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HEAD & NECK

1.

Give an account of musculature of the pharynx.

2.

Discuss the embryological basis of the congenial defects that may occur in
a) Lips & palate
b) Thyroglossal cyst
3.1 Describe the extent and the relations of the parotid gland
Situated mainly behind the mandible
but spills over it onto the face. It
extends deeply to come into contact with the pharynx and
posteriorly it is moulded around the mastoid process and sternomastoid.
The parotid
duct extends forwards across masseter to enter the mouth opposite
the second upper molar.
The whole gland is enclosed in dense fascia so
that swelling of the gland, as in mumps for instance, is very painful.
Three structures pass through the gland.
These are, from superficial to deep: the facial nerve, the retromandibular
vein (the beginning of the external jugular) and the external carotid
artery,
With its maxillary and superficial temporal branches.

3.2 Describe the nerves in relation to the gland.


The major nerve related to the parotid gland is the facial nerve, which divides into two trunks anterior and
posterior to the isthmus of parotid gland. Anterior trunk divides into 3 branches and posterior divides into
two.

3. 4.1 Describe the cervical sympathetic trunk.(50)


4.2 Discuss how the preganglionic fibres reach the cervical sympathetic ganglia.(30)
4.3 List the features of a lesion in the inferior cervical sympathetic ganglion and explain their
anatomical basis.(20)
(AL2002 main)
5. Describe the effects of compression of cervico-thoracic sympathetic ganglion.
6. 3.1 Give the relations of the subclavian artery.

3.2 Describe the course of the branches of the subclavian artery and the structures supplied by
them.
7. Describe the thyroid gland and give its relations and blood supply.
8. Describe the relations of the cervical part of trachea.
9. Describe the blood vessels in relation to the scalenus anterior muscle.
10. Explain the musculature of the larynx.
11. Describe the attachments and relations of extra occular muscles.
12. 12.1 Describe the anatomy of the submandibular glands.(60)
Describe its microscopic structure.(40)
(AL2002 rep)
13. 13.1 Describe the central connections , origin, course & distribution of the occulomotor nerve.
(80)
13.2 Discuss the anatomical basis of the indirect light reflex.(20)
(AL2003 main)
14. 14.1 Describe the arrangement of the pharyngeal muscles.(40)
14.2 Discuss the nerve supply of the pharynx.(30)
14.3 State briefly the development of the pharynx.(30) (AL2003 main)
15. 15.1 Describe the relations of the parotid gland.(65)
parotid gland is the largest salivary gland among three salivary glands which is situated anterior and
below the lower half of ear, anterior to external acoustic meatus posterior and deep to the ramus of
mandible, while its anterior margin overlaps the posterior part messeter muscle and posterior margin
overlaps the anterior margin of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. It extends down to the lower border of
mandible. The facial nerve splits into two and curves around the isthmus of gland and they divides into 4
branches. The external carotid artery enters the gland in the posterior end of it and leaves from superior
margin.

15.2 What are the possible causes of swellings in this area?(35)


16. 16.1 Describe the attachments of the sternocleidomastoid muscle its innervation and action.(40)
16.2 A person receives a sword cut injury to his neck. List the structures associated with this
muscle that may be divided.(40)
16.3 A branchial fistula is found at the anterior border of the muscle near its lower part. Give the
embryological basis for its presence.(20)
(AL2004 main)
17. A 35 year old man was seen at a surgical clinic with a lump behind the angle of the mandible. A
diagnosis of a parotid tumour was made. The surgeon explained to the patient the possible
chance of facial nerve damage during surgery.
17.1 Describe the extracranial course of the facial nerve.(70)

17.2 Give a brief account of the microscopic appearance of the parotid gland.(30)
(AL2005 main)