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REMBRANDT
A. COLLECTION
AND

FIFTEEN

OF
PORTRAIT

OF

PICTURES

THE

PAINTER

INTRODUCTION

WITH

AND

INTERPRETATION

BY

ESTELLE

HURLL

M.

"

BOSTON

AND

NE^V?

YORK
.

HOUGHTON

MIFFLIN

COMPANY

COPYRIGHT,

1899,

ALL

BY

RIGHTS

MIFFLIN

HOUGHTON,

RESERVED

"

CO.

PREFACE

picturesfor this collection has been


the student with
with the object of familiarizing
made
of Rembrandt's
works fairlyrepresentative
art in portraiture
and Biblical illustration,
landscape and genre study,
of the Dutch
in paintingand etching. Admirers
master
well-known
pictures. For obvious reasons
may miss some
in Anatomy
is deemed
unsuitable
the Lecture
for this
Guilder Print contains too many
place,and the Hundred
figuresto be reproduced here clearly. The Syndics of
and the print of Christ Preaching will
the Cloth Guild
The

choice

compensate
his

of

for these

omissions,and show

best,both with brush

There

are

difficult to
than

those

With
taken

His

of Rembrandt.

direct from

black

marvelous

in

almost

making use
Hanfstaengl"

of

an

Co. and

the

available

the

Boston

world

more

and

white

effects of chiaroscuro

portions of the composition,


in the photograph as unintelligible
blurs.
appear
been
these difficulties to meet, great pains have
the best
to select for the reproductionsof this book

comparative study of

most

the

in darkness

photographsmade

In

at

burin.

perhaps no paintingsin
in
reproduce satisfactorily

leave

which

and

Rembrandt

equal

Messrs.

original
paintings.A
has resulted

material
number

Braun

"

from

Messrs.

Cie.

reproducing the etchings the publishershave been


ginal
orifor the purpose
fortunate in being able to use
prints in the Harvey D. Parker Collection of the
Museum

of Fine

Arts.
ESTELLE

New

Bedford, Mass.
November, 1899.

525700

M.

HURLL.

Portrait

Painted

Rembrandt.

of

Photograph

From

Frontispiece.

himself.

by

Ad.

Maison

by

PICTURES

OF

LIST

AND

CONTENTS

"

Braun

Cie.
page

INTRODUCTION
i.

ii.

hl

On

Rembrandt's

On

Books

Character

vii
.

Reference

of

xi

Directory

Historical

Artist

an

as

of

Pictures

the

of

this

lection
Colxiii

rv.

Table

Outline

the

of

Principal

Events

in

brandt's
Rem-

Llfe
v.

Some

xiv
Famous

Rembrandt's

of

Contemporaries

in

Holland
vi.

I.

xv

Contemporary

Foreign

WRESTLING

JACOB
Picture

Painters
WITH

THE

Photograph

from

xvii

ANGEL

Franz

by

Hanfstaengl

3
.

LT.

ISRAEL

BLESSING

Picture

THE

SONS

Photograph

from

OF
by

JOSEPH

Franz

Hanfstaengl

9
.

HI.

ANGEL

THE

RAPHAEL

LEAVING

THE

FAMILY

OF

TOBIT

13

Picture

Photograph

from

by

Maison

Ad.

Braun

"

Cie

IV.

15

RAT

THE

KILLER

Picture
Fine

V.

THE

19
Original

from

Arts,

PHILOSOPHER
Picture

Etching

in

Museum

the

of

Boston

21
MEDITATION

IN
Photograph

from

by

25
Ad.

Maison

Braun

"

27

Cie

VI.

GOOD

THE

SAMARITAN

Picture
Fine

VH.

from

in

Museum

the

of

33
IN

Photograph

THE

TEMPLE
by

37
Hanfstaengl

Franz

39
.

PREACHING

CHRIST
Picture
Ftne

IX.

Etching

Boston

PRESENTATION

THE

Picture
Vm.

Original

from

Arts,

31

Picture
Cie

Original

from

Arts,
AT

CHRIST

43

Etching

in

Museum

the

of

Boston

45

EMMAUS
from

Photograph

49
by

Maison

Ad.

Braun

"

51

AND

CONTENTS

vi

PORTRAIT

X.

PICTURES

SASKIA

OF

Picture

OF

LIST

55

Photograph

from

Hanfstaengl

Franz

by

57
.

XL

SORTIE

THE

Picture

OF

CIVIC

THE

GUARD

Photograph

from

by

61

Maison

Braun

Ad.

"

Cie

XII.

.63

OF

PORTRAIT
Picture

Arts,

XHL

OF

PORTRAIT
Picture

67

Original

from

Fine

SIX

JAN

Etching

Museum

the

in

of

Boston

AN

69

OLD

WOMAN

73

Photograph

from

by

Maison

Ad.

"

Braun

Cie

XIV.

THE

7"

SYNDICS
Picture

OF

Photograph

from

79

GUILD

CLOTH

THE

by

Hanfstaengl

Franz

81
.

XV.

THE

THREE
Picture

XVI.

THE

Arts,

Etching

Original

from

Fine

85

TREES

the

in

Museum

of

87

Boston

OF

PORTRAIT

(See

REMBRANDT

91

Frontispiece)
.

PRONOUNCING
FOREIGN

VOCABULARY
WORDS

OF

PROPER

NAMES

AND
95

INTRODUCTION

I.

REMBRANDT'S

ON

CHARACTER

impression

general

that

loving public

connoisseur

because

his

of

miracles

who

of

appreciation

proper

do

stand

of

the
this

the

of

acquaintance
they

daily life, the


and

scenes

fairer

is at

Rembrandt.

Raphael

While

beautiful
his
of

material
the

from

fair

and

us,

in

moral
at

his

his

he

world

chooses
Rembrandt

own

expression,"
picture

we

see

says

for

pier
hap-

completely

so

draws
In

us.

from

place
phael
Ra-

whom

with

by
with

wrinkled
a

poet

physical beauty

Fromentin.

only

of

canvases

about

models

For

those

requisites

art

is nevertheless
"

way.

ference
indif-

disappointed

his

children

his

be

may

Rembrandt

realm,

charming

to

taste,

peoples

common

It

first

looks

strangely

another

and

beggars.

visionary

glance

the

women

delights
men

of

creatures

first

make

to

commonplaces

This

gratified by Raphael,

many

altogether

familiar

forms.

pains

the

are

imagination

supposed,

Rembrandt's

lack

the

Those

Too

no

by

some

the

it is

master.

outset

to

of

popular

Dutch

of

of colors.

take

any-

technique,

admirers.

pictures

which

Weary

picture.

his

idol

of

must,

dictum,

the

at

is the

blending

of

to

necessary

mastery

matters

great

His

superficialqualities
of

the

beauty.

to

his

pale

as

repelled

are

superb

these

people, accepting

that

his

chiaroscuro,

without

quite

is

ARTIST

large picture-

the

He

Rembrandt.

understand

not

with

prevails

special training

AN

AS

old
and

he

If in the

transcript

of

common

stitutes
subfirst

REMBRANDT

viii

look

life, a second
life that

we

again, and

have

never

see

behind

we

poetry of the
lifted out

being

beauty

which

henceforth

Raphael
beauty
for

inner

the

just beyond

his

has

the

of

world,

his

of

but

the

by

look

ideal

the

by

not

of

becomes
of

the

hovers

revelation

secrets

the

"

the

to

us

As

humanity.

divine," for the godlike

Rembrandt

creations, so

We
exterior

Rembrandt

world.

surnamed

common

gain refreshment,

we

interpreterof
been

there.

seen

vision

Thus

this

commonplace

real.
the

in

something

before

life.

is in the

an

of

discovers

is

the

"

lives

sympathetic insightinto

the

for those

catch

of

human,"
fellow

his

men.

Even

who

of Rembrandt's
interest

and

in

should

in the
other
of
and

story-telling
power

story themes

style is

itself.

narrative

the

development
artist has

of the

of

mysticism

strikingin

the

Hebrew

Rembrandt's
the

with

the

scenes

An^el

counts

majestically beyond.
is

glorifiedby

the

direct

for

than

something

Probably

no

pictorialqualities

singular

and

of superficial

exclusively

and

action.

well

union

of

practicalcommon

poetry

sense,

so

character, appealed powerfully to

of

It

affords

fine

the

The
the

peculiarlywell

was

angelic visitation.

realities of life and

strenuous

family

detail

That

imagination.

in

simple

so

giftwhich

almost

ing
mean-

entertain

to

for his lack


are

dramatic

understood

higher

"

less

not

Every

patriarchalhistory.
prose,

the

is still much

compensate

His

his

Biblical,and

rare

measure

beauty.

to

work, there

in his

some

slow

are

contrast

white

pure

homely

lightof

the

group

radiant

in "r into heaven

from

the midst

of them.

Rembrandt's

New

Testament

scenes

adapted to emphasize the

eternal

immanence

are

sented
repre-

Jacob

tling
wres-

between

the

ideal
of

rising
Tobit's

angel
equally
of the

soar-

well

super-

INTRODUCTION

natural in the natural.


is invested with

The

ix

Presentation

in the

solemn

at Emmaus

is raised

countenance

of the

significance
; the simple Supper
into a sacrament
by the transfigured

Christ.

the actual and

For

all these

ideal,Rembrandt

the

entire artistic
and
from

we

lightand

career

had

beautiful
None

In the

tery
mas-

His

he is supreme.
this

to

great problem,

Syndics.
little for the

very

of the

ever

satin and

curves

and

body

nude,

the

exquisite
flesh. Yet
to overbalance
this disregardof
form
his strong predilection
for finery.
was
loved better the play of lightivpon jewelsand

of

colors

to the

apparentlycared

delicate

perfect

throughall the great pictures

success

the Presentation

for the

shade

devoted

was

his

trace

can

Rembrandt

and

of

art

tween
be-

contrasts

in chiaroscuro.
vehicle of artistic expression
of the

Temple

the rich effectiveness of Oriental

armor,

ecclesiastical vestments.

Unable

to

stuffs

this
gratify

taste

in the

which he paintedto order,he took every


portraits
to paintboth himself and his wife, Saskia,in
opportunity
Wherever

costume.

what

he

could

the

subjectadmitted,he
In

of rich detail.

the

introduced
Israel

pictureof

Blessingthe Sons of Joseph,Asenath, as the wife of an


is appropriately
adorned
with jewels
Egyptian official,
and finery. In the Sortie of the Civic Guard, Captain
Cocq is resplendentin his military
regalia.
With
never

all this fondness


allowed

his

fitness in sacred
the most
a

and

pomp

meaning.
of

Supper at

fancyto
art.

solemn

for pretty
carry him

The

Venetian

scenes

understood

and
Christianity,

Emmaus

is the

masters

of the New

at
magnificenceentirely

Rembrandt

things,Rembrandt
beyond the limits

made

had

such

with

with

better the real


no

sented
repre-

Testament

variance

mistake.

simple evening meal

-"

of

their

cance
signifiHis

of three

REMBRANDT

it is

peasant pilgrimspreciselyas
Christ

His
of humble

It

the

perhaps

was

picturesqueness of
etchings is

had

company

loved

reached

to

the

gather

to

lives.

of

The

with

all these

humor, relievingthe

for

sion
expres-

often

tesque
gro-

he

the

of

pathos

studies
of

pathos

of

costume

Here

sympathy,

rare

poetry and

Through

picturesque

passion

his

man.
always intenselyhu-

but

the

of

beggars.

subjects are

character

by

and

the

His

human

his

interestingclass

in

"

miserable
vein

the

repulsive

touched

quaint

strong leaning towards

studies

genre

profoundly

these

for

beautiful

sometimes

Reading

fondness

very

extreme.

an

of

side

rags.

devoted

disregard of

"

obverse

Rembrandt

finery,that

was

great Teacher

the

as

motley

pel.
Gos-

the

him.

about

his

includes

Preaching

folk, such

represented in

the

the

tions.
situa-

Rat

old

runs

Killer

tickles

the

of

sense

suggestion of
touching squalor of
but

none

hostler's
As

picturesalone
of

seventeenth

the

and

all ages

came

and

burin.

The

of

manhood

in Israel

and

whole
at

his

range

best

wrinkled

repeople
the

skin,

the

horse.

From

of

range

the

of

the

Sons

of

sitter has

face

full of

max
cli-

and

his

spirits

the

conditions
brush

magic

Saskia,

the

sturdy
of

his

old

age

scope

of

his

Joseph

he

shows

is

manifestly

single composition.
his

with

storied

show

the

this class of his

classes

girlhood

Blessing the

when

lightful
de-

swaggering

reaches

Holland

All

century.

model

the

Samaritan's

Syndics, and

in

created

portraits.

fresh

woman

offsets

which

character, Rembrandt

within

the

old

favorite

have

Good

the

can

one

grotesque little apprentice. And

in his

of his power

somehow

conveys

humbuggery

could

boy holding
of

his

the

humorist

revealer

and

humor,

He

pronounced

power,

features

character, which

he

the

and

under'

INTRODUCTION

stood

motif

of the

point

of

Given

expression in

grand simplicityof
intimate

II.

The

history of

modern

with

begins
Rembrandt

out

and

English
Walter

book

translation

moment

(by

large illustrated

in two

and

The

Bode, is
of

issuing from

now

eight volumes
with
pictures,

is to

hoped

be
may

be

that

put into many


consult
The

it to

series

of

in

enlarged

tion.
edi-

an

field until

the

appeared.
"

Rembrandt

"

the

authorityon

Burger

first issued

In

the

edited

Simmonds)

Florence

by

is at the present

subject.

full of historical

of

Rembrandt,"

(1899),

the press

historical

this

mammoth

large reference
see

was

in

and

in the appreciation

era

in

GEuvres."

It is

tion
informa-

classified list

by

Wilhelm

and

will

containing reproductions

master's

found
pro-

paintings,drawings, and etchings.

"

Work

"Complete

Vosmaer,

ses

containing a complete

works

of Rembrandt's

It

1877

volumes

and

criticism

et

new

Michel

Michel's

standard

our

master.

Emile

of

Armstrong,

Yie

practicallyalone

was

work

recent

opened

in

C.

by

of Kolloff

researches

republished

with

bibliography properly

work

Rijn, sa

which

in which

nature.

Rembrandt

great Dutch

was

This
the

book

of the

1868,

the

united

highest

REFERENCE

OF

van

the

to

rose

of human

famous

Harmens

profitedby

bring

to

the

him

prosaicand hackneyed

styleis

knowledge

BOOKS

stimulated

portraitgroup,

technical

ON

Vosmaer

the

Syndics'composition, he

artistic

and

"

depict. Obstacles

to

highest endeavor.

his

to

how

well

so

xi

Rembrandt's

small

German

and

of all the

descriptivetext.
and

costlywork

libraries,where
work

in its

monographs

sist
con-

It
will

students

entirety.
edited

by

REMBRANDT

xii

H.

Knackfuss

and

devoted

number
and

Kugler's

be taken

and

valuable

as

the

and

character
its

interestingthan
and

critic,has written

and

Holland."
Rembrandt's

of many

Charles

Wilson,

monograph
Gilbert

The

There
Rembrandt

of
Those

in

of

the

Museum

who

original prints
complete

of

set

with

(1890)

will

the

come

with

country

of

Rembrandt,

Rise

of

the

"

by

the

W.

E.

