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7.

MATRIX FORCE METHOD

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


7.1 INTRODUCTION
Conventional force method.

Structure as a whole or any substructure

Must Satisfy

1. Equilibrium of forces.
2. Displacement compatibility.
3. Force-displacement relation.

Matrix Force Method also called as Flexibility method.


Member forces are treated as the basic unknowns.
Similar to the classical force method, but based on matrix approach.
Based on finite element concept

Step-by-step building up of force-displacement relationship using basic elements composing the


structure.

7.2 ASSUMPTIONS

Hookes law.
Small deflections.
Change in length under a deflection to member length = 0.
Principal of superposition.
Frames member inextensible.

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

7.3 FLEXIBILITY MATRIX FOR A FRAME / BEAM ELEMENT

f2, d2

f1, d1

Shears not included since dependent on moments.


Fijm = displacement along i th force due to unit force along

j th force, all other points being unloaded.

Comment [SB1]: This will give the first


column of F

f 1 =1,

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


f 2 = 0.

d1m = 1
m

f1 = 1

Fm

d1

d1 = L/3EI =F11,
d2 = -L/6EI =F21
(derived from slope deflection relations)

Similarly, f 2 =1& f 1 = 0 2nd column of F

L
L
& F22 =
Similarly, F12 =
6 EI
3EI

L 2 1
Fm =

6EI 1 2

7.4

Collective members FLEXIBILITY MATRIX FOR A TRUSS ELEMENT

EA
L
f1 =
d 1 d1 =
f1
L

EA
L
f1 = 1 d1 =
= Fm
EA
f1
m
L
F
= = 1x1matrix
EA

7.5

d1

d1 = (L/EA)f1
f1

COLLECTIVE MEMBER FLEXIBILITY MATRIX OF STRUCTURE

{d }= F {f }
m

For m

d 1

d 2

3
d

4
d

Matrix of all internal displacements

th

member.

F 1

0
0

0
F2
0
0

0 0
... 0

0 F N
0

Uncoupled
n

Matrix of all internal forces


f

193 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

{d}= [F]m{f}
COLLECTIVE flexibility matrix
Internal forces
[entire str.]

EXAMPLE :b + r = 5+ 3 = 8

2j = 2x4 =8

L
[F1] =[F2] =[F3] =

EA
2
[F4] = [F5] =
L
EA

1
0

Uncoupled flexibility matrix = [F] = 0

0
0

0 0

1 0

0 1

0 0
0 0

2
0

0
0
L
0

EA
0
2

{d} = [F] {f}

194 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


d

d
{d} = d
d

1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1

f
{f} = f
f

1
1
2
1
3
1
4
1
5
1

7.6 TRANSFORMATION OF FORCE (DETERMINATE STRUCTURE)


To find relationship between internal forces and externally applied forces.
P1
P

Let {P} = 2 = Loads applied externally on structure.
...
Pn
2

5
3

How internal forces are related to {P}


P
P = 1
P2
{f} = [b] {P}

Comment [SB2]: Matrix of all internal


forces

f11
2
f1
P1
3
f1 = [b]
P2
f 4
1
5
f1
5x2 matrix

195 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

bij = Internal force f i caused by unit external force Pj, with all other external forces = 0.
P2 = 0 f i s will be first column of [b]
P2 = 1 f i ' s will be second column of [b]

P1 = 1
P1 = 0

P1 =1 P2= 0

= 0

0
1

P1 =0 P2= 1

Apply one by one


Fx = 0

M
F

=0

=0

196 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

[b] =

-1

-1

Collection of flexibility
Matrics of member
2

So far {d} = [F]c {f}


{f} = [b] {P}
7.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN [P] and [u]

[P] = external loads / forces.


[u] = external displacement.
We will use the principle of virtual work to derive general relation.

Principle of virtual work

Let U 1, U2 . . . . . . . . UN = displacements.

System of virtual forces only.


