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Renderesd from the Origfinal Lawmga

try the
W W$RLD' m
a ~ ~ f m w
Valulme n
-A D , 1955-




Sabatler, Bibliw~mFocrcl.?%fi%
Greek translnHon made by lntinae wrsio.cte8 antmqtrae set4
hg'nl la, n J w b h r l y t e , o f c81rs italica, issued 1743-49.
2cl century A. A very litL
cral translatlan of the,
Leningrad Manuscript. cataIwcomlng thc omctal Greek
v ~ r s l o n:or tire ,Irws. C?r!gcn logued as No,B 19:%, in Hebrew.
lnrlt~tlcclf t in tile 3 1 mlumn o l It is tlae oldest dated manu111s I I C F I ~ I I Z , current i h h o ~ i scri t of the co~npleteHebrew
g was copjed A.D. 16308
n.o. 215. ~c Foreword of the ~ i b and
Seru Illorl(l Ti-~jr.c.l~ait~~
o,I ?!I+? "from the corrected clear b o k s

rSrsip1t~rcs, r ~ p a r e dby the master Aaron

en Mosher ben Asher." It contains the ordinary vocalizatian
of the Hebrew consonants. It
Cairo Manllscri~t of the Is n o w in the Public Library
Prophets, in Hcbrew. It Con- 1, Leningrad, Russia.
inlns the E a r l l ~ r and Later
~ ' r n ~ h e (see
t s E'nreiord, Vole
ttmp I, I 41 n l ~wns
written by Greek Ssptuaglnt V ~ s i o l c ,
hlofies ben Asher in T l h e ~ l
In~ ~begun about 280 B.C.The oldI'alestlne. A.D. 895. It Is In the eat version of the Hebrew
liarulte 5etw.s' synagopre 01 Scriptures and a work of Jews.
('~11'0, Eg 11b. Acriderrtnlky d1.S.

i 8
]rage 12,

If I.



"Old Latin" Verslon, probnbly orlgInatini3 among LatinE P C R ~ ~Jews

~ R of Cnrttlage In
horth Africn but latar ado ted
I I the
~ Christians, Vnrfnus atIIl verstotls wWcl ctrcukLtec1 before Jerome's p r ~ d u c t i o n of
l h e Lqtln frlilgulr, nnil were
trirnslations of the Grcrk ScpLXXA
Greek S8br&aEnf V H S W as
trtogi~ri,before O r l g ~ nrevised
that G r e ~ ktext about A.D. 245. found in the Cadex MexanThree types o i Old Latin v t ~ -drinus, or Alexandrine Manusions arc identified: { I ) the scripr, of the complete Bible.
Alrican, the most prfmltlve; Of the middle of t h e 5th cen( 2 ) the Eurclpertrt : and ( 3 1 tlrc t u r y . F r o m its .translation of
Irallan, prohal~lys r~vlslnnof the Hebrew Smptures the folthr: Ev,ropo;ln, Usunlly ca1IetI lotvlng have been lost: 1 Kings
"'ltaln. Tllr s'tnndard edition 12:17 to 14:9 and Psalms 4 9 ~ 2 0




International Btble Students AssodrtUon
Brooklyn, New York, UU.
Male in the Unilted States d America

Greek Septnngint V e r s i a ~as~
f duncl in the Codex Sinaiticus,
or Slnaitic Manuscript, Of the
4th century. What remains of
its translation of the Hebrew
ScrIptures 1s iragmentary. Discovprp~la t ~ t Sinai
in I S M , it
is now in the British Museum,
London, England.


LXmmade with some consideratinn
Greek Beptwgrmt Twslon of the Greek Septuagint. Its
as found in the Codex Vati. most valuable manuscript for
canus, or Vatican Manuscript the translation of the entire
No. 1209. Of t h e 4th century. Hebrew Bible is the 6th- or
From its translation of the Re- 7th-century codex in the Ambrew Scriptures two sections brosian Library, Milan, Italy.
are missing: the book of Gen- An earlier manuscript has a
e$is from its beginn'
up to date corresponding with A.D.
chapter 46:28, andsalmfi 464.
105:27 to 137:6 (Psalms 106138 in Hebrew), but which
Greek t r e z g ~ nmade by
missing paraa er were restored
by x 15th-cen7u1-y scribe. The s mJma chus an ~b i o n i t e,
Books of the Maccabees and a out A.D. 200. Though in exthe Psalms of Solomon, agoc- cellent Greek. it is faithful to
ryphal hooks, are missing. the Hebrew text, following its
Catalogued in the Vatican G. sense. Few fragments survive.
brary since the fifteenth cen- Origsn incIuded it in the 4th
column of his Hexupla, current
about A.D. 245,
Masoretic ~ i h r e w
text. Here
based main1 on the text of the T h e Tarpms, or Targumirn,
Leningrad debrew Manuscript meaning i n t e r r e t a t i o n s ,
No.B 19A, a representative of translations."
first they
the ben Asher text.
were mere oral interpretations
o r translations In Ararnalc
made at the readlng of the He.
Samaritan-Pentgetah, a H? brew Scriptures after Jerusabrew text truxed wkth Samarl- lem's $0-year desolation, and
tan idioms, transmitted by t h e later they were committed to
Samaritan community in Pal- writing. There are T a r m s on
estine independently of the the L a w or Pentateuch, on the
Jewish tradition since the 4th Prophets and, of later date, on
century B.C, Out of 6,000 dif- the Hagiographa. The three
ferences between the Samari- Targums on the Pentateuch
tan text and the Hebrew text are the Jerusalem Targum, the
of the first five books of the Targum of Jonathan, and tho
Bible only 1,000are im ortant, Targum of On;i?los.
A few extant manuscrypts are
earlier than the 12th century.
Tareurn of Jonathan. reallv
pseud6.$onathan, this ~ar&&
Parts on the Pentateuch being f a l s e
of it may be of Jewish origin, Iy assigned to Jonathan ben
but it was made for Syriac Uz-d'cl. It should rather be
Christians, It is basically a calIed the J~msalemTarmm.
translation directly of the Et is a paraphrase in Xr?
Hebrew Scriptures, although maic extending from Genesls


Ihrough Deuteronomy, There nian Jews. It is thought to be

another Targum called the the oldest extant of the AraJerusalem Targum on the Pen- maic versions. It is more closetateuch, but it contains only ly allied to Biblical Aramaic
portions of the Pentateuch and and sticks very closely t o the
so is usually called the Frag. Hebrew text. It is based on a
mentary IJerusalem) Targum. Hebrew text practical1 iden.
The Targum on the Proph deal with the ~asoretYftext.
ets, namelv. Joshua, Judges,
Samuel, ~"ings,Isaiah, J k e - Palestinian Tar
gum, of which
miah, Ezekiel, and the 12 Minor Prophets, is wrongly at- the Fragmentary
tributed to the above Jonathan. Targum On the
It was an Older)
In language and s t le it closecomplete ~ e r u s Ta ~~ ~ ~~
1~ resembles the
of more
dnkelos and seems 6 have gU""
been modeled on that Targum
Greek translation made by
and, in places, t o have made
Thee do'tion, of Pontus, Asia
! I s of It, but is less literal.
Minor, bettveen A.D. 180 and
192. It differs little from the
Targum of Onkelos, or Baby- Septuagint, like a mere revilonian Targum, on the Penta- sion. Origen included it in the
leuch. Its real author was prob- 6th column of his Hemapla, my:ihlg unknown to the Babylo- rent about: A.D. 245.

qarEum "


"You" printed in all capital letters denotes the plural number
of this pronoun. Also where the plural number 02 a verb Is not
certainly apparent t o the reader. it is indicated by printing the
VWRB In all capitals.

(C) or with a clot (01, or a
superior "p" or "q" denotes that the word that It follows Is
one of a chain o t references, carried on ~ 1 1through the HeQrew
Scdptures. Jn the last volume of our translation of the Hebrew
Scriptures we hogs t o publish an alphrbetic list ol all words in
chain reference, wlllt the opening verge in the Hebrew SCriptur~s
where each chaln starts. The sib3 margin cites the next llnk.
Other symbols refer to cross reterences not in a chain,
The follomlng cross reference ~jymbols ', 0, A, I, t e, X, 3.
k t o a. r to z ~ 1 1 1l ~ a dyou t o heIpful inforwatlon, such aa
parallel paesages, geogragh!cal and blographlcal points, paasage-;
quoted iron?, etc.

The superior small clrcle. open


Alphabetical Order and MarginaI Abbreviations

of the Books of the Hebrew and Greek Scriptures


Acts .........................
Amos ..........................
Chronicles, 3. ............ ICh
Chronicles, 2 ............ 2Ch
CoIossians .................. Col



Kings, 1 ...................... 1Ki

Kings, 2 ...................... 2Ki
Lamentations ............ La
Leviticus ...................... Le
Luke .............................. Lu
Corinthians, 1. ............1Ca
Malachi ...................... Ma1
Corinthians, 2 ............ 2Co
Mark ...................... ..
Daniel .........................
Matthew ...................... M t
Deuteronomy .............. De
Micah .......................... Mic
Ecclesiastes ................ Ec
Nahum ........................ Na
Ephesians ...........,... E P ~ Nehemiah .................... Ne
Esther .......................... Es
Numbers ......................
Exodus ...................
Ezekiel ........................Eze
Peter, I ...................... IPe
Ezra ............................ E Z F
Peter, 2 ...................... 2Pe
Galatians .................... Ga
Philemon .................. Phm
Genesis ........................ Ge
Philippians .............. PhP
Habakkuk ................ Hab
Proverbs ......................Pr
Haggai ..................... Hag
Psalms .......................... Ps
Revelation .................. Re
Hosea ..........................Ho
Romans ........................ Ro
Isaiah ........................ .. Isa
Ruth .............................
dames ..........................Jas
Samuel, 1 .................... 1Sa
Jeremiah .................... Jer
Samuel, 2 .................... 2Sa
Job ......................... ..... Job
Song of SoIornon
Joel .............................. Joe
(Canticles) .............. Ca
John ....................,...... Joh
Thessalonians, 1 ...... 1Th
John, 1 .................,..... 1Jo
Thessalonians, 2 ...,. 2Th
John, 2 ........................ 2Jo
Timothy, 1 ..................1Ti
John,3 ......................
.. 3Jo Timothy,
2 .................. ZTi
Jonah ..........................Jon
Titus ............................Tit
Joshua ........................ Jos
Zechariah ................, Zec
Jude ..........................Jude
Zephaniah ........,........ Zep
Judges ..........................Jg



1 Samuel.
2 Samuel.

1 Kings

. . . . . . . . . 11
. . . . . . . . .119

. . . . . . . . . .209

. . . . . . . . . .311
1 Chronicles . . . . . . . .408
2 Chronicles . . . . . . . .496

2 Kings

. . . . . . . . . . ,604


. . . . . . 635
. . . . . . . . . .681


volume JT't
2 Xings
Deuterononly I Chronlcles song o! Solomon Wanlel
2 Chronlcles
Ha gai

volume I


vohtrae 11
1 Samuel
I Samuel


To be published in Volume III In the course of the years,

t T o be published In

Volume IV In the course of tile years.







Or, acrording

[Follow page 7051


A Temple-Palace Area of Jerusalem (Ground

Plan)-1027 t o 607 B.C.
B Temple-Palace Area of Jerusalem (Perspective View)-1027 to 607 B.C.
C JermsaIem-from David t o Nehemiah
D Temple of Jehovah


the Greek Fspfaagit~t,


NOWthere happened t o be a certain man of

a Zuph'itea of t h e mountainous
1% 25:1
and his name was El.ka'ISn 28:s
. 1 . 1
the son of E-li'hufb
:+Il:h 6:ZT
c ~ s a a : ~the son of To'hu, the son of Zuphr0an E'phra'r:.4:19
im.%e.c 'And he had two wives,+the name of
J g 8.30
the one being Han'nah and the name of the
other being Pe.ninlnah, And Pe.nin'nah came
' 2% 12:18
np 16:1
have children3 but Han'nah had no childreme
tic 25:a
And that man went up out of his city from
r ; 29:31
.I# 13'2
year to y e a d to prostrate himself" and t o sacri,
:' 3% $4 fice to Jehovah of armieseo in S h i ' l ~ h . ~And
t )e 125
*.cos 1x:1
4 And there came to be a day when El.kaPnah
J,K 21:14
I .; 7 8 : ~ proceeded to sacrifice, and he gave to Pe.ninPnah
"Sa 3 19
lsa 4 17 his wife and to all her sons and her daughters
I 1 2 : ~ portion^,^ but to Rm'nah he gave one portion,
. Ncmethelessg it was Han'nah that he loved,"and,


* 1Sa l:19



1 Pre-Kingdom Israel, Nortl~ernPalestine

2 Pre-Kingdom Lsrael, Central PaIestine
3 Pre-Kingdom Israel, Sout.Jmm Palestine
4 United Kingdom of Saul, David, Solomon

-Part I (11th Century B.C.)

5 United Kingdom of Saul, David, Solomon
-Part H (11th Century B.C.)
6 Southern Kingdom of Judah (10th Gentury B.C.)
7 Northern Kingdom of Israel (10th Celltury B.C.)
8 World Empires (Assyrian, Babylonian,

9 Palestine During Jr~dah'sRestoration (6th
Century B.C.)

"Of Ra'mah, z Znph'itc." M,"of R~rnath.a'im-zo'phim'j ; LXK,

'"sf'im-zi'pha"; Tg, 'bf Ra.math.aPim-soJphim."
Bnt see
wrae 19 ; 1 Chronicles B : 26,35. b "E.L'hu," XI; "','!LXX. Bat
nt 1 Chronides 6: 27 "E.lif~h,"
and at 1 Ch~onicles6: 34 "'el,lJ
3ILXX. "E'''
BF settlement B the territory of E'phmi j n ; but El.ka nah was genealogicnlly a Levite. See 1 Chronicles
6 : 22-2s. d Literally, "from days ta days?' Compme Exodu~13 : 10 ;
,lndges 11 :40; 21 : 19. e "Jehovah of a1-nries.!' This is the 51-gt of
291. occurrences of this expression in M, f "The t r o sons of E'li,'.'
MVgSy; ',EJli and his t o sons," LLPX. g"Sonetheless," L X X ;
"sad, because," Vg.

1 SAMUEL, 1:6-12


as for Jehovah, he bad closed up her 1~0mb.'~


for the ( ; c 3 ~ 2
sake of making her feel disconcerted because Jehovah had closed up her womb. :And t ha t was
the way sheb ~r-oulddo year "y year4as often RS ~ ~ ~
shec went up into the house of Jehovah.-" That ;+
.]!dl 2:1!)
was the way she would vex her, so that she
would !veepa and not eat. And El.1carnah her i2xts:n
husband" proceeded t o say t o her: ''Han'n~h,
why d o you weep* and why da you not eatU~ n ;:&%i,7
why does your heart feel bad? Am I not better
'Ku 4 %
t o you than ten sons?"'
Isa 54:s
9 Then Kan'nah got up after they" had eaten
In Shiqohe and after the drinking,' wltile E71I '1%
-ZSII 7:2
1 Sn 5:5
the priesF was sitting upon the seat by the door- 1- I>.()
post of the temple6 of Jehovah." l"And she was ;;;y3;,l&
hitter of soul," and she began to pray to Jehov a h 9 n d to weep greatly. llAnd she went on r l ~ ~ h a : ?
t o make a vo-& and say: "0 Jehovall of ar- jf:;Y2k?j,7
mies,h if you will without fail laok upon the ;;,N;p;
..hl 14:28
afflictionmof your slave girlmand R C ~ L I H I R ITI I ~ 4,l
29 ,.W
member mex and you will not forget your slave
girl and actually give t o your slave girl a male - t ;, s 1
offspring,fI wi1I give him to Jehovah nll the dnys 1
of his 1i fe and no razor will come upon his head."" y':fj:
12 And it occurred that while she prayedo : l " l S m

extendedly' before Jehovah E'II was watching

her mouth." As for Han'nah, she was speaking
in her
only her lips were quivering,
and her voice was not heard, But Eli took her
\ ~ i : ~ for drunkoh" 'So E'li said to her: "How long
will you behave drunk?' R I ~away
your wine3
from upon you.'vDAt this Han'nah answered a d
said: "No, my lord!' A woman hard pressed
in spirit: I Rm,and wine md intoxicathg liquor
I have not drunk, but I pour out my soul before
JehovahBgIt D o not make your slave girl like
a good-for-nothing wornan,&for it is out of the
abumdance of my concern and my vexation that
I have spoken until nonm."";Then E'li answered
and said: 'Go in peace,"' and mag the God of
Israel grant your petit ion that you have asked
of him."l I S To this she said; "Let your maidservantY'And favoP in your e y ~ s . " And
woman proceeded t o go on her wayg and to eat,
and her face became self-concerned no more,
19 Then they got up e ~ r l yin the morning
and prostrated themselves before Jehovah, after
which t l ~ c yrcturn~dnnd came Into their house



Or. "fellow wife.'' h"She." widentlp: "Pc.~iin'nnL,"Sg ; %P," 11.

***She," IbfL-nSy; ''th~y;' Tp. d"Th~y: 1,S.S; " H ~ V , * ' 31; tlda
f ~ ~ r ~ i n ipronoun,
horvere~,r ~ f ~ r t ' i nt og f l i ~11nrt.g rvbieh
IInri'r~ah separated herself, "In Fl1i"lo1,'91, Pn~sildyto 1~ rend, I
Ijy nn cniel~dation,"in the hn11," thnt i r , in the hl~llfor e~rtingor
111~clinirig chamher, f <'Aud after tlic tlrinki~lg,"'T l ~ oIIcbrvw verb
11cl.ei s in the infinitire nhsolute, nnd so i g ~ I I I P ~ T P D I ~ nnrl
I I ~ irideflnita
na to time. LAX& "and she took llcr ~ t : ~ nl~rI"o~r>
LiTrmplc."The first ocrrrencr! ot' this aortl in the 1leI)rcw text,
h r'dehornh o f annies!' The ppconrl orcltrrrnro of t l r i h ~spression.
It i q fount1 fire t i n t ~ sin I Fnrnltcl nnrl b i x t i ~ nin ~9 ~Snn~uel.
1 Literntly, '%au offspring of rnvir."'

a t Ra'mah. El.ka'nah now had intercourse- with

Han'nah his wife, and Jehovah began rememherinf her.' 2 " ~ It came about at the rolling
around of a yemb f h ~ Han'nah
became pregnant" and brought a son to bjrt h and p~rxeeded
to call* his name Samue1,c because, said she, "It
is from J c h o v ~ hthat I have asked him."

21 In time the m a n Elka'nah \-vent up with

all his household to s~criflceto Jehovah the
Literally, Yike n dna~ltter of Be'Hbnl (or, ~~ni~tlslessness)."
l,itersllp, "of the dayr," C'ornporc Rxorlus 34:22, rpferring t o
tlic fcatival of i~gatl~cring,h.Ien~~iug
" S n n ~ eof God!' Tlrnt is t~
bearing tbe rtnwe of Uod.

I SAMUEL 1:22-28


yearly sacrifice&and hisuvow offering.' As

*NU 3*:7
Hm'nah, she did not go up," for she had said to 'De 16:16
her husband: "As soon as t h e boy is weaned I
must bring him and he must appear before Jehovah and dwell there t o time0 indef~nite."~
23 At 2
this El-ka'nah her husband said t o her: "Do ~ ~ 2 :
what is g o d in your eyesagStay at home until,
you wean him. Only may Jehovah carry out hisb
word."o+ So the wornan stayed at home and kept ?$&lT::$j
nursing her son until she weaned hirke
G 24456
24 Accordingly just as soon as she had weaned pu%;x
him she brought him up with her, along with a
three-year-oldbullc and one e'phah of flour and a
lapge jar of wine; and she proceeded to enterd the "Nu15:10
house of Jehovah in Shi'loh.' And the boy was #J":sy;z
with her.0 '=
Then they slaughtered the bull and
broughtf the boy to E'li.' " With that she said: ALU
LU 2222
"Excuse me, my lord! By the life of your soul," '3g,"$;l;
my Iord, I am the woman t h a t was standing with ;
you in this place t o pray to Jehovah/ 2 r It was 2Ki 2:2
34th reference t o this boy that I prayed that Je- zgi 2%
hovah should grant me my petition that I asked
of him.+ "'ld
I, in nly laturn,
have lent him on re- b$pd;;
questg t o Jehovah a11 the days that he does hap- et;St1;;:5
pen to be.h He is one requested for Jehovah."i ~ J B:EO
And hej proceeded b bow down there t o Je*Ge 26%
Ge 24:52


Literally, "the sacrifice of t h e days." Co1npar.e velw 3, f o o t ~ l o t ed,

"His," MVg ; "your," SF. "Thrao- ear-old bnll," LXXSy ; "three
bulls," NTg. d " E n t ~ l ,L' ~X I ; "kring I~iminto,"3SVgXy. e "The boy
lraa rvith them," LLLX; "the ljoj? wss yet nu infant," TvTg.Literally,
"the I)op rrns R bo~;' IISy. " T l t ~ y. . . l~rought;' JIVgSy; " A n n
tlre ~notl~er
of the boy brought,'' J,X.S. g Literxlly, "have let [om]
ask for him"; rrliich ia t o say, borrow him, that is, for Jel~ovah.The
same rerb is weed at 2 Kings 4 : 3 ; B : 5 , in t h e sense of borroning.
ku'Hedoes happen to be," 31; "he imy he ditlire," LXBSyT. f Or,
"ofle barren-ed for (lent to) J ~ h o v n h I. ~"He,:' that is, EI.Lapilsh.
See c!mpter 2, \*e1*se 11.


fl~f'l111 4:6
And Han'nah continued
prayw and sap:
-I.U 1:e6
Sn 1734
MI':, 18:2
My horn is indeed exalted in Jehovah,ae
1's W:17
I O ~'my mouth is widened against my enemies,'"

*I.:r 15.1
JF: 5 : 2

~"I'Pl 13.5

I,u J:G9

r.lS\ 15"U

0 Ih b



I'c 7 3 2 5

,l)r 324
2 % 22,3
"'hlnl 3:l3
. t l i l R:?,CJ

:'Sn 2 2 : X
<'Sn2 2 3 2

14,1011 31.6

:'SIL 1:lS

h I'R57:15
1'3 %:3

pl,lt.r 37:10

'n d :9



sl.hl 1:53

1 1aq~113:g
f1i 20
fl I

sn 21:3

I ~ E I


12 2
1 : ~~
1's tiH:m



f.', 49315
1% %13

1 ' M:48

rs 116:3
I'r 2314


For I do rejoice in the salvation3 from youSn

'There Is no one holy like Jehovah: for
there is no one but you;"
And there is no rock" like our God.b+
a '90
not YOU people speak haughtily-haughtily-so much,"
Let nothing go forth unrestrained from
YOUR mouth,
r r F ~ar Godeo of knowledge Jehovahm is,"
And by himd deeds are rightly estimated.*
"The mighty men of the bow0 aree filled
with terror,'=
But those that are stumblingt do gird on
vital energy."
"The satisfied must hire themselves out f o r
But the hungry actually cease [to hunger] .a
"Eveng the barren has given birth t o seven,"
But she that was abundant in sons has
faded away.u
"Jehovah is a Killer and a Preservesh of life,v
A Bringer down t o She'o1,'O and H e brings

."In Jehovah," M; ('in my God," L

m g and 27 Hebrew manuEl.~.him'; J'g, De'ws. 0 "God." Rrj El; LXXI

w~ripts,b Wad."
Thc.os'j Vg,Dsfus. d "By him," N,marginal reading, Vg and many
JIrbrew manuscrip$. 'Literally, "The bow of mighty men is," $1.
F Or, "that are about to stumble." g "Cease [to hunger], Even," BS.
Ily a light oinendation of the Hebrew this codd well read, "wwc
1~ Have (to slave).">h Ox, "Reviver?' I LLShe'ol.l'That is, the cornnnon grave of mankind, LXX, Hui'dZs; Vg, inPfe.h; Sy, Shi.irlr.
Htnc Tolume 1, Appendix, pago 851.