Dutch

Griffis.

short

by Philip
the

most

original plates

in

and

tion
collec-

Gray

the

of

the

of

collection

Massachusetts.
have

access

to

satisfaction

from

the

to

and

spirit of
reader

St.

in

Petersburg

from

the

lent
excel-

Paris.

Durand,

the

") Claussin,

reviews

enough

the

subject

way.

catalogue by Rovinski,

in touch

Belgium

of

Rembrandt,"

much

of Amand

more

painter

Dutuit.

and

reproductions published

reproductions
To

derive

may

be

can

French

Cambridge,

at

includes

logues
descriptivecata-

Parker

Arts

fortunate

not

are

Fine

Flemish,

critical estimate

Graveur

from

D.

Harvey

Fogg

of

tive
descrip-

exclusive

1896),

prints

Museum

the

Peintre

pleasant

very

the

For

voluminous

Le

dred
hun-

work, which

Masters

been

are

one

art, its strength

Old

"

Etchings

valuable

are

Boston

his

(London,

prints in

and

Rembrandt's

in

("

Hamerton

famous

Crowe,

Blanc, Middleton,
"

on

J. A.

nothing
peculiarities,

There

Bartsch

by

German,

life

etchings have

books.

of the

Eugene Fromentin,

what

has

works, with

trustworthy.
of

weaknesses, and

his

by

Rembrandt's

of

account

of

from

Handbook

"

English

into

containing nearly one

Schools," revised

Dutch

brief

Rembrandt,

to

sixtyreproductions

text.

and

translated

now

the

times

is referred

Republic," condensed

and

of

to

ley's
Mot-

and

tinued
con-

xiii

INTRODUCTION

DIRECTORY

HISTORICAL

in.

COLLECTION

THIS

Portrait

1.

Jacob
dated

and

Frontispiece.

Gallery,London.

National

Signed

1640.

dated

and

OF

PICTURES

THE

OF

Wrestling with the Angel. Berlin Gallery. Signed


1659.
Figures life size. Size : 4 ft. 5T\ in. by 3 ft.

in.

9|

3.

Size

size.

Gallery.

5 ft. 8^

in.

in.

Angel

The

Paris.

Louvre,

Cassel

of Joseph.

Figures life

1656.

dated

Signed and
by 6 ft. 6|

Sons

the

Blessing

Israel

2.

dated

and

Signed

of Tobit.

Family

the

Leaving

Raphael

Size

1637.

ft.

2|f

in.

1 ft. 8" in.

by

Size

5.
and

in.

The

The

Good

Size
The

7.

dated

8.
about

Size

in.

1631.

9.

Christ

1648.

Size

2 ft.

Preaching.

1652.

Size
at
:

dated

1632.

6"

2|"

10.

Portrait

of

12.

Portrait

of Jan

At
1

Date

Louvre, Paris.

Emmaus.

2 ft.

13 in.

Temple.
4jJ in. by

Etching.
by 8" in.

in.

in.

Signed

Signed

and

dated

in.

in the

Size

by

Etching.

by 8f

Presentation

Christ

in.

11^

Samaritan.

10^

and

Louvre, Paris.

Philosopher in Meditation.
1633.

1633.

Etching. Signed

in.

by 4^

dated

6.

and

h\

Killer.

Rat

The

4.

by

Hague. Signed
ft. 6f in.
assigned by Michel,
the

Signed

and

dated

2 ft. If in.

about
Gallery. Painted
1632-1634.
Life size. Size : 3 ft. 2j" in. by 2 ft. If in.
11. Sortie of the Civic Guard.
(TrippenRyks Museum
Life size figures.
huis),Amsterdam.
Signed and dated 1642.
Size : 11 ft. 9| in. by 14 ft. 3^ in.

1647.
13.

Size

Portrait

about

of

Saskia.

9|
an

Petersburg. Signed

Cassel

Six.
in.

Old
and

by 7|

Etching. Signed

and

dated

in.

Woman.
dated

1654.

Cloth

Guild.

Hermitage Gallery,St.
Size : 3 ft. 6| in. by

2 ft. 9 in.
14.

The

Syndics of the

Ryks

Museum

(Trip-

REMBRANDT

xiv

Amsterdam.

penhuis),

figures. Size
15.
11

The

Signed

6 ft. ^ in.

Life

size

in.

H\%

1643.

Etching,

Trees.

Three

8 ft.

by

1661.

dated

and

Size:

8"

in.

by

in.

TABLE

OUTLINE

IV.

IN

1606.
1621.

OF

PRINCIPAL

THE

REMBRANDT'S

in

EVENTS

LIFE

Rembrandt

born

Rembrandt

apprenticed to

Leyden.
the

painter,Jacob

Swa-

van

nenburch.
1624.

studied

Rembrandt

six months

with

Pieter

Lastman

in

Amsterdam.
1627.

Rembrandt's

works, St. Paul

earliest known
; The

(StuttgartMuseum)

in

Prison,

Changers (Berlin

Money

Gallery).
1631.

Rembrandt

1631.

The

Presentation

1632.

The

Anatomy

1633.

The

portraitof

1634.

Rembrandt

removed

to

Amsterdam.

painted.
Lecture
the

painted.

Shipbuilderand
Saskia

married

van

his Wife

painted.

Uylenborch,

June

22,

in Bildt.
Rombertus

Rembrandt's

1637.

(Died in infancy.)
Angel Raphael Leaving Family
Rembrandt's
daughter Cornelia

1638.

son

December

baptized

1635.

of Tobit

born.

15.

painted.
(Died

in

early

childhood.)
bought

house

in the Joden

1639.

Rembrandt

1640.

Rembrandt's

second

daughter born

1640.

Rembrandt's

mother

died.

1640.

The

1641.
1641.
1642.

and

Breestraat.
died.

painted.
Carpenter'sHousehold
Manoah's
Prayer painted.
Titus baptized.
Rembrandt's
son
Sortie of the Civic Guard
(The Night Watch) painted
for

Authorities
birth.

the

are

hall

not

of the

Amsterdam

entirelyunanimous

Musketeers.

as

to

the

date

of

brandt's
Rem-

INTRODUCTION

xv

wife, Saskia, died.

1642.

Rembrandt's

1648.

Christ

1649.

The

1651.

Christ

Appearing

to

1652.

Christ

Preaching

etched.

1656.

Rembrandt's

1656.

Israel

1661.

Portrait

painted.

at Emmaus

Guilder

Hundred

print etched.

Magdalen painted.

bankruptcy.
Sons

Blessing the

of

Joseph painted.

Syndics painted for

of the

the Guild

of

Drapers,

Amsterdam.
1668.

Rembrandt's

1669.

Rembrandt

V.

SOME

Titus

son

died.

IN

Henry

Solms, wife

Bosch

(House
II

holderate

of

HOLLAND

Orange, stadtholder,1625.

of

lia of

William

of

in the

Frederick

Woods)

Henry,

at the

suppressed,and

chief executive

In

republic for twenty

of the

Huis

the

ten

1647.

de Witt

John

Ama-

Princess

built

Hague,

1647.

Orange, stadtholder,

was

RIES
CONTEMPORA-

FAMOUS

REMBRANDT'S

OF

Frederick

died.

1650

the

stadt1653

in

became

Murdered

years.

in 1672.

John
in

Barneveld, Grand

of

all the

May

history of

Pensioner,

the

"

the

Netherlands"

greatest

statesman

(Griffis).Executed

24, 1619.

Michael

de

Ruyter,

"

the Dutch

Marten

Harpertzoon von
1691.
(He defeated

Cornelius

Nelson," died 1676.

Tromp,
the

admiral.

English

1597

Born

fleet under

died

Blake.)

Evertsen, admiral.

Floriszoon, admiral.
Witte
Hendrik

de

With, admiral.

Hudson, navigatorand

last voyage,

discoverer

voyage,

1607,

1610.

Captain Zeachen, discoverer.


Hugo Grotius, father of international
Jan

; first

law, 1583-1645.

Six, burgomaster, bibliophile,


art connoisseur, and
tist,1618-1700.

drama*

REMBRANDT

xvi

1622-1677.
Spinoza,philosopher,
Joost

den

van

Vondel, poet

dramatist,1587-1679.

and

Cats, Grand

Pensionary and poet, 1577-1660.


Constantine
Huyghens, poet.
Gysbart Voet (Latin, Voetius) 1588-1678, professorof

Jacob

Utrecht.

at

Cornells

Jansen, born

Johannes

1585.

Professor

ology
(Latin,Coccejus),1603-1669, professorof theLeyden and, after Erasmus, the father of modern
"

Biblical

criticism."

Kampen, architect,built

in Amsterdam,
Jansz

scriptureinterpretation

Koch
at

van

of

Louvain.

at

J.

logy
theo-

Crabeth

"

Hals, 1584-1666.

Gerard

Honthorst, 1590-1656.

Cnyp,

Albert
Jan

1605-1691.
1596-1656.

Goyen,

van

Ruysdael, 1625-1682.

Jacob

Potter, 1625-1654.

Paul

Lievens, born 1607

Salomon

Koning,

died

after 1672.

1609-1668.

Terburg, 1608-1681.
Berghem, 1620-1683.

Gerard
Nicolas

Steen, 1626-1679.

Adrian

Ostade, 1610-1685.

van

Rembrandt's

pupils:

Ferdinand

"

Bol, 1616-1680.

Flinck, 1615-1660.

Govert
Van

sculptor.

de

Franz

Jan

(Royal Palace)

Keyser, sculptor.
brothers,designersof stained glass.

Painters

Jan

Palais

1648.

Vinckenbrink,

Hendrik

the Het

den

Eeckhont,

1620-1674.

Gerard

Don, 1613-1680.

Nicolas

Maes, 1632-1693.

Juriaen

Ovens, 1623.

Hendrick

Heerschop, born

1644.

1620, entered

Rembrandt's

dio,
stu-

INTRODUCTION

xvii

Fabritius, 1624-1654.

Carl
Samuel

Hoogstraaten,

van

born

1627,

with

Rembrandt,

1640-1650.

Gelder, 1645-1727.

de

Aert
Less

important

Cornells

Verdael,

Johan

CONTEMPORARY

Rubens,

Paul

1577-1640.
1599-1641.

VanJ^ck,

Anthony
Jacob

Jordaens,

Franz

Snyders,
de

Gaspard

1594-1678.
1574-1657.

Craeyer,

1582-1669.

Teniers, 1610-1690.

David
:

van

"

Peter

Spanish

Jan

"

Velascyiez,1599-1660.
1571-1654.

Pacheco,
Cano,

1601-1676.
1576-1656.

Herrera,

1598-1662.

Zurbaran,

Mm21p,
French

1618-1682.

"

Vouet, 1582-1641.

Simon
Charles

Le
Le

Eustache
Italian

Brun,

1619-1690.

Sueur,

1617-1655.

"

Carlo

Dolci,

1616-1686.

Guido

Rem,

1575-1642.

Domenichino,
Francesco

Glabbeck,

1581-1641.

Albani, 1578-1660.

Guercino, 1591-1666.
Sassoferrato, 1605-1685.

Jacobus

Hendricksen,

Drost.

FOREIGN

VI.

Dullaert,

Heyman

vecq,

Flemish

names

PAINTERS

Le-

Adriaen

JACOB

The

like

two

this

much

his

mother

the

keenly

and

brothers,

in

the

end

received

fore
there-

case

brother

him,

enmity

eldest

privilege

this

inequality

of

feeling

In

with

the

also

Jacob's

was

sympathized

favorite.
the

son

and

father,

wealth.

as

privileged

the

tage
disadvan-

people

heir

of

his

grew

and
her

was

between

up

did

Esau.
lot ;

he

as

Jacob

of

younger

great

his

family
from

the

at

was

cob
Ja-

patriarch

was

Among
the

ANGEL

Testament

and

blessing

resented

Jacob

THE

He

Isaac,

became

as

the

Old

the

account.

choicest

coveted

WITH

romance.

of

always

the

sons

on

son

of

history

reads
the

WRESTLING

Esau

great

wrong.

One

Esau

day
and

starved,

his

finding

lentils, begged

some

seized

Jacob

his

offered

He

the

in

came

hunting,
brother

younger
of

portion

chance

brother

from

make

to

the

it

food

cooking

for

sharp

nearly

himself.

bargain.

is called

which

in

"

the

quaint

making
their
of

Bible

him

hungry

give

older
to

in

promise

father

the

language

son.

think

yielded.

his

what

was

he

mess

that

return

blessing
Esau

of

"

was

to
a

the

"

pottage
he

would

saying,

let

instead

younger

careless

"

fellow,
and

so

too

ily
read-

REMBRANDT

But

though

fashion, the

give

the

been

for

man

was

Esau

father

of their

skin

Jacob

skins

of

bade

kids

him

and

seek

and

when

father

been

sell his

would

not

skin,as

Esau

smooth

one.

little later Esau

the

place he

grew

old

apart by

rough, hairy
mother

and

himself

put

neck

and

very

his
a

was

brother.

rich.

He

years
the great wrong
he had done
his familyto his old
remove

that

his

he

had

very angry,

and

Jacob, fearing

place called

became

to

came

found

Padanaram.

cattle farmer
prosperous
married
there also and

large family of children.


he bethought himself of his

with

The

sons

The

superseded. Naturallyhe

his

had

errand, he

same

on
vengeance
for his life,
fled into

had

mother.

it not

go to his father pretending to be Esau,


his blessing. The
trick was
successful,

on

In this

had

son,

hands

Jacob's

upon

vowed

and

in this
birthright
have been willingto

blessingto the younger


trick planned by the
a
nearlyblind,and knew

the touch
and

might

After

fourteen

brother

Esau

He

resolved

him.

home,

and

to be

and
to

ciled
recon-

his brother.

Hardly daring to expect to


be favorably received,he sent in advance
a
large
number
of cattle in three droves as a gift to Esau.
he awaited
Then
over
news
or
night some
message
from
In the night a strange adventure
his brother.
befell him.

There
of

is the way

the

story is

told in

of Genesis.1

the book
"

This

wrestled

the

day.
1

man

And

with
when

Genesis, chapter xxxii.

him
he
verses

ing
until the breaksaw

that

24r-31.

he

pre-

Fr.

Hanfataengl,

John

Photo.

JACOB

WRESTLING

WITH

Berlin

Gallery

THE

ANGEL

Andrew

4c

Son,

So.

againsthim,

vailed not

thigh ; and
of joint,as

wrestled

he

Jacob's

of

thigh

him.

with

the hollow

he touched

hollow

the

ANGEL

THE

WITH

WRESTLING

JACOB

of his
out

was

And

he

said,

the day breaketh.'


And
he said,
go, for
'
And
I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.'
is thy name
And
?
he
he said unto
him, ' What
6

Let

me

'

said, '

Jacob.'

called

no

And

Jacob,

more

hast thou

power

prevailed.'
.

for

I have

rose

And

he blessed

hundred

and

him

So

and

how

he

Now

higher and more


and
real struggle,
when

the

"

and

Esau

his

that

fell

on

four
to

ran

his

neck

reconciled.

he

Jacob
have

was

to

his

wrestlingwith
seen

have

tory
his his-

from
his

own

way,
from

worldly prosperityeven
in this
he is equallydetermined
spiritualconflict. It is a very
Jacob has prevailedonly by ting
put-

wrested

misfortunes.

forth

And

"

him,

picturerepresents
mysteriousadversary. We
determined

thigh;

they wept."

The

how

his

sun

was

him.

the brothers

were

the

wronged advancing with

meet

and

life is

my

Penuel,

upon

passed, for hardly


his
he saw
morning when

life

embraced
:

placePeniel

face, and

to

passed over

this

on

to

and

kissed

hast

and

lame.

he had

men

him,

prince

there.

of the

he halted

halt,or

whom

brother

meet

he

as

he set forth

had

as

men,

him

name

face

God

crisis in Jacob's

The

with

and

called the

and

walked

is,he

shall be

name

Israel ; for

God

And

him

upon

but

with

seen

preserved.

said, i Thy

Jacob

And

"

he

utmost

energy.

It

grand angel,pressingone

is the
knee

moment

into

the

REMBRANDT

hollow

Jacob's

of

his

left

into

looks

side,

right

demanded

blessing

is
of

as

tender

and

Strong

his

is

name,

new

love

brotherly

face

and

condition

his

his

laying

and

thigh

the

in

token

of

the

of

which

this

on

the

grants
for

and

gaze,

hand

release.

gift

stows
be-

he
ter
charac-

new

victory

is

the

beginning.
The

of

story

Raphael

painted,

has

between
like

with

selfish
when

enough
a

new

one

to

win

chapter

and

blessing,

in

on

man's

the
the

to

is

life.

everlasting

the

higher
the
the

good

day

flict
con-

There

Jacob's
in

which

Dragon,

world.

of
is

struggle

hold

can

in

story

impulses

the

for

evil

the

The

angel.

between

day

in

and

stands

and

good

meaning
the

Michael

St.

is

wrestling
human
ideals.

angel
which

heart
The

long
begins

II

BLESSING

ISRAEL

wrestled

Jacob

When
new

THE

Israel,

name,

SONS

with
or

OF

the

received

he

angel

prince,

JOSEPH

of

champion

God.
became

Israel

and

nation,
tribes

of

country

from

the

youngest.

and

jealousy

This
the

One
in

flocks

home,

they thought

hated

Joseph

they

by selling

who

were

journeying

the

lad's

coat

in

wild

When

beast,

Joseph

singular chain
together
Egypt

was

of

again.
the

to

his

mourned
had

quite

distant

him

was

shown

that

was

given charge

himself

so

of

from

their
of

of

the
men

they dipped
carried
been

it

to

devoured

dead.

manhood

brought

headquarters

had

have

as

to

all out

were

company

and

to

son

anger

forever

Then

blood

circumstances
There

Egypt.

grown

Joseph
he

they

to

to

they plotted

when

him

sons

the

and

rid

the

next

was

aroused

were

goat's

Israel,who, supposing

by

field

who

brothers,

day

twelve

these

Among

favoritism
older

the

up

distributed

was

Joseph,

was

Israelite

great

grew

Palestine.

get rid of him.


some

the

sons

whom

among

favorite

of

of

twelve

called

now

father's

with

founder

his

Israel,

the

to

the

for
able

sore

the
and

sellingand

in

Egypt,

the

brothers

famine,
sale

of

and
corn.

trustworthy

distributing

REMBRANDT

the

of

stores

from

food.

So

their home

when

Israel's

older

sons

Egypt to buy corn


they
had to apply to Joseph, whom
they little suspected
of being the brother they had
so
cruellywronged.
There
is a pretty story, too long to repeat here, of
how Joseph disclosed himself
thren,
breto his astonished
and forgave them
their cruelty,
how
he sent
for his father to come
to Egypt to live near
him,
how
there was
a
joyfulreunion, and how
they all
came

to

"

lived

after."

happily ever

When

the

desired

time

drew

bestow

to

his last

first of all his beloved


two

own

Now
it was

blessingfrom
his

among

love.
of
how

This

the
his

he

had

proved
have

may

old

the

was

receive

it

himself

was

the

had

younger

patriarchs,

the choicest
found

younger

one,

worthy of

most

his faith in the wisdom

Perhaps, too,

boyhood

own

of the

Israel,however, had

shaken

custom.

that account

should

that

sons

die, he

Manasseh.

traditions

his father.
own

Joseph,who

and

who

son

Israel to

And
blessingon his sons.
Joseph brought him his

son

boys,Ephraim
accordingto the

the eldest

for

near

been
son,

he

made
and

remembered

unhappy
how

he

had

cause
beon

tempted to deceit.
Whatever
the reason,
he surprisedJoseph at the
last moment
by showing a preferencefor the younger
of the. two grandsons,Ephraim, expressingthis preference
by layingthe righthand, instead of the left,
his head.
The
on
blessing was
spoken in these
solemn

Abraham

been

words
and

"

God,

Isaac

did

before

walk,

whom
the

God

my

fathers

which

fed

BLESSING

ISRAEL

all my
redeemed

me

narrative

Ephraim, it
father's hand,
Not

to

head.

so,

And
father

my

his father

refused,and

know

he

it :

JOSEPH

11

multitude

head

the

upon

he held

saw

up

his
head

for

this is the

born
first-

his head.'

And

upon

I know

said, '

great ; but

shall be greater than

Joseph

Ephraim's
Joseph said unto

shall become

also

also shall be

When

"

which

it from

remove

put thy right hand

that

right hand
displeasedhim ; and

Manasseh's

father, '

relates
laid his

of

unto

OF

long unto this day, the Angel


from all evil,bless the lads."

his father

that

SONS

life

me

The

THE

it,my

his

people, and

son,

he

trulyhis

he, and

of nations.'

brother
younger
his seed shall become

And

he blessed them

that

day,saying, In thee shall Israel bless,saying,God


make
thee as Ephraim, and as Manasseh;' and he
set Ephraim before Manasseh."
As we
the picturewith the story, it is
compare
the figures. We
interested
are
naturally
easy to identify
in Joseph as the hero of so many
romantic
adventures.
As a high Egyptian official,
he makes
and wears
rich turban.
a
a
dignifiedappearance
His face is gentleand amiable,as we
should expect
of a loving son
brother.
and forgiving
'

In

the

wrestled
from

old

we

by nightwith

years

by

have

forehead,and

the

sorrow

the

see

the

The

and

and
same

made

deep lines
flowingbeard

cut

Jacob

same

Angel

his life of selfishness.

here, softened
The

man

of

was

Genesis,chapter xlviii. verses

redeemed

strong face is
tender
character

has become

white.
1

who

17-20.

by
in

love.
the

snowy

REMBRANDT

12

The
sit

to

Joseph
the

fair

head

humbly

head

We

see

to

all

interest

his

for
his
other

well

The

in

Perhaps

the
the

little

for

most

circle

is

manhood,
tender
of

the

trying

she

is

the

gently
hand

smile

to

seems

in

tude
solici-

his

fingers

lift

to

shares

mined
deter-

old

and

his

puts

solemn

Joseph

respect

mother

The

head.

picture

childhood,

He

wrist,

father's

content.

preference

by

first-born.

ingly.
mus-

patriarch's

his

manifest.

filial

his

between

perplexity

the

on

very

the

trembles,

own

Asenath,

of

Though

itself

makes

his

looking

moment

hand

his

and

spirit

is

fully,
resent-

over

wife

beyond,

it

his

right

almost

passing

concerned.

dim

are

under

that

together

grandfather's

Joseph's
stands

mother,

children's

eyes

brother's.

his

to

hand

that

sees

son

bending

alertly,

up

his

kneel

Ephraim
his

himself,"

and

duty,

children

receive

looking

he

as

last

little

to

Manasseh

hand,

his

The

the

bedside,

by

the

him.

supports

strengthened

"

for

bed

the

on

up

has

patriarch

dying

to

as

if

grandfather's

the

Ephraim.
in

study
and
and

the

old
sacred

family.

age,

three

ages

brought
ties

of

human

of

man,

together
life,

Ill

Apocrypha,
much

bound

that

is,

the

manner

in

Bibles

in

FAMILY

THE

is found

Tobit

story of

The

very

LEAVING

EAPHAEL

ANGEL

THE

Old

the

and

the

written

books

of

formerly

Bible, and

of the

between

is called

in "what

collection

TOBIT

OF

New

the

Testament.
The

story

Assyria, conquered
of

the

family

Tobias.

That

was

made

was

his

and

their

being

the

king.

provide food

to

son

Tobit,
to

purveyor

business

them

among

and

Anna,

settled in Nineveh,

man,

is, it

Assyria,

wife

ot

King

Israel, he led away

of

into

Tobit, his

They

honest

an

of

Enemessar,

people

the

captive

them

many

when

that

goes

for

the

king's household.
In

this

which

money,

hands

of

Media.
many
he

office

he

kind

placed

he

Gabael,
Tobit

his

delighted in feeding

less

the

good

up

keeping

safe

for

lived

who

generous

for

lay

to

Israelite

an

was

deeds

able

was

man,

and

ot

the

in

at

Bages

and

he

fellow

fortunate

hungry

deal

in

did

exdes

clothing

the

naked.

Sennacherib

When
Jews

were

slain

and

Tobit, finding their

secretly.

One

was

left

king

lying

of
in

Assyria,
the

neglected bodies,

night, after

some

such

many

street,

buried

deed

and
them

of mercy,

REMBRANDT

14

his

eyes,

causing
that

prayed

he

death.

obtain

Tobias

the

called

left there

money

first seek

must

his

with

guide

for

"
when
says the story,
he found
Raphael that

man,

he

But

knew

go with
placeswell ?

not

thou

'

thee, and

with

lodgedwith
himself

our

brother

Azarias.

the young

man's

they went
evening to the
fish

devoured
Take

the

river

leaped out
him.

the fish.'

fish,and

said,i Open

drew

angel.

an

him,

'

Canst

thou

those

I will go

for

The

So

went

man

of the
the

Then

have

angel gave

they

went

forth

down

to

river,and

angel

said

wash

would
unto

self,
himhave

him,

the young
laid hold of
man
it to land.
To whom
the angel

And

the fish and

safely.' So the
him, and

was

to

went

dog with them."


in the
their journey,
they came
Tigris,and they lodged there.

the young

when
a

on

"

But

journey.

he

well

his

Rages

to

angel said,i

way
Gabael.'

to

as

the

unto

the

I know

"As

And

the

name

the

both, and

whom

To

Tobias

son

knowest

? and

Rages

to

me

said

he

and

make

to

Gabael.

Therefore,"

seek

distress

began

much
him
good advice
gave
and then desired him to go
of life,

manner

He

his

In

might die, and

over

came

and

to him

to

films

total blindness.

he

for
preparations

"

White

sad affliction befell him.

young
when

take

the

man

did

gall,and put
the angel
as

it up
manded
com-

they had roasted the fish,


they both went on their way,

they did eat it : then


Then
till they drew near
the young
to Ecbatane.
said to the angel,i Brother
Azarias,to what use
man
he said unto
is the gallof the fish ?
And
him, It
'

'

John
Maison

Ad.

THE

Braun

"

C:e..

ANGEL

Andrew

Photo.

LEAVING

RAPHAEL
The

Louvre,

THE

Paris

FAMILY

OF

TOBIT

"

Son,

Sc.

RAPHAEL

ANGEL

good

is

LEAVING

anoint

to

After

with
saw

determined

time

whiteness

17

in his

there

were

further

no

Here they
to Ecbatane.
they came
of Tobit, and when
Raguel, a kinsman
Sara, the daughter,he loved her and

to make

fourteen

Rages

TOBIT

till

adventures

Tobias

OF

"

incident

this curious

lodged

FAMILY

that hath

man

he shall be healed.'

eyes, and

to

THE

her his wife.

days

He

therefore

ried
tar-

Ecbatane, sending Azarias

at

for the money.

This

on

delaylengthened the

allotted for the

journey,but at last the company


drew
Azarias
to Nineveh,
near
or
Raphael, and
Tobias,with the bride,the treasure, and the precious
"

fishgall.Raphael then
the gallfor his father's
of

cause

fell upon
forth
ran

strake

eyes.
great excitement.
neck

the

toward

unto

gave

the
and

him,

of the

of

her

gall on

directions to

Their

arrival

Anna

ran

stumbled

hold

of

but

good hope, my father.' And


began to smart, he rubbed them ; and the
of his eyes :
pilledaway from the corners
saw

Now
Azarias

his son,

he

Tobit

and

fell upon
Tobias

for all that he had

his
:

and

son

he

'
eyes, saying, Be
when
his eyes

of

he

the

was

also went

his father

his father's

use

forth,and

Tobit

son.

door, and
took

Tobias

whiteness
and

when

his neck."
were

full of

done

for

to
gratitude

them, and,

sulting
con-

together as to how they could reward him,


decided to give him
half the treasure.
So the old
called the angel, and
man
said, Take half of all
that ye have
in safety."
brought, and go away
Then
Raphael took them both apart, and said unto
them, Bless God, praisehim, and magnify him, and
"

"

REMBRANDT

18

for the

praise him

thingswhich

he

hath

of all that live."


you in the sight
introduction
the
this solemn
With
that he had

to tell Tobit

his dead

buried

hid

not

were

been

and

countrymen,
from
him, and

remembered.

with

unto

angel goes

him

when

that his

that

concludes

He

done

he had
deeds

good

his prayers
showing who

by

on

were

he

reallyis.
"

which

"

Then

them,

'

before

out

they

their faces

mine,

but

by

unto

but

see

for I go

up

to

him

they saw
The pictureshows
suddenly rises from

they

and

strikes out

without,while

the

open

door

cowering beside
with
more

gaze.

that

bold,follow

; wherefore

give

me.'

God

"

midst

when

of the

when

Tobias

Anna

and

the bride

the
The
awe,

radiant

the

angel

little company

and

the

ye

thanks

And

flightthrough the

with

appear

drink, but

nor

Tobit

and

did

more."

no

the

any

came

the moment

us

you ;
of
favor

days I

eat

sent

him

them.

wonder

therefore

his

on

strong swimmer.
knees

neither

arose,

of

these

with

well

go

God

our

Now

which

he said unto

But

not

All

I did

saints,and

God.

For

ever.

vision.

the

it shall

the will of

for

you

they feared

therefore.

holy angels,

seven

glory of the Holy One.


troubled,and fell upon

both

not, for

Fear

praise him

in

of

the

were

for

praiseGod

did

the

present the prayers

in and

go

of

Raphael, one

am

air like

fall

on

Sara

their
stand

frightenedlittle dog
older people are
come
overbut

Tobias

vision with

and

Sara,

rapturous

IV

THE

The

RAT

been

have

of

figures

and

by

of

speaking,
made

on

first

substance

this

coating,

Next
which
lines

he

has

and

surface

of

with
his

the

is that

engraving
picture

on

is

his

the

of

properly

drawing

The

with

plate

copper

without

has

of

with

between
etcher

draws

grooves,

thus

impressions
lines

metal

The

etcher
of

layer

picture through
it is

as

in

acid

an

metal

affecting

called.

the

bath

along

the

parts

tected
pro-

etching ground.

plate

the

an

or

drawn

the

by
The

the

but

kind,

etching ground,"

"

bites,"

"

the

and

or

immerses

he

of

the

drawing,

needle.

brandt's
Rem-

instead

it

etching
of

means

call

one

An

surface

the

of

drawing

by

copper

waxy

would

this

kind.

lines

by

in

that

once

another

indicated
You

far
from

at

see

of

is

etching.

an

covers

some

color.

fact

it is in

will

Killer

objects are

masses

and

Rat

the

thus

reproductions
You

paintings.
picture

examined

have

pictures we

collection

KILLER

this
ink

picture

picture
and

plate.
the

work

the

former

of

plate

an

wet

the
the

the

by

that

to

the

and
in

lines
latter

acid

surface,

paper

engraver

cuts

and

its

taken

notice

will

tools, while
the

be

may

pressing

You

into

cut

only

cuts

the

the
ference
dif-

that
his

ing
fill-

of

plate
draws
lines.

REMBRANDT

20

word

The
and

etching is

derived

famous

etchers

the most
Dutch

among:

and

Rembrandt
have

but

examine

is

ago,
are

libraries and

museums

collection

the

scenes

in

idea

these,and

of

of

his work

of

been

should

we

if

did not

we

and

very rare
carefullypreserved in the
are,

of
Museum

this

etching of

Rat

Killer is

of

have

picturesof this kind.


sions
Impresdirectlyfrom the originalplates,over

valuable, and

The

in the world

etzen,

of his

some

centuries

where

the Dutch

artists.

easilyfirst

limited

made
two

German

from

course,

the

world.

of

Fine

the Rat

great

There

is

Arts, Boston,

Killer may

be

seen.

of many
subjectsfrom the
life which
surrounded
the artist.

common

In smaller

towns

and

mechanics

went

from

one

then as well as now,


villages,
there were
to be
no
large shops where goods were
bought. Instead, all sorts of peddlersand traveling

grinder,the ragman,
This pictureof the
occupation.

house
the

Killer

Rat

greater in old than

in

house

fiddler, and

pest of

The

to

rats

the

"

others.

many

very odd
much
course,

suggests

is, of

countries.

new

knife

In

Europe,

and

in the northern
countries
perhaps particularly
of Holland
and Germany, the old towns
and villages
have
long been infested with these troublesome
creatures.

There
relates

how

for his

sins,was

swam

across

curious

some

are
a

legends about

certain

Bishop Hatto,
attacked by an
army

the

island tower, where

Rhine

and

they made

as

invaded
short

them.
a

One

judgment

of rats which

him
work

in

his

of their

Photographed

from

original

John

etching

THE

Museum

RAT

of

Fine

KILLER

Arts,

Boston

Andrew

i-

Son,

THE

was

overrun

who

so

with

charmed

old
like

bewitched

him,

one

him

his

that

leading

drowned.2

were

ciously
picturelooks suspiseems

which
his

perching on

It

music

followed

in the

the rats

called Hamelin

town

his enchanted
and

magician.

23

magic piperappeared

river and

Killer

have

with

them

Rat

until

rats

they gathered about


till they came
to the
The

KILLER

tells how

Another

victim.1

RAT

if he

as

crawl

must

about
friskily

shoulders.

reminds

He

of a fairy tale, with


his
out
ogre
strange tall cap, his kilted coat, and baggy trousers,
one

of

some

the money

pouch at
shoulder,

his

belt,the

fur

mantle

flung
and
the fierce-looking
sword
over
one
dangling at his side. But there is no magic in
of killing
his way
He
has some
rats.
rat poison
his apprentice,
little creato sell which
a miserable
ture,
carries in a largebox.
The
picture gives us an idea of an old Dutch
built
The
low,
villagestreet.
cottages are
very
with
The
of
walls are
steep overhanging roofs.
thick masonry,
for these were
days when in small
and outlying districts
house
villages
every man's
"

was

his

castle,"that is,every
first of

all,as

doors

were

man's

place

of

house

was

defense

tended,
in-

against

outlawry.
The

entrance

an

upper

on

its

and

own

householder

lower

hinges.
could

made

in two

sections,

part, or wing, each swinging


Whenever

open

See

Southey's poem,

See

Browning's poem,

the upper

knock

wing

came,

and

Bishop Hatto.
The Pied Piper of Hamelin.

the

address

REMBRANDT

24

caller

the
he

through

as

and

was

lower

admit

to

part
could

door's

not

being

need

houses
and

of
has

the

lower

tale
collection
in
But

back,

above

and

the
rats

fastened

turns

him.

the

the

family
ern
mod-

our

plan,

same

gate,

while

which

as

away

little
at

this

listens

carries

pole

as

in

pushes
with

rat

grand,

turbaned

the

lous
marvelfrom

the

trophies
his

hand.

his

hand

disgust.

himself,

on

to

poison,

long

if

fakirs.
leans

have

the
he

the

to

he

must

of

tion
inten-

no

and

door

latter
effects

has

wandering

by

impatiently

grotesque

awestruck

of

picture

upper

The

householder

the

the

the

on

dead

basket

apprentice,
rather

of

tell
of

the

as

the

many

after

upon

only

story.

to

in

man

imposed

wing,

by

doors."

old

opened

Killer's

Rat

made

doors
Dutch

"

being

He

In

truder
in-

house

and

knock,

unawares.

as

cautious

his

unwelcome
the

into

the

opening

an

way

at

see

we

Thus

his

press

taken

known
The

him.

who

learning

before

errand,

opened

be

not

his

what

first

window,

looks

The

up

figure

PHILOSOPHER

THE

Ever
have

since
been

people
of

reasons

whence
of

the

Some

answer.

of

study

profession.

They

times
In

of

movements

they

had

any

called

were

as

revealed

were

them

by

of

together

alchemists,

esteem

and

lives

who

were

quite

ous
numer-

to

is,

passed

teachers.

as

that

of

lovers

down

to

about.

their

to

affairs.
drew

our

position

earth

the
make

new

great

discover

if
men

known
of

destiny
the

tions.
constella-

examined

who

men

studied

plans,

of

more

These

future

the

which
to

Some

tried

they

out

the

found

men

human

other

were

tried

have

were

and

and

mapping

substances

putting

in

some

are

languages.

stars

astrologers,

There
various

the

going

Greeks,

been

think

to

are,

or

centuries

the

influence

horoscopes,

persons

of

subjects

more

the

as

passing

they

as

single occupation

men

modern

various

the

the

great

has

about

to

philosophers,
word

this

in

the

and

in

called
and

wisdom,
own

held

such

are

all their

ancient

nation,

were

were

as

the

Among

brains

they

given

problems

intellectual
and

have

there

history

are

we

questions

men

these

their

whither

perplexing

human

things

Why

and

came,

of

puzzled

who

things.

we

very

beginning

the

MEDITATION

IN

is

composed,

things.
ambition

the

These
was

to

REMBRANDT

26

change baser
preparationwhich would
into gold. This hoped-for preparationwas
metals
stone."
philosopher's
spoken of as the
modern
Now
learning has changed these vague
placed
experiments into exact science ; astronomy has reand chemistry
has taken the placeof
astrology,
brought
alchemy. Nevertheless these changes were
and in the 17th century,
about
only very gradually,
lived and
Rembrandt
when
painted this picture,a

find

some

"

ideas of astronomy
by the new
discoveries
taught by Galileo in Italy,and the new
in Belgium.
Helmont
in chemistry made
by Van
Many philosophersstill held to the old beliefs of
astrologyand alchemy.
had
It is not
one
likelythat Rembrandt
any
philosopherin mind as the subjectof his picture.
That his philosopheris something of a scholar,we
judge from the table at which he sits,littered with

great stir was

writing

made

materials.

Yet

he

seems

to

care

less for

reading than for thinking,as he sits with hands


claspedin his lap and his head sunk upon his breast.
He wears
a
loose,flowinggarment like a dressinghead
is protected by a small
and
his bald
gown,
His is an ideal placefor a philosopher's
skull cap.
musings. The walls are so thick that they shut out
A
of the world.
all the confusing noise
single
window
lets in lightenough to read by through its
It is a bare little room,
to be sure,
tinypanes.
its ungarnished walls and
stone-pavedfloor,
but if a philosopherhas the ordinaryneeds of life
suppliedhe wants no luxuries. He asks for nothing
many
with

THE

than

more

to

PHILOSOPHER

IN

MEDITATION

29

quietand uninterruptedleisure

in which

his meditations.

pursue

Our

philosopheris well taken care of ; for while


his thoughts are on higher thingsand eternal truths,
old woman
is busy at the fire in the corner.
an
Evidentlyshe looks after the material and temporal
thingsof life. She kneels on the hearth and hangs
a
on

kettle

over

the cheerful

her face and

gleams

blaze.

here

The

and there

firelight
glows
on

the brasses

above.
Here is promise
hanging in the chimney-piece
of something good to come,
and when
the philosopher
is roused from his musings there will be a hot
supper ready for him.
There
which
two
are
mysteriesin the room
arouse
our
curiosity.In the wall behind the philosopher's
door heavilybuilt with large
chair is a low, arched
subterranean
hinges. Does this lead to some
cavern,
and what secret
does it contain ? Is it a laboratory
where, with alembic and crucible,the philosopher
searches the secrets of alchemy and tries to find the
Is some
hid treasure
stored
"philosopher'sstone ?
there,as preciousand as hard to reach as the
up
hidden
truths the philosophertries to discover ?
At the right side of the room
a broad, winding
staircase rises in largespirals
and disappearsin the
We
follow it with wondering eyes
gloom above.
which
try to pierce the darkness and see whither it
leads.
chamber
with
Perhaps there is an
upper
windows
the philosopher
to the sky whence
open
studies the stars.
case
This place with its winding stairwould
be just such an observatory
astroas
an
"

REMBRANDT

30

like.

would

loger
tower

his

passed
Our
been

hillside

the

on

with

all

not

in

his
The

peace.

falls

light

thinking

all
little

of

room

penetrating
some

gleams

dark
of

bold
in

mysteries,
the

ideal.

are

meditations

and

illumines

throws
and

is
whose
at

is

waning

the

the

upper

brings

out

bare

The

structure.

philosopher

over

tion
satisfac-

The

This

has

problems

close.

relief,

its

his
rich

his

It

transfigured.
for

dwelling-place

of

to

into

curves

is

end

hair

traced

found

face.

stairway

face
if

window

venerable

beautiful

the

the

the

through

the

Galileo

his

his

has

he

drawing

is

man

Even

thought.
solved

philosopher's
spiral

of

old

an

winters,

many

been

day

the

once

where

Florence

is

too,

lines

many

at

suggests

years.

philosopher,

by

it

near

declining

whitened

have

Indeed

last

indeed

fit

thoughts,

lighted

by

VI

GOOD

THE

The
Jesus

to

teach

to

show

what
the

was

"

down

and

him,

on

But

"

he

where

his

of

care

he

took

and

said
thou

repay

and

two

pence,

spendest

and

him

'

Take

more,

to

of

when

an

him
come

"

thee.'
1

St.

Luke,

chapter

x.

verses

set

inn,

30-37.

came

had

bound

them

gave
care

he

when

morrow

and

journeyed,

and

wine,

looked

side.

and

him,

saw

likewise
and

him,

saw

to

the

he

came

he

And

other
as

he

brought

when

place, came

the

on

oil

on

him,

unto

the

him

departed,
there

side.

other

went

in

And

out

to

stripped

and

way

when

and

him,

him.

Jerusalem

chance

by

Samaritan,

and

beast,

own

at

was

passed by

pouring

wounds,

that

the

on

he

was

on

to

was

this

and

him,

And

priest

certain

which

dead.

half

when

Levite,

thieves,
wounded

and

passed by

he

him,

from

among

certain

and

conduct

down

went

man

fell

him

object

is,

"

raiment,

leaving

that

by

certain

his

The

neighborly

true

related

was

parable,

as

lesson.

moral

was

and

Samaritan

lawyer

story

Jericho,
of

certain

story

Good

the

of

story

SAMARITAN

passion
com-

up

him
and

his
on

took

he

departed,

to

the

and

host,

ever
whatso-

again

will

REMBRANDT

32

The

of

point

Jesus

story is

plain,and

very

when

the

lawyer which one of the three passers-by


he was
a
neighbor to the wounded
man,
reply, He that shewed
mercy.' Then
simply, Go, and do thou likewise."

asked
was

forced

the

'

"

to

said Jesus

"

the

Though

of

scene

the

tine,
story is laid in Pales-

of incident

it is the sort

which

one

imagine

can

So
taking place in any country or period of time.
that Rembrandt, in repreit seems
perfectly
proper
senting
the subject,
show
should
old Dutch
an
us
The
when
scene.
etching illustrates that moment
the Good
Samaritan
arrives at the inn, followed
by
the wounded
The

traveler mounted

buildingis a quaintpieceof
doors

arched
an

eye to

we

may

and

windows.

attacks
possible
from

see

the

the

make

it

it look

and

and

like

with

built with

was

thieves

windows

surface,and

place does

of the

from

architecture

outlaws,

thick

walls

miniature

tress.
for-

lonelyspot, and inns are few and


The
bling
plasteris cracking and crum-

between.
from

That

the small

of masonry,
which
This is a
far

his horse.

on

On

hours

of
appearance
great thrift on the part

betoken

not

owners.

the whole

the present

occasion,during the

of the

are
day, doors and windows
of an inn.
open after the hospitablemanner
The
host stands
in the doorway, greeting the
Samaritan
is explaining
strangers, and the Good

working

the situation
have
the

horse

wounded

to him.
come

by

the

traveler.

In the

forward

time

mean

the

bridle,while

the inn

hostler's
a

man

boy

vants
ser-

holds

lifts off the

Photographed

from

original

John

etching

THE

Museum

SAMARITAN

GOOD

of

Fine

Arts,

Boston

Andrew

"

Son,

Sc.

THE

About

In the

the
a

rear

in

side.

Some

from

draws

woman

from

heedless of the
about

the

search

of

water

from

of

give

there

Fowl
is

with

such

scene

scratch

dog at one
idle curiosity
a

It is little touches

yard.

the

signsof lifa
ing
a well,lower-

long well-sweep,

door.

the

looks

into the

which

usual

food, and

within

one

35

the

end

stir about

the window

like these

SAMARITAN

dooryard are

bucket

the

GOOD

vividness

and

reality.
There

is also

remarkable

in
expressiveness
tells the story at a glance. You
the Good
Samaritan
is saying,as
his left hand, and
can
guess
you

figureswhich
see
justwhat
gestures with

inn-keeper's
reply. Already
into

money
listens

and

the wallet

he
he

has

the
can

he
the

fered
put the prof-

carries at

his

belt,

He
given him.
his guest'ssingularkindness
may
to a stranger,but with him business is business,
and his place is to carry out his guest'swishes.
You
how the hostler's boy magnifieshis office,
see
to
attentively
at
privatelywonder

the orders

swaggering with legswide apart. Even the feather


in his cap
bristles with
importance. This bit of
with the almost tragicexpression
comedy contrasts
of

the wounded

him
hands
the

to hurt

seems

in

an

agony

gentleman

The

man.

at

him

very

of

pain.

the window

stolid fellow

much,
He
of

and

seems

he
to

his recent

who

lifts

claspshis
be telling
tune.
misfor-

it will be
critically,
study the picturemore
the importantfiguresare
to notice how
interesting
massed
togetherin the centre, and how the compoTo

REMBRANDT

36

is

sition

built

and

traveler,
is

form

emphasized

stairway
To

at

must

of

lines

and

the

pleased
that

that

he

composition

his

great

work,

and

German

extravagantly.

it

poet,

is

of

light
wrote

Latin

two

the
he

interesting
Goethe,

right.

kinds

Rembrandt

that

the

etching,

effects

etched
show

to

seem

the

different

the

with

and

the

at

of

varying

1633,

of

wainscot

picture

designed

would

with

the

the

date

pyramidal

well-sweep

all

wounded

the
This

character

the

the

Below

shadow.

This

the

produce

of

the

by

left,

Samaritan's

figure.

attentively

which

meaning

and

fully

examine

name

the

from

the

at

Good

body

again

left,

the

appreciate

one

his

have

you

the

the

line

stairway

the
of

along

shoulder

right

down

outline

the

follow

and

Draw

pyramid.

head

inn-keeper's

the

and

into

words

plate
was

to

admired

self.
himwell
learn
the

VII

illustrates

is

According

Lord

in

the

child

Bethlehem

miles

of
the

from

where

the

month

old,

temple

who

his

the

worship

place

where

all the

special
day

temple,

"

name

And
was

seph,
Jo-

him

the

to

presentation

in

place

of

great

religiousceremonies

were

from

the

party coming

up

would

taking

infant

very

strange

Luke1

relates

behold,
Simeon

devout, waiting
1

St.

there
;

Jesus

Luke*

the

the

man

in

same

consolation

chapter

But

presented

was

any

The

on

in the
gelist
evan-

circumstances.
a

was

and

for

attract

not

thing occurred.
the

country

worshippers.

the

among

the

when

St.

the

time.

attention

about

husband

her

was

religious observance

some

the

temple

the

many

Ordinarily,
for

of

capital,

was

brought

Jews,

ceremony

Now

temple.

the

devout

were

and

Mary

four

about

he

to

born

was

Jewish

the

When

was.

time,

dedicated,

or

town

Jerusalem,

mother

city for

great

of

that

at

Jesus

small

Christ.

Jesus

Jews

old.

month

Judsea,

city

the

presented/'

"

was

about

when

of

infancy
of

custom

Presentation

the

of

picture

story of the

to

male

every

the

the

story which

The

TEMPLE

THE

IN

PRESENTATION

THE

ii.

verses

whose

Jerusalem
was

man

of
25-35.

just and

Israel

and

REMBRANDT

38

the

Holy

unto

him

Ghost

was

by

the

death, before

he

Holy
had

And

him.

upon

Ghost

that

he

the Lord's

seen

it was

revealed

should
Christ.

not

see

And

temple : and when


child Jesus, to do for
the
him after the custom
of the law, then took he him
up in his arms, and blessed God, and said,Lord, now
lettest thou
depart in peace, according
thy servant
the

Spiritinto
parents brought in the

he

by

came

thy word

to

which

thou

for

hast

mine

eyes

the

have

seen

thy salvation

the face of all ple,


peoGentiles and the glory of

prepared before

lightto lightenthe
thy people Israel.
marveled
And
at those
Joseph and his mother
And
Simeon
spoken of him.
things which were
blessed them, and said unto Mary his mother, Behold
this child is set for the fall and risingagain of many
shall be spoken
for a sign which
in Israel ; and
against; that the thought of many hearts may be
a

"

revealed."
In the

picturewe

find

ourselves,as

it were,

among

temple,looking at the group


the pavement in front of us
Mary and Joseph
on
with two
and
or
Simeon, kneeling before a priest,
It is a Gothic cathedral,in whose
three onlookers.

the

worshippersin

the

"

hither and thither.


people move
At
long flightof steps leadingto a
by a huge canopy.
throne, which is overshadowed
the high priestseated
At the top of the steps we
see
with hands
outstretched,receivingthe people who
dim

recesses

many
the right is a

throng up
that

stairway. It was
Mary and Joseph were
the

towards

way
this stair-

making

their way,

Fr.

Hanfataengl,

John

Photo.

THE

IN

PRESENTATION
The

Hague

THE

Gallery

TEMPLE

Andrew

"

Son,

So.

THE

PRESENTATION

the

when

Simeon

aged

in the child

his

face

from

he

one

nized
recog-

had

his mother's

thanksgiving.
him

His

long
arms,

and

pavement

robe, falls about

or

cymar,

in

41

them, and

the

marble-tiled

to heaven

TEMPLE

saw

carried

the babe

the

on

THE

first

they

expected. Taking
he kneels

IN

raises

dered
embroi-

in rich folds

about the tinyswaddled


claspshis arms
figure.
tening
Mary has dropped on her knees beside him, liswith happy wonder.
to his words
Joseph,
justbeyond,looks on with an expressionof inquiry.
carries two
turtle doves
the thank
He
as
offering
law.
His
required of the mother
by the religious
bare feet contrast
and
with
unkempt appearance
dress of Mary.
the neat
The
tall prieststanding
he

as

before
a

extends

them

gesture of

gleams

benediction.

his strange

on

the

upon

the

below.

venerable

few

over

people

Two

Simeon's

with
are

dazzlingbrilliancy
the babe, the smiling
with
Simeon
flowing
any heed
of those who

pay

three

stare

three

behind

man

to

and

are

to the

climb
the

at
curiously

others

stillmore

puts his turbaned

terested.
in-

head

at the
shoulders,peering inquisitively

child,as if trying to
remarkable

or

about

There

One

of

his outstretched

beard.

but

are

the group
in
ray of light

headdress,lightsup
face

stairwayturn

group

broad

soft round

strange incident.
the

falls with

hair and

There

towards

hand, and
mother, and
white

his hands

in him.
a

sort

of

see

what

the

old

man

finds

so

Beyond, two old beggars approach


good-natured interest. They

quaintlydressed,one

of them

wearing a

very tal]

REMBRANDT

42

time
It

The

Rembrandt

painter

the

out

The

child

the

daily
the

were

seated

it would

Dutch

in

but

the

original touching
In

small
The

which
shall

in

ones

beautiful

central

parts

the

all

carefully

and

of

the

often

see

the

was

in

are

darkest

cathedral,

Rembrandt

surroundings.
such

were

at

at

the

his

saw

Christ-

the

right

of

he

as

and

the

men

like

were

aquaintance.

from

Aramaic
is

nothing

picture,

contrast,

group

such

lost

to

of

its

beauty.

figures

the

thought

in

story

process

the

studying

the

he

so

burghers

translating

like

Dutch,

settle

the

was

him,

Amsterdam,

of

destroyed

cathedral

looking

beggars

beggars

respectable
was

the

the

to

going

wooden

the

in

look

and

coming

him

known

worship
as

scene

people

about

It

of

house

about

temple

Gothic

very

illustrates.

nothing

Jewish

before.

centuries

finest

old

scene

it

event

knew

the

of

architecture
many

actual

the

closely represents

have

to

seem

this

that

supposed

be

not

must

alone

these

as

affairs.

others'

notice

to

folk

humble

Such

cap.

his

painted,
parts

of

between
soft

the

pictures.

very

composition.
light

of

style

famous,

how

the

even

the

dimness

illustrates
very

notice

must

you

and

the
of

on

the

remoter

work
which

for
we

VIII

CHRIST

read

We
Jesus

in

that

he

evangelists'record

the

about

went

the

(or

gospel

PREACHING

Sabbath

on

the

the

people

in

he

day
the

nesaret,

scribes

The

popularity,

and

hypocrisy.

The

sayings

hard

and

too

often

they

Jesus

himself

when

John

inquire
"

The
In

his

into

laden

mission,
the

whom

dignitaries

pompously

in

by

in

he

of

for,
to

back

kind
the

the

himself.

hope

of

it

him

to

message,

we

that

see

preacher's
and

There
is

and

them."

the

weary

"

him,

audience.

to

to

that

his

poor

followers,
came

sent

gathering,
the

his

Preaching,

just the

called
the

of

messengers

Christ

intended
he

class

of

hear

to

his
their

the

was

gospel preached

of

of

are

is

message

his

of

many

eager

this

in

Gen-

exposed

it

large part

Baptist's

picture

hearers

most

were

lake

towns.

found

So

accept,

rejoiced

have

poor

this

to

he

to

tain-side.,
moun-

jealous

rich

and

proud

the

were

of

talked
the

on

their

because

angry

the

synagogue

he

of

of

streets

formed

the

shore

Pharisees

who

unhappy

and

the

and

the

often

more

the

on

in

in

of

kingdom

air, sometimes

open

again

or

the

preached

but

sometimes

of

life

the

preaching

country

news)

good

Sometimes

Heaven.

the

of

true,

heavy-

are

few

standing

finding something

to

REMBRANDT

44

looks
need

Jesus

But

criticise.

pays

into the faces

down

His

his words.

attention to them

no

of the listeners who

he

as

most

pulpitis a square coping-stone


the people gather about him in

courtyard,and
convenient
to them.
most
circle in the positions
a
is no
There
formality here, no ceremony
; each
is a
he pleases. Here
and
come
one
go as
may
mother
sittingon the ground directlyin front of

in

speaker,holding a babe in her arms, while a


the ground beside her,
little fellow sprawls out on
drawing on the sand with his finger. Though we
the

cannot

her

see

listener,and
A
take

face,we

Jesus

to

seems

man
pathetic-looking

in

the

in

message

that she is

know

an

absorbed

to her.
speak directly
beyond her is trying to
wondering way, and a

behind him is so aroused that he


long-beardedman
There
to catch every word.
leans eagerlyforward
others, as is always the case, who listen very
are
if quiteindifferent.
as
stolidly
Again there are two who ponder the subject
a
thoughtfully. One of these is in the rear,
of Jesus' disciples
perhaps one
; the
man,
young
other sits in front, crossinghis legs,and
ing
support"

his chin

with

his hand.

In

at the
group
the scoffers
out

the

easilypick
right of Jesus we can
of them
and
more
intently,some
critics,
listening
interested,
perhaps,than they had expected to be.
look at Jesus himself,so gentleand tender,
As we
raisingboth
feel

sure

hands

as

that he

is

day

when

One

if to

bless

the

company,

we

of comfort.
speaking some
message
he was
reading the Scriptures

=Q

CHRIST

in the

described

me

appliesto
saying:
"

because

this
The

47

Capernaum, he

at

synagogue

which

he is

PREACHING

his

work,

own

picture. We
spiritof the

the Lord

hath

selected
and

which

sage
pasfectly
per-

imagine that

can

Lord

God

anointed

is upon

to

me

preach

good tidingsunto the meek; he hath sent me


to
bind
the brokenhearted,to proclaim liberty
to
up
the

and
captives,

the

opening of the prisonto them


that are bound ; to proclaim the acceptable
year of
the Lord, and the day of vengeance
of our
God ; to
comfort
all that mourn
them
that
; to appoint unto
in Zion, to give unto
them
mourn
beauty for ashes,
the oil of joy for mourning, the garment
of praise
for the spirit
of heaviness.'
'

It is

pictureof
think

noticeable

Christ

place in

took

that

strange

the

figures in

Dutch

preaching are

that this is

which

fact

to

way

Palestine

types. If
illustrate

ago,

remember
that the picturewas
drawn
you must
who
knew
a Dutchman
nothing of Palestine,and
little of any country outside his
wished
the life of Christ
to make

He

vivid

to his

could

do this

do

was

to

was

most

artist

countrymen

own

or

"

represent the

familiar to himself

to

come

century, instead of
what

and

seem

the

as

Amsterdam

to Jerusalem

certain modern

would

take

If Jesus

came

in the

to them.

Jesus

he
roundings
sur-

The
would

in the seventeenth
in the first century ;

writers have

place If Jesus
to Boston," in

deed
in-

real and

only way

scenes

and

by

Holland.

own

simply tryingto imaginewhat

if he had

somewhat

you

scenes

centuries

many

this

"

came

tried to think
to

Chicago,"

the nineteenth

cen*

REMBRANDT

48

The

tury.
the

and

attention

eager

of

understood

Rembrandt

the

the

the

face

people

show

in

gentleness

sweet

real

of

Christ

how

meaning

of

well

the

New

Testament.
This

Rembrandt's
the

"

in

feature."

every

about

appreciate
inexperienced
the
and

which

lines
shadow

lines

drawn

the

and

in

scratch

or

scene

the

midst,

spot
is
the

the

some

ink

an

simple
of

effects

to

even

few

in

are

light

parallel

coarse

hatching
black

etching

and

here,

two

closer

of

few

striking

there

place,

one

then

whole
in

such

diagonally

hatching
now

how

see

pressed
ex-

great

but

produce
:

of

excellencies

can

eye

is

know

must

of

writer1

genius

processes

these

all

fully

his

One

technical

the

best

enthusiastic
of

cause
be-

study

the

of

one

One

maturity

full

special

very

critics

by

etchings.

that

deal

of

worthy

reckoned

is

it

says

is

picture

cross-

another
;

and

itself,
"

made

alive,

light

figure.
1

Michel.

with

gleaming

ing
stand-

Jesus
full

upon

his

IX

CHRIST

The

picture
the

in

event

place
was

outside

just
still

very

happened
going

to

of

the

fresh

in

that

late

the

village called

of

day

his

took
It

of

Christ

scene

was

It

disciples.
of

two

Emmaus,

an

Sunday.

terrible

the

minds

in

which

Crucifixion

and

the

life

first Easter

the

Jerusalem,

illustrates

Christ's

since

days

Emmaus

at

of

evening

three

now

Christ

of

narrative

the

on

EMMAUS

AT

them

not

very

foot,

and

were

far from

Jerusalem.
made

They
walked
the

the
the

along

evangelist *

things
that,
Jesus
their
him.

which

And

communications

them,

'Art

hast

not

there

in

said

that

walk,

ye

these
and

name

thou
known
these
1

St.

should

sad

'

stranger

things

days?'
chapter

which

And
xxiv.

he
verses

to

pass,

them.

know

of

manner

have

one

And

the

in

But

not

What

ye

those

reasoned,

Cleopas, answering

only

Luke,

and

they
c

all

came

with

that

are

was

the

it

went

them,

unto

of

"

story,
And

and

they

as

together,''says

together

near,

are

whose

him,

communed

holden

he

the

tells

drew

were

talked

happened.

they

himself

as

who

on

"they

way,

had

while

eyes

journey

to
one

said

other,
an-

of
unto

Jerusalem,

and

to

pass

are

said
13-32.

come

unto

them,

REMBRANDT

50

And

things?'

What

Jesus, and
things about
had

in

he

drew

and

nigh

to

them

of

Jesus

many
which

But

constrained

he

have

him, saying,

evening,and

it is toward

for

he would

though

as

they

village,whither

the

unto

spent.' And

is far

sation
conver-

stranger something of

character

he made

further.
gone
i Abide
with us

day

understood.

they

they went

followed

explained

turn

life and

the

never

And

the

Concernhim, i ing

unto

Then

they told

in which

"

'

of Nazareth.'

Jesus

they

they said

in to

went

the

tarry with

them.
And

"

it came

he took

bread, and
And

them.

to

knew

to pass,

him

and

said

And

they

burn

within

he

them,

and

brake,

gave

opened and
eyes were
vanished
of their
out
another,

to

one

us,

it,and

blessed

their

with

he sat at meat

as

while

Did

'

talked

he

not

with

they

sight.
hearts

our

by the

us

way?'"
picturesuggests vividlyto

The

when

at Emmaus

moment

the

that wonderful

us

eyes

of

the

disciples

opened, and they recognizedtheir guest as


crucified.
Jesus, whom
they had so recently seen
were

The

table is laid in

great bare

with

room

the

monest
com-

and the disciples


to be
furnishings,
appear
plainlivingand high
laboringmen, accustomed to
thinking." They are coarselydressed, and their
"

feet
seems

than

bare,

are

to

the

have

as

are

also the

grasped the

other,

for

he

feet of Jesus.

situation

folds

reverentlygazing directlyinto

his
the

more

hands
face

One

quickly
together,
of

Jesus.

Maison

Ad.

Braun

"

Cie.,

fhoto.

John

CHRIST

AT

The

Louvre,

EMMAUS

Paris

Andrew

"

Son,

Sc.

EMMAUS

AT

CHRIST

53

companion, an older man, at the other end of


the table,looks up astonished and mystified.The
boy who is bringing food to the table is busy with
his task,and does not notice any change in Jesus.
In the midst is Christ, pale,emaciated,sitting
facing us, breaking the bread as on the evening of
ened
the Last Supper, in his pilgrimrobe, with his blackHis

"

which

on
lips,

his

great

left its traces,

has

torture

soft, widely opened, and


heaven, with his cold nimbus, a sort

brown

raised towards

the
eyes

around him which envelopshim


phosphorescence
look
indefinable glory,and that inexplicable
in an
of a breathing human
being who certainlyhas
passedthrough death."
is by a celebrated French
This description
critic,1
whereof
he speaks.
knows
who
himself a painter,
lish
He says that this picturealone is enough to estabof a man.
the reputation
artistic qualityin the pictureto
There
is one
it is particuwhich we
must
as
larly
pay careful attention,
of

This

is the way
arranged,or what

characteristic of Rembrandt.
the

in which
a

lightand

critic would

The

falls

call the

heart of the

light which
the

on
as

of the

chiaroscuro

from

some

with

source.

unseen

tablecloth

with

Fromentin,

It

behind
clearly. The arched recess
thrown
into heavy shadow, againstwhich
lightedgroup is sharplycontrasted.
1

picture.
golden

liancy
dazzlingbrilsome
bright lamp. It gleams on
bringing out their expressions
company,

white

if from

are

compositionglows

comes

the faces of the

is

shadow

in Old

Masters

of Belgium

and

the
the

Holland.

table
trally
cen-

REMBRANDT

54

This

singular
into

striking
stand

picture

defined

The

As

the

Christ

to

in

make

his

features,

painters.
make
still

his
better
and

collection,

but

of

more

in

less

nowhere

light,

makes

the
oped
envel-

or

the

where

has

perfection

to

it

in

one

object

carried

here,

objects

rendering
an

notice

and

this

Preaching,
aim

try

of

art

ness
dark-

it

is

appearance

emphasizes

the
sacred

something

scene.

compare

we

Some

was

source

event

common

vividly.

painting

will

than

the

as

of

this

art

this

of

appropriate

mystery

of

You

Christ,

the

"

and

light

makes

the

and

air."

picture

more

of

very
as

Rembrandt.

every

of

out

visible

in

bringing

opposition

chiaroscuro

atmosphere

by

of

manner

the
not

grand

Rembrandt

the
it

put

expression

not

cal
classi-

old

Italian
to

necessary

imposing.
to

did

regular

think

and

brandt's
Rem-

of

He

with

of

etching

idea

of

even

gentle

the

better

manner

sought
a

with

Christ.

beautiful

face

did

was

representing

figure

this

get

we

after
He

picture

Something
into

of

love.

his

ture,
pic-

PORTRAIT

that

time

when

kind

would

should

we

his

find

and

interesting

most

his

works

of

this

citizens

the

of

all,

them

his

family,
his

servant,
beloved

his

like
life-

so

Among

sister, his

of

have

century,

members

his

mother,

at

to

again

canvases.

various

the

and

father

son,

wonderful

these

are

day, being

his

seventeenth

the

in

these

Amsterdam

of

back

bring

for

was

wished

means

of

something

own

of

collection

almost

Amsterdam

of

his

in

of

It

painted.

person

painted.

learn

not

portrait painter

every

likeness

did

we

idea

imperfect

very

esteemed

most

was

fashionable

the

portraits he

the
he

if

work

Rembrandt's
about

but

have

should

We

SASKIA

OF

wife,

Saskia.
Saskia
of

Uylenborch,

van

intrusted
a

at

with
He

as

she

little

had

girl of

William

that

died
lost

several

him.

to
to

messenger
table

had

had

who

Friesland,

in
her

twelve

At
of

one

now

began

Saskia

years
to

live

tion.
assassina-

orphan,

an

before.
in

as

sitting

was

his

before

sent

was

and

Orange,

five

he

time

leaving

mother

distinguished

sions
important politicalmis-

prince just
1624,

dren
chil-

father,

Her

was

nine

of

one

patrician family.

wealthy

Rombertus

lawyer,

in

born

was

turn

The
with

REMBRANDT

56

the age of twenty she came


live for a while with her cousin,

her married

sisters.

to Amsterdam

to

At

whose
Sylvius,
of Rembrandt's
from
know
face we
one
etchings.
Saskia had also another cousin livingin Amsterdam,
of artistic tastes,
Hendrick
van
Uylenborch,a man
and had become
who had not succeeded as a painter,
an
dealer in bric-a-brac and engravings. He was
a
the wife

of

friend

old

minister,Jan

and

Rembrandt;

of

paintercame
1631, he had

Cornelis

to seek

his fortune

the

young
in the great cityin

for

his home

made

when

while

with

the

dealer.

art

It

to

Saskia.

who

Hendrick

doubtless

was

introduced

brandt
Rem-

Probably the beginning of their


painting
through Rembrandt's

acquaintancewas
relation between
The
Saskia's portraitin 1632.
for in the same
them
soon
year
grew quitefriendly,
the young
girlsat two or three times again to the
ship,
painter. The friendshippresentlyended in courtand
when
Rembrandt
pressed his suit the
Saskia was
marriage seemed a very proper one.
of a fine familyand had a sufficient dowry.
of a miller, was
Rembrandt, though the son
painter,much
sought after for
already a famous
him.
before
and with a promising career
portraits,
therefore
The
approved by her
was
engagement
but marriagebeing deferred tillshe came
guardians,
ing
Durof age, the courtshiplasted two happy years.
this time Rembrandt
painted his lady love over
and
to

over

again.

paint the

same

It

was

person

one

of his artistic methods

many

times.

He

was

not

Fr.

Hanfataengl,

John

Photo.

OF

PORTRAIT

Cassel

SASKIA

Gallery

Andrew

"

Son,

Sc.

PORTRAIT

of the

one

from
He

liked

to

in

many

face
varied

at

59

to

make

another

in search

exhaustive

an

moods,

turn

with

many

of

constantly
new

effects.

study of a single
expressionsand

different costumes.

by

had

small eyes and a round


was
nose, and
all beautiful accordingto classical standards.

Saskia
not

SASKIA

superficial
painterswho

model

one

OF

Rembrandt, however,

cared

less for

beauty than for


and Saskia's face was
at
expression,
very expressive,
and
almost
times merry
roguish,and again quite
She
had
serious.
also a brilliant complexion and
abundance
of silkyhair,waving from
her forehead.
an
The painterhad collected in his studio
many
in his pictures,
pretty and fantastic things to use
velvets and gold embroidered
cloaks,Oriental stuffs,
these he loved
laces,necklaces,and jewels. With
charms
with
to deck Saskia, heighteningher girlish
the play of lightupon
these adornments.
of
famous
of the many
One of the most
portraits
have
here.
is the picture we
Saskia
at this time
brandt's
Because
it is not
signed and dated, after Remtended
inusual custom, it is thought that it was
as
a
giftfor Saskia herself,and thus it has
romantic
interest for us.
Also it is painted with
a
of a lover offeringthe
the work
extreme
as
care,
"

choicest
The
his
a

fruit of his art.


artist has

sitter,
"

sweeping

arrangeda picturesquecostume

broad-brimmed

white

embroidered

yoke

draped

one

over

feather, an
and

full

for

hat of red velvet with


elaborate

sleeves,a

dress
rich

with

mantle

and
shoulder, necklace, earrings,

REMBRANDT

60

bracelets
here

of

than

of

thinking
a

sprig of

lover

her

it

to

Bildt.

of

town

Amsterdam

had

Saskia

circle,and

devoted

paintingsand
continued

to

paint
as

one

Saskia

knee,

as

another
table

he

his wife

needle-work,

Jewish

love

flourishes

between

them

tirely
en-

few

fine house

richlywith
that

bride,

artist

in

choice

with

as

troubles.

expressed it, Saskia

the

perpetualchiaroscuro

was

painter

Flora,

husband
child

and

as

an

wife

gether,
to-

Rembrandt's

on

sit

the

He

Bathsheba.

wine-glass in

is the

has

the

as

and

Susanna,

history,clouded
and

loving pride.

evening lamp,

the

quiet family

happiness.

with

painting of the
perched like a

the

returned

simple loving nature,


into

in

Rembrandt

the

picture (an etching) they


about

symbol

of art.

Odalisque, a Judith,
is

in

portraitsshows

of

represented her
There

life.

he furnished

works

succession

home

moved

Breestraat, which

carries

is the

pair then

husband's

her

to

Rembrandt

later

years

had

she

was

place in June, 1634,

bridal

happy

she

heart.

greater pleasure than

no

the

her

near

The

to

hand

her

in Holland

which

rosemary,

in

marriage finallytook

The
the

and

betrothal, holding

of

serious

pearls. Her expression is more


usual, though very happy, as if

the

air.

together

wife

with

In
at

her

his

engraving. The
brandt's
brightestspot in Remit
As
"

with

was

celebrated

ray

of his life."

appointm
dis-

many

writer

of sunshine

in

XI

THE

SORTIE

OF

THE

CIVIC

OR

GUARD,

THE

NIGHT

WATCH

The
entire
the

sixteenth

size

had

The

of

century

appointments

of

those

were

these

Upon

the

late

sixteenth

William

of

Orange,

How

volunteer

well

history, and

importance

The
Guard

picture
of

Banning
and

various

in
we

the
have

Amsterdam

Cocq

influence

in
who

and

the

is

the

Cocq

had

purchased

was

the

rations
corpobe

to

of

century.

the

man

estate

Civic

the

captaincy

1642.

of

in

republic

represents
the

of

selves
them-

matter

continued

here

call

Spanish.

of

the

when

formed

many

seventeenth

during

the

at

resist

the

and

sibility
respon-

theirs

guilds

war,

the

were

to

highest

safety of

themselves

the

reorganized

were

and

(1573),

companies

After

the

rested

these

Spain recognized

treaty of 1609.

great

order

century

they acquitted

had

captain, lieutenant,

than

the

most

guild,

and

year,

the

drilling-ground.

guards

the

duties

Sterner

of

civic

maintaining

into

for

of

or

and

in

considerable

composed
company,

the

Early

of

town

doelen,

or

through

seen

Holland."

every

chosen

were

is

little

Each

assembly,

ensign.

Dutch

brave

"

citizens.

officers

town.

the

military company

prominent

in

of

history

place

of

patriotism

of
of

Frans
wealth

of

Pur-

REMBRANDT

62

in 1618

merland

nobility. So

of
merland,

of

it

be called

Civic

the

also been

had

of the most

one

should

town,

and

Guard.

was

granted a patent

natural

Lord

that

Pur-

citizens of the
distinguished
of office as captain
to a term
and
His magnificent stature

manly bearing show him well fitted for the honor.


occasion
the
when
The
picture represents an
guard issues from the assembly hall,or doelen,in a
call to action.
sudden
Captain Cocq leads the way
with

Lieutenant

ingen, and

as

The

officer.

standard, every

Ruytenberg,of Vlaerdhe advances


givesorders to his fellow
drum
beats, the ensign unfurls the
Willem

man

van

carries

weapon

of

some

sort.

priming a musket, another loading his gun,


of lance-bearers
another
firing. A mass
press on
In the confusion
the rear.
from
a
dog scampers
A
at the drum.
into the midst and barks furiously
the other
side,
little girlslipsinto the crowd
on
but quitefearless.
oddly out of placein such company,
It has been
suggested that she may have
which
calls the guard
been the bearer of the tidings
forth.
The quaintfigureis clad in a long dress of
is

One

some

shimmering stuff,and

small

princess. From

she

her

turns

face

her

she
belt

has

the

hangs

admiringlytowards

air

of

cock,
the

and

great

captain.
of any historical incident which
preciselycorrespondsto the action in the picture.
We

do

not

know

historical
strictlyspeaking an
picture at all, but rather a portraitgroup of the
to their charCivic Guard, in attitudes appropriate

Indeed,

it is not

SORTIE

THE

OF

THE

CIVIC

GUARD

65

militarybody. They may be going out


for target practiceor for a shooting match
such as
held annually as a trial of skill ; it may
be a
was
have fancied,a call to
parade,or it may be, as some
attack from the enemy.
In
arms
against a sudden
the noticeable thing is the readiness with
any case
which
all respond to the call
the spirit
of patriotism
animates
which
the
are
body. The Dutch
not
naturally warlike, but rather a peace-loving
people; lacking the quick impulsivenessof a more
nervous
they are of a somewhat
heavy and
race,
deliberate
temper; yet they have the solid worth
acter

as

"

which

can

love of

be counted

said

once

an

united

country they are

Franklin

in

on

of

emergency,
to

"

in

min
Benja-

man.

Holland,

and

In

love

of

and
liberty,

bravery in the defense of it, she has


been our
great example."
The
be fullyunderstood
without
picturecannot
some
knowledge of its history. Painted for the
hall of the Amsterdam

Musketeers,

it

was

to

take

its

others
place among
by contemporary painters,
as
a
portraitgroup in honor of the officers of the
of their services.
as
a
lastingmemorial
year, and
The
other pictureshad
stiff groups
about
been
a
table,and the novelty of Rembrandt's
composition

displeasedsome
person
certain
own

sum

figuresin
towards

and
portrait,

worth.
at

who

of the members

was

the

of the
had

scene

the cost
anxious

of

guild.

Each

subscribed

the
to

picturefor his
get his money's

there were
did not
who
Consequently,
many
all relish their insignificance
in the background,

REMBRANDT

66

by the glory of the captainand


quite overshadowed
lieutenant.
They thought they would have shown to
better advantage arrangedin rows.
much
Rembrandt's
It was
paintinga portrait
way when
to the figure,
to give life and reality
by showing the
leading element in the character or occupation of
is designinga ship,
his shipbuilder
Thus
the person.
the writingmaster, Coppenol, is mending a pen, the
and the preacher
architect has his drawing utensils,
a

and

weapon,

the

the

for whom

each

was

in

In

in order

and

hall;

wall,a stripwas

place on

the

canvas.

It is the loss of

seemed

long

their

highly

so

removed

was

cut

these

crowded

composition the

the

it

fit it into

to

of

the time.

at

success

followingcentury

the

town

those

lost upon

petty vanity. So the great painting,now


not

spirited

painted,because

picturewas

esteemed, was

carries

man

united

figures are

this artistic motive

All

action.

Guard

in the Civic

So

his Bible.

off each

to

particular
side the

margins which
appearance

strange fault in

the

gives

which

so

great artist like

Rembrandt.

originalcolors

The
with

supposed the

the incorrect
to

it.

Since

name

the

the

of

the

picturewas

if you
shadow
of

tunic.

look

so

dark

in the hall that the

occurred

scene

apparent that the incident


and

paintinggrew

of smoke

the accumulation

critics

of

night,hence
was
given
Night Watch
cleaned,in 1889, it is

occurred

carefullyyou

Captain Cocq'shand

can
on

at

in the

daytime,
plainlysee the
the lieutenant's

XII

PORTRAIT

the

When
in

1631,

father's

of

There

was

life in

which

the

the

in

his

earliest

the

gratificationof

lack

his

to

come
be-

Jan

was

Six,

with

years

grew

Six

Jan

had

his

natural

which

to

way

from

tended
for

taste

to

culture.

overbalanced

made

and

own

surrounded

was

talent, however,

rare

of

Rembrandt

up.

everything

his

here.

him

any

friend

having.
had

Six

fled
in

Amsterdam
married
name

to

Huguenot

Holland

France,

and

in 1585.
a

was

good

connection

paint

of

come

had

this

in

circumstances

the

and

early advantages,

of

worth

friends

miller,

make

Rembrandt's

the

later

was

This

in

contrast

world.

the

who

by,

in

living

was

friends.

two

of

fortune

portrait etching reproduced

the

son

his

years

near

warm

great

twelve

seat,

his

of

subject

was

of

country
one

the

lad

Amsterdam

to

came

seeking

man

young

SIX

JAN

Rembrandt

painter

city, a

great

OF

her

Dutch
Anna

lady

of

Wijmer.

lady

that

with

the

portrait in

during
had

Jan's

Six

the

become

father,

It

was

hear

family.