197 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


{V}<< {P}
Both {P} and {V} systems are existing simultaneously.
When {P} is applied, {V} rides along the displacements and performs virtual works.
External virtual work
By {V} system

Internal virtual works by internal


=
forces generated by {V}

External virtual works = {V }T {u}


{v}
internal forces = [b] { V } = { f }

( {f } = internal forces)

Therefore internal virtual works= { f } {d }


External virtual works = internal virtual works.
{V }T {u} = {f }T {d }
= [[b]{V }]T {d }
{u} = [b]T {d }
{d}----- [F]c {f}

{u} = [b]T [ F ]c { f }

frd

{ f } [b]{P}

Therefore, {u} = ([b]T [ F ]c [b]){P}

FTS = Total structural flexibility matrix.

For the truss structure considered earlier,

1 0 0 0
[ FTS ] =
0 0 1 0

0
2

1
0

0
0

0
1
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
2
0

0
0
0

0
2

1 0
0
0
L

0 1
EA

0
0
0
2

198 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


1 0
0
0
0 L

0 1
2 EA

0
0
0
2

1 0 0 0
=
0 0 1 0

0
L 1
=

0
1
+
2 2
EA

u
P
Therefore, 1 = [ F ]TS 1
u
2
P2
0 P1
u1 L 1


=
u
0
3
.
83 P2
EA

2
Therefore, u1 =

P1 L
EA

u2 =

3.83P2
EA

7.8 PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY DETERMINATE STRUCTURES

Analysis means to determine the internal forces and the deflections


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Determine {P}
Define fm, [Fm], [F]c
Form [b]
internal forces {f}=[b]{P}
[F ]TS = [b]T [ F ]c [b]
{u} = [ F ]TS {P}

7.9 EXAMPLE

P1
{P} = P2
P3

u1
{u} = u 2
u 3

199 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

f11
1
f2
{f}=
2
f1
f 2
2

[F ]c

d11
1
d 2
{d } =
2
d1
d 2
2

0
2 1 0
1 2 0
0
L
=

0
2 1
6EI 0

0 1 2
0

{ f } = [b]{P}
{f}----- 4x1
[b]------4x3
{P}------3x1
P1 =
1.0

P2 =
1.0

P3=
1.0

--------- All others = 0

L 2L 1
0 L 1

[b] =
0 L
1

0 0 1
No. of columns = No. of P force.
[F ]TS = [b]T [ F ]c [b]
2
0 0 0
L
L
1
=
2 L L L 0
0
EI
6

1 1 1 1
0
2L
0 0 0
L
L
L
=
2 L L L 0
0
6 EI
1 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 L 2L 1
2 0 0 0 L 1
0
2 1 0 L
1

0 1 2 0 0 1
5L
3
4 L 3
2L
3

L 3
200 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


2 L
5L
3L

L 2
2
=
5L 16 L 12 L
6 EI

3L 12 L 12
2 L2 5 L2 3L P1
u1
L

2

2
Therefore, u 2 =
5L 16 L 12 L P2
6 EI

u 3
3L 12 L 12 P3
2
2
(2L P1 + 5L P2 + 3LP3 )
Therefore, u1 =
6 EI
2

u2 =

5L3 P1 + 16 L3 P2 + 12 LP3
6 EI

3L2 P1 + 12 L2 P2 + 12 LP3
6 EI
2 P1 L3
5P L3
3P L2
If P2= P3=0 u1 =
u 2 = 1 , u3 = 1
6 EI
6 EI
6 EI
If P1=P3=0 P2= P
u3 =

If the points where displacements are desired are not loaded, we must apply a fictitious load of
zero value at those points.

7.10 ANALYSIS OF STATICALLY INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES

INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES: - convert into a primary structure by eliminating


redundant forces.
Original structure = applied loads + Unknown redundant
f1 = b11 P1 + b12 P2 + ........ + b1N Pn + b1( N +1) x1 + b1( N + 2 ) x 2 + .......................
f 2 = ............................. + ..........................................................
P
Hence, { f } = [b p | bx ]
X
P----- Applied loads
X----- Redundant
u p
Similarly, Displacement Vectors =
ux
u p Unknown Displacements
u x Prescribed displacement (@ reaction point)

201 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


At the points of redundant
Compatibility condition-- Displacements due to {P} + Displacements due to {X} = {u x }
For a structure on rigid supports, u x =0
As before{u} = [b]T [ F ]c[b]{P}
P
= [bp|bx]T[F]c [bp|bx]
X
b Tp
P
= T Fc b p Fc bx
X
bx

u p b T F b b Tp Fc bx P
= Tp c p

T
u x bx Fc b p bx Fc bx X
u p F pp F px P

= F
u x xp Fxx X

[ ]
{x} = [F ] [F ]{P}

If {ux} =0: 0= Fxp {P} + [Fxx ]{x}


1

xx

xp

{ f } = [b p ]{P} + [bx ]{ X }

Unknown Displacements {u p } = [ F pp ]{P} + [ F px ]{ X }


{ X } = [ Fxx ] 1 ({u x } [ Fxp ]{P})

Otherwise

Summarized Procedure for Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Define {P},{X} (DSI need to be found)


Define {f},from [F]c
[b] = [bp|bx]
[Fpp] = bpTFcbc , [Fpx] = bpTFcbx , [Fxp]=[Fpx]T ,
{ X } = [ Fxx ] 1 ({u x } [ Fxp ]{P})

6.

{ f } = [b p | bx ] P

7.

{u } = [F ]{P} + [F ]{X }

[Fxx]=bxTFbx

pp

px

202 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


7.11 EXAMPLE 3

b+r = 9
DSI=1

P1=1

2j=8

P2=1

X=1

1
1 0
0
0
1

0 1
1

0
0
2

0
2 2

0
1
0

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


Primary Structure

204 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

[F ]c

1
0

0
=
0
0

0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0

0 0
0 0
0 0 L

0 0 EA
2 0

0 1

0
0
0
2
0
0

[F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]
[F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]
[F ] = [F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]
T

pp

px

xp

px

[Fxx ] = [bx ]T [F ]c [bx ]

{ux}=0 = Relative Displacements between the cut ends.


1
{X } = [Fxx ] Fxp {P}

[ ]

205 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

[ ] [ ]
P
{ f } = [b / b ]
X

[ ]

Ans. u p = F pp {P} + F px {X }
p

7.12 EXAMPLE 4
w = 10 kN/m

We desire a disp. here


DSI = 1 ( 3b + r

5m

3j + c

13

5m

12

5m

E1 = Const for all members.

wl
2

wl
2

5
wl
8

3
wl
8

wl 2 / 8

9
wl
8

wl
2

3
wl
8

wl
12

wl2
12

wl 2
12

CASE 1.

wl 2
24

CASE 2.

wl
2

3
wl
8

II A

9
wl
8

wl2
24

wl2
12

IIB

206 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


Case II A need not be analyzed.

CASE II B is equivalent to -

P1

P3

P2

Primary structure -

u3

P1

P3

X
X

u1

p2
u2

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Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


2

f23

f12

f21

f22

f13

2
1

f111
P1 = 1

[b]

P2 = 1

P3 =1

X=1

-1

f11

-1

f21

-1

-0.5
2.5

-0.5

-1
2

f22

-1
2

f13

f22

- 2.5
P1=1

f12

P2=2

P3=1

P2=1

208 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD

X=1

X=1
1
10
1
10

1
10

1
10

=
C

5
EI

-1

-1

[F ]TS = [b] [F ]c [b]


t

-1

-1

Fpp

Fp x

Fxp

Fxx

-1

-1

ux = Rel. rotation of the


members at joint
B

up

Fpp

Fp x

Fxp

Fxx

=
ux

=o

ux = 0 = Fxp p + Fxx X

X = - Fxx-1 Fxp P

up = Fpp p + Fp x X

P
X

+ FEM

209 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7. MATRIX FORCE METHOD


7.13

case II A

EXAMPLE 5

case I
P = 50 kN
3
5m

5m
5m

3b + r

3j + c

13

12

DSI = 1

f22

f23
X = Same as Ex. 4

f12

f13

f21

f11

-1
1

L
2
- L/2

-1
1
2
- 1
2

Fc =

FPP = bpT Fc bp = L3
EI
Fxp = bxT Fc bp =
X = Fxx-1

Fpx = bpT Fc
3L2
EI

Same as Ex. 1

bx

= L2
EI

Fxx = bxT Fc bx =

3.5 L
EI

Fxp P = 0.857 PL

Up = Fpp P + Fpx X =

1.428PL3
EI

210 | P a g e
Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi