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7.1 INTRODUCTION

Conventional force method.

Must Satisfy

1. Equilibrium of forces.

2. Displacement compatibility.

3. Force-displacement relation.

Member forces are treated as the basic unknowns.

Similar to the classical force method, but based on matrix approach.

Based on finite element concept

structure.

7.2 ASSUMPTIONS

Hookes law.

Small deflections.

Change in length under a deflection to member length = 0.

Principal of superposition.

Frames member inextensible.

191 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

f2, d2

f1, d1

Fijm = displacement along i th force due to unit force along

column of F

f 1 =1,

192 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

f 2 = 0.

d1m = 1

m

f1 = 1

Fm

d1

d1 = L/3EI =F11,

d2 = -L/6EI =F21

(derived from slope deflection relations)

L

L

& F22 =

Similarly, F12 =

6 EI

3EI

L 2 1

Fm =

6EI 1 2

7.4

EA

L

f1 =

d 1 d1 =

f1

L

EA

L

f1 = 1 d1 =

= Fm

EA

f1

m

L

F

= = 1x1matrix

EA

7.5

d1

d1 = (L/EA)f1

f1

{d }= F {f }

m

For m

d 1

d 2

3

d

4

d

th

member.

F 1

0

0

0

F2

0

0

0 0

... 0

0 F N

0

Uncoupled

n

f

193 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

{d}= [F]m{f}

COLLECTIVE flexibility matrix

Internal forces

[entire str.]

EXAMPLE :b + r = 5+ 3 = 8

2j = 2x4 =8

L

[F1] =[F2] =[F3] =

EA

2

[F4] = [F5] =

L

EA

1

0

0

0

0 0

1 0

0 1

0 0

0 0

2

0

0

0

L

0

EA

0

2

194 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

d

d

{d} = d

d

1

1

2

1

3

1

4

1

5

1

f

{f} = f

f

1

1

2

1

3

1

4

1

5

1

To find relationship between internal forces and externally applied forces.

P1

P

Let {P} = 2 = Loads applied externally on structure.

...

Pn

2

5

3

P

P = 1

P2

{f} = [b] {P}

forces

f11

2

f1

P1

3

f1 = [b]

P2

f 4

1

5

f1

5x2 matrix

195 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

bij = Internal force f i caused by unit external force Pj, with all other external forces = 0.

P2 = 0 f i s will be first column of [b]

P2 = 1 f i ' s will be second column of [b]

P1 = 1

P1 = 0

P1 =1 P2= 0

= 0

0

1

P1 =0 P2= 1

Fx = 0

M

F

=0

=0

196 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

[b] =

-1

-1

Collection of flexibility

Matrics of member

2

{f} = [b] {P}

7.7 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN [P] and [u]

[u] = external displacement.

We will use the principle of virtual work to derive general relation.

Let U 1, U2 . . . . . . . . UN = displacements.

197 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

{V}<< {P}

Both {P} and {V} systems are existing simultaneously.

When {P} is applied, {V} rides along the displacements and performs virtual works.

External virtual work

By {V} system

=

forces generated by {V}

{v}

internal forces = [b] { V } = { f }

( {f } = internal forces)

External virtual works = internal virtual works.

{V }T {u} = {f }T {d }

= [[b]{V }]T {d }

{u} = [b]T {d }

{d}----- [F]c {f}

{u} = [b]T [ F ]c { f }

frd

{ f } [b]{P}

1 0 0 0

[ FTS ] =

0 0 1 0

0

2

1

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

2

1 0

0

0

L

0 1

EA

0

0

0

2

198 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

1 0

0

0

0 L

0 1

2 EA

0

0

0

2

1 0 0 0

=

0 0 1 0

0

L 1

=

0

1

+

2 2

EA

u

P

Therefore, 1 = [ F ]TS 1

u

2

P2

0 P1

u1 L 1

=

u

0

3

.

83 P2

EA

2

Therefore, u1 =

P1 L

EA

u2 =

3.83P2

EA

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

Determine {P}

Define fm, [Fm], [F]c

Form [b]

internal forces {f}=[b]{P}

[F ]TS = [b]T [ F ]c [b]

{u} = [ F ]TS {P}

7.9 EXAMPLE

P1

{P} = P2

P3

u1

{u} = u 2

u 3

199 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

f11

1

f2

{f}=

2

f1

f 2

2

[F ]c

d11

1

d 2

{d } =

2

d1

d 2

2

0

2 1 0

1 2 0

0

L

=

0

2 1

6EI 0

0 1 2

0

{ f } = [b]{P}

{f}----- 4x1

[b]------4x3

{P}------3x1

P1 =

1.0

P2 =

1.0

P3=

1.0

L 2L 1

0 L 1

[b] =

0 L

1

0 0 1

No. of columns = No. of P force.

[F ]TS = [b]T [ F ]c [b]

2

0 0 0

L

L

1

=

2 L L L 0

0

EI

6

1 1 1 1

0

2L

0 0 0

L

L

L

=

2 L L L 0

0

6 EI

1 1 1 1 0

1 0 0 L 2L 1

2 0 0 0 L 1

0

2 1 0 L

1

0 1 2 0 0 1

5L

3

4 L 3

2L

3

L 3

200 | P a g e

2 L

5L

3L

L 2

2

=

5L 16 L 12 L

6 EI

3L 12 L 12

2 L2 5 L2 3L P1

u1

L

2

2

Therefore, u 2 =

5L 16 L 12 L P2

6 EI

u 3

3L 12 L 12 P3

2

2

(2L P1 + 5L P2 + 3LP3 )

Therefore, u1 =

6 EI

2

u2 =

5L3 P1 + 16 L3 P2 + 12 LP3

6 EI

3L2 P1 + 12 L2 P2 + 12 LP3

6 EI

2 P1 L3

5P L3

3P L2

If P2= P3=0 u1 =

u 2 = 1 , u3 = 1

6 EI

6 EI

6 EI

If P1=P3=0 P2= P

u3 =

If the points where displacements are desired are not loaded, we must apply a fictitious load of

zero value at those points.

redundant forces.

Original structure = applied loads + Unknown redundant

f1 = b11 P1 + b12 P2 + ........ + b1N Pn + b1( N +1) x1 + b1( N + 2 ) x 2 + .......................

f 2 = ............................. + ..........................................................

P

Hence, { f } = [b p | bx ]

X

P----- Applied loads

X----- Redundant

u p

Similarly, Displacement Vectors =

ux

u p Unknown Displacements

u x Prescribed displacement (@ reaction point)

201 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

At the points of redundant

Compatibility condition-- Displacements due to {P} + Displacements due to {X} = {u x }

For a structure on rigid supports, u x =0

As before{u} = [b]T [ F ]c[b]{P}

P

= [bp|bx]T[F]c [bp|bx]

X

b Tp

P

= T Fc b p Fc bx

X

bx

u p b T F b b Tp Fc bx P

= Tp c p

T

u x bx Fc b p bx Fc bx X

u p F pp F px P

= F

u x xp Fxx X

[ ]

{x} = [F ] [F ]{P}

1

xx

xp

{ f } = [b p ]{P} + [bx ]{ X }

{ X } = [ Fxx ] 1 ({u x } [ Fxp ]{P})

Otherwise

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Define {f},from [F]c

[b] = [bp|bx]

[Fpp] = bpTFcbc , [Fpx] = bpTFcbx , [Fxp]=[Fpx]T ,

{ X } = [ Fxx ] 1 ({u x } [ Fxp ]{P})

6.

{ f } = [b p | bx ] P

7.

{u } = [F ]{P} + [F ]{X }

[Fxx]=bxTFbx

pp

px

202 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7.11 EXAMPLE 3

b+r = 9

DSI=1

P1=1

2j=8

P2=1

X=1

1

1 0

0

0

1

0 1

1

0

0

2

0

2 2

0

1

0

203 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

Primary Structure

204 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

[F ]c

1

0

0

=

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0 0

0 0

0 0 L

0 0 EA

2 0

0 1

0

0

0

2

0

0

[F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]

[F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]

[F ] = [F ] = [b ] [F ] [b ]

T

pp

px

xp

px

1

{X } = [Fxx ] Fxp {P}

[ ]

205 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

[ ] [ ]

P

{ f } = [b / b ]

X

[ ]

Ans. u p = F pp {P} + F px {X }

p

7.12 EXAMPLE 4

w = 10 kN/m

DSI = 1 ( 3b + r

5m

3j + c

13

5m

12

5m

wl

2

wl

2

5

wl

8

3

wl

8

wl 2 / 8

9

wl

8

wl

2

3

wl

8

wl

12

wl2

12

wl 2

12

CASE 1.

wl 2

24

CASE 2.

wl

2

3

wl

8

II A

9

wl

8

wl2

24

wl2

12

IIB

206 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

Case II A need not be analyzed.

CASE II B is equivalent to -

P1

P3

P2

Primary structure -

u3

P1

P3

X

X

u1

p2

u2

207 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

2

f23

f12

f21

f22

f13

2

1

f111

P1 = 1

[b]

P2 = 1

P3 =1

X=1

-1

f11

-1

f21

-1

-0.5

2.5

-0.5

-1

2

f22

-1

2

f13

f22

- 2.5

P1=1

f12

P2=2

P3=1

P2=1

208 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

X=1

X=1

1

10

1

10

1

10

1

10

=

C

5

EI

-1

-1

t

-1

-1

Fpp

Fp x

Fxp

Fxx

-1

-1

members at joint

B

up

Fpp

Fp x

Fxp

Fxx

=

ux

=o

ux = 0 = Fxp p + Fxx X

X = - Fxx-1 Fxp P

up = Fpp p + Fp x X

P

X

+ FEM

209 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

7.13

case II A

EXAMPLE 5

case I

P = 50 kN

3

5m

5m

5m

3b + r

3j + c

13

12

DSI = 1

f22

f23

X = Same as Ex. 4

f12

f13

f21

f11

-1

1

L

2

- L/2

-1

1

2

- 1

2

Fc =

FPP = bpT Fc bp = L3

EI

Fxp = bxT Fc bp =

X = Fxx-1

Fpx = bpT Fc

3L2

EI

Same as Ex. 1

bx

= L2

EI

Fxx = bxT Fc bx =

3.5 L

EI

Fxp P = 0.857 PL

Up = Fpp P + Fpx X =

1.428PL3

EI

210 | P a g e

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi

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