1641, and

of
He
must

secution
per-

resident

another

in

father
grand-

Huguenot
a

good family,

first

we

His

ancestry.

whose
the

Jan,

in
had

maiden
service

of

Rembrandt's
was

have

called

then,

to

if

REMBRANDT

68

before,made

not

united

Jan

Jan.

the
to

acquaintanceof
a

her young

son,

great love of learninga love

everythingbeautiful,and was an ardent collector


of art.
of objects
Paintings of the old Italian and
earlyDutch schools,rare printsand curios of various
in Rembrandt
his delight. He found
a
kinds, were
heart.
after his own
Already the painterhad
man
house
his own
in filling
far beyond his means
gone
So the two
of art.
with costlyworks
having
men,
of

hobby

found

in common,

We
congenialtastes.
may
often together,to show
they were
and discuss their beauty.

be

in their

Rembrandt,
would
collector,

and

older

an

as

have

doubtless

of

strong bond
their

union

sure

that

new

chases
pur-

experienced

more

advice

good

to

offer

his younger
friend,and, an artist himself,would know
of art.
One
record
how
to judge correctly
a work

friendshipin

of their

these

years is a little etched


made
in 1641, showing

landscapewhich Rembrandt
of the Six family,
the country estate
a bridge near
the villageof Hillea
place called Elsbroek, near
gom.
It
of

his

had

that Rembrandt

in 1647

was

friend,then
begun

now

world

of

twenty-nine years
make

to

letters

as

alreadypublished a
near

made

of

portrait

age.

for himself

name

scholar

poem

this

and

poet.

He

Six
in the
had

Muiderberg (a village

on

by this time, doubtless,had


work, the tragedy of
great literary

Amsterdam), and

under

way

Medaea.

coming

his

Many

were

to his house

the

times

to talk

over

when
some

Rembrandt,
new

treasure-

John

Photographed

from

OF

PORTRAIT

Museum

of

Fine

JAN
Arts,

SIX

Boston

Andrew

"

Son,

8c.

PORTRAIT

trove, found
in

him

such

this beautiful

71

he

have

must

buried

It

had

catches

portrait. He

head

the

was

in

idea of

his friend

one

of his

standing with his


library,
back to the window
the book he
to get the lighton
is reading. He
transfers the picture to a copper
plateand hands it down to future generations.
is clad in
The
slender figure of the young
man
the picturesquedress of a gentleman of his time,

day

in the

SIX

librarywith his
thoughts far away.

that

moment

JAN

in his
his

and

book,

OF

corner

and

knee-breeches

with

collar and

His

cuffs.

cloak

the window

on

dropping
folds make

the
is

pen

of the

fill a

low

For

sword.

the

chair,an

true

poet.

part of it

Its

voluminous

gracefully

and

the

hair

his cavalier's

him,

sword

white

blond

he leans

as

His

the owner's

show

room

him,

the cloak.

mightierthan

flung

beyond.

ledge.

chair with

volumes
on

window

has

behind

seat

chair
a
upon
cushion
for
a

againstthe
on

abundant

read, he

to

wide

shoes,with

wavy
; he has the air of

falls to his shoulders


In his eagerness

low

belt lie

moment

the

The

furnishings
tastes ; a pileof folio
antique picture hangs

the wall.
The

man's

young
from

the

face

pages

of

is
his

refined,sensitive face, of high


withal,and
absorbed
about

his

much

of

collar.

mouth.
a

full of
in

his
How

poet he is, we

seen

open

by

the

flected
lightre-

book.

It is

able
intellectual cast, ami-

pletely
imagination. He is comreading,a smile playing
how
little of a fop and
see

Breathing quickly as

from
he

his disordered

bends

over

his

REMBRANDT

72

of

hurries

he

folio

he

as

to

Medsea

published,

The

literary

various

Council

of

1691,

length

friend
his

and

mother

to

in
the

poet, Vondel,
a

"lover

his

in

the

1667,

of

became

Jan

in

to

science, art,

Six,

the
and

and

his

for

in

chasing
pur-

brandt
Rem-

paintings.

with

the

continued
in

magnificent

of

contemporary

of

His
shown

family

missioner
com-

Holland,

which,

to

way

member

original plate

of

the

he

latter's

age,

portrait

by

representing

led

1656

was

the

Six

of

tragedy
illustrated

was

Amsterdam.

the

fitting tribute
of

in

painted
old

the

Rembrandt

the

it

General

of

of

pages

and

Six

In

of

as,

Creusa.
Jan

it,

appearance,

Rembrandt,

Rembrandt

number

still remains

of

States

for

at

paid

work

burgomaster

of

and

marriages
the

friendship

his

Jason

honors.

public
of

by

straint
re-

hand.

when

1648,

in

etching
of

Marriage

for

his

the

Six

the

unloosed

in

his

between
apace

magnificent

the

it in

grasps

grow

was

has

untidiness

any

friendship

seemed

He

ruthlessly crushing

on,

back,

The

of

endure

cannot

collar.

close

oblivious

quite

he

excitement

his

in

book,

portrait
the

portrait

this

etching,

Amsterdam.
the

great
virtue."

ferring
Re-

famous

Rembrandt

of

Dutch
and

burgomaster,

Six,
as

XIII

story is told

The
introduced

to

her

into
are

of

face

When

this

springs

and

grandmother

are

The

lap.
the

face

same

this

there

old

clasped hands,

much

hard

needs

of

fire

work.

have

They

that

children

capacious
though

Rembrandt's
whose

people

know

Whose

"

known,
in

old

question

that

is not

many
we

much

his

the

first

have

and

names

less

than

the

picture.

the

of

and

the

bread

and
not

They

swept
and

woven,
even

the

shrunk

and

have

out

filled

have

the

child

the
built

the

the

house

they

the

kettle

they

sewed
from

the

little toddler

tended

They

to

dandled

have

They

done

have

ministered

supported

youth.

hearth

in

knotted,

have

They

steps.

for

kneaded
spun

is written

large

knee, and

wrought

have

of

sure

times

generations.

two

her

on

on

mother

wrinkled

upon

subject

life

Those

and

the

are

leaned

are

her

of

story

taking

Whose

"

woman.

The

baby

We

many

whom

of

quote,

can

the

appears

But

works.
we

of

name

brightly

up

sort

same

"

have

grandchildren

and

looked

into

being

upon

involuntarily ask,

we

you

who,

question,

the

picture,

mind,

to

lady,

look

we

WOMAN

little child

the

with

"

you

of

OLD

kind-faced

eyes

AN

OF

PORTRAIT

the

and
coarser

mended.

labors

REMBRANDT

74

dooryard and field,the care


plantingand harvesting. Bnt

of

of

to

which

looks
is

She

the

coarsen

labor

cattle,the

has

refinement

done

thing
no-

the

soul

of

of the fine old face.

out

The

restingnow.

have

grown

to take

up

grandmother

their

innate

the

also.

children
of

care

has

She

and

dren
grandchil-

themselves

time

to

and

sit down

of life,
justas she used to sit down at
twilight
what has
the close of each day'swork, to think over
happened. She has a large comfortable chair,and
whose
she is neatlydressed,as befits an old woman
in the

her

is done.

life work

bosom,
and

shawl

white

kerchief

is folded

is

wrapped about her


her forehead.
droops over

hood

across

ders,
shoulHer

ings
thoughts are far away from her present surroundsad
dreams
She
occupies them.
; something
of the past and perhaps also of the future.
Sorrow
has had
well as work
a
as
large share in her life,
it all with
but she has borne
patient resignation.
does not mean
is not one
She
to complain,and
to
trouble
with

others

her

her eyes

with

sadness.

her

But

left all alone

musings, a look of yearning comes


for something beautiful and much
as

into

loved,

lost

long ago.
Some
paintershave

to

that

at

great pains to fashion

sorrowful

enough and
patient
rosa,
Dolorepresent the subjectof the Mater
of Christ.
haps
Peris,the Sorrowing Mother

countenance

enough

been

they would
turned

away

mother

in real

have

from

succeeded

their

life,who

own

has

better if

they had
imaginationsto some

loved

and

worked

and

Maison

Ad.

Braun

Cie.,

John

Photo.

PORTRAIT

Hermitage

OF

AN

Gallery,

OLD

St.

WOMAN

Petersburg

Andrew

"

Son,

Sc.

PORTRAIT

OF

suffered like this


first

our

AN

The

one.

question.

OLD

WOMAN

face

77

in part

answers

like this is

capable of
Industrious, patient,self-

woman

mothering great sons.


she would
sacrificing,
spare herself nothing to train
them
the life of which
her face
faithfully.And
life of self-denying
a
toil,ennobled
speaks
by
is the stuff of which
heroes
high ideals of duty
made.
Some
of the great men
of history
had
are
"

"

mothers.

such
The

pictureillustrates the fact that a face


and even
if not beautiful.
artistic,
interesting

may

be
This

idea may

surprisemany, for when one calls a person


to be understood
as
pretty as a picture,"it seems
that it is only pretty people who
make
suitable
models
for pictures. Kembrandt, however, was
of
"

quiteanother
well

as

He

was

painter,and

he

student
cared

of character

to

paint faces

for their

more

Now
the
u

as

mind.

no

expressionthan for beauty of feature.


expressionof a face is to a great extent

the

index

of character.

character

stillfair and
have

in his

say that

face," meaning

smooth,

made

We

before

his

record

there.

the child

has

that his skin is

thoughts and

ings
feel-

Gradually the
character
impresses itself on his face. Experience
like a sculptor's
acts almost
chisel,carving lines of
and grooving furrows
of sorrow,
care
shaping the
mouth
and the settingof the eyes.
The
pressive
exlonger this process continues,the more
the face
faces tell the most
understood

any

becomes,

so

that it is the old whose

stories of
interesting
and
this perfectly,

life.
none

brandt
Remever

REMBRANDT

78

succeeded
and
His

high
and
This

light

and

might

the

forms

and

the

darker
shadow

artistic

work

have

made

is

down
diamond

the

of

very

the

in

poetry

the

light

picture,

subject

which
which

commonplace.

by

tions
grada-

skillful
made

another

face

kerchief.

snowy

the

of
The

the

on

shading

was

face

him.

concentrated

It

the

with

upon
of

tints.
in

character

common

very

picture

continued

is

revealing

age.

is

of

in

he

showing

woman

into

light

of

way
old

old

of

beauty

this

than

better

use

of

poetic

painter

XIV

SYNDICS

THE

word

The
a

of

the

guilds

Europe,

for

the

for

interests

of

trades

unions,
merchants

of

commercial

of

the

protection
of

painters and

wool

Workers

Cloth

cities.
was

born,

passed
that

the

time

in

his

of

had

guilds

art

painted by

of

advancement

There

goldsmiths,

merchants,

fine

the

was

of

one

the

Guild

Leyden,

the
of

most

Drapers

in

Amsterdam,

life.

city

contemporary

or

several

where

Amsterdam

halls, ornamented
best

in

portant
im-

Rembrandt

where

commercial

foremost

Its

prietary
pro-

instead

dignified association

another

most

the

wine

one

was

and

were

against capital.

hence
a

was

There

In

modern

of

the

was

labor

industry

Holland,

in

and

help

others.

many

the

Now

or

municipal affairs,instead

in

mercers,

mutual

craftsmen

purpose

of

In

elsewhere

members

the

master

interests

guilds

were

their

Guild.

forerunners

that

and

and

employees,

the

were

except

title

tradesmen

of

of

the

respective industries.

their

points they

some

in

and

France

officer

an

Cloth

the

purposes

to

meaning

associations

were

united

artisans

of

and

England

in

as

is its

Syndics

picture, The

Holland,

this

GUILD

applied

name

corporation, and

of

in

is

syndic

CLOTH

THE

OF

was

of

he
at

Europe.
works

of

artists.

It

with

REMBRANDT

80

that Rembrandt
received
for this purpose
Cloth Guild the commission
the Amsterdam
to

from

was

of their five

portrait
group

which
Just

in the

as

he accordingly

the great

pictureof

this little reproductionto examine.

have

we

in 1661

to them

delivered

and
officers,

paint

the Civic

pictureof

Guard

he

had

by showing the members


portraits,
action appropriateto their military
character,
in some
here he represents the officers of the guild in
so
surroundingssuggestiveof their duties. They are
gathered about a table covered with a rich scarlet
cloth,on which rests the great ledgerof the corporation.
counts
They are engaged in balancingtheir acand preparing a report for the year, and a
given life to

the

awaits

servant

their order
task

Their

seems

difficultieshave
it is evident
take

They

It is

they

the
door

the

open

but

if in the

turn

not

is

one

end

into

the

that

who

has

His
with

during their
in the

armchair

year'srecord.

as
consultations,

The

newcomers.

with

us

meets

attention
smiles

smile.

leaning over

suddenly
surprised
look

younger
Next
to
the

book.

nially
geman

him
He

dially.
coreyes frankly and
his discourse,
continues
turing
gesour

companion
the righthand.

side ffive more

tion,
administra-

the

of

ever
what-

is successful.

outcome

of their

ment.
apart-

for

ledger, we
the room.
They are
by the intrusion,and

been

and

of the

rear

pleasantone,

the

midst

welcomes

raises his head

in the

arisen

leaves

disturbed

towards
at the

quietsatisfaction

as

in the

The

to the

older

men

arrival.

good naturedly;

One
the

at

one

seated

other,

\
-

-";

SYNDICS

THE

THE

OF

CLOTH

GUILD

83

risingand leaningon the table,peers forward


look of keen inquiry.
a
As

examine

we

the

faces

one

by

one,

with

could

we

study of each man, so wonderfully


reveal the inner life
does the portrait
the
of anplacidamiabilityof one, the quiet humor
other,
write

almost

character

"

keen, incisive insightof

the

third.

That

of sound

judgment we may well


to be trusted.
believe, and they are
plainlymen
of the guildis a key to their character :
The motto
within
Conform
in all matters
to your
vows
clearly
influenced
their jurisdiction
; live honestly; be not
in your judgments by favor, hatred, or personalinterest.
These principles
of
at the foundation
are
the commercial
prosperityfor which Holland is
they

all

are

men

"

noted.

picturemay be
American
history. It
The

founded

who
the

fiftyyears

thousand

and

to

the Dutch,

was

the State

their

illustrate

who
settlers,
to

of New

all

member,
re-

occupation (1614-1664)
The

came

of their home

Amsterdam

in

page

York, and

of New

during this
America, brought with them

customs

a
we

as

the lifetime of Rembrandt.

fell within

Holland

of

taken

country.
the

were

fifteen

time
the

from
ners
man-

zens
citi-

The

counterparts of

We
contemporariesin the old Amsterdam.
see, then, in this pictureof the Cloth Merchants
Amsterdam
to be seen
were
as
just such men

their
may
of

among

hat

our

and

the

own

wide

colonists.
white

of dress, and
peculiarities

In

collar

the
we

broad-brimmed
find

in their honest

the

same

faces

we

REMBRANDT

84

read

the

these

that
best

the
of

national

same

owe

we

in

elements

York

New

its

the

first

founded

boast

we

If

six

of

in
the

of

you

fancy

figures

of

that

it

picture

why

the

art

praised

here,

you

camera

upon
in

persons
them

all

to

towards

some

of

overcame

so

W.

look

the

E.

of

order

any

six

and

States,

and

accidental

that

be
with

In

you

in

Brave

Little

Holland,

getting

quite

will

understand

Rembrandt

simply.
Griffis,

six

and

which

pp.

212-213.

so

your

posing

stiff, and

accord

point,

and

should

not

the

arranged,

figures.

difficulties

many

school

experiment

is

one

single

the

institutions

and

well

so

an

which

with

United

Rembrandt

try

group

character,

day

ideas

are

of

may

the

quite

was

this

wonder

gave

American."

distinctly

as

words

introduced

oldest

the

most

the

cosmopolitan

church

in

In

of

some

Dutchmen

supremacy,

Protestant

pioneers

were

and

like

men

for

life.

republican

commercial

to

was

gratitude

national

our

tolerant

schools,

common

It

of

The

"

its

insured

debt

historian,1

traits.

rally
natu-

XV

THE

Holland,
which

marshes,
the

land

level,
lacks

is

covered

of

many

the
of

scenery

rocks

country.

Kembrandt
native

Dutch

lay

time

to

in

paint

portrait,
just
much
see

treated

trying

"

we

etch

or

He

master.

How

to

the

influences

he

as

of
in

to

is not

of

nature

of

his

great

forte

in

from

time

to

paused

work

the

bring
out

much

the

out

the

called

did
of

character

himself

he

as

character

tell in

etching

proved

he

subject

story he could
famous

the

landscape.

brought

this

his

attractive.

and

artistic

in this unaccustomed

Even

scene

is restful

he

and

this

Though

the

directions,

other

ural
nat-

it for

love

Though

scenery.

It

the

up

that

sensitive

was

perfectly

is,nevertheless,

Artists

landscape.

believe

well

may

it

by

of workers.

mountains

"

"

awe-inspiring, it

and

We

its

of

but

in

canals.

make

countries,

picturesque

grand

art

other

of

which

features

rivers,

quiet beauty

network

upon

filled

almost

low,

very

by

and

generations

many

and

ravines,
very

of

built

country

drained

consequently

is

and

is

known,
been

have

patient industry

The

is well

as

TREES

THREE

in

the
face.

single picture
The

Three

Trees.
One

can

tell at

glance

that

this is Holland.

We

REMBRANDT

86

look

across

travels
Far

and

on

away

wide

into

on

almost

an

the windmills

see

we

land, and

level stretch of

of

endless
Dutch

the eye
distance.

town

lined
out-

portant
sign of industryas imin Holland
as
are
factorychimneys in some
less
other parts of the world.
Beyond this,another endthe sky at the horizon line.
level stretch meets
the land and water, which
It is hard to distinguish
to lie in alternate
strips. The
seem
pastures are
surrounded
by canals as by fences.
and there are
Here
minded
cows
grazing,and we are reHolland
for which
of the fine dairy farms

againstthe sky,
"

noted, the

is

rich

butter

cheese,which

and

the

are

less
product of these vast flat lands,apparentlyso useand
unproductive. Directlyin front of us, at
the farther bank
the left,is a still pool, and
on
the water.
stands
fisherman
a
holding a rod over

seated

woman

with

intense

by

near

can

hardlybe

outlook

of

for the little tree-crowned


the

right.

It would

else,but

seem

in these

the

watches

bank
There

interest.

which
wide

The

the

on

other

figures

is the

setting

two

are

process

discerned.

flat country
hill which

rises

near

us

at

hillock where
anylevel surroundings it has a
a

very

small

strikingfeature
which
givesexpressionto the face of the landscape.
The eye turns with pleasureto its grassy slopesand
have the symmetrical grace
The
trees
leafytrees.
characteristic of Dutch
so
vegetation. Nothing is
wild in this country.
allowed
to grow
Every growing
distinct

character.

It is the

thing is carefullynurtured

one

and

trained.

We

THE

THREE

that the distances

see

TREES

between

89

these

trees

were

fully
care-

spaced in the planting,so that each one


develop independentlyand perfectlywithout
the

to

branches

The

others.

might

injury

from

grow

their

straighttrunks at the same


height,and they are
Their
branches interlace
outer
plainlyof the same
age.
in brotherlycompanionship to make
solid
a
leafyarbor, beneath which the wayfarer may find a
On
shady retreat.
againstthe sky, is
with

rake.

the

sky, on

and

idle.

At
the

wonderful

the clouds.

leave

to

draw

Now

brandt,
part of the picture. Rem-

almost
had

He

subjectswhich

well.

hill,outlined

followed
hay wagon
by a 'man
a
distance,also clearlyseen
against
ridge of the hill,sits a man, alone

it appears,

for

of the

sky is

The

the summit

ventured

never

the

untouched

in this case,

sent
repre-

artist's reverence

true

beyond

were

to

his

what

he

and
skill,
could

ferred
predo

not

lacking the experience to


scape,
workmanship as his land-

sky as finished in
he suggested in a few lines the effect which
he wished to produce. At the left a few diagonal
strokes show a smart
shower
A whirl
justat hand.
a

of dark-colored
air

beyond,

next, and

comes

of

stratum

of lines

mass

clouds

crossingand

clouds

in the

is indicated

recrossingin long

upper

by

ing
swirl-

curves.

With

these
the

clouds

sky

seem

idea
to

in advance

few
that
be

lines
a

in

of the

Eembrandt
is

conveys

fectly
per-

approaching. The
the
motion, scurrying across
rain.
critic
One imaginative
storm

REMBRANDT

90

has

that

thought
dim

Like

takes

some

look

at

that

of

been

have

had

in

we

receive

few

he

nature,
time

we

lines

tried

is

have

which

effect,

an

ing
on-com-

every

artist's

success

the

see

impression

spoiled

entirely

of

shape

The

cloud-whirl

the

often

we

the

perfect

in

spirit

fantastic

reality.

with

the

clouds

Altogether

vivid

produced

of

as

the

new

it.

discern

could

figure

phantom
storm.

it

he

might
finish

to

it

carefully.
look

We
influence

the

the

makes
he

the

sky,

toss

the

heed.

The

bite

to

has

and
feel

already
their

spirit

starts

the

branches
of

the

his

in
in

storm.

absorbed

and

impending

darkening

of

clouding

the

to

read
The

wagon.

as

the

man
fisher-

sky
his

only
sport

face

three

light,
if

to

on

the

Their

changed
wind,

The

haymaker

danger.
the

what

see

in

The

chance

up

to

it.

upon

weather.

better

landscape
has

better,
for

nothing

cares

hilltop

is

storm

fish

the

seem

coming

no

pays

the

at

more

once

of

trees

leafage
and

wrestle

they
with

XVI

PORTRAIT

THE

studying

In
we

have

something

seen

Dutch

master,

of the

man

There

etched

face,

he

to

to

sitter who

one

do

bidding.

his

in front

of

to

in

pose

desired.

found;

make

and

an

His

his

habit

and

obliging
thus

of

patrons

were

hand.

own

We

noticed

have

model

same

many
of

study

the

there

hand,

and

ready

at

only

position

this

model

any

expression

was

could

there

take

to

with

and
sitter

nowhere

is such

willing

else

he
be

lection
large col-

portraits.

painting

opportunity to study

the

Now

there

it is that

self-made

study

expressions.

had

master,
burgo-

ter.
people's charac-

his

the

always

position

wife,

reverent

thorough

He

little

directly into

look

painting

mirror, and

any

So

of
His

and

great

sweet

cultured

the

himself.

was

the

portraits of Rembrandt

many

face, in varying moods


was

the

for

portrait by

of

was

order

in

times,

in

with

collection,

learned

have

love

to

now

painted by

fond

how

and

insight into

great

are

and

of

the

faithful

rare

ready

are

own

work

his

his

his

Bible, of

artist's

of

Six, of

We

this

of

friendship

his

Jan

pictures of

Rembrandt,

himself,

Saskia, of

of the

fifteen

the

REMBRANDT

OF

his

own

all sorts

portrait gave
of

plain, slow-going

costume

Dutchmen

him

effects.
who

REMBRANDT

92

did not

"

"

fancy
any
first of all a

want

effects in their

portraits.

faithful likeness in such


They wished
It was
in
wore.
clothing as they ordinarily
chiefly
had the satisfachis own
tion
portraitsthat Rembrandt
of
loved
caps,

of

paintingthe
well.

so

He

rich

in turn

wore

mantle, doublet, and


like

somewhat

an

actor

characters.

cuirass.

of hats and

and

every variety
In this he was

taking the parts


he

Sometimes

he

costumes

all sorts

jewelsand ornaments,

many

different

fanciful

and

is

an

of

many
officer

twisted,carrying his head


fiercely
with a dashing militaryair.
Again he is a cavalier
wearing his velvet mantle, and plumed hat, with the
times
languid elegance of a gentleman of leisure. Somehe seems
a
mere
kempt
country boor, a rough, unfeatures and
a
fellow, with coarse
heavy
expression.
him actingso many
As we
roles,we may well
see
wonder
what
the character
of the man
reallywas.
full of singular
As
of fact,he was
dictions.
contraa matter
In his personalhabits he was
frugal and
the simplest
temperate to the last degree,preferring
fare,and contentinghimself with a lunch of herring
On
the
cheese when
and
occupied with his work.
with

mustaches

other

hand,

for

he had
fond
In

He

thought

into

reckless

no

friends,yet livingmuch
portraitwe have chosen

of his
the
we

him

price too great to


choice painting,
or
rare
print,upon which
a
He was
to a fault,
set his heart.
generous

extravagance.
pay

led

his artistic tastes

like to believe that

we

see

alone.
for

our

piece,
frontis-

Rembrandt,

the

PORTRAIT

THE

himself.

man

but
from

kindly

thirty-five
period

We

living
his

mobile

is

hearted

his

playing

whom
It
human
the

of

sure

in

artist, the

man

friendly
trust,

qualities uppermost,
himself.

has

settled

into

the

fied
digni-

success

titles
en-

has

with

like

is

he

sure

of

his

with

all

the

show

to

ones

children

whom

to

he

simple-

little

his

welcome

which

but

should

we

man

still

is

He

circle,

Rembrandt,

short,

He

face.
here

whom

is

and

Saskia

self-satisfaction,

man

He

might

strangers

is,

him.

his

He

man.

family

own

about

run,

son,

and

home.

have

of

sense

out

happiest

wife

professional

great

miller's
in

might

as

the
his

repose.

whose

one

just

posing

not

meet

of

to

genial

of

bearing
him

which

looks

thirty

was

in

contentment

expression

an

his

free

signed

between

while

life,

features,

is

tumes,
cos-

quite

is

ours

sincerity

of

This

age.

brighten

to

to

is

man

Rembrandt's

see

large

of

years

of

still

was

the

studio

rich

portrait

The

that

so

turns

spirit

eyes.

1640,

he

93

his

of

one

which

affectation

his

dated

wears

face

the

any

of

He

REMBRANDT

OF

man

sincerity.
kindliest
us,

behind

PRONOUNCING

VOCABULARY
FOREIGN

AND

The

Marks

Diacritical

OF

given

NAMES

WORDS.

those

are

PROPER

found

in

edition

latest

the

Webster's

of

national
Inter-

Dictionary.
OF

EXPLANATION

Dash

dash

("") above
and

above
("*")

dot

above

(")

Curve
Dot

Double

Dot

(")

above

Double

Dot

Wave

Circumflex

sounds

the

vowel

the

) above

the

the

denotes
vowel

as

sound

sound

sound

of

111, odd,

end,

abate,

past,

of

note,

use.

prolonged.

Sdd,
in

time,

eve,

less

in

of

broad

the

fate,

sound,

sound,

the

denotes

in

as

same

obscure

denotes

vowel

the

the
short

the

MARKS.

sound,

long

denote

denotes
a

below

the

vowel

the

vowel

A
A

denotes

vowel

the

DIACRITICAL

in

father,

up.

AmSrica.
alms.

ball.

in

("") above

in

depSnd.

in

propose.

sounds

like

"

like

s.

sounds

like

sounds
is hard

is soft

above

denotes
the

sound

the

vowel

of

in

denotes

her.

sound

the

of

in

born.

Z.

in

as

in

as

k.

like

(*)

Accent

sounds

"

vowel

like

"e

the

get.
gem.

(doc/len).

doelen

Am/sterdam.

(a pok'ri fa).

Apocrypha
Arama7!*.

Ecbatane

(ek

Ase'nath.

Elsbroek

(els'brobk).

Assyria.

Emma'us

(or em'ma

Azarl'as.

Enemes'sar.

mi).

bai/a

us).

E'phraim.
Bathshe'ba.

et'zen.

Betb/lehem.
Bildt

(belt).

Braun

(brown).

Breestraat

(frezland).

Friesland

Fromentin

(fro

taN7).

moN

(bra'strat).
(ber'ger).

burgher

Gab'ael

(or ga'ba

el).

Galile'O.
6ennes'aret.

"eaper'naum.
Cassel

(kas'sel).

chiaroscuro

(kya

skob/rO).

nol).

(k5p'p6

eymar

Hanfstaengl,

lin).
Franz

stangl).

Creu'sa.

cuirass

(ha'me

Hamelin

(kok).

Coppenol

(hag).

Hague

""le'opas.
Cocq

(ge'tu).

Goethe
ro

(kwe

ras').

(si mar7).

Hatto

(hat'6).

Hillegom

(hlTle gom).

(frants

hanf'-

96

REMBRANDT

Is/rael.

Ra/geg.
Ragu'el

Ja'son.

Raphael

Jer'leho.

Rembrandt

Joden

(ra/fa

el).

(rem'brant).
Willem

roi'tgn

van

Pieter

(pe'tSr

last'-

81)

rag'u

Ruytenberg,

(yo'dgn).

Lastman,

(or

(willem

van

berg).

Ryks.

man).
Leyden

(ll'd"n).

Saskia

Louvre

(16b7 vr).

Senna"h'erib.

(sas'ke

a).

Sim'eon.
Manasseh

nas'su).

(ma

Six,

Mano'ah.
Mater

Stuttgart
Dolorosa

(ma'tSr

Media
Michel

Muiderberg

dol"ro'-

Sylvius,
sil've

sa).
Medaea

Jan

(nie'di
(me

sex).

(stoot'gart).
Cornells

Jan

k6r

(yan

ne'lis

06s).

Syn'dte.

de'a).

(me

(yan

Swanenburch

a).

(swa/nen

boorK).

shel').

(moi'dgr

berg).

Tigris.
Tobi'as.

To'bit.

Naz'areth.
Nineveh

Odalisque

(nin'6

(o'da

vu).

lisk).

Trippenhuis

(trip'pen

Uylenborch,

Rombertus

beYtoos

oi'len

van

hois).

van

borK).

Padana'ram.
Palestine.

Vlaerdingen

Penl'el.

Vondel

(v5n'del).

(vlar'dlng

Wijmer

(wl'mer).

Penu'el.
Pur'mgrland.

en).

(rom