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# 7.

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

7.1 INTRODUCTION
Conventional force method.

## Structure as a whole or any substructure

Must Satisfy

1. Equilibrium of forces.
2. Displacement compatibility.
3. Force-displacement relation.

## Matrix Force Method also called as Flexibility method.

Member forces are treated as the basic unknowns.
Similar to the classical force method, but based on matrix approach.
Based on finite element concept

## Step-by-step building up of force-displacement relationship using basic elements composing the

structure.

7.2 ASSUMPTIONS

Hookes law.
Small deflections.
Change in length under a deflection to member length = 0.
Principal of superposition.
Frames member inextensible.

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

f2, d2

f1, d1

## Shears not included since dependent on moments.

Fijm = displacement along i th force due to unit force along

## Comment [SB1]: This will give the first

column of F

f 1 =1,

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

f 2 = 0.

d1m = 1
m

f1 = 1

Fm

d1

d1 = L/3EI =F11,
d2 = -L/6EI =F21
(derived from slope deflection relations)

L
L
& F22 =
Similarly, F12 =
6 EI
3EI

L 2 1
Fm =

6EI 1 2

7.4

EA
L
f1 =
d 1 d1 =
f1
L

EA
L
f1 = 1 d1 =
= Fm
EA
f1
m
L
F
= = 1x1matrix
EA

7.5

d1

d1 = (L/EA)f1
f1

{d }= F {f }
m

For m

d 1

d 2

3
d

4
d

th

member.

F 1

0
0

0
F2
0
0

0 0
... 0

0 F N
0

Uncoupled
n

## Matrix of all internal forces

f

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

{d}= [F]m{f}
COLLECTIVE flexibility matrix
Internal forces
[entire str.]

EXAMPLE :b + r = 5+ 3 = 8

2j = 2x4 =8

L
[F1] =[F2] =[F3] =

EA
2
[F4] = [F5] =
L
EA

1
0

0
0

0 0

1 0

0 1

0 0
0 0

2
0

0
0
L
0

EA
0
2

## {d} = [F] {f}

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

d

d
{d} = d
d

1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1

f
{f} = f
f

1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1

## 7.6 TRANSFORMATION OF FORCE (DETERMINATE STRUCTURE)

To find relationship between internal forces and externally applied forces.
P1
P

Let {P} = 2 = Loads applied externally on structure.
...
Pn
2

5
3

P
P = 1
P2
{f} = [b] {P}

## Comment [SB2]: Matrix of all internal

forces

f11
2
f1
P1
3
f1 = [b]
P2
f 4
1
5
f1
5x2 matrix

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

bij = Internal force f i caused by unit external force Pj, with all other external forces = 0.
P2 = 0 f i s will be first column of [b]
P2 = 1 f i ' s will be second column of [b]

P1 = 1
P1 = 0

P1 =1 P2= 0

= 0

0
1

P1 =0 P2= 1

## Apply one by one

Fx = 0

M
F

=0

=0

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

[b] =

-1

-1

Collection of flexibility
Matrics of member
2

## So far {d} = [F]c {f}

{f} = [b] {P}
7.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN [P] and [u]

## [P] = external loads / forces.

[u] = external displacement.
We will use the principle of virtual work to derive general relation.

## Principle of virtual work

Let U 1, U2 . . . . . . . . UN = displacements.

