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Geometry: Point, line, plane, ray and angle.

Geometry

It is the study of the properties and relationships of points, lines and surfaces in space.

Euclidean geometry is the geometry that keeps within the rules as laid down by Euclid. It is

the geometry which is most often used in the ordinary, everyday life.

Plane geometry is geometry confined to two-dimensional space (2D) only.

Solid geometry is geometry confined to three-dimensional space (3D).

POINT

An exact location. It has no size, only position.

A point only indicates a position and has no size. In a drawing it must have some size in

order to be seen, but in any work involving a point its size is ignored. It has no dimensions.

LINE

A line is the path followed by a point when it moves from one

position to another. Generally, the word line used by itself means

straight line.

There are two basic types of lines in geometry: straight lines and curved lines. A curved

line joining points A and B is designated as curve AB.

Horizontal line

Vertical line

LINE SEGMENT

The term line segment (abscissa, pl. abscissae) should be used

whenever we refer to the straight line joining some point A to some

other point B.

YEAR 1

Geometry: Point, line, plane, ray and angle.

RAY

A ray is a line with a start point but no end point (it goes to infinity)

PLANE

Plane is considered to have no thickness. It is a two-dimensional surface. If any two points

on it are joined by a straight line the line lies entirely on that surface. It is given by three

noncollinear (lie on the same line) points.

ANGLE

An angle is made when two straight lines cross or meet each other at a point.

Parts of an Angle

The corner point of an angle is called the vertex

And the two straight sides are called arms

The angle is the amount of turn between each arm.

Naming Angles

For angles the central letter is where the angle is. For example when

you see " ABC is 45", then the point "B" is where the angle is.

Short Example When someone writes: In ABC, BAC is .You know they are saying:

"In triangle ABC, the angle BAC is a right angle"

There are two main ways to label angles:

1. by giving the angle a name, usually a lower-case letter like a or

b, or sometimes a Greek letter like (alpha) or (theta)

2. or by the three letters on the shape that define the angle, with the

middle letter being where the angle actually is (its vertex).

Example angle "a" is "BAC", and angle "" is "BCD"

One Degree

This is how large 1 Degree is

A Full Circle is 360

Half a circle is 180

(called a Straight Angle)

Quarter of a circle is 90

(called a Right Angle)

YEAR 1

Geometry: Point, line, plane, ray and angle.

Measuring Degrees

We often measure degrees using a protractor:

Types of Angles

Right Angle an angle that is 90 exactly

Obtuse Angle an angle that is greater than 90 but less than 180

Straight Angle an angle that is 180 exactly

Reflex Angle an angle that is greater than 180

Complementary Angles

Two Angles are Complementary if they add up to 90 degrees (a Right Angle).

If the two angles add to 90, we say they "Complement" each other.

Complementary comes from Latin completum meaning "completed" ... because the right

angle is thought of as being a complete (full) angle.

These two angles (40 and 50) are Complementary Angles, because they

add up to 90.

Notice that together they make a right angle.

Supplementary angles

Angles on one side of a straight line will always add to 180

degrees. If a line is split into 2 and you know one angle you

can always find the other one. These angles are adjacent and

they are called supplementary angles.

YEAR 1

Geometry: Point, line, plane, ray and angle.

Adjacent Angles

Two angles are Adjacent if they have a common side and a

common vertex (corner point).

An Interior Angle is an angle inside a shape. An Exterior Angle is an angle outside a shape.

Note: If you add up the Interior Angle and Exterior Angle you get a straight line, 180.

Congruent Angles

Congruent Angles have the same angle in degrees. That's all. Congruent - why such a funny

word that basically means "equal"? Probably because they would only be "equal" if laid on

top of each other. Anyway it comes from Latin

congruere, "to agree". So the angles "agree"

These angles are congruent. They don't have to

point in the same direction.

They don't have to be on similar sized lines.

Vertical Angles

Vertical Angles are the angles opposite each other when two lines

cross.

In this example, a and b are vertical angles, and they are equal.

Corresponding Angles

When two lines are crossed by another line (which is called the

Transversal), the angles in matching corners are called

corresponding angles. In this example, these are corresponding

angles:

a and e, b and f, c and g, d and h.

YEAR 1

Geometry: Point, line, plane, ray and angle.

When two lines are crossed by another line (which is called the

Transversal), the pairs of angles on opposite sides of the transversal

but inside the two lines are called Alternate Interior Angles.

In this example, these are Alternate Interior Angles:

c and f, d and e

(To help you remember: the angle pairs are on "Alternate" sides of the

Transversal, and they are on the "Interior" of the two crossed lines)

In this example, these are Alternate Exterior Angles:

a and h

b and g

(To help you remember: the angle pairs are on "Alternate" sides of the

Transversal, and they are on the "Exterior" of the two crossed lines)

When two lines are crossed by another line (which is called the

Transversal), the pairs of angles on one side of the transversal but

inside the two lines are called Consecutive Interior Angles.

In this example, these are Consecutive Interior Angles:

c and e, d and f

To help you remember: the angle pairs are "Consecutive" (they

follow each other), and they are on the "Interior" of the two

crossed lines

also called Co-Interior Angles in the UK and Australia.

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