1 SAMUEL 2: 7-11


is an Impaverisher and an h*0c1:18

Jah I:rf
An Abaser, also an E ~ a l t e r , ~
l ~ ?;?:T
An . ~ 2
s6'A Raiser of a lowly one from the dust;Q"2f?1,A,lF43
From the ashpit he lifts ux, a warr one.( 4 r a u l : 5 ?
'To make them sit with nobles, and a throner F2$a 7:13
of glorJPhe gives tothem asapossession.' F&$;#
"For to Jehovah belong earth ks"supports? &,b Ei13
And he places upon them the productive


"z(:;V.: 5

1 SAMUEL 2 :12-19
12 NOWthe sons of E'li were scoundre1s;av
Y n h r PP:8 they did not recognize Jeh0vah.Y
for t h e
due right of the priests fromb the
whenever any man was offering a sacrifice an
attendant of the priest came with the threepronged fork in his hand, just when the meat
was boiling," l4 and made a t h r u s t into the bowl
the two-handled cooking pot or the caldron

.or the onehandled cooking pot. Anything that

the fork might bring up the priest ~ u l take
* "The feet of the men of his 1oving-kindnessh 'g: g:i
1% !T:la
he wards;'
' :;;,?::!I: Shi'loh t o all tire Israelites coming theree'
: l T ~2.15
lli Also, before ever they could make the fat
As for the wickedCones, they are silenced r?sn . j : l l
an attendant of the priest came and
h darkness,la]'.; 37323
man sacrificing: '90give meat to
For not by power does a mano prove s;;p;c;
priest so that he may take from
15n 14:R
meat, but raw,'"
When t h e
o:Bl;!:i~, r l f e
I1As for Jehovah* those contending against ;;n$j;Q
say t o him: ""Let them be sure to
~tla.? 15.6
him will be terrified;k
'Idu ":IB
make the fat smoke first of all.' Then take for
Against them-he
will thunder in the
yo~trselfjust whatever your soul may crave,'' he
WSR I ~ : D
said: "No,' but you should give it now,
"Jehovah himseIf will judge the ends of the
and, If not, I shall have to take it by force!"@
1 t c : 3:s
Y I , ~~ : l
And the sin ofthe attendmtss came to be very
1'7 9rj:ia
* < ; o 6 :I \
1213 great before Jehovah,' for the men treated the
That he. may give strength t o his king,"
; : , I
?l<l 21:n
That he may exaIt the horn of his anoint- ~ , . ~ j ? l 1 Mrd 22 1: 3 offerJng of Jehovah with disrespect.*
MI 2 5 : ; ~
l i
ed9 one."et
18 And Samuel ivas rnlnisteringa before Jehohll 2.4'lS
l'r* 224
I1 Then El.karnah went to Ra'mah to his $?%i<i:~
vah, as R boy, having a linen0 eph'od girded on.n
house, and,as for the boy, he became a minis- Lu
l o Also a little sleeveless coatr his mother ~vould
A, :,:x
ter of Jehovah before E'Ii the priest.u
far him, and she brought it up t o him
A< ~n;;yl
3: 1
k 41,;?



;a; ;

aL'Thci&hiM earth:' Sy; *%heterrestrial circle (or'bTs)," Vg.

b Or, "his men of lo@ lo~e." '.Xan." Isk, 31; atper', L4Lt'; plir,
Tg. d "Them," T'gSy. Literally, F,.'him,''31; that- is, P R C ~ I ~tir~nber
of the class contending againd bhu. "Anointed one." Or, "Jlc-asiah."' 11, ~na.aki'akh; By, m'sbih7l; ZXX, cckri,c.toer; Vg, chrie'trra.
hoas~:" XITgEy; "And she left hiin there l~cfore
Jehovah and went off to Ar.~~~a.tha'im,"



l.itrr~lly,'"%ma oP Br'1i.d (or, .~orthlessness)!' bUFrom," EFT

r~nrknine liehrc\r. rnonuscripts; "dlh," 31. Or, ''recognize Jehodi

or ~ I I Fdur ri~lito f the priobts f'1v1n t hc p@ople!'In agreement, with
1,SXTg. Srr I l e ~ ~ t ~ l + o a15
o ~: 3,
~ iay '+For birnwtelf," L,LTSFgS~;
[ s i t l ~ )it,*+.\I+ *"Tlwrc," 3I9y; "Q sarrificr to Jchorah," LLX9.
f q,,,bt
I,,YX, 17 IE~t>rt-wn~nnnscriptsrind A[, nlilrginal reading;
"lo I ~ i i ~ i t11TgSy.
It Or, ''young men."

I SAMUEL 2:20-26
from year to year when she came up with her *EX29:t.l


1 SAMUEL 2:27-32

27 And a man of Godnr proceeded to came to
husband to sacrifice the yearly sa~rlfiee.~And kyU%::$p f1:65 E'Ii and say to him: "Thin is wllnt Jehwah has
1'1-1 1211
E'li blessedt E1.ka'na.h and his wife and said:
said: 'Did I not for a fact reveal rnysetf t o the
"'May Jehovah appoint to you an offspring from
house of your forefather whlle they h a p p m d
ibis wife in place of the thing lent, t h ~ was
t lent
I ~ K Y ~ : I ~t o he in Egypt as slavesl'to the houseof Phafll;u 4:27
t o Jehovah."aa And they went to their pl~ce."U'a"1'28
aoh?a es And there was a chsodnp of him out
I :2
I.:\ 39:l
alAccordEngly Jehovah visitede Hanrnah,Y so
of all the tribes of Isrnel for me,t to act as
I,. s.2
that she had pregnancy and gave birlha t o three L"
g:' s " 2gi!: 2 ; 9 priestd and go up upon my altm to make sacrisons and two daughters, And the boy Samuel
fidalsmolcer bi1law up,O tobear~neph'odbefore
ZJ 13-24
continued growing up with J e h ~ v n h . ~
1#n 3ll!l
me, that 1might givc to the house of your fore' " ~ 2 a father all the offerin@' made by fire of the
22 And Eli was very old, and he had heard
of all that his sons kept doing t o all Israel and
sons of Wrae1.u Why do YOU men keep kicking
how they n1ou1LE cohabitc wit11 the women that 12sa19:14
a t m y sacrifi~e~andat
1%. M:fS
were serving" at the entrance of the tent' of
I:= commanded [in my] dwellinffix and you keep
I 14.125
meeting.f823 And he used t-o say to them : "Why *Jcr
.rl,. I61 honoring your sons more than me by IafAening
at@ e 2 6
do YOU keep doing things like these?3 For the 4
youwelvesa from the best of every offering of
things I a m hearing about YOU from all the peoBrae1 my people?11'
I10 4.8
ple are " No, my sons, because the report A$% $:
30 " 'That is why the utterance of Jehovah
is not good that I am hearing, that the people of ;;;?$f9
the God of I s r ~ e lis! "I did indeed say, As for
Jehovah are causing ta c i r ~ u l a t e .P B~If a man 4lrri:i
your house and the house of your forefather,
I IPl; 2g.43
should sitl against a man,' Got1 will nrbitrate ;$t"T:.&
N'u 25jl3 they will walk before me to time indefinite.":
' 1'5 50:23
for him," but if it is against Jehovah that a man
But now the utterance of Jehovah is: "It is unI,, a:,
should sin,"who is there t a pray for him?"* But
inkable on my part, bemuse those honoring
,,,,,:,, mex
they would not listen to the voice of their faI shall honor," and those despising me will
J U 55:M
ther? because Jehovah was now plensed to put
r l s a1
sm beoflittEeacc~unt."~~~Look!dstys~aremming
them to death-k 2q A11 the while Samuel was Pr
- % ~ z : s when I shall certainly chop off your arm and
growing bigger and more likableh both from
IS:,4:11 the arm of the house of your forefather, so that
Jehovah's standpoint and from that of men."
:iZz:$i:O there wilI not come t o IE an old m m in your
house.' And you will actually look upsn an
Or, omitting the Hebrew praposition for to: #'that Jehovarb



asked for (borrowed) .I7

31 is rowel- oiirtnd to rend : "that he nsksd
for {borrowed) for Jehovah.") "T ~ r i rplnce,'' fiy anrl 12 a-lebrew
mnnusmiph; "his place," M. Or, ''tmanod hi^ nttcntinn b.''
d " G n ~ abirth yet," L a , 0 The Hebrew verb hero is ons wed for
military senice, snggesting organiznd ~m+ict?
for thme mbn~cnin
oompanies. l X , X omits the clauar "and haw thrg , , tent oi' meeting." M addi the Hebrew elrpresvion for "pven these [words] ," but
th~sappears to he a dlttagraphy, h Or, "snd better."


- A man of God." M, ish RE.o.hki', b"Aa ulneea;' LXX; but

i t ~ ~ l i t tby
~ d MTgSy,, l L ' I H l e ~ ewns A choaaing," The Hebrew rerh
Iwre is i t 1 tbp infitlztire nl~snlutc,n11.4 h~uer!i m p ~ r ~ o nand
n l indefinite
11s t o thne. d "Fay me, to nrt ns piicst." LSPT; "for rut! ns fi priest,'"

h11'gSy. * Or, "to ~unlieincrn~r-s~noke!' f "h my rl~clling." M

r ~ ~ ~ rhas
e l y the ~ o r d4 1 d n ~ l l i r i ~hel-cl
" in nit nhvnlrrt~sny, ~rithont
11tnd5em.g"Sorrrs~lrw,"l i ; "thcnt," T. "'IIy peoplp." 01.~
prrIhnps, hy ail emendntion, "ia full vlclr o f NIP,"' ro n w e ~ 4 t hL-LY.

adversary [in my] dwelling amid all the good'
that is done to Israelleand never will there come e$y,$g
to be an old man in your house."3 3 h d yet there "zec 8:4
is a man of yours* that I shall not cut off from *!$ :2j2s
being at my altar so as to cause youra eyes t o
fail and to make yourb soul pine away, but the
greater number of your house wilI all die by the
sword of memc 34 And this is the signc for you mim*
that will come to your t w o sons, Hoph'ni and
Phin'e.has:' On one day both of them will die.' :ig; $:2,
35 And I shall certainly raise up for myself a 1s" 4:17
faithful" priest." In harmony with what is in my ::::!
heart and in my soul he will do, and I shall cer- g$;?;y
tainly buildz for him a lastingd house0 and he ;;g; ;;:,
will certainly walk before m y anointed onee al- 1x11 1 s
ways.'' a6 And it must occur that anyone left '%2,2,
over in your house will come* and bow down to *lK'a:27
him for the payment of money and a round loaf
of bread and will certainly say: "Attach me,
please, to one of the priestly offices to eat a ,,,,:3
NU 5 : ~
piece of bread." ' ""
W l s a 2:11
All the while the boy Samuel was ministering t o Jehovah before Eli,' and word from
JehovahDhad become rare in those days;* there 02sa7:4
c ~ c 17:15
was no visionc being spread abroadm0
02Sa 7:17
2 Now it came about on that day that E?i I S a n : 2
was lying in his place and his eyes had begun a ~ m : l
t o grow dim;" he was not able to see. And the $; Eiio
lampa of God was not yet extinguished@and :2&1$\7
Samuel was lying in the temple* of Jehovah, ,$;;$2
where the ark of God was. And Jehovah pro-


'" Y o ~ r , " BI'FrgSy; 'ihis,'J L E .

b "Your:
RllfgSy; "hi$' L X X .
Evidently LXX refers to A.biPa.thar,a descendant of E 11, "Die
by the s m r d of men:' L X X ; <'die as men," MSy, Or, 'YRithful;
firmly established," i'Anointed one," 81, mrs,shi'ahl~; Sy, mkshilah;
L m , chris.tos'; Tg, c h d t a s . Literally, '{all the days.''

I SAMUEL 3:5-13

ceeded to call Samue1.a At this he said: "Here

I am.'Ie %d he went running to E'li and saying: "Here I am, for you called me." But he
said: 'I did not calI. Lie down again." So he
went and Iay down. And Jehovah went on t o
"psf@:8 call yet again: "Samuel!"xAt this Samuel got
up and went t o E'li and said: "Here I: am, for
you did call me." But he said: 'T did not call, my
Lie down again." (As regards Samuel,
*Iit' 4 ~ : m
1911 4 : ~he had not yet come to know Jehovah,* and the
:%I 1H:nz
* . I v ~ . ~ : xword of Jehovah had not yet begun to be re~
called again for
veded to him.) g s Jehovah
third time: "Sam~el!"~
At that he got up
a n d went t o E'li and said: "Here I am, for you
must have calIed me."
And E'li began to discern that it was Jehovah
that was calling the boy. Consequently E'li
said to SamueI: "Go, lie down, and it must occur that, if he should call you, you must say,
''wn7:5 'Speak, Jehovah, for your servanta is IfstenFEu2O:lD
So Samuel went and Iay down in his
Isn 6.8
1)a 10:19 place.
10 Then Jehovah came and took his position
and called as at the other times: "Samuel,
Samuel!" At. this SamueI said : "SpeaIr, for your
is listening."' l1 And Jehovah went on
' $ 8
Samuel: "Look! I am deinp some"fi;23q?d
l["b1:5 thing in Israel which if anyone hears about,
.?Kt 2l:la both his ears will tingle." On that day I shall
carry out toward E'li all that I have said re"J";$% specting his house, from beginning to end,*
la And you must tellb him that I am judging


"To call Samuel,"' MTgSy; "to call : 'Samuel, Samuel 1'' LXX.
Srlc verse 10. ""Eon must tell," in harmony mith \*em15. "And
I Ilare told:' XL;Y,XV$y.

I SAMUEL 3:1&21


his house* forever for the errorO that he has :$%'79gl9

h a m , " becausek his sons are calling down evil $6: ;g2
upon Godw and he has not rebuked themeo &c,"gO
1.4And that is why1 have swornfito the house of 32Sa21:17
Erli that the error of the house of Eli n41l not ' ? ~ ~ $ ~ ?
be brought to exemption from punishment by ,:g:i:
sacrifice or by offering forever."'
Pr 19:18
15 And Samuel continued lying down until the '7: i"i::"1:
rn0rning.c Then he open& the doors of Jeho- Heb10:26
vah's house. And Samuel was afraid to tell Erli
of the appearing." '"ut
E'li called Samuel and
said: "Samuel, my son!" At this he said: '=ere
I am." And he went on t o say: "What is the
word that he has spoken to you? Do not, please, y,s,:
conceal it from me.Way God do so to you and so %
, 4,;j
may he add to it* if you should conceal from me ;g; ;wig3
a word of all the word that he has spoken to ,g","gI':5;'3
you." la So Samuel told him all the words, and ;:;;1jg
he did not conceal anything from him. At that ;f$kO
he said : "It is Jehovah. What is good in his tp","iz
a ~aa
eyes let him do."'
b Ge 39:2
19 And Samuel continued growing upu and ::tidi4
Jehovah himself proved to be with himdand did &
: %;2ss
not cause any of all his words t o fa31 to the igi';j%f
And all Israel from DanQ to Ee'er- 01Kila;29
she'bam became aware that Samuel was one =K\$9;3
accredited for the position of pmpheto to Jeho 0181 6 : ~
vah, And Jehovah proceeded t o appear again" "G,%L

'Tor the error that he has h o r n , bename," MSy; '(for the injustices of his sons, because," LXX. Or, "for the reason that he hag
known that," by a slight emendation, bUQod." This is a restoration
of the original, which the Jerrish Sopherim or scribee had emended
to read "for themdves" (M),out of misguided reverence f o r Uod.
This is one of their Rghben Emendations, LXX has 'God"
(The.osr).QLXX adds here: "and got up early in the morning,"


1 SAMUEL 4: 1 4

in Shi'Ioh, because Jehovah revealed himself to

Samuel in Shi'loh by t h e word of Jehovah."
And the word of Samuel continued t o comea
to all IsraeLb
Then Israel went out to meet the Phi.liftinesc
in battle, and they took up camping alongside"
the Stane HeIp," and the Phi.lis'tines themselves
?Jos 12:18 encamped in A'phek." = And t h e Phi.lisrtinesprato draw up in formationc t o meet Israel,
=,12 ceeded
and the battle went badlyf so that Israel was
'$yzp defeated before the Phi.lis'tines,4 who went
striking down about four thousand meng in
closed battIe line in the fie1d.O When the people
came to the camp the older men of Israel began
to say: "Why did Jehovah defeat us today be'De
PS 74:1
2 9 2 4 fore the Phi.lis'tines?' Let us take to ourseIves
from Shi'loh the ark of Jehovah's covenant,@that
l s a 14:18 it may come into our midst and may save us from
2 S U 15:E
, ,:,, the palm of our enemies." So the people sent to
p,U,"1;9"9,,Shi'loh and carried fmm there the ark of the
covenant of Jehovah of armies, who is sitting
uponh the cherub~.~"d
the two sons of Eli
were there with t h e ark of the covenant of The
[true] God,l name1y, Hoph'ni and Phin 'e.has.*

a Or, "occur." b l i a n y Echrcw rnauasclipts hare an ope11 space

here, possibly t o indicate nn omiwion, which would be ell filled up
hy t h s addition of L X X : "And i t orourrcd in those days that the
Phi.lis'tines began gathering together agninst Iwnel for battle?'
c Or, "went out against the Pbi.lis'tinss." M; ' t e n t out to meet
illern,'' LxXX. d Or, '4~pon.'' "The Stone Elelpy literally, M; or,
LXX, dbe~?eae.r;'CTg, "the stone of help." *"The
I~attlekept inclining: L.XT; that ms, adversely to Israel, g "Who
~ r ~ striking
n t
down about four thowand men," If; '(and (about)
four thouand men mere gtrnck down,'' LIXI-gSt= h Or, r'betryeen.l'
The preposition is missing in the Hebrew. i"The [true] God," hi,
tI~sdefinite a~ticle ha ("The") preceding the title
T7g, Ds'us; By, ('Jeho~nb!: See Judges 20 : 27, footnote b.


1 SAMUEL 4:1%19

12 And a man of Benjamin went running

5 And it came about t h a t as soon as the ark
the battle line so that he arrived at Shi'loh
of the covenant of Jehovah came into the campC
on that day with his garments ripped aparta nnd
all the Israelites broke out into Ioud shouting," *{f$:;i*
dirt on his head.$ IS When he arrived, there was
so that the earth was in a stir. T h e Phi.lisPtines
;g;;; E'li
Ne 9:1
sitting on the seat by the roadside,' watchalso got to hear the sound of the shouting and
J o b 2:12
ing, because his heart had become atremble
began saying: "What does the sound of this
N e 17:9
over the ark of The [true] God,aaAnd the man
loud shoutingu Sn the camp of the Hebrews
himself went in t o report in the city? and the
mean?" Finally they got t o know that the ark
city began crying out. *A
E'li got t o
of Jehovah itself had come into the c m p . "d
hear the sound of the outcry. So he said: "What
the Phi.lis'tines became afraid, because, they
has eome into the camp!'jL So they ;?g&g
does the sound of this turmoil mean?"* And the
said; "Woe to us, for such a thing as this never g; ;;;g
man himself hurried that he might go in and
occurred before! Woe to us! Who will save us
report t o E'li.
(Now E'Ii was ninew-eight
from the hand of this majestic God? This is the
years old and his eyes had set so that he was
God that was the smiterb of Egypt with every crKi2,34
unable to see.)* '%And
the man proceeded to
sort of slaughter in the wi1de~ness.~~
Show 0 ~ x 7 : ;
Ps90:10 say to E'li: "I am the one corning from the balEx 9.14
yourselves courageous and prove yourselves ps 7&43
tle line,b and I-it is from the battIe line that
men, YOU PhLlis'tines, that YOU may not serve ,g5,'zzl:i
I have fled today." At t h h he said: "What is the
the Hebrews just as they have served YOU;+ and ,Jg !!;:
'2Sa 1:4
YOU must prove yourselves men and fight!" 2~:;;:;~
:Ge 43:29 thing that has happened,' my son?jYfl So the
l%ccordingly the Phi.1is'tines fought and Israel ?:;$
ig; !$,,news bearer answered and said: "Israel has Aed
before the Phi-lis'tines and there has also ocwas defeateda and they went fleeing each one to PS 7s:m
Llsa3.11 curred a great defeat among the peopleA and
his tent,e""and the slaughter came to be very
great,* so that out of Israel there fell thirty 0 $ ~ ~ ~ 4 . j r "
also your own W Osons have died-Hoph'ni and
thousand men on foot. l1 And the arkc of Godd
i$:,s,il, ;'p,;g Phin'e.haso--and the very ark of The [true]
itself was captured' and the two sons of Eli, '$","$;%
Ps 78:61 Goda has been captured."'
olSa 2:34
Hoph'ni and Phin'e.has, died,'
Ps 78.64
18 And it came about that at the moment
he mentionedc the ark of The [true] God&@
a "God!'
EX, El-o.himr; the plural of rnajesb followed by the verb I
he began to fall from the seat backward beside
"has come" i n the singmln~.Vg, Bs'zls. L X X , "These gods." k Or,
"these majestic godsy These nre the gods that were the smiters."
the gate and his neck got broken so that he died,
All the words here are in the plural in the H e b r e ~text. Howewr,
the man was old and heavy, and he
this may be the plural of m n j ~ s t y ,erren in the itlonths of tho30
judgd Israel forty years, l8 And
pagan Phi.lis'tines. Compare Genesis 20 : 13, footnote 0 ; 31 : 53, footnotes f, g, h : 35 : 7, footnote e; Exodus 32 :4, footnote d ; 32 : 8,
footnote a ; 32 : 31, footnote a; Deuteronomy 5 : 26, footnote a ;
Joshua 24: 19, footnote c. C "Tent," LSXTTgS~;
"tents," 21.I' "God."
$1, El.o,him'; L X X , The.os'; Tg, De'.us; Sy, "Jehovah."