## System of virtual forces only.

197 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

{V}<< {P}
Both {P} and {V} systems are existing simultaneously.
When {P} is applied, {V} rides along the displacements and performs virtual works.
External virtual work
By {V} system

## Internal virtual works by internal

=
forces generated by {V}

## External virtual works = {V }T {u}

{v}
internal forces = [b] { V } = { f }

( {f } = internal forces)

## Therefore internal virtual works= { f } {d }

External virtual works = internal virtual works.
{V }T {u} = {f }T {d }
= [[b]{V }]T {d }
{u} = [b]T {d }
{d}----- [F]c {f}

{u} = [b]T [ F ]c { f }

frd

{ f } [b]{P}

## For the truss structure considered earlier,

1 0 0 0
[ FTS ] =
0 0 1 0

0
2

1
0

0
0

0
1
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
2
0

0
0
0

0
2

1 0
0
0
L

0 1
EA

0
0
0
2

198 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

1 0
0
0
0 L

0 1
2 EA

0
0
0
2

1 0 0 0
=
0 0 1 0

0
L 1
=

0
1
+
2 2
EA

u
P
Therefore, 1 = [ F ]TS 1
u
2
P2
0 P1
u1 L 1

=
u
0
3
.
83 P2
EA

2
Therefore, u1 =

P1 L
EA

u2 =

3.83P2
EA

## Analysis means to determine the internal forces and the deflections

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Determine {P}
Define fm, [Fm], [F]c
Form [b]
internal forces {f}=[b]{P}
[F ]TS = [b]T [ F ]c [b]
{u} = [ F ]TS {P}

7.9 EXAMPLE

P1
{P} = P2
P3

u1
{u} = u 2
u 3

199 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

f11
1
f2
{f}=
2
f1
f 2
2

[F ]c

d11
1
d 2
{d } =
2
d1
d 2
2

0
2 1 0
1 2 0
0
L
=

0
2 1
6EI 0

0 1 2
0

{ f } = [b]{P}
{f}----- 4x1
[b]------4x3
{P}------3x1
P1 =
1.0

P2 =
1.0

P3=
1.0

## --------- All others = 0

L 2L 1
0 L 1

[b] =
0 L
1

0 0 1
No. of columns = No. of P force.
[F ]TS = [b]T [ F ]c [b]
2
0 0 0
L
L
1
=
2 L L L 0
0
EI
6

1 1 1 1
0
2L
0 0 0
L
L
L
=
2 L L L 0
0
6 EI
1 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 L 2L 1
2 0 0 0 L 1
0
2 1 0 L
1

0 1 2 0 0 1
5L
3
4 L 3
2L
3

L 3
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## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

2 L
5L
3L

L 2
2
=
5L 16 L 12 L
6 EI

3L 12 L 12
2 L2 5 L2 3L P1
u1
L

2

2
Therefore, u 2 =
5L 16 L 12 L P2
6 EI

u 3
3L 12 L 12 P3
2
2
(2L P1 + 5L P2 + 3LP3 )
Therefore, u1 =
6 EI
2

u2 =

5L3 P1 + 16 L3 P2 + 12 LP3
6 EI

3L2 P1 + 12 L2 P2 + 12 LP3
6 EI
2 P1 L3
5P L3
3P L2
If P2= P3=0 u1 =
u 2 = 1 , u3 = 1
6 EI
6 EI
6 EI
If P1=P3=0 P2= P
u3 =

If the points where displacements are desired are not loaded, we must apply a fictitious load of
zero value at those points.

## INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES: - convert into a primary structure by eliminating

redundant forces.
Original structure = applied loads + Unknown redundant
f1 = b11 P1 + b12 P2 + ........ + b1N Pn + b1( N +1) x1 + b1( N + 2 ) x 2 + .......................
f 2 = ............................. + ..........................................................
P
Hence, { f } = [b p | bx ]
X
P----- Applied loads
X----- Redundant
u p
Similarly, Displacement Vectors =
ux
u p Unknown Displacements
u x Prescribed displacement (@ reaction point)

201 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

At the points of redundant
Compatibility condition-- Displacements due to {P} + Displacements due to {X} = {u x }
For a structure on rigid supports, u x =0
As before{u} = [b]T [ F ]c[b]{P}
P
= [bp|bx]T[F]c [bp|bx]
X
b Tp
P
= T Fc b p Fc bx
X
bx

u p b T F b b Tp Fc bx P
= Tp c p

T
u x bx Fc b p bx Fc bx X
u p F pp F px P

= F
u x xp Fxx X

[ ]
{x} = [F ] [F ]{P}

## If {ux} =0: 0= Fxp {P} + [Fxx ]{x}

1

xx

xp

{ f } = [b p ]{P} + [bx ]{ X }

## Unknown Displacements {u p } = [ F pp ]{P} + [ F px ]{ X }

{ X } = [ Fxx ] 1 ({u x } [ Fxp ]{P})

Otherwise

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

## Define {P},{X} (DSI need to be found)

Define {f},from [F]c
[b] = [bp|bx]
[Fpp] = bpTFcbc , [Fpx] = bpTFcbx , [Fxp]=[Fpx]T ,
{ X } = [ Fxx ] 1 ({u x } [ Fxp ]{P})

6.

{ f } = [b p | bx ] P

7.

{u } = [F ]{P} + [F ]{X }

[Fxx]=bxTFbx

pp

px

202 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

7.11 EXAMPLE 3

b+r = 9
DSI=1

P1=1

2j=8

P2=1

X=1

1
1 0
0
0
1

0 1
1

0
0
2

0
2 2

0
1
0

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

Primary Structure

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

[F ]c

1
0

0
=
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0

0 0
0 0
0 0 L

0 0 EA
2 0

0 1

0
0
0
2
0
0

[F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]
[F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]
[F ] = [F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]
T

pp

px

xp

px

## {ux}=0 = Relative Displacements between the cut ends.

1
{X } = [Fxx ] Fxp {P}

[ ]

205 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

[ ] [ ]
P
{ f } = [b / b ]
X

[ ]

Ans. u p = F pp {P} + F px {X }
p

7.12 EXAMPLE 4
w = 10 kN/m

DSI = 1 ( 3b + r

5m

3j + c

13

5m

12

5m

## E1 = Const for all members.

wl
2

wl
2

5
wl
8

3
wl
8

wl 2 / 8

9
wl
8

wl
2

3
wl
8

wl
12

wl2
12

wl 2
12

CASE 1.

wl 2
24

CASE 2.

wl
2

3
wl
8

II A

9
wl
8

wl2
24

wl2
12

IIB

206 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

Case II A need not be analyzed.

CASE II B is equivalent to -

P1

P3

P2

Primary structure -

u3

P1

P3

X
X

u1

p2
u2

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

2

f23

f12

f21

f22

f13

2
1

f111
P1 = 1

[b]

P2 = 1

P3 =1

X=1

-1

f11

-1

f21

-1

-0.5
2.5

-0.5

-1
2

f22

-1
2

f13

f22

- 2.5
P1=1

f12

P2=2

P3=1

P2=1

208 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

X=1

X=1
1
10
1
10

1
10

1
10

=
C

5
EI

-1

-1

t

-1

-1

Fpp

Fp x

Fxp

Fxx

-1

-1

## ux = Rel. rotation of the

members at joint
B

up

Fpp

Fp x

Fxp

Fxx

=
ux

=o

ux = 0 = Fxp p + Fxx X

X = - Fxx-1 Fxp P

up = Fpp p + Fp x X

P
X

+ FEM

209 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

## 7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

7.13

case II A

EXAMPLE 5

case I
P = 50 kN
3
5m

5m
5m

3b + r

3j + c

13

12

DSI = 1

f22

f23
X = Same as Ex. 4

f12

f13

f21

f11

-1
1

L
2
- L/2

-1
1
2
- 1
2

Fc =

FPP = bpT Fc bp = L3
EI
Fxp = bxT Fc bp =
X = Fxx-1

Fpx = bpT Fc
3L2
EI

Same as Ex. 1

bx

= L2
EI

Fxx = bxT Fc bx =

3.5 L
EI

Fxp P = 0.857 PL

Up = Fpp P + Fpx X =

1.428PL3
EI

210 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi