (case
selection, file reshaping, creating derived data) and data documentation (a metadata dictionary
was stored in the data file) are features of the base software.
Statistics included in the base software:
Descriptive statistics: Cross tabulation, Frequencies, Descriptive, Explore, Descriptive Ratio
Statistics
Bivariate statistics: Means, t-test, ANOVA, Correlation (bivariate, partial, distances),
Nonparametric tests
Prediction for numerical outcomes: Linear regression
Prediction for identifying groups: Factor analysis, cluster analysis (two-step, K-means,
hierarchical), Discriminant
SPSS Statistics places constraints on internal file structure, data types, data processing, and
matching files, which together considerably simplify programming. SPSS datasets have a twodimensional table structure, where the rows typically represent cases (such as individuals or
households) and the columns represent measurements (such as age, sex, or household income).
Only two data types are defined: numeric and text (or "string").
The graphical user interface has two views which can be toggled by clicking on one of the two
tabs in the bottom left of the SPSS Statistics window. The 'Data View' shows a spreadsheet view
of the cases (rows) and variables (columns). Unlike spreadsheets, the data cells can only contain
numbers or text, and formulas cannot be stored in these cells. The 'Variable View' displays the
metadata dictionary where each row represents a variable and shows the variable name, variable
label, value label(s), print width, measurement type, and a variety of other characteristics. Cells

in both views can be manually edited, defining the file structure and allowing data entry without
using command syntax. This may be sufficient for small datasets.
Larger datasets such as statistical surveys are more often created in data entry software, or
entered during computer-assisted personal interviewing, by scanning and using optical character
recognition and optical mark recognition software, or by direct capture from online
questionnaires. These datasets are then read into SPSS.
SPSS Statistics can read and write data from ASCII text files (including hierarchical files), other
statistics packages, spreadsheets and databases.

DATA COLLECTION METHODS


7

The choice of method is influenced by the data collection strategy, the type of variable, the
accuracy required, the collection point and the skill of the enumerator. Links between a variable,
its source and practical methods for its collection can help in choosing appropriate methods. The
main data collection methods are:
Registration: registers and licenses are particularly valuable for complete enumeration, but are
limited to variables that change slowly, such as numbers of fishing vessels and their
characteristics.
Questionnaires: forms which are completed and returned by respondents. An inexpensive
method that is useful where literacy rates are high and respondents are co-operative.
Interviews: forms which are completed through an interview with the respondent. More
expensive than questionnaires, but they are better for more complex questions, low literacy or
less co-operation.
Direct observations: making direct measurements is the most accurate method for many
variables, such as catch, but is often expensive. Many methods, such as observer programmes,
are limited to industrial fisheries.
Reporting: the main alternative to making direct measurements is to require fishers and others
to report their activities. Reporting requires literacy and co-operation, but can be backed up by a
legal requirement and direct measurements.

Research design
A research design is a systematic plan to study a scientific problem. The design of a study
defines the study type (descriptive, co relational, semi-experimental, and experimental, review,
meta-analytic) and sub-type (e.g., descriptive-longitudinal case study), research question,
hypotheses, independent and dependent variables, experimental design, and, if applicable, data

collection methods and a statistical analysis plan. Research design is the framework that has been
created to seek answers to research questions.

Design types and sub-types


There are many ways to classify research designs, but sometimes the distinction is artificial and
other times different designs are combined. Nonetheless, the list below offers a number of useful
distinctions between possible research designs.

Descriptive: (e.g., case-study, naturalistic observation, Survey)


Correlation: (e.g., case-control study, observational study), transport,
Semi-experimental: (e.g., field experiment, quasi-experiment)
Experimental :( Experiment with random assignment)
Review :( Literature review, Systematic review)
Meta-analytic:( Meta-analysis)
We have used descriptive research method in our study since it would be the apt one for our
study.

Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or

phenomenon

being

studied.

It

does

not

answer

questions

about

how/when/why the characteristics occurred. Rather it addresses the "what"


question (What are the characteristics of the population or situation being
studied). The characteristics used to describe the situation or populations are
usually some kind of categorical scheme also known as descriptive
categories.

SAMPLING SIZE:
9

The sampling size for our report is around 100 and it has covered 24 important factors in the
civic amenities such as city, age

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:

Simple random sampling

A visual representation of selecting a simple random sample

In a simple random sample (SRS) of a given size, all such subsets of the frame are given an equal probability.
Furthermore, any given pair of elements has the same chance of selection as any other such pair (and similarly
for triples, and so on). This minimises bias and simplifies analysis of results. In particular, the variance
between individual results within the sample is a good indicator of variance in the overall population, which
makes it relatively easy to estimate the accuracy of results.
However, SRS can be vulnerable to sampling error because the randomness of the selection may result in a
sample that doesn't reflect the makeup of the population. For instance, a simple random sample of ten people
from a given country will on average produce five men and five women, but any given trial is likely to over
represent one sex and under represent the other. (Systematic and stratified techniques), attempt to overcome
this problem by "using information about the population" to choose a more "representative" sample.

10

SRS may also be cumbersome and tedious when sampling from an unusually large target population. In some
cases, investigators are interested in "research questions specific" to subgroups of the population. For example,
researchers might be interested in examining whether cognitive ability as a predictor of job performance is
equally applicable across racial groups. SRS cannot accommodate the needs of researchers in this situation
because it does not provide subsamples of the population. "Stratified sampling" addresses this weakness of
SRS.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:
The primary objective of research is to identify how much people are provided the basic civic
amenities. We have framed the questionnaire in such way so as to support our research by
splitting the city into five different parts north chennai, south chennai, east chennai, west chennai
and central chennai. With which we can come to an idea which part of the city possess much
facilities for the people.
STATISTICAL TEST:
A statistical test provides a mechanism for making quantitative decisions about a process or
processes. The intent is to determine whether there is enough evidence to "reject" a conjecture or
hypothesis about the process. The conjecture is called the null hypothesis. Not rejecting may be a
good result if we want to continue to act as if we "believe" the null hypothesis is true. Or it may
be a disappointing result, possibly indicating we may not yet have enough data to "prove"
something by rejecting the null hypothesis.

A chi-square test

11

It is also referred to as

test (infrequently as the chi-squared test), is any statistical hypothesis test in

which the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-square distribution when the null hypothesis is
true. Also considered a chi-square test is a test in which this is asymptotically true, meaning that the
sampling distribution (if the null hypothesis is true) can be made to approximate a chi-square distribution
as closely as desired by making the sample size large enough. The chi-square (I) test is used to determine
whether there is a significant difference between the expected frequencies and the observed frequencies in
one or more categories.

T-TEST:
A statistical examination of two population means. A two-sample t-test examines whether two samples are
different and is commonly used when the variances of two normal distributions are unknown and when an
experiment uses a small sample size. For example, a t-test could be used to compare the average floor
routine score of the U.S. women's Olympic gymnastics team to the average floor routine score of China's
women's team.

12

ONE WAY ANOVA:


The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine whether there are any significant
differences between the means of three or more independent (unrelated) groups. The one-way ANOVA

compares the means between the groups you are interested in and determines whether any of
those means are significantly different from each other. Specifically, it tests the null hypothesis:

where = group mean and k = number of groups. If, however, the one-way ANOVA returns a
significant result, we accept the alternative hypothesis (HA), which is that there are at least 2
group means that are significantly different from each other.

APPENDIX
13

QUESTIONNAIRE

City rating based on civic amenities and other


factors (perception)
This survey is taken by MBA students from University Of Madras, to understand how people residing in
chennai feel about the city.
please answer the questions by what you feel, as this will be very helpful for our study.

RATE YOUR LOCALITY BASED ON FOLLOWING PARAMETERS.


* Required
Which part of the city are you from? *
North Chennai

South Chennai

East Chennai

West Chennai

Educational Qualification *
Post graduate

Graduate

14

Age * _________

Gender *
Male

Female

Which Native are you from? *


District name if your native is in tamilnadu or state name if you are from other state

Garbage collection in your locality. *

terrible

Excellent

Categorization of waste (Degradable/Non Degradable/Recyclable) *

15

Terrible

Excellent

Mosquito and Insect problem *

High

Low

Ground Water Quality *

Terrible

Excellent

General drainage/Storm water Drainage System *

Terrible

Excellent

Pollution Problem in your Locality *

Terrible

Excellent

Unauthorized Posters and Flex boards Problem *

High

3
Low

Road condition and Connectivity to your locality. *

16

Terrible

Excellent

Parking Space Availability *

Terrible

Excellent

Public Transportation Availability *

Terrible

Excellent

Road Lighting Conditions in your Locality *

Poorly lit

Adequately lit

Special facilities for women (Ladies special bus and trains) *

Terrible

Excellent

Maintenance of Public Transport *


how clean bus and trains are

17

Terrible

Excellent

Women and Child Safety in your area *


how safe they feel in their day to day life

Terrible

Adequate

Safety of Belongings *
Chain Snatching , Robbery etc

Terrible

Adequate

Beggar Issue *

Terrible

Okay

Drink & Drive Problem *

Terrible

Moderate

Public Utility Buildings Availability and Maintenance *


Hospitals, Library, Schools and Parks(Open Spaces)

18

Terrible

Excellent

How will you rate your locality based on below factors *


Safety Transport cleanliness

Terrible

5
Excellent

19