"The [true]

Bod," Ri, ha-EE.omAimt; L X X J ho TAe.od; Vg, De'tis.

b "Battle line," 31 ; "battle," TJg; "camp;'

Sge reme 4, footnote i,


Or, "hrougllt to rememl~rance."

his daughter-in-law,the wife of Phln'e-has,was
premmt' near to giving birth and she got t o
hear the report that the ark of The [true] God*
was captured and that her father-in-law and her
husband had died. At t h ~ eshe b e d herself
and began giving birth, because her pangs came
unexpectedlyb upon her.* And nbaut the t h e
of her death t h e women standing by her began
to speak: ''DOnot be afraid,>hecause it is a son
that you have borne.'" And she rljd not answer
and did not set her hewt on it, But she called
the bag I ~ K a . b o d saying,
"Gloi*yAhas gone 01%
FA 26:s
S 1aF:ZiI
away from Israel into exile," [tllis] with refer- PJer
ence t o t h e ark of The [true] God's& being cap- Ho 8::"
tured and with reference to her father-in-law
and her husband. ?? So she said: "Glory has
P5 137:5
gone away from Israel into exile,] because the 1P
s 1376
Joh P:17
ark of The [true] Godd has been capta~red."
As for the Phi.listtines, they toalc the ark
of The [true] Godab and then brought it
from Eb.en.e'zer t o Ash'dod.' And the Phi.lis'tines9 proceeded t o take the ark of The [tm]
God4 and bring it into the house of Da'gon and
station i t h i d e Datgon.* T h e n the Ash'ddites got up early the very next dayp and there
Da'ggon was fallen upon his face to the earth
before the ark of Jehovah.' So they tooke DaJgon and returned him t o his place, When they
got up early in the morning the very day after,
rhere Da'gan mas fallen upon his face to the

' " T ~ F[ b e ] God('s)!' See 1 Snmurl 4 : 13, footnnte a, Liternlly,

"hrr pnngs turnetl." N, M c n n i t ~ g"W~IFI'O
i s LIP glorpt" *"Ark
nf Jrt~o\-nh,'~L X I , Cornpnlbe X Sh~aneE 4 : 13, footnote n ; a l ~ n
rlia ter 4, verses 19 21. 0 L X 5 n d d ~ :"1111tl rnet~ti n t o fhe house of
Un7Rnn nlld ~ a o k e d . ~"Took," MVcSy; "r~iqedup," L X X .

1 SAMUEL 5 : 5 9

earth before the ark of Jehovah,* with the head

of Da'gon and the pdms of bath his hands cut
off, to the threshold.= Only t h c Ash part" had
been left upon him.' 5 T h a t is why the priests3
f1~1127:!1 of Dataon and all those going into the house3
J r r 1n:lI of Da'gn do not tread upon the threshold af
t m
Da'gon in Ashrdoddown to this
I ; / @ s: I
6 And the hand3 of Jehovahfi came to be
- 1 < m 2.17
:/v 1 9
u p n the AshFdod.ites~ n he
d began tausL!.:\ 9:3
t~ %)..I
in6 panicwand striking #em with pEl~s,@~
< r , o 2s:27 Iyr Ash'ddd and its territories. And the men of
I sn 0:"7
Ash'docl came to see that it was so,' and they
]., 7h:U
said: ''DOnot let the ark af the God of Israel
dwell with us, because his hand has been hard
P2safl:g ~ g ~ i n sUS
f and against Dn'~on our goc3."fm
Consequently they sent and gathered all the
axis lords of the Phi-lis'tines to them and said:
"What shall we do t o the ark of the God of
'24CU:3 Israel?"' Finally they said: "Toward Gathn let
m l Sa 174
the ark of t h e God of Israel go around." So
they brought the ark of the God of Israel ~ r s u n d
t o thereg
9 And it came about that after they had
it around to there the hand of Jehovah"
I s r 7 13 came to be upon the city with a very great con1Stt U,15
fusion m d he began striking the men of the


Ox, "podium." b LitmaUy, "Only Dakon," 13; AU t h Va'gon

w l t ~h ~ l fman, hnlf fi&. a LXT atlds: "bernu~r!thoso step irig
ovrr step (Irap) over!' Comptim X~phnninh1:9. tor,
"lwgnn dmnlating [them]:'
* b, "plnfnrb h n i l a , ) T h e Jem-irh
Jln~nrctea assorinted the Hebrew mrrl here ('o.pAeI) rrith the
h n n ~ ~nnas
n nnt! henee they pointed the word with thn vowels for
t h ~word "tnrnor~'"(l~hc.n'm') and also showed thin word in the
lnnrain for i t to he read instead, ns a ahow nf rnorl~aty.wQod,TJ
51, aLn.bijn', the plural of majesty beina here a p p l i ~ r to
l D~'gon.
Cnmpnre , I u d ~ c16:
~ 23, 24, footnote a, L X X , F;/IP.OS'; Vg, dp'ar,

"To Cinth," LAW,


1 SAMUEL 6:4--9

city, from small to p a t , and piles" began DlpaF5w

why his hand would not turn away fmYOU."
cmrc16 + At this they said: ""Whatis the milt offerhf
breaking out on thema la Hence they sent the pqm:*
ark of The [true] Godb to E k ' r ~ n And
. ~ it came A,3s,3:;45
that we ought to return to him?" Then they
sbmt that as soon as the ark of The [true] $;
said: "According to the number of the axis
Godh came to Ek'ron the EkPron.itesbegan to
L2sa 8 : ~ lord$ of the Phi.lis%hes,
five goldenmpilesa and
cry out, saying: 'They have brought the ark
*EX 1 2 : ~five golden ferboas," for every one of you" and
of the God of Israel around t o me t o put me and
i0B2i:3yam axis lords have the same scourge." %d
c2g1;1:18 YOU must mnkc Images3 of POUR plies and
my people t o death!" Consequently they sent
and gathered all the axis lords of the Phl.lis'images of YOUR jerboas" that me bringing t h e
tines and said: ''SEXU the ark of the God of
land to ruln,hand vow must give ~ l o r y 'to the
Israel away that it may return t o Its place and
IS^ 4 2 1 2 God of Israel. Perhaps he wlll lighten his hand
Jer 13:16
from YOU and YOUR goda and YOUR land.' " 0
m a y not put me and my people t o death." For
a death-dealing confusion had occurred in the
; why should YOU make YOUR heart unresponsive
just the way Egmt and Phar'asho made their
whole city; the hand of The [true] GodQad
been very heavy there,( l2 and the men that did
'E X~7 heart unresponsive?' Was I t not as soon as H e
not diez had been struck with piles.' And the f&pd4P *Ex 9:16 dealt severely with them* that they proceeded
KO 9:17
t o send them away and they went their way?'
cry@of the city for help kept ascending to the ,&y;%'
C 2 S a 6:3
e x 1r:x
And now take and make a new wagon,"" and
=EX 6:1
1% 9.1s
Ex 11:l
Fr 21 :la
EX a 3 3 t w o COWS that are giving suck, upon which no
And the ark" of Jehwah proved to be in 2%;~;
hitch the
~ yokem
~ has come
~ and :YOU must
the field of t h e Phl.Hsrtlnes seven months.0 Jor
COWS t o the wagon and ??bU must make their
Am1 1.17
&Nu 19:2
And the Phi.1is'tines proceeded t o caIl the ypkil
young onest go hack home from following them.
priests and the diviners," saying: "What shall we *ria
And YOU must take the ark of Jehovah and
F'Y 7.11
do with t h e ark of Jehovah? LRt us know wlth I%
f t on the wagon, and the golden articlesQ
Un 2 2
what we should send it away to its place." " 0
Le 6:6
this they said: "If reu are sending the ark of the
God of Israel away, do not send It away without
YOU must send 1E away and it must go. And YOU
an offering,' for YOU should by a11 means return 'g g!!
must look: if It is t h e Toad to its territory that it
to him a guiltooffering.: Then it ja that YOU will ?+3#4ls
goes up, toBeth.she'mesh? f is he that has done
JOS 2 1 : ~
be healed and it must become known t o YOU i: !;:
to us this great evil; but if not, we must knew



V g roads: "From sinall t o great, nnd thpir rectums protruding

began putrefying. Ant1 the people of flntli took cot~llil~l
~ n dmade thelllselres seats o f f i k i n ~ , "bL1The[true] Odd." hI, BaEt.o.hina', the definite firtide hrr {"Tire") precctling the title Elmohim', to distinguish him f r o s the false ppd Dn'gon. TJ,"Jebsvah."
LKT adds here: "And their lnntl hcgnn tmcnking out with mice.ll

See 1 Samuel 6 : 0, footnats e, "derhons!' Mourrclike :dents

with long hinil lags user1 for jumping, " " V P I ~ ool~eof your eight
IIebrew manuscriptsi nnd T ;
J,XXSy, d Literally, L'have one
~courge," M. pd'Giodrl' $1, cI.o.hi~e',in the pl~zrnl of majestg, refprriug to Da'gou. See 1 Samuel 5 : f , footnote f , 1 Litcrnllg, ''their

1SAMUEL 6 :1-6

that it was net his h a n d that touched us; an

accident it was that happened to us."
10 And the men proceeded t o do amrdingly.
Sb they took two cows that were giving suckk
and hitched them t o the wagon, and their young
ones they shut up a t home. Then they put the
ark of Jehovah upon the wagon," and ah0 the
box and the golden jerboas and the images of
their pi1es.a I%d the cows began t o go straight
aheadh on the road t o Beth-she'mesh.' On the
one highway they went, Iowing as they went,c
and they did not turn aside to the right or to
the left. All the while the axis lo~ds"of the
Phi.1isttines were walking after them as far as
the boundary of Beth-sbe'mesh. l a And people
of Beth-she'mesh were reaping the wheat' harve& in the low plain, When they raised their
eyes and saw the Ark they gave way t o rejoicing at seeing it. l4And the wagon itself came
into the field of Joshua the Beth-she'rnite and
kept standing there, where' there was a large
stone. And they went splitting up the wood of
the wagon, and the cows they offered up as a
burnt offering to J e h o ~ a h . ~
15 And the Levftesa themselves took the ark
of Jehovah down and the box that was with it,
in which the golden articles were, and they proceeded to put it upon the large stone.* And the
men of Beth-she'mesh,~ for their part, offered
up burnt offerings, and they continued rendering up sacrifices on that day to Jehovah.
16 And the five axismlords of tho Phi.lis'-


IclSn 7.9





tines themselves saw it and went their wag back

to Ek'ron on that day."" Now these are the
golden tumors that the Phi.lis'tines returned as
guilt offering to Jehovah:* for Ash'dod* one,
for Ga'zaD one, for Ash'ke.lanA one, for Gath4
zoc 9:6
one, for Ek'ronk one. Is And the golden jerboas
Ac 8 : l O
+JE 16:1
were t o the number of all the cities of the PhiJg 16:21
Am 1:7
lis'tine-s belonging t o the five axis lord^, from
Ac 8 : s
L J 1:1s
the fortified city t o the village of the open
Zec 0:5

tlSa 5:s
2Sa 120

2sn 21:22
A m 6:2


am 1:s


Zep 2'5



f 0

J 21 4



~ 2422


z ~ ~ ; ~ ~


1E.a s llz

lSa 2 9 2

2 ~ 2 : s

i'Piles," 1 8 Hellrew manuscripts, to n p e e d t h Terse 5 ; "tumors,"

M. bLite~alFy,"began to be straight on the ~ond." c'4Lowing ag
they w~nt."In the Hebrew the two ~ e r b sare in the infinitive abselute, hence are ilnpersonal and ind~fi~iite
as to time.

1 SAMUEL 6 :17-19



C O U ~ ~ X ~ .

And the great stonea upon which they rested

the ark of Jehovah is a witnessb down to this
day in the field of Joshua the Beth-she'mitc.
Ig And he went striking down the men of Bethshe'meshlen because they had looked upon We
ark of Jehovah.' So he struck down among the
people seventy men-fifty thousand mend--and
the people began mourning because Jehovah

"The great stone,'' three Hebrew manuscripts, LXXT ; "Abelmagnus," Tg; '<Abel tbe Great," 87, to agree with hl, whifih has
Atrel instead of 8btsn (L'sfone"). t'A witness," by a different vowelpointing of the Hebrew word; or, "siill (yet).'' M rowel-points
it to read "as far as.'? a " h d he went str~kingdown the men of
Beth-she'mesh:' KVg(Sy) ; "and the sons of Jech.o.nitah were not
pleased with the men of Beth-sha'mesh," or, "among the men of
Beth-she'mesh the sons of Sech.o.nitah did not receive [it] gladly,"
LXX. d "Seventy men-fift.y tl~ousandrnen?'In Bf C'Mtythousand
~nen'' i~ not connected with "seventy men1' by the conjunction "and1'
( u ) , ap i s the case with numbers elsewhere, e.g., Xumbers 1 : 21-40.
This suggests some error about "fifty thousand men:'' it being possi; + ~
bly an il~terpolation.ST reads: "And Jehovah almck down among
ille people five thouaand and seventy men.'$ The Arabic gives the
Rame numbers aa Sy. And TJ reads: "And be struck down seventy
Inen amoug the older men of t h e peo Is, and H t y thousand among
tho wngregntion." I K X rends : ~ ~ n f struck
h e denn seventy men
nnlong them, nnd fifty thousand of the men," Josephu~l(Antiquities,
nook 6, chapter 1, 7 4) mentions only se~entgmen as killed, and
omits all reference to Mty thousand.


I SAMUEL 6 :2&7



had struck down the people with a great slaugh- aEx
Le 10:2
terma Further, the men of Beth-she'mesh said: We 2927
"Who will be able t o stand before Jehovah this ZSa
1Ch 1310
holy God, and to whom will he withdraw from 32% 511
u 17:12
off us?"t Finally they sent messengers" to the t N1Sa
inhabitants of Kir'i.ath-je'a.rim,u saying: "The 2Sa
1Ch 1332
Phi.lisrtines have returned the ark of Jehovah. M d 3:2

ados 18:14
Come down. Take it up t o yourselve~."~
Jg 18:13
1Ch 13:5
Accordingly the men of Kir'i.ath-je'a.rimy 2,Ps
der 7 9 2
came and brought the ark of Jehovah up 3-2%
and took it into the house of A.bin'a.dabz on the 1C1t
P s 132:B
hil1,a and E.le.afzar his son was the one whom a2Sa
lC11 13:7
they sanctified3 t o guard t h e ark of Jehovah. Xsa 5:16
2 And it came about that from the day of the -Jg 2:4
Ark's dwelling in Kir'i.ath-je'a-rim the days Jer
Zec IS:10
kept multiplying so that they amounted t o E D e 30:2
twenty years, and all the house of Israel went Xsa 55:7
mourning afterb Jehovah.' $And Samuel pro- Ha
Joe 2312
ceeded to say t o all the house of Israel: "If it is Jos 2434
Jos 24:23
with all YOUR heart YOU are returning to Jeho- "Jg
vah,@put away the foreign godsc from YOUR 2Ch33:19
midst" and also the AshJto.reth images,' and D e 10:m
direct YOUR heart unswervingly to Jehovah* r dd gg 10:16
1Jg-2 13
and serve him alone," and he will deliver YOU J 10.5
I& 3i:io
from the hand of the Phi.lis'tines." At that the 1Ki
l K l 16:31
sons of IsraeI put away the Ba'alsm and the Ash'- -Ne
Joe 291
to.reth4images and began serving Jehovah alone. EJos
1Sa 10:17
5 Then Samuel said: "Collect all Israel" to- ~ x <15:az
gether at Miz'pah? that I may pray in YOUR kJg 20:l.
behalf to Jehovah." 9 0 they were collected iEi"2i123
Ne 3:7
Jer 40:6
together at Mi~'pah,~
and they went drawing 5er

'[On the hill,?' R l L Z ; 'Tn Gibfe.ah,'' TFg, b Or, ('1sl.ael kept

holding uith." Literally, "the gods of the foreignness (or,
foreign country),"

water and pouring it out before Jehovahaa and

gyy'o there
kept a fast on that day.' And they began saying
: "We have sinned against J e h ~ v a h , "And

Samuel took u p judgingc-the sons of Israel in

Joe 2:l2

7 And the Phi.lfs'tines came ta hear that t h e

sons of Israel had collected themselves together
at Mizfpah, and the axis lords of the Phi.lisPtines got on their way up against Israel. When
the sons of Israel heard of it, they began t o be
t l ~ a l 7 : l l afraid on account of the Phi.Ii~'tines.~So the
sons of Israel said to Samuel: "Do not keep
smiB:59 silent for our sakes from calling to Jehovaho
our God for aid, that he may save us from the
* ~ 26:40

J E 10:tO

lei s:47
Fs 1M:6



J 520

1ga i2:17
xJg 4 3 5
d 10 10
I& 2:10
Ps B7:4
* ~ 2o:e

QSa 12:N
.Ge m18

Jos 4:9

hand of the Phi.lis'tines."u Then S a m u e l took

a sucking lamb and offered it up as a burnt
oeering, a whole offeringjv t o Jehovah and
Samuel began calling to Jehovah for aid in
behalf of Israe1,Y and Jehovah proceeded t o
answer him. l o And it came about that whiIe
Samuel was offering up the burnt offering the

Phi.lis'tines themselves drew near for battle

against Israel. And Jehovah now caused it to
thunder with a loud noisez on that day against
the Phi.Iisttines, that he might throw them into
and they got defeated before Israel."
l1 At that the men of Lsrael sallied forth from
Miz"ah and went in pursuit of the Phi.1is'tines
and kept striking them down as far as south of
Beth-car. l 2 Then Samuel took a stone0*and set
it between Miz'pah and Jeshta.nahb and began
to call its name E%.en.e'~er.~
Accordingly he

2;XS adds C ('upon the earth.'" b"Jssh'amnah?'

Sy, r'Ja'8han.''
See 2 Chronicle~l13 : 19. Literally, hash.skesa' ("The Tooth"), 3f.
Meaning "The Stone of Help? Not the same aa "The Stone Help"
in 1 Samnel 4: 1, and Eb.en.eFzera t 5 : 1.

said: "Till now Jehovah has helped US."^ l a Thus'"pgn:17

much as they had said: "Do give us a king to
Ac 26:22
the Phi.lisJtheswere subduedAand they did not ,;mI$::D
judge us," and Samuel began t o pray to Jehomme any more into the territorys of Israel,' ;;kh:k;~
v a h . ~ ~Then Jehovah said ta Samuel: 'Tisten
223 to
and tihe hand of Jehovah continued to be against
the voice of the people as respects all t h a t
11PsgI:l2 they say t o you,n for it is not you whom they
the Phi.listtines a11 the days of Samuel.' l4 And '$g:ij$
the cities that the Phi.lis'tincs had taken from
have rejected but it is I whom they have reject$;
Israel kept coming back to Israel from Ek'ron
ed from being kingr over them. In accord with
~e 33:s
t o Gath, and the territory of them Israel dea11
23.?&:22their doings that they have done from the
:zsa2l:l daya of my bringing them up out of Egypts
livered from t h e hand of the Phi.lidtines.
m ~ k2
De 7 3 6
until this day in that they kept leaving met
And there came t o be peacee between Israel c;gy2
Ps 7856
and the Am%r.ite~.~k
and serving other gods,' that is the way they
1cGe 1 5 : ~
J 11:23
are doing also to you. And now listen to their
15 And Samuel kept on judging Brael all the I
voice. Only this, that you should solemnly warn
days of his life." laAnd he traveled from year ISJ 2s I
them and you must tell them the rightful due of
to year and made the circuit of Beth'elw and LAc
I I T12.29
Giltgals and IMiz'paht md judged Israelu at all ;;;;::;+
:l,~ king that will reign over tkem."'L
10 So Samuel said all the words of Jehovah
these places. But his return was to Ra'mah,v
because there was where his house was and up7'5"24
t o the people that were asking a king of him.
vDe 17:16
there he judged Lrael. And he proceeded t oi;:;;v;
l s a l0:25 llAnd he proceeded t o say: "This will become
build an altar there to Jehovah.~
the rightful duev of the king that will reign
1% 10:18
sGe 35:7
2Ch 2 6 1 0
sons he will takes and put them
And it came about that as soon as Samuel $+f:;;,,
and among his horsemen3+
had grown old he made ~ppointmentszof ZE~I;~~;-'se la:^
and some will have to run before his chariots;oe
his sons as judges for Israel.' Nou7the name of t3rg 8.22
-2% 8:4
J R 12:14
IK! 1:s
l2 and t o appoint for himself chiefs&over thouhis first-born0son happened to be Joela and the 02K1327
1K1 18:46
sands" and chiefsa' over fifties,* and [some] to
name of his second A-bi'jah;@they were judging
'ys:"h%i do his plowing* and to reap his harvesta and to
In Be'er-she'ba, And his sons did not walk in F;,"$j91,
ffgA&?$ make his war instrumentsAand his chariot inxr.
his rnays,"ut they were inclined t o follow un- *g:;;;f;
struments. Is And YOUR daughters he will take
just profitn and would accept a bribem*and per- 4
for ointment mixers and cooks and bakers,lc
vert j ~ d g m e n t . ~
m a 835
W e 16'19
4 In time all the older menAof Israel collected 2
$ i ~ ~ ~ $l4 And YOUR fieldsn and YOUR vineyardsgr md
themselves together and came to Samuel at I s a s : 1 5
nEze J6:16 YOUR oliveQgrovesIsthe best ones, he will take
DDe 24:17
and actually give to his servants. '3 And of YOUR
Ra'mah and said t o him: "Look! you yourself J O a4;:12
have grown old but your own sons have not
slC!t 27:28 fields of seed3 and of YOUR vineyards he will
tlK112:10 take the tenth: and he will certainly give them
walked in your ways. Now do appoint for us a
kingb t o judge us like all the nations."@ But 0ga1J&f3
8 ''Chiefs.1J
lf,~a.rid.Compare Genesis 39 : 21, footnote e ; Gehesis
the thing was bad in the eyes of Samuel inas- 2;&?:::,0
40 : 2, E o o t ~ o t ed ; Exotlus 13; 21, footnottn c, d, q f.




1 SAMUEL 8~16-9:3


court &cialsu and his servantsmvId And

memrvants and YOUR maidservants and ,nIEg"
YOUR best herds," and ~ o r masses he will take f;Fl:23
and he will have t o use them fox his
1 7 0 f YOUR flocksqhe will take the tenth, and 02sa7:8
YOU yourselves wiIl become his as servants,
l 3 And YOU wiU certainly cry out in that day by
reason aYOUR khgy whom YOU have chosen for yfyourselves, but Jehovah will not answer YOU in
doh n : 9
that day."=
Ps 18:41
19 However, the people refused t o IIsten t o rat::
the voice of Samuel' and #aid: "No,but a king,::;i;+;
is what will come to be over us. And we must Jer 7113
become, we also, like all the nations,' and our Jcr
Eze 33:31
king must judge us and go out before us and L e 2 03 :: ~~ ~
fight our battles." "And Samuel gave a hear- !j:;,%'
ing to all the words of the people; then he
spoke them in the ears of Jehovah.' 32 And I P ~ Z : ~
Jehovah proceeded to say t o Samuel: "Listen
t o their voice and you must cause a king to
reign for them."* Accordingly Samuel said to *Hol3:11
the men of IsraeI: "Go cacll one to hls city,"
Now t b r e happened to be a man of Benjamin: and his name was Klsh,' the son of'el, the son of Ze'ror, the son of Be.eorrath,
the son of A.phirah1a Ben'j~.mIn.ite,ba man AC
mightyqin wea1th.O *And he Imppened to have
a son wllase name was Ssul, young and handsome,cAand there was no man of the sons of J Ol:i
IsraeP that was handsomer tllan he; from his QZSa
A15a 1:19
shouPders upward he was taller than a33 the 2Q14:23

father of Saul got lost. So KIsh said to Saul his

son: "Take, please, with you one of the attendants and get up, go, look far the she-asses."
And hea went passing through the mountainous
region of E'phra.imn and passing on through
I ~ :J:R
Izkie:.i2 the land of Shalri.shahr and they did not find
them. And they went passing on through the
land of Shak.lim, but they were not Ithere).
And he&went passing on through the land of
the Bentja.min.ites,and they did not And It hem].
5 They themseIves came into the land of
Zuph,"nd Saul, far his pal*, sald to his attend4
ant that was with him: "Do come, and let us
return, that my father may not quit attending
to t h e she-asses and actually become anxious
about. us,"t But he said to him : "Look, please?
There I s a man of GadbUIn this city, and the
;!$&3;t man is held in honor. All that he says comes
11'1 b : l t
true without fail." Let us go there now, Per$:;; haps he can tell us our wayo that we must go."
1 9 ~ 4 1 : v e At this Saul said to his attendant: ' M d if
%r.r I .F
h ~ 2i i : m we should go, what shall we bring to the mm?y
? . l y G 18
,r .'13 15 because the bread itself h a disappeared from
our receptacles and, as a gilt, there is nothing
-1CI 5:rb
to bring to the man of Gd.C What is there with
SO the attendant answered Saul once
more and said: 'cook! there is EI quarter of a
shekeI of silver found in m y hand, and I shalla
have to give it to the man of God,C and he will
have to tell us our way." (In former times in
Israel this was the way the man would have


"'He:' HSy; "thpp," LXXTg. b $'A man of Ilod," M,iak EL0.k id.
C'otnpnre vcram 7 and 8, footnote c, nnd verse 40, l'ooatnote a, and
Ilontcrona~ny339 : 1, footnote a. "God," hf, ha-El.0.h i~n', riith. the
rl~dltiite~ r t i c l ekra ("The") before ELo,kimb L n ,lao T l ~ e ~ o sCorn'.
Irrtlau verse 0, footnote b. d "I shall," M ; ' $ 0 ~will,"' LXXB,

to his


E; z:;


3 And the &+assesk belonging to KIsh the

"Herda," :?; "young men," JlVgSy.

mnn n Jatmull.rte." Or1 Lr~ood,l'



H SJa5:10

son of


talked on his going t o seek God:z "GOME, and let ~ f $ , ~ $ ~

Saul, and Jehovah, for his part, answered him:
us go t o the seer."* For the prophet of today +2:~;:,
110 1 2 1 1 "Here is the man of whom I said t o you:' 'This
used t o be called a seer in former times.)
Is the one that will keep my people within
h1Sn 3:lS bounds.) "u
lo Then Saul said t o his attendant: "Your ward !c;il 2cb:29
l(i 7
:<c 13'25
is g o d . Do come,I&m go.'%d they went their
sn 21.111
18 Thm Saul approached Samuel in the midia:2l
way to the city where the man of GodB was. p;':!i;'
dIe of the gate wld said: "Do tell me, please,
11 While they were going up on the ascent
Just where is the house of the seer?" lg And
to the city they themselves found girls going
Samuel proceed& to answer Saul and say: "I
out t o draw water.8 SO they said to them : "1s FU 24!?o
am the seer. Go up before me to t h e high place,
the seer' in this place?" l2 Then they answered
and you men must eat with me today and I
them and said: "He is. Look! he is ahead of you.
must send you away in the morning and all that
Hurry now, h u s e today he has come to the
is in your heart 1 shall tell you.V "As regards
city, for there is a sacrifice" today for the peo- Tg-,9!,f?J
the sheasses that were lost t o yon three days
ple on t h e high3 place.' lnAs soon as you men :;$;$a
a g o , ~do not set your hearts on them, for they
1 S9
t r4:t'O
come into the city POW will directly find him be- 11.11 1 ~ 3 9 ~! ~m
have been found. And to whom does all that is
fore he goes up t o the high place t o eat, because
desirable of Israel helong?* Is it not to you and
the people may not eat until his coming, for he
IS:^ l2:13 10 the whole house of your father?"
At this
is the one that blesses the sacrifice.' First after
that those who are invited may eat. And now go
n~initeof the arnalIestl( of the tribes of Israel,*
up, because him-just now You will find hlrn.'"
n d my fa111ilythe most insignificant of all the
;,:t!ii! afamilies
Accordingly they went on up t o the clty. As
of the tribe of Benjamin?' So why have
J ~flsu:ia
they were coming into the middle of the city,
k e to me a thing like this?"
f;; ; if$
why, there was Samuel corning out to meet
Samuel took Saul and his attendant
lsit lh::~:4
them to go up t o the high place.
~ ~ ( 1 1 : l land brought them t o the dining hall and gave
1'11t1 I'H
15 As for Jehovah,' he had uncovered the *l,Y2i!ii
1:1:10 them A plnce a t the head" of those invited, and
eare of Samuel the day before Saul came, say- ,f&;j;;i,
they were about thirty men. " "Later Samuel
.Ga43:M snid to the cook: "'Do give the portion* that I
ing: "Tomerrow about this time I shall send $;y,
t o you a m from the land of Benjamin, and
have given t o yoti, of which I said to you, 'Put
you must anointPhi as leader over my people %:gt :
it away by you,' 4"' At that the cook lifted off
Israel and he must save my peopIe f m m the !:; :2i.!5
the leg2 and what rvas on it and put it before
hand of t h e Phi.lis'tines, because I have seen ,yIK,"!$
Saul. And he went an t a say: '?Here is what
[the afliction of I my people," for their outcry k; $ !;
has been reserved.* Put it before yourself. Eat,
has come ta me.'prr And Samuel himself rsaw {:;$$$
because to the appointed time they have re"Man of GtodF N,isk. hu-EE.o.him', Carnpnre vcnme 6, fnntnnte h.
~ ' n dight emmdatian o f the Hebrew
mfi\Tlint lina hem T F I * ~ P P ( ~ .by



" " T l ~ eaffliction of mg people,"'L X X T ; "my peaplo,'" MVlrSy.

rlh?it. 31, *?a3111t hos bc~onIr~l'tcwer:'

served ita for you that you may mt with those

i n ~ i t e d . "So
~ Saul ate with Samuel on that dsy,
Subsequently they went down fram the high
place4 to the city, and he continued speaking 'Ha*u
with S a d on the h~usetap.~
PTThenthey rose '&?ifa
early,c and it came about that 0s soon as the y~,T,j\~
dawn ascended Samuel proceeded to call t o SRUI ;
:I,!;:A;47: I B
on the housetop, saying: "Do get up,* that I +m
(;B -I .1:4
may send you atvay." So Saul got up and both of
them, he and Samuel, went forth out-of-doors.
s7 While they were descending by the edge of
the city Samuel himself sald to S~tul:"'Say to
the attendant? that he should pass on ahead of :'%%$
he passed on-"and, as for you, stand
still now that I may let you hear the word of .;pl&1e

r1.Q 16:13
?1C1 D:3
1 :21
Samuel then took the flaslcB of oil-and p;i+.q< knl 19~39
poured it out upon his head and kissed' ,','&$d:$
him and sald: '7s it not because JehovnhDhas i2; k?jl4
anointed you as a leaderDover his pos~ession?~
On your going away from me today you will y;:Y,j?&
certafnly find two men close by the tombo of "21G13'?a
Rachel" the territory of Benjamin at ZelEzah,'Er3;??!


''Tbe~h v e r e s p d [it] ,'I by nn emendaiion of the flchrcw f e d ,

3f, "rreservation is being made." b Literally, "POT you-nying,

pecrple I haw in~ted,'" Bf. Obscur~,henec mhdc to rend as wc have
~t abava I>y a slight emendation. ''Aarl he oorrtinlned
enrly,') 31; "and the^ pprepared a roucl~j'or Snul on the hoase!op,
nnrl lie slept?' LXS; %and he spoke with Snul on tho honlrctop; nncl
Haul stretched himself out on the houwtop ~ n t Rl ~ P J I ~ , VR,
o f C;od," The first occurrence of this cxproasion, * llcre llio I T P I ~ F ~ ~ W
soribe e ~ d e n t l ymade an orersiglit ( l ~ o i u o r o t c l a u t o ~whirl1
~ ) , in proserved for us by LXX ns follo~vs:f'dellovnh lina nnointod yntl 114 a
lender owr his people, ove17Ismel, nnd you f r i l l rula ov@th
people, and you will ssve them ant of' the llnncl elf tlalir rnnnicr
round about. And this wiII be the sign to you that J c l ~ o v t t l ~ . ' V ~ g
rcada Eihilarly.


and they will certainly say to you; 'The sheasses that you have gone to look for have been
found, but now your father has given up the
z16of the she-asses"and has become anxious
about YOU men, saying, "What shall 1 do about
my son?" ' And you must pass on from there
stilI farther and come as far as the big tree of
r G e 2 8 : ~ Ta'bor, and there there must encounter you
,$:g$ three men going up t o The [trtle] God& at
Beth'el,Fone carrying three kids@and one carrytLc7:13
ing three round loaves of breadt and one carryuLe23:13 .
Nu 15:5 mg a large jar of wlne,u * And they will ceP
vJg 19:1$
3a d y a s k about yourrne1fm"and give you two
zASa 1.3:20

loaves and you must accept them from their

hand. It is after t h a t that you will come to the
i4:23 hiU3 00 The true] God,b where there is a garrisonr of the Phtlis'tines, And it should come
k2K1 3 9 5
1 c h 13:s about that at the time of your coming there to
EEx 15:20
Isals:s the city you will certainly meet a group of
?i2Fji5prophetSQZcoming down from the high place'
:%% and ahead of them a string instrumentk and
I:$i:ii:! tambourine* and flute' and harpoWwhile they
:% ,:! are speaking as prophets.' &Andthe spiritn of

2Ki 4 : 3

,:g:p";~O Jehovah will certainly become operative upon

:gt :;;g you and you: will certainly speak as a prophetA


along with them and k changed into another

man, ? And it must occur that when thew signsP
7 22
come t o you, do for yourself what your hand
k,"2;11"4finds possLble,~"because The [true] Gadb is with
nJg 9 3 3
rGe21:22 yonr @Andyou must go down head of me to
I am going down t o you to
p,20,:,1Gil'ga1'4 m ~ d 100k!
offer up burnt aaerlflces, t o render up mmmun-

, ,

'The [ h e ] h d ! ) If,Ira-Elao.lrint'; T,X,T, k 6 21' 1 c . 6 ~ ' . See 1 Samuel 4: 4. b "The [ h e ] God," IrL,', the deflnite artide
Ira (.'The*') before El.o.hirrr' npparcntlg hsirrg ~yrcinllyeu~phlitie.

iona sacrifices. Sevent days you should keep
walthg until my coming to you, and I shall certainly let you h o w what you shauld do."
9 And it occurred that as soon as he turned
his shoulder to go from Samuel God began
changing the heart of his into another, and all
these signs proceeded to come true on that day.u U,S,st;g
In So they went fmm there@
to the hill and here ] ~ s s : 7
there was a group of prophets to meet him; a t
once the spirit of Gcd became operative upon
him and he began t o speak as a prophet3 in the QIK"km
middle of them.'
And j t came about tlrat when vlSa'@:m
all those knowing him formerly saw him, Iook!
it was with prophets that he prophesied. Consequently the people said one to another: "What
1s this that has happened to the son of Kish?
1s Saul also among the prophets?"Y Then a A C ~ : I ~
man from thereb answered and said: "But who sIsn
is their father?"-at
is why it has become a iE!,7;:p
proverbialo saying: "Is Saul also among the "ISna:'3
13 At length he finished speaking as a prophe t and came to the high place. IC Later the
brother of Saul's father' said to him and to his + I S ~ l ~ :
attendant: "Where did YOU g a y " Upon that he J m IB:m
said: "To look for t h e sheasses," and we kept on mjg!d?!
going to see, but they were not [there). So we 1b"s
came to Samuel." At this Sad's uncle said:
"Do tell me.please, What did Samuel say to YOU
men?" " In I
m 5aul said to his uncle: "He told
us unmistakably that the she-asses had been '3$i!:f9
found." And the matter of the kingship a b u t
which SamueI hed talked he did not tell him.' i!,'\;jo;:'

aUWent from there," L E ; "mme thcrc," IISy, b " A ninn Tram

thptv," 31 ; "one of rhcn~? L-KT.

17 And Samuel proceeded to call t h e people

t o Jehovah at Miz'pah* l s and to say
Ihn 7:s
of Israel; "This is what Jehovah the
3 ; Gorl of Israel has said:' 'It was E who brought
Israel up out of Egypt and who went delivering
I , , , I
'I,,. lk
from the hand of EgypP and from the hand
of all the kingdoms: that zvere oppressing
I" Eut YOU-today YOU have rejected YOL'R God0
; who
was A SBVIOI*to YOU out of all YOUR evils
Jq Ti.<
nncl YOUR anlictions, rind YOU went on t o say:
.!1Sn5.7$ "'No, buts n k i n 6 is wlmt you should put over
now t n k e ~ o ustand
~ before Jehovah
1:k1 12:12
1: 11 1:
Nu 17:%
20 Accoldingly Samuel had all the tribes of
Israel draw near,ll and the tribe of Benjamin
~ J O ;:la
came t o be picked.~" Then he had the tribe of
!%I 14:41
AC 1 : ~ Benjanrln draw near by its families, and the
Cnrnily of the Mat'rites came t o be pickedbc
slsfi14:a2 Finally Saul the son of Kish came to be p i ~ k e d . ~
And they !vent looking for him,and he was not
~ ~ ; t 1 ~ :lo
2 ~be found, Fleelice they inquiredt further of
J a z h : ~ Jehovah: "Was the man come here as yet?"
To this Jchovah said: "Here he is, hidden
:,among the Iuggage,+"u So they went running
nnd toolc him from there, When he took his
stand jn the middle of the people, he was taller
t h ~ nall the other people from his shonlders
& Then Samuel sajd to all the people:
"I-Iave YOU seen the one whom Jehovah has
chcrsea,y that there js none like him among all
rlIi1r 1:25
I ::In
thc people?" And all the people began to shout
.I<! 11 2
,:,21,9 and say: "JRt the king live!"'"

1 SAMUEL 10:17-24


9 " s ~ 'Xo,
~ : but,"' arcortljn~to 35 ZTebrew mnnamiph.

ZXXTEST; "my ta him: ('A l i i ~ k ~ ' ) , " 31, OF, "tdhnl d d i ~ a i v n s . "
*LAYSntlrl~hem: '.Ancl the?. t~rittgt11~
fnnrilr of the Bht'ritps near,
311n1t l ~ p~ r ~ n n . "

25 Upon that SamueI spoke to the people +?$,";;f
about the rightful due of the kingship' and g y &
wrote it in a bookmand deposited it before Jeha- orxi 11:41
vah, Then S m u e l sent all the people away, each
one to his house. z6 As for Saul himself, he went
to his home at Gib'e.ah,@and the valiant men sjp#g
whose heart Goda had touched proceeded ta go $g,"gta
with him." P7 AS for the good-for-nothing men, 1Sa13h
they said: "How will this one save us ?"* Accord- $: ?lj"
ingly they despised him, and they did not bring 2 $pg
*De 1333
any gift t o him.'
1Sa I1:12
And it cameabout approximatelyarnonth Iaterb
Ac 7 5 1
that Na'hash the Arnfmtsn.ite proceeded *2s,
4x1 go up and camp against Ja'beshn in $&!?
Gil' At that all a
te men of Ja'besh said to r;tg;iO
Na'hash: "Conclude a covenant0 with us that ;3;
we may serve you.'" 'Then Na'hash the Am'&;
man-ite said to them: "On this condition I shall EX 2 3 : ~
De 23:s
conclude it with YOU, on the condition of boringo 4sg
out every rightmeye of YOURS, and I must put it

from the field's and S a d proceeded to say:

1833 ''What is the mattert with the people, that they

a3g 3.10

should weep?" And they began relating to him

the words of the men of Ja'besh. And the
spiritu of Goda became operative upon Saul on
<;"s", !$:y his hearing these words and his angerO got very
>I? 3 5
SO he took a pair of bulls and cut them
Eph 4 2 6 in piecesy and sent these into all the territory
) Jg 19:29
of Israel by the hand of the messengers, saying:
"Whoever of us is not going out as a follower of
,J,21:5 Saul and of Samuel, this is t h e way it will be
$$h,;3i7 done to his cattle!"z And the dread0 af Jehovah+
began to fall upon the people so that they came
2ch 17:10 out as one man. Then he took the sum of them
Pr 14:s
e ~ 1:s
in B e * ~ e kand
, ~ t h e sons of Israel amounted to
three hundred thousand and the men of Judah
ig ;:17:14
15, thirty thousand." * Theyb now said t o the messengers that had come: 'This is what you will
say to the men of Ja'besh in 'Tomorrow salvation wiIl take place for you when the
c2Sa12:ll sun' gets warm.' "* With that the messengers
w s 18:17
came and told the men of Ja'besh, and they gave
way to rejoicing. mAccordhgly the men of
Sdbesh said: "Tomorrow we shalI come out t o
YOU people and YOU must do to us in harmony
*1"a ll:2 with all that is good in YOUR eyes."'
11 And it came about on the next day that
AIsa31:il SaulA proceeded to put the people into three
bands4 and they made their way into the mid4jg97:2!
;"fsa 11:l# dle of the camp during the morning watchck
and went striking down the Am'mon.itesdn till
the day grew warm. When there proved t o be
a g 6:34

Jg 11:29
JE 1325
J 146



as a reproach0 upon all IsraeH."k a In turn the

older men a Ja'besh said to him: "Give us
seven days' time and we will send messengers
into all the territory of Israel and, if there is no
savior of us, then we must. go out to you." In
time the messengers came to Gib'e.ahn of Saul
and spoke the words in the ears of the peopIe,
and all the people began raising their voice and



i-sg2 4
J 2I.a

5 But here is Saul coming after the herd


I SAMUEL 11: 6 1 1


"Gad:' BISp; 'rJehovah," TLXXVg and

'rGod," MVgSy; "Jehovah" (Kyfri.os), LXX. b "And it oanie

about approximately a month later." By a slight ~d advis~ble
emendation of the Hebrew text in accord with LXX, which begiaa
chapter 11 x i t h these words, But 31 reads: "But he continued like
one grown speechles~1." Os, "Jatbesh-gil'"

biLTHeyF MVg; '.He,'' L X X S y .

d i ' A l i ~ ' r n o n ~MVg;


two Rebrew manuscripts.

See Exodue 14: 24, footnote b.

'.the sons of Am'n~on," TLXXSy and t m e o

some that were Ieft over, then they were sent

scattering and there were not Ieft over among
them two together.? l8 And the people began to
say to Samuel: "Who is it saying, 'Saul-is he
to be Mnga over US?'^ Give t h e men over that


rd 426
1 a m:17



r'S~ul-i~he to he king?> NVg; ('Saul-he should imt be king,''

T,;YX'Sy, "Saul," 31T;gSy; "Samuel,'> L X T B oliginnl and soruo
other Greek manuscripts. C L X X rends : "and there Samuel anointed
Saul to be king?' See chapter 13, verse 3, footnote d. d "Anointed
one." M,.~taa.sLi'ukh; LXX,$; Vg, clrsis't~is; Sy, m'shibh.
e "Or;' LXXSyT and many Hebrew manuscripts. f Or, "a ransom."


p ~ o hi8:38



hide my eyes0 with it?a' And I shall make rest00

LU 19:8

rve may put them t o death."t l3 However, Saulb t L u ~ : 2 7

said : "Not a man should be put to deathe on this m a 20:10
day,u because today Jehovah has performed sal- u~$,"~$~Zg
VEX 1433
vation in Israel."v
1Sa 19.9
14 Later Samuel said to t h e people: "Come $'h4i$14
and let us go to Gfl'galY that we may there make 1,!c~a5;;$z
the kingship anew."z l6 So all the people went i
to Gil'gal and there they proceeded to make 2~a5:3
Saul kingc before Jehovah in Gil'gal. Then they
r e n d e d up communion sacrifices" there before CZKt lTxs I
Jehovah," and there Saul and all the men of B1Sa10:8
Israel continued rejoicing to a great degree." "1,S,y;yg,,
2Ki 11:14
FinaIIy Samuel said to all Israel: "Here lc1129:g
2Ch 23:21
I have listened to YOUR voice as respects
all that YOU have said to me," that I should r ~ a y $ ; 4
cause a king to reign over YOU.* And now here is lsa 1 1 : ~
oh u 2737
the king walking before YOU!" As for me, I have Isa 8:20
ZroFvn oldAand grayyoand my sons, here t h e y t$","7?i:3
are with wou,lCand 1-1 have walked before YOU
from my youth until this day.n Here I am. Answer against me in front of Jehovah a n d in front ;:;:!;:
of his anointed one:drWhose bull have I taken i;;b%t
or whose ass have I takens of. whom have I de- BSU 16:13
f rauded orCwhom have I crushed or from stlhose f$2"2:i3
hand have I accepted hush moneyfothat I should OJob 33;24

1 SAMUEL 12:"9





Ps 7 7 9 0

Ps 105:26

$ 2 ;



f%JgC 5 331


AC 7:15

have not defrauded us,nor have you crushed us,
nor have you accepted anything at all from the
band of a single one."^ SO he said t o them:
"Jehovah is a, witnessa against YOU and his
anointed one Is a witness this dap' that YOU
have found nothing a t all in my
To this
theyb said: "Heis a ~vitness.''~
6 And Samuel went on t o say to the people:
"Jehovah [is a witness] ,d who used Moses3 and
Aaronn and who brought YOUR forefathers up
out of the land of Egypt.* And now take Youn
stand and I will judge YOU before Jehovahe [and
recount t o you] all the righteous acts" of Jehovah that he has done with YOU and with YOUR


"As soon as JacubfOhad come into Egyptg"

forefathers began calling t o Jehovah

for aid,* Jehovah proceeded t o send Mows" and
that they might lead YOUR forefathers
"i:; ;& Aaron
Egypt and causeh them to divell in this
6 nc 32:18 place?
they \vent forgetting Jehovaho
ag 3:7
~ ~ 1 0 6 : 2 their
God,! so that he soldk them into the hand
dg s:8
of Sis'e-ran the chiefi of the army of Ha'zor and
n3g 472
into the hand of the Phi.1is'tinesP and into the
,J 1 0 7
:$&@ hand of the king of Mo'ab3s and they kept fight*EX2:23
Ex 3:9
rnsa 12:6



"Have I accepted hush money that T should bide my epee rrith It't8'
M ; %have I accepted sn atonement, even a sandalP MAKE answer
ngainst me," E X X , bL'The~," LXXTTgS~XtT
and marked h be undemtood '?heyv in 18 Hebre-r~manuscripts; "he,"' 31. cUtwal!y,
"they (he) said : IA mitnes-T~'
'' MLXXTgSy. d 'l3ehorah i s a mtness," X , Z ; "Jehovah alone icr God," Xp; "Jehovah," XVg-6 "And
reeouat to YOU," LXX; as an addition to If.f'IJa~ob,'~
"Jacob and his sons," Ln. g Here LXX adds : "and E m t hnmrllnted them." h''Fr~rnEgypt y~dCBITB~,'.' h!!j "from Egypt and hs
caused," ZA;I;VgSy. i Or, "pnnee." M, srrr.

ing agafnst them. "And they began to Gall to
Jehovah for aidt and say: 'Wehave ainned,~] ti^!:!
for we have Ieft Jellov~hthat we mlght serve u&io:l0
the Ba'alsv and the A~h?o.reth~
images; and $: ;iT9

now d e l i v e e us out of the hand of our enemies

tlrat u'@ may m e you.' l 1 And Jehovah proceeded to send Jer.ub.bafal+and Be'danam and ;$;3:7
Jeph'thah" and Samuelbr and deliver YOU out of
the h ~ n dof YOUR enemles a11 nmund that you ;%
might dwell in security. l 2 When YOU saw that ~JZ;:
J V rtl:l
Na'hash* the king of the sons of A m ' m had &:???
come ~galnstYOU, YOU kept saying to me: 'Xo, c ~ ~ 9 . 1 ~
but a king Is what shorrld rergn over us!'5 all 3; IljT,
t h e wl~ilaJehovahc YOUR God being YOUR King,' tT2),1&3B
And now here is the kIng wham YOU have
chosen, for whom YOU asked,' and here Jehovah ;~,"$j
1\11 x ~ : z a
has put over YOU a kingmkt' If mu will fear @IF?.:?
kj 5n 1b'W
Jehovah" and actually serve him' and obey his k;;;::~
voicen and YOU will not rebelt against the order
of Jehoval~,both Tau and the king who must :
J o n 2k14
reign over you will certainly prove to be follow13.4
ers of Jehovah YO^ God.U laBut if YOU wiIlnot [Nil

o b e p the voice of Jehovah" and YOU will actu- $f5%:;23

ally rebelmagahst the order of Jehovah,~the 20;?1:,
hand of Jehovah will certainly prove to be y:;C;;;;$
agalnst You and YOUR
mNo~v,also, yJns22:18
Jns 21:PU
.1 31
take YOUR stand' and see this great thing that 25:.1Snu 14:17
Jellavah is doing before TOUR eyes. Ps it not ;
wheat harvest today?9 I shall call7to Jehovah. ;.p&1,2
that he may give thundersd and rain: then C s i ~ l : f i
know and see that YOUR evil is great* that YOU *j!j:;f:7,
"Bo'd~n,l' XVg j 'rBllttrnkP LIX't:Ry.
b c'&mnel," n(lL!G'FVg;

''Enrn~on,"8~'LX.XUgardlaneaftbon, a rrAlldYOFOCR
fathew,'f JfJ'g.;
"nnd ngninst Yam king," L,XY; " ~ 8it wag against roan for+
fathers," Sy. Or, 'CFoicm," or, "~aund~,"

I SAMUEL 12:I&-13: 2

have done in the eyes of Jehovah in asking for

yourselves a king."
18 Upon t h ~ Samuel
called to Jellov~hand
Jehovah proceeded t o give thundersa and rain
on that day,' so that aU t h e people. were g ~ ~ a t l y
fear of Jehovah and of Samuel." lP And all the
j3:: in
began t o say to Samuel : "Pray"in behalf
Eu 928
servants t o Jehovah your God, srs we do
1;n 2616 not want to die; because we have added to all
A c $:24
5:=5 OUT sins an evil in asking for ourselves a king."
( E u 2C:20
rue 11:~s 20 S6 Samuel said t o the people: "Do not be
L>r 8?:':9
afraid,O You-YOU have done all this evil. Only
n TJe 15:s
, do not turn aside from following Jehovah? and
YOU must serve Jehovah with ~ f wocn
I r a B:J
nr And YOU must not turn aside to follow the
R I '315:s
1-a 41~24 unrealftiesF thnt are of no benefita and that do
J c r 10:15
Jer 1,319 not deliver, because thgr a m unrealitis,
' ~ ~Jehovah
$ ~willi not
~ desertt
~ his people for the sake
of his great
because Jehovah has taken
~ ~ ~ , " ~ ~ : : 5 ~
YOU hjs peogle,v As
Ps 23 3
~s ltr6:8 for me also, it is unthinkable an my part t o sin
r E n 10,5



7De 1;:2
Ije 3 2 3

against Jehovah by ceasing to pray in YCUR

behalf,Y and I must instruct%YOU in the good*

and right way. " "Only fear" Jehovah and you

serve him in truth" with all YOUR heart,*
zPp. 34:11
. 1 ~ i s . s for see what great things he has done for YOU.#
ZCh 6:2T
Jet- 6 16 2 " ~ t if YOU flagrantly do what is bad, You 11.411
PS 111:10
lo+ be swept away,' both YOU and YOUR


7rJe1 0 : ~ ~

Saul was [?]"ears old when he 'began

to reign, and for ttvo years he reigned
over Israel. a And Saul proceeded to choose for
himself three thousand men out of Isr~eland
"i%itg two thousand came to be with SauI at Mich'.
r','r:i& mash" and in the mountainous region of Beth'd,
'.lm 24:20

I J e 25.3




l r ~ or,
~ "[~ow&"
i ~ ~b :
The number is missing iu



1 SAMUEL 13 3-15

and a thousand proved t o be with Jon'aXhan at 4JJ09AH3

Gib'aahe of Benjamin, and the rest of the people
he sent away, each one t o his tent.& Then Jon'- g;f2;69
a.than struck down the garrison% of the Phi- lt1~a10:5
lis'tines that was in Ge'baJbn and the Phi.lis'- ,"J",",:"8::"z$
tines got t o hear of it. As for Saul, he had the g: :$$;

ple were scattering from him. Finally Sat11

said: "BRINGnear to me the burnt sacrifice and
the communio~zofferings," With that he went
offering up the burnt sacrifice.'
10 And it came about that as soon as he had
Ps 3 7 3
finished offering up the burnt sacrifice, why,
throughout all the land, saying ; ;;;%;z;28
there was Samuel coming in. Sa Saul went out
''Let the Hebrews bear!" 'And all Lsrael itself ggp'$j8
t o meet him and bless him." l1 Then Samuel
lSa 153s
heard tell: "Sad has struck down a garrison of 2Sa 209
PS 1 2 8 : ~ said: "What is it you have done?''ATo this Saul
Lu 1520
t h e Phi.1is'tines and now Israel has become foulsaid : "I saw t h a t the peopIe had been dispersed
-JOS 7.19
2Sa 3:Zl
smellingg among the Phi.listtines." So the people
from me, and you-you did not come within the
were called together t o follow Saul t o Giltgal.'
appointed days, and the PhLlis'tines were being
m a 139 colIectd together at Mich'rnash,* l a so I said to
5 And the Phi.lis'tines, fortheir part, collected
'1K112:26 myseXf,a* 'NOWthe Phi.lis'tines will come dorm
themselves together t o fight against Israel,
thirtyc thousand war-chariotsband six thousand C21C~2:11
against me at Gil'gal and the face of Jehovah I
horsemen and people like the grains of sand that
have not softened,' So I compelled myself arid
are upon the seashore for r n u l t i t ~ d e and
,~ t,hey-U,G~~~~7
went offering up the burnt sacrifice."
?ma1 2 3
went their way up and began camping in Mi&'- Jg 7:1.2
13 At this SamueI said t o Saul: "You have
mash t o the east of Beth-a'~en.~
%d the men vi,","7;2u
acted f ~ o l i s h l y .You
~ have not kept the com$
of Israel themselves saw that they were in sore 1s. 14:~s
'lKi8:58 mandment3 of Jehovah your God that he comstraits,Y because the people were hard pressed, yJ a10:9
manded you,"because if you had, Jehovah would
and the people went hiding themselves in the
rsal5:n have made your kingdom firm over Israel to
cavesZ and the hollows and the crags and the zIsad2:22
time indefinite. l4 And now your kingdom will
brlSa Z:30
vaultsd and the waterpits. Hebrews9 even 'LDe
" 26!3
.:g; Zgii8 not last.# Jehovah will certainly findb for himcrossed the Jordan' to the land of Gado@and mlCh":M
$yz!z self a man agreeabIe to his heart,* and Jehovah
Gil'" But Saul, himself was yet in Gil'gal,
him as a leadern over his peof;;$F:2,0, will commission
and all the people trembled while following him.\g:
because you did not keep what Jehovaha
2Sa P:IB
8And he continued waiting for seven daysr t o h B l o : 8
commanded you."
the appointedo time that Samuel (had said] ,f xsa24:15
25 Then Samuel rose and went his way up
U" 9:25
and Samuel did not come t o GiI'gal and the peofrom Gil'galc to Gibte.ah of Benjamin, and Saul
proceeded to take the count of the people, those
a "Tent," LXX; "honssN ST; literally, '"cents~
MVg. See th~pter4,
yet found with him, about six hundred men.*
verse 10, footnote c. '~e'ba," MSg; "Giihte.ah!) lrgT; "the hill,"



LXX. "Thirty," MLXXTg ; "three," S ~ ~ x ~ L a g!an

Or, "underground aavities!' Or, possibly by a slight emehdation of the Hebrew text, ct&Iuchpeople!' "had said," LXXT aud
four Hebrew manuscripts; 31 omits.

Or, 'q thought." b Literally, "seek (to fincl)," X. LXXIt add

Iic~rc:"and the rest of the people vent up afteT Saul to meet the
wurriors. They wenl, from Gil'gal:'

la And Saul and Jon'adhan his son and the peob 9J0r 18:24
of Benjamin. As for the Phi.lEs'tines, they had $ ~ : ~ , 3 i ~ o
encamped in Mich'mash." "And the force of '!FF"735
pillagers would sally forth from t h e camp of
the Phididtines in three bands." The one band
would turn t a the road to Oph'rah," to tlte land
m d u 4 19 3
of Sl~u'al," la and the other band would turn t o *i:::
the road of Beth-hotron,* and the third bmd
would turn to the road t o the boundaryO that 9L1c14:21
looks toward the valley of Ze.'ts~'irn,~toward
the wilderness.
I9 Now there was not a smithAto be found in ar;f$;4
all the land of Israel, bw8we the PhLIis'tinex
had said: "That the Hebrews may not make a
w o r d or a spear."' )OAnd dl the Israelites 2 ? 3 : 9
would go down to the Phj.lis?ines to get cad1
one his plowshare or his mattock or his ax or
his sickle ~harpened.~' And the price for *%;;:$
sharpening proved to be a pirnc for the plowshares and for the mattocks and for t l ~ eth~eetoothed instruments and for the Rxes and for
fixing fast the ~ x g o a d8.z ~And i t happened on the =Js
day of battle that not a sword9 or a spear was
Pound in the hand of any of the people that were @,'2
with Saul and Jonra.than, but there could be 1
found one helonging t o Saul and to Jon's-than
his son,
23 Now an outpost*of the Phtlls'tlnm would n1Sa1Q:4
sally forth to the ravine pass of Mich'mssh." *:gh4& '
And it came about one day that Jonta$:j*
than* the son of Saul proceecled t o say :$:$;Sip
to the attendant carrylng 11is weapons: "Do "aLI:*
zsu 125




m3Ieauing "Hy~nas."bLXX, "forgtd." Cnmpnre CtrnnI~4: 22,

"Pim," >I,An ancient might nbout 75 to 7% p n m q , or Y ~hrliel.

I SAMUEL 14:2-I0

come and Jet us crom over to the outpost of the

Phi.lis'tines who are across over there." But to
his father he did not tell itaafAnd Saul was
"igfiq dwelling
at the outskirts of Glb'e.a.ehk under the
I&IO:S pomegranate tree that is in Mitron, and the
people that were with him were about six k m dred men! a (And A.hl'jnh thc son of A . h i ' t ~ b , ~
4 2 1 the brother of Ich'a.bod,' the son of Phinre.has,
the son of El!, the priestmof Jehovah in Shiqloh,
'Isa 22:18 was carrying the eph'ocl.) %d
the people themseIves did not knaw that Jon'a-than had gone+
Now between the passages that Jon'a.thm
looked for to e m s over again& the outpost* of


the Phi.listtines there was a toothlike mags here

on this side and a toothlike cragn there on t h a t

side, and the name of the one was Bo'zez and the
name of the other was Se'neh. T h e one tooth
'1sa 13.2
was a pillarb on the north facing Mich'mash,'
y e 72:+1
isa i0:2~ and the other was on t h e south facing Ge'baaa
C J 0 s 1894
6 SO J ~ n ' a ~ t h ~said
n o to the attendant, his
and let us cross over
E; j,3;:o
JE 14:3
to Jehovah to save by many or
l s a I:>>
ica m:a by few."o ' At this his armor-bearer said to him:
3cr 9:=
E-h 2 . z "DOwhatever is in your heart. Turn where you
wish to. Were I am wit11 you in accord with
l*:12 your heart.'" Then Jonpa.thanC said: Were
we are crossing over to the men, and let us exourselves to them. If this is t h e way they
g ;$?pose
should say to us, 'Stand st111 until we make con*ass 7:s
tact with rou!?then we must stand where we
are and we should not go on up t o them. 10 But
if this is the way they should say, 'Come up
literally, titooth of the mag!' b "A pillar,'' 11 ; omitted by LSX.
Titerally, 4cJe.hon'n.thnn,''SE, here.


against us!'then we must go up, because Jehotook t h e count, why, look! Jon'a.tkm and his
vah will certainly give them into our hand, and
armor-bearer were not there. l a Saul now said
~ l s a l 4 : 3 to A.Ri'jah:~"Do bring the ark of The [true]
this is for us the ~ i g n . " ~
m JR~ T:II
11 With that the two of them exposed them- 1 S a l ~ ';"fa2j;,l"oda
near!'jo (For the ark of The [true] Goda
lSa 30:8 proved to be on that day with the sons of Tsselves t o the outpost of the Phi.lis'tines. And
2Sa 15:24
the Phi.Iis'tines proceeded to say: "Here are
. ~ s 6:2
me!.)* "d
it came about that while Saul
15a 7:l
the Hebrews coming out from the holes where
! A - ~27:21 was speaking to t h e priestq t h e turmoil that
they have hidden themselves."" '50
the men of "g,Oi&:,
was in the camp of the Phi.lis'thes continued
the outpost answered Jonta.than and his m o r - 1sa 14:22
to go on, getting greater and greater. Then SauI
bearer and said: "Come on up to US and we will
said to the priest: "Withdraw your hand."+
let YOU Lnorv a thing!"* At once 3onfa.than said;;;* ;+;:
O' Thus Saul and all the people that were with
to his armor-bearer : "Come up after me, because ;g ;;;;
him were called out. So they came as far as
Jehovah will certainly give them into the hand
the battle, and there the sword of each one had
of Israel."' l 3 And Jon'a.than kept going up on *ijg
to be against his fellowo man;B the rout
1 very
his handsnandhis feet and his armor-bearer aft- ,gag:;;
great. 2' And the Hebrews that had
~ h 29:19
er him, and they began to fall before Jon'a-than, Reb 11:N
134 19:a
come t o belong to the Phi.lis'tines as formerly
and his armor-bearer was putting them to death
and that had gone up with them into t h e camp
behind him." >' And the first slaughter with "6: ;iT
round about, even they too were for proving
which Jonta.than and his armor-bearer struck y;syjFo
themselves to be with Israd" who was with Saul
them down amounted to about twenty men with- RO 8:31
and Jon'a.than.0 2 2 All the men of Israel also
Cx 14 30
in about half the plowing line in an acre of Ee1d.a
De 33129 that were hidden* in the mountainous region of
6 2.18
15 Then a trembling0 occurred in the camp OJos?;:
I$ io:19 heard that the Phi.lis%ineshad taken
to flight and they, too, went pursuing closely
in the field and among d l the people of the out- ; ~ l ~ , i j ~
post, and t h e force of pillagers* trembled, even +1Sa m i 7
t=s 4
1 4~: ~7 after them into the battle. " And Jehovah prothey, and the earth began quaking and it de- *%%::+a
;gf$g ceeded on that day t o save* Israel, and the batveloped into a trembling from God." lG And the .&t ;:;I
tle itself passed over t o Beth-a'venmdU
watchmen belonging to Saul* in Gib'e.ah of ~e;4;;38
24 And the men of Tsrael UlemseIves were
Benjamin got to see it, and, look! the turmoil alsaio:ze
1Sa 13:2
1 "The ;Ct,me]God." M, Tsa-ELo.hitnt, the definite article Tam ("TheJJ)
swayed this way and
*J 7:22
I~r.eaetlingthe title El.o.himt for e~npliasia. bLXX reads: "to
17' And Saul proceeded to say to the people 28h 20:23
,\.hiJjnh: 'Bring the ephtod new (For he carried the eph'od i n
that were 114th him: "Take the count, pIease,
(lint day before Israel.)
LXX reads : (21) "And the slnr-es who
and see who has gone out from us." When they
Ir.pr8eEorrnerlj~wit11 the Phi.listtines, going up into the camp, turned




"In an acre of field!' Literall?-, 'Ca span of a field," that is, the
mensure of land that rt spxn of oxen ean plow in n day. b L X X
i ~ a d s :"aud, look! the camp was in a comn~otionfrom one end t o

the othey."

r~rnnndand they -*ere for being with the Israelites who vere mith
Snnl and Jon%.than." d L 9 X reads here: "ond the battle passed
Iwrr to Beth-tar~ea,And all the people with Saul were about ten
rl~ousandmen. And the battle was spread nl~outt o every city in
l1bu ~~~ountaiainous
region of''


h d presseda on that day, and yet Saul put the

people under the pledge of an oath,w saying:
"Cursed is the man that eats bred before the
evening end until I have taken venge~nceoupon
my enemies!" And none of the people tasted





Jg 11.36

25 And all those of the land came Into the

womb,when honey happened to be over all the
surface of the field. '"When the people came

- bard pressed," bp

a djgllt rbnnge of punchation of t h c
Rcl)rew t e x t . " D m near," Ji. bdrintE prt Saul
oath''; sa by n
s l i ~ h temendation of the Hrhrew text. '#AndSaul acted will fall^.
wit11 the people," M ; "And 6nul jgnornntlg corntnitted a p e a t sin
of rtrior on that day and put tho p ~ o p l cunder a curse, e a ~ n g :
'Acaursed is the man t h a t cots brend bnfore evening,' '' L E .

. ..


the 1Phi.lis'tines from Mjch'masha t o Ai'ja.1011,~

and the people got to be very tired. B2 And the
people began snatching at the spollQand taking

sheepo and cattle and calves and slaughtering

them on the earth, and the people fell t o eating
along with the blood.m*" So ihey told Saul,
1-P "17
s ~ y i n g :"Look! the people are sinning against
Jehovah by eating along with the blood," At
Id11 1!-4."!3
I , ~ , I ? : G this be said: 'You have dealt Zreachero~ly.~
First of all roll a great stone t o me." "After
At. J i.:J
that Saul said: "Scatter among the peopIe and
YOU must say t o them, 'Bring near t o me,each
one of aau, his bull and, each one, his. sheep, and
YOU must do the slaughtering In this place and
the eating, and YOU must not sin against Jehavah by eating dong with the blood.' "Accordingly dl the people brought near eshch one his
.J 21:4
~ that wits in his hand that night and did t h e
fnere. 35 h d Saul proceeded to
hujld an altaP" t o Jehovah, With it be started
*Jos lo:@ altar-building to Jehovah,
36 Later Saul said: "Let us go down after the
, ;?
Phi.Hs'tines by night and pIunder them wtiI the
21 morning lightens' up* and let us not leave a
PG77 1 9
single one among them."" To this they said:
2 :
. I h R .\:X
"Anything that is good in your eyes do." Then
L J 1.1
the priest said: "Let us approacll here to The
1 :
[true] God."ag And Saul began t a inquire of
:sit r,:] :a
1 l t l ~ ' : : f l God: "ShaI1 I go down after the Phtlfs'tine~?~
c 1 F L b 23:B
I R;:IR Will you give them into the hand of Israel?'"
I.:/.? 20:3
..I,,, 7:I.l And he did not answer him on that daya089 SQ
1% ?,:z
Saul said: "Come near here,' all YOU key menh
, ~ ascertain nnd see in what
r r47,a
1 9 3 of the p e ~ p l e and
"2ka 17:m
'ls" 13:''

6aos io:13

Into the woods, why, look! there wm R dripping

of honey,' but there was no one putting his hand '2 A: ?B
to his mouth, because the people were afraid of E;i%8
the 0ath.O
for Jonta.than, lle had not been 32Sa21:7
Ijstening when his father put the people under
an oath, so he stretched out the tip of the rod
that was in his hand and dipprxl I t into the
honeycomb and drew his hand back to his
mouth, and his eyes began t o beam.' PBAtthis @
one of the people reacted and said: "Your father
solemnly put the people under oath, saying,
'Cursed fs the man that eats bread today!' "
(And the p p l e began to get tlred.SW2a However, Jon'a.tham said: "My iather has brought
trouble upon the land.* SEE,please, how my *ml s : l B
eyes have beamed because I tasted this little bit
of honey. "How much more so if the people
had but eatena today from the spoil of their mlKk13:B
enemies that they found! Far now the slaughter
* E c m
u p n the Phi.lis?tines has not been meat,"'
31 And on that day they kept striking down


1 SAMmL 14:32--38





[true] Bod." 11, ha-E7.o.lri*1'; ZXS, ?fa TAP.DA'.b"ey

s~lcn,"Literally, &'thecorner torrers," theso being pictorid of n t a l
ur iluportnnt men, uhiefs.

1 SAMUEL 14:46-15 :1

way this sin has come to be today, ~TQI*
Jehovah, ~vhais the Deliverer of Israel, is alive,
even if it is in Jonra-than my son, yet he will
positbely die.'" But there was na one answering him out of all the people. ** And he went
on to say to all Israel: "YOU you~selveswill

come to be on the one side and I and Jon's-thm

my son-we wilI come t o be on t h e other side,"
At this t h e people said to Saul: "What is good
in your eyes do.''#

41 And Saul proceeded t o say t o Jehovah:

"0God of Israel,&do give Thum'rnim !"' Then
Jon'a.than and Saul were taken, and the people
t hemsehes \vent outn 4' Saul now said: "CAST
lots to decide between me and Jonta.t.han my
son." And Jon'a.than got to be taken. 4 3 Then Saul
said t o Jon'a.than: "'Do telI me, What have you
done?''ASo Jon'a.than told him and said: "I did
for a fact taste a little honey on the tip of the rod
thnt 1s in my hand.O Here I am! Let me die!"
44 At this Saul said: "Thus may God do and
thus may he add t o it," if you do not posjtivel)
die," J ~ n ' a . t h a n . But
' ~ ~ the people s d d to Saul:
"1s Jon's-than to die,O who has performed this
great salvation" in Israel? It is unthink~blct~
As Jehovah is alive,' not as much as a single
hair' of his head will fall to the earth, for il
tt7as with God that he worked this day."" WitF
that the people ransomed" Jon'althan, and hf
did not die.

46 So Saul wlthdrew from Pollow!ag the

Phi.lis'tines, and the Phi-lis'tines themselves
went to their place,
47 And Saul himself took the kingship over
olsa 13:l Israel4and went warring round about against: all
his enemies, against Mo'ab*and against the sons
of Arn'rnoncl' and agalnst E'domn ~ n cagainst
a ~ ns: 1 7 kings of Zo'bnhr and ~gnfnstthe Phi.1is8tines,
2Sn 8:14
r 2 ~ 106
and wl~ereverl ~ would
turn he was victorious.&
U i i 1223
' 8 And he went on acting valinntly and proceed2:: ed to strike down Am'a.leknand to deliver Israel
=a 133 out of the hand of their spojler,
49 And the sons of Saul came to be fon'aand Ish'vi and Mal'chi-shu'a, and, as for
t:g:3,i!, that
histn.odaughters, thenameof the
was Me'r~b"and the name of the
ulSa lE 17
v i s a IS:27 younger one Mi'cl1~1.~And the name of Saul's
153 25:44
wife was A.hin'o,am the claughtex of,
2Sa 3:13
' s a 6 6 : m and the name of the chief of his army was
Ab'ners the son of Ner, the uncleb of Saul,
I d msh' was the father of Saul, and Ner'
ElSn 9:1
1qh 9:36 the father of Ab'ner w ~ the
s sono of A.biUd
ich 9 3 9
52 And the warfare continued heavy against
the Phi.lis'tines all the days of Saul. When Saul
saw m y mighty man or any valiant person he
would gather him to himselts
Then Samuel said to Saul: "It was 1
whom Jehovah sent to anoint' you as
lSa 10:f
king over his people Israel, md now listen to


" ~ h is
y it thnt you rlitl not nnRaci+I;O~IP ~ s ~ ~ ~ n a t
tnrlrlyq If in me or i n Jon's.thnn m y ann tho u n ~ i ~ h t ~ n ~iw
l ,~ n r a ~
Jard God of Israel, gire clear ~nnllifcitflli~~lh
[U'~mi~n),Arjrl il' thaa
you ~ h o a l denr, I n ronr p-ople Isl-n~l.t h ~ nrive Ilolinrds, [Th~un'~ l ~ i i n ] T-8
. " n ~ n l i c sa silnilnr n<irlitio~l,n1.0 J t . SPC 1':~01111~
2s : 30,
l'nnt rlota 11.


"He mas victorionra," in n ~ r s ~ n ~ ewith

n t L,XXTE: 'lie trrated na
n+ked (condemned):' 31. b Acrrording to 1 C t ~ r o ~ ~ i 8o l: e33,
~ Ner
was the grandfather of Saul ; nnrl Ah'ner, aA tho I~mlherof ICisll,
mas the uncle of Snul. 9 "Son," RTl'gSy; 'Yhe won of Jn'min, the
aon of'eE," LXX, Or,"Anrl lCi~b,!he fnthcr of S ~ u l~, n Ner,
the father of Ah'ner, wera t l ~ nRons nf A.hitrl." Ree 1 Samuel 9:1.
Sce Josephns' dntiqttitirs of the J p w p l Dook 0, c h n p h 6, 7 6.

1 SAMUEL 15:2-9


the voice of the words of Jehovah.* %is

is ';'g
;;7 ; ~
what Jehovah sf armies0 has said, 'I must call
t o account' what Am'a.lek did to Israel when *?;$%"
he set himself against him h the way while he O E ~ I T S
was coming up out of Egypt.n 'Now go and NUe 25:1*1
you must strike d o w n Arn'aalckoand devote him
to destructionAwith all that he ~ R S ,and you Ag::z
must not have compassion upon him and you Jos6:17
must put them ta death,h man as well as woman, -15:1a
child ss well as s u ~ k l i n g buII
, ~ as well as sheep,
camel as well as ass.' ' I + * Accordingly Saul summoned the people and took the count of them in
Te-la'lm,' two hundred thousand men on foot '1"g;Z;i4
1 3 S a11:8
and ten thousand men of Judah.ll
1Sa 1k15
5 And Saul proceeded t o come as far as the
city of Arn"a.lek and to lie in ambush by the
torrent valley. a Meanwhile Saul said to the
Ken'ites: "Go,depart,ngo clown from the mjdst ?Y;EGa
of the A.mal'ek.ites, that 1 may not sweep you pg;;
awaya with them. As for you, you exercised
loving-kindnessb with all the sons of Israel at eGe
G e 1932
the time of their coming up Out of E ~ y p t , "So~ N~
the Ken9tes departed from the midst of Am'a- &;TT
lek. ;After that Saul went striking down Am'algi!
leku from Ha$i.IahY as far as S h u s , ~which is Uy;2!i2&
in front of Egypt. And he got to cntch A$agZ
the king of Amra.lek alive," and all the other gGe 16.7
1Sa 27:8
people he devoted t o destruction a t the edge of ,~,24:7
the sword." But Saul and the people had com- "E',?:"
passjan upon A'gag and upon t h e best* of t h e "OS
1 2
flock and the herd and the fat onesC and upon
the rams md upon all that was good, and they
did not wish to devote them to destruction.




r'Saeep you away," by R alight anendntion of the Rebrew tat.

1 4 C ~ 1 1(gather)
yon," If, Or, "10ynI ~ove.''a "Fnt ones," T)
"animala of the second litter [hence more vnlued]," b1.

As for dl the goods that were despicable and

rejected, these they devoted to destruction.
10 The ward of Jehovah now came&to Sam
saying: l1 ''
Iregret' that I have caused
e , l o ~x:i,u
Saul to reign as king, because he has turned3
1% w:r
back from following me, and my words he has
I'H ?H :I
not carried out."" And it was distressing to
L l S f l 1 . I 18
.,, ,,;. samuelbQand he kept crying out to Jel~vvahall
night3 long." '?Then Samuel got up early to
meet Saul in the morning. But report was made
~ Up1!1:
r 11
to Samuel, saying: "Saul came to Car'meln and,
look! he was erecting a monumentrCor himself,
ISi1 T a l a
:<snlu:is and he then turned around and went across and
descended t o Giltgal," "'At
length Samuel came
to him: "Rlesseda
"y;R u ;+:$B
3:10 are you of Jehovah. 1 have ckmied out the word
1qIl 13,:IO
tPr 2 ; : ~ of Jehovah."t l4 But Samuel said; "Then what
LU 13:lI
does this s o d of the flock in my ears mean,
Jcr n:1n nnd the sound of the herd t h ~ It am h ~ a r i n g ? " ~
LU 19:21
To this Saul said: i4Fromthe A.m~l'ek.ites
they have brought them, because the people had
compassion upon the best of the Aock and of the
herd for the purpose of sacrificing to Jehovah
I your G d , " but what was left over we have de'mn:sa
P 2+%13
1 , ~fr):m voted to
t c At this Samuel said to
rlSag:27 Saul: "Stop?' arid I wIH tell you what Jehovah
1Sn 12:T
spoke to me last nfght,'"~ hee snid to him:


17 And Samuel went on t o say: "Was it not
~ : Q ~ ; the
~ ~condition that you were Ilttlee in you^
own eyes that you \!*ere head of the tribes of
Israel and Jehovah proceded to anoint" you
:' ?:
RS king over hraeI? rSLnter Jehovah sent
Or, "occurred (cnme to be)." b"It r n f l d i ~ t r m i nto~ Snm~rel,"

I17 n light ~inendntionof the Hebrer text of hl; "Snrnurl h e t ~ m e

hl. 0 "JIr," I\Img.rgln; "tlley, 31,


you on a mission and said, 'GO, and you musf

devote the ~ i n n e r sthe
, ~ A-rnalrek.ites,sto cle
slmction and you must fight against them until
you will Rave exterminated them.' lo SO why is it
you did not obey the voice of Jehovah but went
darting greedily at the spoil*and doing what
W R S bad in the eyes of Jehovah?"*
20 However, Sad said to Samuel: "But I
have obeyed the voice of Jehovah in that I went
on the mission on which Jehovah had sent me
and T brought Atgag t h e king of Am'a-lek, but
Amta.1ek I have devoted to destruction." " A n d
the people went taking from the spoil sheep and
cattle, the choicest of them as something devoted to bestructfon, to sacrifice to Jehovah
your God in Gil'gal.'"
22 In turn Samuel said: "Does Jehovah have
as much delight in burnl? offeringsAand sacrifices as in obeying the voice of Jehovah? Look!
to obey0 is better than a sacrifice,' t o pay fitten.
tian than t h e fat of ramsto for rebellio~tsnes~~
is the same as the sin of divhatioul,%nd pushing
ahead presuinptuouslybthe same as [using] uncanny poweru and Since you have
rejected the word of Jel~ovah,$lhe%accordlngly
rejects you from being king,"c'
24 Then Saul said t o Samuel: "I have d n n e d ~
for I have overstepped the order of Jehovah and
your ftrords, because I fearedt the people and so
obeyedu their voice. 25 And now, please, pardon1'
'"h? A.mal'~kJt~s."LitemIlp, uAm'n.l~k~'Ai. h "F'u~hingnhcnd
~mnrnptnoustg."This cxpreefion trimslates n Hchmuwvcrl, in ~ I I P
infinitire nh~olnte, an i l n p ~ ~ a n n a ltilrirlerr
fnrltt of the \'vFIE,
e nlTwsphim,'' J i L L ; "idnlrthy,!' Tg. d 11, "ho";
"Jrhorab."' 'l+om being kit~g:' lIT',n; "from. being king uvor

1 SAMUEL, 15;26--34

mK my sin and return

with me that I may prostrateQ

myself to* Jeh~vah.'"~But Samuel said to Saul:
"I shall not return with you, for you have rejected the word of Jehovah and Jehovah rejects
as king over Israel."Y 2r As
~ ~ ~ ~ $ from
~ " continuing
o u
~ 1 4:G
1 ~
Samuel was turning about to go, he immediately
grabbed hold of the skirt of his sleeveless coat,
t l I ~ 1 I ~but
: ~ it rippdg away. :' At this Samuel said to
him: "Jehovah has ripped away the kingdom
'elsn 1o:12~of
~ from~off you; today-~and he~will certainfy give It to n f~llowrr~anof yours who is
A*. I3 2 2
And, besides, the Enlineneb
a;rc. 3 3 9 9 lwttcr than you.@
:: g: of Israel' will not deceive" and He will not feel
:$; 5 !;,$ regrets,>for He f s not an, earth1ingr5 so as t o


m N u 77.19



El'a .I!l:lO


feel regrets,"'
30 At this h e h a i d : "I have shed. Now
honor' me," please, jn front of the older men
of m y people and in front of Israel and return

wlth me

I shall certainly prostrate myseIf

R H ~


So Samuel returned
behind SauI and Saul, proceeded to prostrate
himself t o Jehovah. After that Samuel said:
A'gag the king of Amta.1eknear to me."
Then Argagwent to him reluctantlye and A'gag
began to say to himself:f "Truly the'bitter ex"f~r48:" perience of death has de~arted.""~However,
Samuel said: "Just as your sword' has be*f;P,BtB:s2
reaved women of children, in that way your
O m 2 : l f ~ mothep wlll be most bereaved of children
thatSamuel~enthackaiE$; among w~men."~With
Jehovah in Gil'gal."
$; g$
lo Fla'mah, and
a Or, "I may


war~hip."b "Fmincnce:' MSg; "triu~nphantOne? Tg.


Ort "man." 31, rr.darllrrp; "sou

nnn," SF; LA=, na'fkxo.pos; Tg,
hopma. "~TP," It l r ~
L-LTiSt-. Or7 "in fettels," or,
"chccrfnlt~."LXX,"trembling." 101;"hegnn to thiut"

SauI, for his part, went up to his own house at

Gjb'e.ahL of Saul. 95And Samuel did not see'
Saul again until the day of his desth, because
Samuel had gone into mourninga for Saul. As
far Jehovah, he regretted that hs had made
Saul king over Israel?
Eventually Jehovah said to Samuel:
"For how long avill you be mourning
for Saul, while I, on the other hand, have rejected him from ruling as king over Israel?"
Fill your horn with oilb and go. I shall send l pt ~$u 4o :i1 ~7
you te Jes'sek the Bethr1e.hem.lte, because 1 1Ch
IS^ 11:~
have provided among his sans a king for my- "-&Yi:,
self."n "ut Samuel said: "How can I go? Once xzzg,j7,0,
Saul has heard of it he zx'ill certainly kill'
And Jehovah went an to say: "A young cow of g-;:;
lxi 18.8
the herd you should take with youo and you
must say, 'Tosacrifice t o Jehovah is why I have
~ o r n e .And
' ~ you must call Jes'set to the sacri- siE:
Ace, and I, for my part, shall make known to t,R!,:,2k
you what you should
and you must anointy
~t 1:5
for me the one whom I designate to you."
Lu 3:32
4 And Samuel proceeded to do what Jehovah Yf:$i5
spoke. I n e n he came to Beth'le~hern~
the oIder igTj"B
men of the city began to tremblex at meeting %
:. Fz:
him and so they said: ' D o e s your coming mean g,"::
peace?"+ To this he said: "It means peace, To +~'~~~~0
sacrifice to Jehovah is why f have come. Sanc- $%Ayz&
tify yo~rselves,~
and sou must come with me to
the sacrifice." Then he sanctified Jes5e and his y,",i::18
sons, after which he called them to the sacrifice.
"nd it came about that, as they came in and he
caught sight of E-li'ab,'he at once said: "Surely ?&\?;&




''ITith you." Literally, "in your hnnd," M,

his anointed onea Is before Jehovah." But

fehovaki said t o Samuel: ' 9 0 not look at his
appearance and at the helght of his stature?
for I have rejected him. For not the way man
[is the way God sees] ,h" because mere man
Xsn M:P,
c2(:o IU:?
sees what appears t o the eyes,ca but, as for Jehovah, he sees what the heart Is.'"* Then Jes'se
2clt Iti:g
czfl!ed A.bin'a.dabd and had him pass before
,I(: 1.711
19 Samuel, but he sajd: "Neither has Jehovah
chosen this me."k *NextJcs'se had ShamtmahY
1~:112:L? pass by, but he sajd: "Neither has Jehovah
chosen this one." So Jes'se had sevenr of his
r l ~ n ~ 7 : 1sons
pass before Samuel; still SamueI a i d to
t2Srk ,:A
I~:I,17:7 Jcs'se: "Jehovah has not chosen these.'"
I'.r 7R:7U
ur ~5.10
~ n 11 Flndly Sarnuel said to Jes'se: "Are these
dl the boys?'To this he said: "The youngest
";'i::,Yiyzs one has till n m been left out,* and, IMk! he iS

ppasturfng the sheep,"t At that Samuel said t o

Jes'se: "Do send and fetch him, because we
shall not sit down to meal until his coming
* 2w1n~10:
:G L
here." l E Accordingly he sent and hnd him come.
~ N L11'17
K,, 27118 NOW he was ruddy,h a young man with0 beautiJ N 3.m
J , 1 ~ 2 , ful eyes and handsome in appearancemY
Jehovah said:,- "Get up, nnoinr him, for this is
li).8 he!"
Accordingly Samuel took the horn of oil'
1511 11:2
=s[lJ :!a
and anointed him in the mlclst of his brothers.'
And the spirii? of Jehovah began t o be opera~ $ ~ tive
~ ~upon
; : David
~ from that; day iorward, Later
and went his WRY to Ra'mah.
1 13l.71
b . 1 ~P 7 3
very spirit' of Jehovah departd
1SX i9.9 from Saul and a bad splrit* from Jehovah ter,,,




ar'hnoir~lcdone." 11. ~ n a - ~ h i ' s k kSy,

; m'ahWh; L X X , cbbria.tosr;
Vu, rkrtR'~a~.b''fs the way God se~fl," I;X'S; but onlittea by %K
0 ldtcmllp, ' L s e c fis
~ to the eyes," XI. d Litcmllp, lace^ 8s t o the
I~enrl,"31. "A goang man with:" $0 by a ~llid~t
of the
Ircbraw test to "Pl'ew~. 31 bas ~ ~ m p 'im
l y ("togcthcr with").

1 SAMUEL 16:15--23


rorfzed him. "And the sewants of Saul began

t o say to him: "Here, now, God'sa bad spirit Is
terrorizing you. la Let our lord, please, command your servants before you that they should
look for a skilled men playing upon the harp.:'
And i t must occur that, when Godk bad spirit ?$
comes to be upon you, he will have to play with
his hand and it will certainly be we11 with you."n
So Saul said to his servants: "Provide me,
please, a man doing well ~t playing, and YOU
must bring him to me."
18 And one of the attendants proceeded to
answer and say: "Look! I have seen how a son .c-,~ I O
of Jes'se the Bethtle.kcrnmlteA
is skilled at play- OR Iu S4rn:23
lngvand he is a valiant, mighty man' and a man +:2,";$'33
of warm and an intelligent speaker' and a tvell- ,"$;
farmed man," and Jehovah is with him."k '{?;;l,Gj,;g
Then Saul sent messengers to Jes'se and said :
; :2
"Do send t o me David your son,who is with the ;;;?
flock,''ll zQ SO Jes'se took sn ass, bread and a n l :{:I
skln bottle of wine and a kid of the goats and !'?$;j:'
sent them by the hand of David his son to Sau1.T $I!l,I1:l
l'Thus David came to Saul and attended upon 1
and he got to loving him very much and
he cRme to be his armor-bcarcr.t Consequent- IJCI :1$
ly Saul sent to Jesrsc, snylng: " L e t David,
please, keep attending upon me, for he has ia:<i;z%;
found favor in my eyes." " And It occurred that,
when God's spirit3 came to be upon Saul, David
toolc the harp and played wit11 his hand and
there was relief for SauI and it was well with
him and t h e bad spirit depwted f r o m upon
1Sn lR33

And the Phi.IisPtineswent collecting their

camps together for
When they
1Sa 1 3 5 {were collected together a t So'coh,Y which be) Jus 15:35
Imps fa J u d ~ h t,h e n they took up camping be:.>0~1(1:io tween So'coh and A.ze'kah,z in E'phesdm'trnjm." 2 As for Saul and the men of Israel, they
*collectedthemselves together and toolc up camp' IS4 21:9
ing in the loiv plain of Eflah,Qnz1d thcy went
drawing up 111 battle formation to mcet the
PhiJis'tlnes. And the Phi.lis'tines were standing on the mountain on this side and the Israel'-m9
ites were standing on the mountain' on t h a t
side, with the valley between them,
4 h n d a champion began to go out from the
camps af the Phi-lis'tines, his name behg Go2 ~ If'atb;,*
from Gath,%is height being six cubits
tCh 2 k 5
J Q S u:2a and o span.'
And there was a helmet of copper
1% 2i:4
on his head, find he was clad with a m a t of
lpt;lim mail, of overlapping scales, and the weight of
. H E 3:ll
j\",!2"223the coat of mail was five thousand sht?kr;lsof
copperVa And there were greaves oE copper
above hls feet and a javelin of copper between
his shoulders. %d the wooden shaft of his
spear was like the beam of loom workers," and
1cb 20:s the blade of his spear was six hundred shekels
of iron," an'd
the bearer of t h e large shield was
marching ahead of him. a Then he stood still
and began to call t o the battle lines of Israel and
say to them: "Why do YOU come out to draw
up in battle formation? Am I not, the Phi.lis1tine
and YOU servants' belonging t o Saul? Choose a
~ ai
~ t : h21:3 man lor yourselves and let him come dawn to
me. If he is able to fight with me and he does
strike me down, then we must become servants


ruz 4;;;


"God's," F g ; "Jehovah's," LAP, b "Attended upon him." Litrrally, "eont~nnedstanding befora him," t h t is, in order to wait upon

ICclualhg 128 1113,, or 57.3 kg., of copper, n t shnut 170 grains per
nl~l-kel.b Equnlin~15 Ills,, or 6.85 kg., of iro~k.

their welfare and a token from them you should

But if I myself am a match for him
take."* mMeantime, S ~ u and
l they and all the
and I do strike him down, then YOU must beother
in the low plain of
come servants to us and YOU must serve us.'" "la11:f
LSn Z I : ~
l o And the Phi-lisptinewent on to say: "I my20 Accordingly Davld got up early in the
self do taunt' the battle lines of Israel this day.
'% ;$$1
morning and left the sheep t o the keeper's charge
Give me a man, and let us fight to~ether!"~ 1Ch 211.7
9:s I
and picked up and went just as Jes'se had cornII When Saul and all Israel heard these Cgr]t:_!;3Sa91:14 mandcd'
When he came to the camp enclem
words of the Phi.listtine, then they grew dis- oa 4.3:
1 klsa*6:5 sure,lc thehim.
military forces were going out to the
heartened and greatly ~ f r a i d . ~
1% 23:3
battle line,l%d they raised a shout' for the bat12 Nowa DavidQsvas the son of this Eph'rath1k111238 tle. " h d Israel and the Phi.lis'tines began
rJos 6 20
ite*from Bcthle.hem of Judah, whose nRme mas
drawing up battle line to meet battle line, *'ImJw'se. And he had eight sons? And in thc days O?za?ji,;
David left the baggage* from off him
; ; ;?;L U ~ : : +11I
mi:;&?!? mediately
of Saul the man was already old among rnenmh
of the keeper of the baggage and went
+Ce =.19
l 3 And the three oldest sons of destse proceeded F s 1x2~13
running to the battle line. When he came he be
to go. They went after Saul to the tvar, and the ::pz,2
gan nsklng about the welfare of his brotherrl
narnee of Iiis three sons that went into the war @$P, FjJu . tEg:i
23 While he was speaking with them, why,
were Eli'aby the first-born, and his second son x;pnFplS
the champion, his name being Go.llathu
A.bin'adabn and the tl~irdSham'ma h.'
And as. I E : ~
Ic11N:5 the Phi-lis'tine from Gath," was corning up from
1Ch 2.13
vJns 11:22
David was the youngest," and the three oldest *isa 16:n
Isa ?7:4 the bnttle lines7 of the Phi,lisTtines, and he be2Sa 13.3
themselves went after Saul.
250 11:m
ElCh 2:15
gan speaking the snmc words as before, and
15 And David was going and returning from
v l C h 12:s
got to listen in.' *' As for all t h e men of
Saul to tend the sheep of his father at Beth'leIsrael,
on their seeinf! the man, why, they went
the Phi.lis'tine kept coming for- a m le:11
111sfi13:6 fleeing on account a i hima and were very much
ward at early morning ~ n at
d evening and tak.~Le2&36 afraid." "And the men of IsraeI began to say:
Nu 13:U
+LU 4:s
ing his position for forty' days.
"Have you seen this man that is corning up?
lua 7:2
17 Then JesPsesaid t o David his son: "Take,
For i t IS to tauntr Israel that he is coming up.
2% 13:g
please, t o your brothers this e'phah of roasted
lfr:22 And it must occur that, the man who strikes
graina and these ten loaves of bread, and carry
him down, the king will enrich him with great
them quickly t o the camp to your brothers. ek;;ti;d
rich= and his o\vn daughter- he will give him'
And these ten portions of miIkc you should
*,Ins1 3 . ~ 0 and lhe house of his father he will set freez in
bring to the chief of The thousand;" also you '1Sa1fl:20
l?a l d l r Israel,"*
* ' I ' . z ~?;a4
should look after your omv brothers as regards
26 And David began to say to the men that
were standing close by him: "What will be done
.",VOT." Teraes 12-31,nre misqing fmm Lf,LTD.h"Ha had gmrn
old and wns a d ~ a n c e din ~ r n i ~ ~SF;
, ' ' 'lie wnrt old, well along in
t o the man that strikes down that Phl.1is'tine
yenr~," LXSL~gardl"" c d l l l n n ; $'he VFIS nu nld lnnn nnd of grclnt
there and actually turns away reproach
nge nrnong men:' Tg. a ',Milk," 31; "che~s~,"'
f g.


from u p n IsraeP For who is this uncirnrm-'

cisedY Phi-lis'tine that he has to taunt* the
battle lines of t h e livingno God?"" ITThen the ~~~f~,z~

people said to him the same words as before,,

saying: 'This is the way it will be done to the %
man that strikes him down." And E.IiraWhis PS ~3 :r
oldest brother got to hear as he spoke t o the ~Z?:,I:
men and E-li'ab's anger grew hot against :!$ :$:yo
Dnvid,O WJ that he sald: "Why L It fiat you Dn~'5:'o
J+mrI I I : I O
h n v ~come down? And in whosc charge did you
lmvc l l ~ ICW
a shmp bchlnd it1 tho \vilderness?.
I mywlf frrcll !mow your prcsurnptuousness and :;0F T x:.:
thu barlness of your heart, because you have x ~ 1t ;,l, ) : ~
came down for the purpose of seeing t h e bat- '1sn17:2n
tle.'Im'"To this David sald: "What have I done
now? Was it not just a rvard?"' With that he @;F3igj:
J U ~ I I10
turned about from b i d e him toward someone aPr
else and went saying the same word as before," *=a
and, in turn, the people gave him the same reply
as formerlyak
k ~ 17
31 So the words that Dnvid spoke came to
be heard, and they went telling them before
SauE.1 Hence he fetched him.h And David pro- nPr"3
ceedecl to say to Saul: "Donot let the heart of
m y mana collapse within him.!' Your servant r$:,8ip
hlmsclf will go and actually Aght with this
Phl.lis'tine."~ S " ~ t Saul said t o David: "YOUaJu9 14:lg
are not ~bEet o go against this Phi-ls'tine to 1%
6 ~ 3 : ~
P. 2 7 3
fight with hirn,t for you are but a youthu and t ~ 1 u3 : ~
he is a man of war fi-om his youth." S4 And ~m1 B!<.
David went on to say to Saul: "Your servant
4 3




('Livin~,"The Hebrew ~ d j ~ ~there

t i wis in the plural nuraher,


8mw m t h Bl.a.kiwr' ("God"), wl~lctiia in the plural of rnnjr~tp

and ~xtcIlence,See Deateronomr 5 : 3,footnote a. In LXSI'gS?.
''li\<ng"' i~ in tho ginmar rnmkr. I'crses 12-31 are omittcd I)y
&XXe. " A ~ Tman," MSy; "my lord," LXX,

became a shepherd d his father among the

YJ 1 4 5 flock, and there came a lion,aZvand also a bear,
and [[each] carried off a sheep from the drove.
~ J 1E
. i : ~ J5 And I went out after it and struck it downy
258 2320
and made the rescue from its mouth. When K
began rising against me, I grabkd hold of its
beard and struck it down m d put it te death.
a" Both the lion and the bear your servant siruclr
~ 1 17
3:a~ down, and this uncircumcised Phi.lis'tinca must
become like one of them, for he hns taunted*
:$ ~2; 1 the battle 1inesn of the livingb God."'A" Then
David added:" "Jehovah, who delivered me
1Sa li:m
1Sn23:3 from the pawd of the lion and from the palfl
of the hem, he it is who will deliver me from
: 1 0the hand of this Phtlis'tine.": At this Saul said
: ~ s ~ ~ to
: 1 David:
"Go, and may Jehovah himself prove
PS 635
Ps '77:ll
~5 1
~ 3 38 Saul now went clothing Dadd with his
2Co 1:lO
2Ti4:17 garments and he put a copper helmet upon his
* l S a 2n:13
1Sa 26:25 head, after which he clothed him with a coatD
1Ch 22:11
9iSa 17:s of mail, " Then David girded hfs sward on aver
his garments and undertook to go [but could
not], because he had not tried them out." Findly David said to Saul: "'I am unable to go in
these things, for I have not tried them out,"
SO David rcmoved them off himpMo
&Id he pro' zec
g o 1:7
t o take his staff" in his hand and to
ICO 1:z-r choose for himself tbe five moothest stones1c
kJg M:16
i ~ o mtbe torrent valley and t o place them jn his
Q1Ki22:17 shepherds'" bag that sewed him as a receptacle,
and in his hand his sling, And he began approaching the Phl.lis'tine.

a M, a.rit; nn Africnn lion. "'Ziving." The Rehrew sdfecti~ehere

is in the plt~rnlnurnhpr. Sce reme 26, footllot~n. a ""1'JtmDavid
ridded,"' 3n'rSy; Iln( n l n i i t ~ dby L21Xn, d Or,"11fintl,"JZ. "And
w r ~ r ~ ~ ihjlx.srli'
w n l k i u ~n\,out uncc <nhirc,"

41 And the Phi.Iis'tine began to come, corning nearer and nearer to David, and the man
carrying the large shield was ahead of him. $$?$=
42Now when the Phi.Ijs'tine looked and saw
David, he began despising him hecause he B$,"i;:12
proved to be a y~uthnand ruddy,' a young man 5;; 91:!
of beautiful appearance.* 4S So the PhiJis'tine d:,IC1
& a 3,s
said to David: "Am I a d o e r ~o that you are t5;'$,>9
coming to me with staves?" With that the J,;;:;;
Phi.lis%ine called down eviP upon David by
his gods.av 4r And the Phi.1isJtinewent on to say .7y-1;:;+;~ I::
to David:T "Just come to me and I will give &';r;.;.(;''
your flesha t o the fowls3 of the heavens and ~ $ ~ " , ; ~ , o
.P\ I I H : ~ O
to the beasts of the field."
1'5 124.8
45 In turn David said to the Phi.lis'tine: , ~ ~ ~ ~ i : [ '
"You are coming t o me with a sword and with ?,;i,!\;
a spear and with a javelinr2but 1 am coming t o li;ni:2;
you with the name* of Jehovah of armies," the
God of the battle lines of Israel, whom you have ~,g;
tauntedOA This day Jehovah wlI1 surrender :'1:1?,?:13
you into my hand4 and I shall certainly strike '{:';Fj.?p
you down and rernove your head off you and I ,!:,:y,jf2q
ON\ fl.11~
shall certainly give the carcassesa of the camp 32Sn
of the Phi-Iis'tinesb this day t o the fowls of the
heavens and to the wiId beasts3 of the earth,' FGi f;::
and people of all the earthc will know that there &t$j:(S,
exists a God Monging to I ~ r n e l .4F~And
' ~ all this ,y;:'Y2>
congregation'wiI1 know that neither with sword "E'el;?
nor with s p a r does Jehovah save,' because to gcl,


"god." Campare 1 Samuel 5 : 7, footnote f ; 0: 5, footnnlo e.

bL'The carcases of the camp of the Phi.lEs'tines," 3[lrgSy; "vorrr
limbs and the limbs of the camp of the Phi.lis'lin~s,"L X I . "i'mple of all the earth."'Litwatl~,'*all the ~ a r l t ~ hut
, " Gallow~l1,y 8
verb in the plural nnmber. Compare G~nesis41: 57, footnnfc c.
"A God helonging to Israel," M ; "a God in Ismel," L-rL'i\'gSyT

and 15 Eebrew mannscripts,

Jehovaho bdongs the battle* and he must give

men Into our hand,"
48 And it occurred that the Phi.lis'tIne rose
and kept coming and drawing nearer t o meet
David, and David began hurrying and running
toward the battie line to meet t h e'tine.~
IP And David proceded to thrust his hand into
his bag and take a stone from there and ding
filKl n:H It, SO that he struckn the Phi.lisJtinein his fore2KI 9:14
head and t h e stone sank into his forehead" and
he tvent falling upon his face to the earth. So
David, with 8 sling and a stone, proved sQonger
than the Phi.lis'tine and struck the Phi.listtine
down and put him to death, and there was no
S ~ T ~ OinP DavIdk
hand,^ And David continued
JS 3:sl
runnfng and got t o stand upon the Phi-Iis'tine.
Then he took his sword and pulled it out of i t s
shentlz and definitely put him to death when he
f l g ~al:Q cut his head off with It,s And the Phi.lis'tines
P R T : ~ ~ pot 1:o sce that their mighty man had died and
tHDbl l m they tool: to flight,t
52 At that the men of Israel and of Judah
rase and broke into shouting and went in p w ' sultu of the Fhl.llsltinea clesl' t o GathbV and as
2Srt 23:?0 fur as the gates of Ek'ron,r and the fatally
VJos 11.22
wounded of t h e Phi.lIs'tines kept falling an the
yJos 11:45
1Sn 5 In way from Sha'a,ra'irn,ce both as far as Gath and
ZJo.; 15:.%
as far as Ek'ron. :'3 Afterward the sons of Israel
returned from hotly pursuing the Phi.lisitines
*u and \vent pillaging' their camps.
54 Then David took the head2 of the Phi55
Iis'tjne and brought it to Jerusalem: and his
weapons he put in his tent?

025n 2 0 : 1 ~
46:11 YOU

"Snnk i n h his, fnrchmd,"

MTg9y: "pased right throngh the helmrt. into his foroIi~nd,~'

Jd..TX, b Wnth;' L X X ; *'valley (pa"],"
a Or, "the way of the Two C?ntas," 31.

1 SAMUEL 1?:55-18:6



55 Nowa at the moment that Saul saw DavJd

going out t o meet the Phi-Listtine, he said to
Ab'ner t h e chief of t h e army; 'Whose son is
the youth, Ab'ner?'"~ this Ab'ner said: ' B y
t h e life of your soul, 0 king, I do not know at
all!'' 36 SO the king said: "You inquire whose
son the young man is.'' Accordingly, as soon
as David returned from striking the Phi.lis'tine
down, Ab'ner proceeded to take him and bring

him before Saul with the head of the Phi.lis'tine 'ga4;*EI

in his hand. a Saul now said to him : "Whose son ;$:?A3
are you, 0 youth?'' to which David said: "The h . 7 ~l:6
son of your servant Jes'sev t h e Betl~'le.hem.ite.'>;;;;;Lu 3 3 2
And it came about that, as soon as he had 1,"3:?;('
finished speaking t o Saul, Jonfa.than'sb1c +g","4i;&
very soul became bound' up with the soul of ;gCg;1:117
David and Jon'a.than%gan to love him as his
5 5 6 ~
own soul.a Then Saul took him on that day ~1 ~~20117
and he did not allow him to return to his
father's house." And Jon's-than and David&
:, :+<,5
proceeded t o conclude a covenantlc#because of ;':;;3,
his loving him as his own soul. Further, Jon'a- ;
than stripped himself of the sleeveless coat that
was on him and gave it to David, and also his
garments, and even his sword and his bow and
his :And David began going out. kg;l,:a
Wherever Saul would send him he would act
prudently,r so that S a d placed him over the pf;;;;
men of waris and it seemed good in the eyes of r~;m;j&
J06 1:7
a11 the people and also in the eyes of the serv- 1Kl
2x1 IE:T
ants of Saul.
1Sn 14:52
6 And it came about that at their coming in,



From this verse (55) to chapter 18,verse BE, t o the word "down"
inclusive, is omitted by L X X B , b Li terallg, 'LJ~.lioa~'n.thna
('9) ," M ;
and so on to the end of the boaks of Samuel, except 1Samuel I 9 :La
(Hebrew), where it i s Ilternllg'.

1 SAMUEL 18:7-15

when David returned from striking the Philis'tinesa dotvn,b the women began coming out
from aU the cities of Israel with songt and
U E X I S : M dances"" t o meet Saul the king, with tambouolsa21:11
Jg f i : ~rines, with rejoicing and with lutes. :And the
Ps JNj0:4
Jcr m e wornen that were celebrating kept respondinp
VEX 15:%1
and saying :
2JE hi313
"Saul has struck down his thousands,
PS 2 4 3
Isa 5:l
And David his tens of thou sands."^
y l ~ 21:11
1% 29:5
And Saul began t o be very angryZ and this
Z ~ 3:.i
Pr 13.10
saying was bad from his viewpoint," so that he
said: "They have given David tens of thousands
but to me they have given the thousands, and
b yet only the kingship* t o give him!"
was continually looking suspiciously
IKI 2.22 at David from that day f ~ r w w d . ~
EGe 4 5
10 And it came about the next day that Gad's
~e 3 1 3
spiritAbecame operative upon Saul so that
~ s a he
~ behaved
: ~ ~ like a prophet* within the house,
OlSa 10:6
ISa 19:24 while David was playing music with his hand,
as he did day by day,+ and the spear was in
Saul's hand. "And Saul proceeded to hurl the
speare and say: "I will pin David even t o the
ISa 2 0 ~ 3
wall!" but David turned aside because of him,
twice." " And Saul grew afraid of David because
proved to be with him* but fom Saul
; z:13
Fz:3 Jehovah
l3 Consequently Saul removed
1;lSn 16:14
him from his company and appointed him as
chief of a thousand for him, and he regularly
nNu =:IT
went out and came in before the peop1e.n " And
zSa 5:z
Ps 121:8
rlsa 18:s David was continually acting prudentlyr in all
eGe 53.2
,,, his ways and Jehovah was with him." '%d
g:;Els Saul kept seeing that be was acting very pru-



all^, "tlie Pl~i.lis'tine,!' 11; but in a cai1ectit.e epnse, P r o m

chapter 17, verse 55, to this word "down" of verse 6, chnptw IS, is
L Z B . a Literally, "had in l& eyes."

a liter


dently,"so that he was scared of him. IaAnd aP1 tPs1a5

Israel and JudahCwere lovers of David, because a* 2:7
he was going out and corning in before thern.u
17 Finally Saul said to David: "13ere is my
oldest daughter Me'rab. She is the one that I
shall give you as a wifev Only prove yourself vlsaE7:a
a valiant person to me and Aght the warsa of
Jehovah.lfYBut as for Saul, he said to himself: y i 9 a 2 s : a ~
'90not let my hand come ta be upon him but
let the hand of the Phtlis'tines come to be upon
him.''" '* At this David said to Sf1111: '<Whoam 2Sn17:7
I and who are m y kinsfolk, my father's family, Z S I~Z : ~
in Israel, so that I should become son-in-law *EY;:l
to the king?"' IgHowever, it cameabout that at :ylgii;
the time for givhg Me'rab, Saul's daughter, to 6:
David she he&
had already been givenP to
k'dri.eIA the Me.hol8ath.ite! as a wife,
IS^) 1.1 49
20 Now Mi'chal,' Saul's, was tn IISS1ll1 >
lovee with David, and they went reporting it :?!/"?$'is
to Saul and the matter was t o his 1ikinff.l) So w''2".1y
r, 3 1,<3
Saul said: "I shall give her t o him that she may ;~iy;;~
serve as a snaremto him-and that the hand of z;f~;i;R
the Phi.lis'tines may come to be upon him."'
Accordingly Sad said to David: "By [one of] i r GJ;,
the twa womenCyou will form a marria~eallf- ::a: u"': ;
ance with me today,"
Further, Saul commanded=his
"Speak to David secret- cl;$$i
ly, saying, "ook! the king has found deIjght in
you, and all his servants tl~emselveshave fallen 1 1 ~ ~ ~
jn love with you. So now f o m a marriage alllance with the king.' " 23 And the servants of
Saul began to speak these words in the ears of
David, but David said: "Is It an easy thingr in r'sag:at
warn eyes to form a marriage alliance wlth the
a Or, "bnt.tles.'*bLihally, I'wns right in hin eyes." Sf. rn"By one
o f tbc two wolilen," T. "By tw~,"
thnt is, a wcond time, M.

king, when E am a man of little meansb and

lightly esteemed?""" Then the servants of Saul
tPs ll3:14I
reported to him, saying: "'It was with words
like these that David spoke.'"
uGe 29:lB
25 At that SauI said: "This is what YOU men
Ge 3 4 3 2
E x 23:17
will my to David, 'The king has delight, not in
Ex 4 : s
marriage money," but in R hundred foreskinsv
~.~~:2,. of the Phi.lis'Zines, t o avenge'y himself on the
enemies of the king.' " But as for Saul, he had
schemed to have David fall by the hand of the
Phi.listtines. :"~o
his servants reported these
words to David, and the matter was t o David's
zlsals:a liking,&to farm a marriage alllance' with the
king, and the days had not yet expired. rr So
*J914:X9 David rose and he and his men went and struck*
down among the Phi.1is'tines twoh hundred men
c2saa:14 and David came h r i n ~ i n gtheir foreskins' and
giving them in full number t o the king, t o form
, a marriage alliance with the klng. In turn Saul
tlsa17:25 gave him Mi'chal hls daugllter as a wife.' " And
Saul got to see and know that Jehovah was with
David.# AS for Mi'chal, Saul's daughter, she
Ge 39:3
hfrn.ct ?'' And again Saul felt still more
1% 2 6 : ~loved
le:m fear because of David, and Saul came t o be m
'g: giv2 enemy of David always,'
30 And the princes of the Ph1.lis'tines would
' 2 S a U:l
go out,' and It ri~ouEdhappen that as aften as
~ *,S,HJ,"iLthey went out David acted most prudently" of
E;&'f!5 all the servants of Saul, nnd his name came 20
k l s a 36:21 be very precj~us,~'
2Ki 1:13
PS 116:15
At length Saul spoke to Jon'a.thana his
son and to all his servants of putting
n E a 18:9
t o death.n a As for J ~ n k ~ t h aSaul"
n , son,
a Literally, L'wns riglit in Dnvid'n ~ y m , ' If.
~ TWO.'' 3ITgSp;



l h


1 SAMUEL 18:2 6 1 9 :2

"one," L-SX. c 'LT\'ittr Uavitl, nnrl nIl Tsrnrl was loring him," L+KI., 31; hut YrI,o.r~n.l
h a d to t hr cnd nf 2 $anlnel.


he took n e a t delight In I2av'ld.P So Jon'ttbthana r

told David, saying: "'Saul my father is seeking s;p;fi
to have you put to death, And now be on your
guard, please, in the morning, and you must
dwell In secrecy and keep yourself hidden.' fE$2y8
And I,for my part, shall go out and certainly
stand at the side of my father in the field where
you will be, and I myself shall speak for you
ta m y father and I shall c~rtainlysee what will
happen clnd I sI~allbe sure to teIl you,""
1% m:13
1 %2a:11
4 Accordingly Jon'a.than spoke wellv of ~IS*
David to Snul his father and said to him: "Do 3er
p r 31,s
not let the Icing sinv against his servant David, sgn2.;
for he has not sinned toward you and his werksa 2c11t,:-.~
have k e n very good toward you. And he pro- .P1Jo
s x?.!.!
ceded to put his soul'in h i s palmo and strike
the Phi.lls'tfne down,4 so that Jehovah per- :;* 7;;:
formed a great salvatianaP for all Israel, You aP c ~2U:ZI
P : ~
saw it: and you gave way to rejoicing. So why %2gj3
should you sin against Innocent blood in having Alsn 17: In
David put to death' for n ~ t h l n g ? ' '"e~n
Saul 'l"s'a:';::':
obeyed the voice of f on'a.than, and Saul swore: :% 1:':;
"As Jehovah js living,' he wiIl not be put to ,
death." ' Afterward Jontabthancalled David and ;$?;s,
Jon'a.than told him all these words and Jon'a- ~ PqP 25:3
than brought David t o Saul, and he continued q s a 1.139
before him the same ns formerly.#
1 ~ 13.2
l ae : l l
8 In time war broke out again and David Ichl' a
went sallying forthk and fighting against the wsn:3
Phi.lis'tine~and striking them dawn with a
great slaughter, and they took to flight on acc m t of him.
9 And Jehovah'sb bad aplrltn came t o be upon .nf
1 a1~14
Saul when he was sitting in hls house with his


Sy adda, 'Cbg hie hand!' C"Jolovah's," N Y g S g ; "God's," LXX.

spear in hls hand, while David was plnyina

his hand.
Consequently Saul
sought to pin David to the wall" with the spear,
hut he dodged* on account of Saul, so that he
#lSa w : 3 3
PS IH 17 struck the spear into the wall, And David himp s 31: 19
Asn 51.17 self Red that he might escape during that n1ght.t
t P s 2.21 t
messengersut o David's h o ~ ~ s e
M t 1,~:23 llLater S ~ u sent
have him put to death in the
his wife told David, sayrJA 1F:2
ing: "If you ~ 1 . enot letting your soul escape
1 8:s
tonightR3tomorrow you will be a man pul: to
death." IP Immediately Mi'chal had David descend through the window,'' that he might go
n c fl:2:1
and run awny and escape.r in Then MYchnE toalr
2co 11.23
t2~12nl:.r.i the teraphim3z image and placed it in the bed,
254. 31 11b and a net" of goats' hair she put a t the place of
&\'I:" his head, after which she covered it 154th a
14 Saul now sent messengers to take Davld,
' JZ oSs 1220
~~ : ~ but she s ~ l d :"He is sick.'" I n So Saul sent the
messengers t o see Davld, saying: "Bring him
his bed up to me t o have him put to death."'
EjiQ m
Ro a 1.1
the messengers ceme in, why, there
was the teraphlm image in Ihe bed and a net
of goats' hair a t t h e place of his head, At this
Saul said to Mi'chal: "Why did you trick m e
like this) so that you sent my enemyb away
tlrc! 2 1 : w that he mlght escape?" In turn Mi'chal said to
"He himself said to me,'Send me away l
Why should I put you to death?' "w
18 As for David, he ran away and made his
and got to m e to Smuel at Ra'mah."
~ s m:3
proceeded t o tell him all that Saul had
['I. 17 1-7
done to him." Then he and Samuel went awRy

.Or, "qnilt." bOr, t'SPnd me away, that I may not put yon to

1 SAMUEL 20 :2-8
committed before your father, for he is seeking
for my soul?" ' At this he said to him: "It is

ml I
and they tmk up dwelling in Nai'0th.k ID
In time
the report got to Saul," saying: "Look! David nISn
is in hTai'ofh in Ra'mah."
once Saul sent 1sa":I
messengers to take David.r When they gat to r,J,R1;,7j$
see the elderly onesa of the prophets prophesy!
ing and Samuel standing in his position over
them, the spirita of God came to be upon Saul's
messengers and they began behaving 11ke sy;;ijt$
p r ~ p h e t s they
, ~ also.
I Sn~10:s
21 When they told it t o Saul, he immediately
sent ather messengers and they began behaving
like propheb, they a1so.u So Saul sent mes- "2K11:1f I
sengers again, t h e third set,v and they began '2K1k:15
behaving like prophets, they also. r 2 FinalIy he,
too, went to Ra'mah. When he got as far as the
great cistern that is in Se'cu,b 11e began to inquire and say: "Where are Samuel and David?"
T o this they said: "There in Nal'othz in Rd- "gn19:1B
mah." 2 9 And he kept an his may from there t o
Nai'ath in Ra'mah, and the spirit' of God came '#;$$$d
t o be upon him, yes, him, and he went on walkh g and continued behaving like a prophet until c&y;iO
~ r 7t : ~
he came into Nai'oth in Ra'rnah.' 2%11rl he also C , P , ' ~ ~ ; ~
~ ~ 3 3
proceeded to strip o f f his garments and behave,
he also, Jike a p m ~ h e tbefore- ,%muel, and he
lay fallen nakeiEEE a11 that day and all that CJobl:21
night." That is why they came to say: "Is Saul aM I C~ I:#~ a ~

also among the prophet^?"^

And David went running away' from
Nai'oth in Ra'mah, However, he mme
and said in front of Jonta4thsn: "What ]lave I
done?* What is my error and what sin Ilave I


& O r , " m m p ~ ~ n yband."





Tho menning i~ cloahtful. "EcbrlaPRi4rt,'l

LXS; "menlhIy,:' SF; "wedge-division," Tp, bn''l'Itr ~vellof the
thrrrldng floor that is in Se'phE (the bnre htight)," L.XTR. a Or,
' ~ l ~ g lclad."

,.ig %$

unthinkable?"You will not die, Look! my father

will not do a big thing or a little thing and not
* far what reason
r- 40.6 disclose it to my e a ~ - , ~and
klSa20:12 should my father conceal this matter from
nDe 6.13 me?k This does not happen." But David aworen
4 2
,y$,",6,:i6 in addition and said: "Your f ~ t h e must
h o w that I have found favor in your eyesTr
and so would say, 'Do not let J~n'a~than
3Ki 2:6
1 7 : s Jehovah is living* and as your soul is living.'
~ $ 6 6 there is just about a step &tween me and

Wan 9 2 5


4 And JonPa.thanwent an t o s a y toDavid:
your soul may s a y b I shall do for
3 3 1 YOU." At this David said to Jon%t.than: "Look!
2Ch 2 . j
tomorrow is new moon," and I myself ought,
without fail, to be sitting with the king t o eat,
PS 81.3
Isa 3.18 and you must send me away and I must concealy
E,, 4 5 : ~ ~
myself in the field until the eveningB on the
~ third
~ day.c
~ *If
: your
father should miss me a t
Ps 5 5 : u
all, then you must say, 'David earnestly asked
leave of absence of me t o run t o Beth?e.hern5
his city, because there Is a yearly sacrifice there
dl the family." If the way he should say
lSa 16:2
2C n e I : z
is, 'It js all right!" it means peace to your servant. But if he should at all become angry, know
that what is bad has been detemlned upon by
ES 7.7
him,* And you must render lavjng-kindnessa
toward your servant,"or 11; is into a covenant+
*ISa 1 8 : ~ of Jehovah that you have brought ~ O L I T servant
zSa 2318
m*?sa14:32 with YOU. But if there is error In me: put me to
r*I~iternlIy."and not unracpr my mr,"M, b "8a;r,'$ 3IVgR;r; ''deWII'P,''
0 "On thp khirrl dny."
ltcrally, "the third," 31.
cbri~ittedbr LIX. d Or, "loyal IOVPI"

1 SAMUEL 20:9-16


1 SAMUEL 20:17-25

death yourself, since why should it be to your

father that you should brjng me?"
9 To this Jonca.than said: "That fs unthinkable respecting you! But if I should at all get
to know that evil has heen determined upon by
my father to come upon you, shall I not tell it
to you?"" IDThen D ~ v i dsaid to Jon'a.than:
s,eR;9,m:& : ~ r d
"Who will tell me whether what your father m;1st~
may anawer you is harsh?"" l i In turn Jon'a- *;;$$&
than mid to David: "Just come and let us go C I :?.I3
out into thc field," So both of then1 went out T r l b 23
into the field. !'And Jon'a.than went on to say
to David: "Jehovah the God of Israel [be a witnessIa' t h ~ It shall sound out my father about "gB,?$z2
this time t o m o r r o ~ ,or~ the third day, and if 1PY
he is xvelldisposed to~vardDavid,I-, shall I not
then send to you and certainly disclose it to
your esr?o '30
may Jehovah do to Jon's-than
and so may he add to it: if, in case it should L?$:i,\:
seem good to my father to do evil against you, T;a!i
I do not indeed disclose It to your earc and send 1I ~l!l:2
you away ~ n you
d do not certainly ECIIn peace.
And mny Jehovah Drove t o be ulith youo just 'f;;:i?,,
as he proved to be ivlth my father.' I * h d will .:$;;f;;1
you not,if I shall be still alive, yes, will you not
exercise the loving-klndness%f Jehov~lltoward -sn
me,that I may not
h d you will notCr...:b 2 : : 3
cut off your olf'l~~ovlnpkindnessd'from hefng
with my household forever.' Nor, when Jehois;;;;;7
vah cuts off #e enemiesB af David, every *:srr5
one from t h e surface of the ground, rviU [the
name of] Jonta.than be cut off from the house

-t i t n ~ w . ' '

hcing understood. "Be n rritncnrr," or,

"hears witnrprr,'' By; "knora;' IdLI, b Or, "if it i s good tolrrnrd
Davis." Litrannlly, "uncovrr Four etlr," I\I. Or, "loynl lmc."
* "Toward me, And if I st~ouldindeed dip, you +I1 not," LdUTg.
'%e a



of David.anAnd Jehovah must require it at the

hand of David's enernie~."~'l7So Jon'
3.5n d 7
2 - ~ 2 t : s swore &gaint o Davidb because of his love" for
C ? + 12:a
ISn 312

him, for as he loved his own soul he loved him."

18 And Jon18.t1~anwent on to say to him:
r d T ~ m ~is ~new
r omoonr
~ ~ and you will certnfnP N U 11:10
~ l ~ 1 2 > . ; ly
~ ~ be missed, becausc your seat will be vacnnt.
i 3 3 1 'liAnd certainly on the third day you will be
: 3
missed very much, and you must come to the
.Vr 1'J.B
p l ~ c ewhere you hid* yourself on the working
I rr J 17
rmc i5b7 clay and you must dwell near this stone hereno
,:;i:i:", :"And as for me, I shall shoot three arrowsd
to one side of it, to send thcm where P will to
a t a r ~ c t , And, loak! I shall send the attenclmt,
[saying,] 'Go, find the arrows.' If I should speciflcally say to the attendant, 'LAMB!the arrows
are on this side of you, take them,'e then you
come, for it means pea@ for you and there Is
t h j n gthe matter, as Jehovah is 1iving.t " But
'%?$& nif ~this
is the way I should say to the young man,

l>Rl 1s:1

I'r 15:24


'LOOIC!the arrows are farther away from you,'

go, for Jehovah has sent you away. "And as

J r r 5.2

Jrr 12:16

for the wordU that we have spolcen, I and you,

- . may Jehovah be between me a d you
24 And David proceeded to hide himseli in
the fle1d.s And it came to be new moon, and the
king took his seat at the meulf to eat.& ?%nd
IY 1557
' 7
the king was sitting in his seat as at other tlrnes,

"\Sill [the name o f ] fon'dbnn be c ~ i toff fmrn the houac of

tlnvid," to ngroo with LXY; "Ant1 Junta.tllan roceeded t o contrwt ( m a b r couanmt) with the h o w of Dnrid laying,] ," M
b''3wn-e ngnin to Da+d," LX?;Fg; "hsd !)avid m e m ngnin,lr
MSy. c Or, ''n~nrthat mound of enrth," by nn r~i~endatian
of the
kItll~rew trxt, to ngree with L S X . "Sear t h ~stone, the name o:
trhnll on thc thii-d dhy s h o t arrows.
~ v l l i l . l lig E'zrl,ll YE. Or,
I ,l!t~rall~,
',it ," 1 **Meal ( I > s ~ n t l ) ; ~MSy; +'LI!I)IP," L X I .

1 SAMUEL 2 0 : 3 W 2
in the seat by the wall, and Jon's-than w ~ facs
ing himn and Ab'ner' was sitting at Saul's side, " l s a ~ ~
but David's place was vacant. And Saul did
not say anything at all on that day, for he said
to himself: "Something has happened so that
he is not clean,"for he has not been clean~ed."~ 3,
27 And it came about the day after the new
moon, on the second day, that David's place i
Le 1 s . : ~
continued vacant. At this Saul said to Jon'a- X u ]!I 16
than his son: "Why has not the sonA of Jcs'se A : ~ ; ~ ~ ; : .
come t o thc meal either yesterday or today?'"= I 1:1
So Jon'a. than answered Saul : "'David earnestly asked l e ~ v eof absence from me [to go] to
Beth'lc.hern.5' :%And
he went on to say, 'Send
me away, please, because we have rt family Zp$i;4
sacrifice in the city' and it was my own brother- +"D","$;&
that commanded me. So now, if 1 have found 1Sa l7:Lg
favor In your eyes, let me slip away, please,
that I may see my brothers,' That is wlry he
has not come to the king's table."3 no Then 31K14:n
Saul's angeP grew hot against JonPa.t
han and eF; $
11esaid t o him: "You son of a rebellious maid,' *E;;s4
do I not well know that you are choosingP the a ~ 4:al
son of Jes'se t o your o m shame and to the #isa rR:n
shame of the secret parts of your mother? For ifI;::
all the days that the son of Jes'se is alive on the 'p3;?1:js
groundA YOU and your kingship* will not be ~
firmly establhhed. So now send and fetch him 131s.: ~
P:. ?J:3
te me,k for he is destined For death.''dn
Ps G9:4
Pri #']:'I
32 However, Jon'a.than answered Saul his Pr 14 : ~ s
father and said t o him; "Why shouId he be put PP r~ J9.1:11
to death?"What has he done?'" s3 At that Saul "2'; ?;:q
went hurllng the speart at him to strike him, tE ;;;$
In flgrmni-nt aitli LL..Litmmlly, " w e np," 31.
b "He has riot hren clenns~d,"L-LS; '.he is not clmn," 11. * "'Tl>u

and 3on'a.than came t o know11 that it had been

determined upon by his father to put David to
death. 31 Immediately Jon'a.than rose up from
the tabre in the heat of angerYand he did not
eat bread on the second day after the new moan,
for he had been hurt respecting David, because
his own father had insulted 11im.
35 And it cRme about in the morning that
JonPa.than made his way out t o the field of
ylSgm:lR David's appointed place,J'and a young attendant was with him. " And he proceeded t o say
20 his attendant: "Run, please, find the arrows
z15n20:m that I am shooting."~The attendant ran, and
he himself shot the arronr t o make it pass be'lsn2!21 yond him.' " When t h e attendant came as far
as the place of t h e arrow that JonPa.thanhad
shot, Jon'n.than began to call from behind the
attendant ancl say: "Is nat the arrow farther
mSnm:n away from you?"' 3PAndJonkthan went on
calling from behind the attendant: "In haste!
quickly! DO not stand still!"" And the at?
Lu 3?:3l
tendant of Jon%-than went picking up the
arrows and then came to his master." ao As for
the attendant, he did not know anything; only
Jan'a.than and David themselves knew about
'the matter. '"After that Jon'a.than gave Ills
weapons to the attendant that belonged t o him
~ he usaid toj him: "Go, take them to the city,"
41 The attendant went. As for David, he rose
+CP 4 2 : ~
151125:23 up from nearby to the south. Then he fell on
:'sl~9 6
ml5:1!l his face to the eartht and bowed three tlmes,
and they began kissing* each other and weep
I<,, 1 t I , 1
1:i :m
ing for each other until David had done it the
most: 41 And JonJa.than went on to say to
. - .
" \ l r r . t i PT." M,', the plural of n.di;tt', the plural of @xcel-


: ~





are a pnrtnar of," L I X , dLit~*rally,"for he i u n

Rnn o f death,"



Svr Ueuesig 39: 2, footnote d.

David: '" in peace,' since we have sworn,*f

both of us, in the nameQ of Jehovah," saying:1
; $y
'May Jehovah himself prove to be between me Hy;,fiij!f7
and you and between my offspring and your %
;*;$;~ s n 14
offspring forever.' "ak
1Sn 241 23
AccordingEy Davidb rose up and went his way, k lsn 2 3 : ~
and JonPa.thmhimself came into the city.
NP 11:32
Later David came into Nobn t o Ahfm'e- l>lsa22:1Q
lechr the priest, and A.him'e.lech began f$n%7;J
to tremble at meeting David and then said t o
him: "Why is it you are by yourself and no
one is with you?" '' At this David said t o A.hlmJ-I
c.lech the priest: ''The king himself commanded
me as t o a
and he went on to say t o 81%19:17
me, 'let no one h a w anything at tall of the
matter concerning which I am sending you and
concerning which Ihave commanded you.' And I
have made an appointment with the young menr
for such and such a place. a And now, if there are
five loaves of bread3 at your disposal, just give mSnQ!7
them into my hand, ord w h a t ~ v e r may be
found." "But the priest ans~veredDavid and
said: "There is no ordinary bread under myt
hand, but there is holy breadit providcd that (;g;?o
the young menChave at least kept themselves l;~:$~,5
from wommkind."u &So David answered the
priest and said to him: "But womankind has VFIZH
been kept amray from us t h e same as formerly $
when I went outlev and the organismsiu of the ;?:,?A
young men continue holy," although the mission nllil"l"
itself is ordinary. And how much more so today,


En 31 chnpter 20 ends here, b ''David," L-XXVu; ''hr," 31, '"ITounfi

men," thnt is, of his escort. ""If
there HIT flve I~RI'PS
of 1110~nll
r ~ n d r ryour hnnd, give," LIX; "whnt i a ther~r ulidcr ronr hnntl ?
Y U R ~&ve five loaves of bread,"W&y.6Kamrlg, orb n ~njlitnryPXpcdition. f Or, "vessels.r1

when one becomes holyk in his orgmi~rn?'~

that t h e priest gave him what was holy,= be~ ~ 6 : cause
there happened t o be no bread there but
the shawbread~that had been removed from
before Jehovahb so as to place freshh bread
there on the day of Its being taken away.
7 Now one of Saul's servants was there on
that day, detained hcfore Jehovah, md his name
n1san:9 was Doleg' the E'dom,lte, the princfpal one of
%n.lT;TS the shepherdsCthat belonged to S a ~ l . ~
8 And David went on to say t o A.him'e.lech:
"And is there nothing here at your disposal, a
spear or a sword? For neither my o n n sword
nor my weapons did X take in my hand, because
the king's matter proved to be urgent." To this
priest said: "The sword' of'8tho the
1sa 1 7 Phi.lisrtine,
whom you struck down in the law
plain of Etlah'-here
it is," wrapped up in a
1Sn 1 7 ; ~
It is what you
would take for yourself, take It, because there
is no other here except It." And Davjd went on
to say: "'There IE none like It. Give it to me."
10 Then David rose up and continued run"Sam1 ning away* on account of Saul an that day and
kn Jl swa1n1:B
s at length came to A'chishk the king of Gath.n
we 5:s
In And the servants of A'chIsh began to say to
15a l7:C
2~;i12:17 him: "Is not this David the king" of the land?
rlSa 16:L
Was it not t o this one that they kept responding
:$ with dance sf8 saying,
'Saul has struck down his thousands,
11Sa 183
And David his tens of th~usands'?"~~
ISEL 29:s

Mr 2 : ~

Or, '%readof Pr~senre,"Ifc~; %read of pmaent~tion,')Vg. b Liternllp, "hot," If;thnt is, fre~lllyhnkcd, Or, by chnnge of one letter
i n the Hebrew text: ('the mightiest ona o f the su~lners." Or, "his



1 SAMUEL 21:12-22 :5

" A n d David began to take these words to his
heartu and he became very much afraidv on Uz;q?fin
account of Atchish the king of Gath, l9 So he v ~ 12:11
Go Zti.7

I ry,!



So David pmceeded to go fmm thereJ .aa>iiGs4a

and escape to the caveD of A.d~l'Iarn,~
AJ,,, 3213
and his brothers and the entire house of his 2k~2:4:1.3
father got to hear of it and made their way :i;a.l:',::"
down there t o him. And all men in distressr) :?hT$i
and all men who had a creditor* and all men
bitter in soule began t o collect together t o him ,;;;g;;;;
and he came to be a chiefc over them,Qnd there w~gy:; t 3r:t;
came to be with him ahut four hundred men. "%??;:;!
3 Later David went from there to Miz'peh in
Mo'ab and said to the king of Mo'ab:. "Let my ;;* :W,
father and my mother,' please, dwell with YOU
peoplea until I know what God will do to me."r
;fi?:~: J~J:;D
'Accordingly he settled them before t h e king art
of Mo'ab" and they continuwl dwelling with a*
E?R# H:?
1 3 : ~
him a11 the days that David happened to be in
the inaccessible place.@*
% z3:13
5 In time Gad6 t h e prophet safd to David: :';$; %:jtl
'You must not keep dweIljng in the inaccessible
$:2i !
"And kept d m m i n g , ! ' EEX. b OF, it;^," IIU mpresentcd by the
gate, Orr "prince." AI, ~(IQ* See Genesis 40:2, footnote d. d LiterJf>5



ally, ''please, come out [to be] with

stronghold." Ssy, "Niz'pah."

~ b t -p~oplc,"31.


1 SAMUEL 22:6--11

place.&Go away,' and you must come yourself

into the land of J ~ c l a h . "Hence
David went
away and came into the forest of He'reth."
6 And Saul got t o hear that David and the men
that were with him had been disco-red, while
Saul was sitting in Gib'sah under the tamarisk*
%ny;?f3 tree
on the high placebwith his speark in his hand
lsn s ~ . u and all his servants stationed about him, ' Then
Saul said t o his servants stationed about him:
"Listen, please, YOU Ben'ja.min.ites. Will the
n~~~~~ sonn of Jes'se also glve to all of YOU fields and
2 s :rr:l
vjneyards?' Will he appoint all of you chiefs of
I l i i 13:16
r l s n $:ld
and chiefs of hundreds? a For YOU
nlSn H.12
h ~ v conspired,
all of YOU, against me and there
when my own
~ is no
~ one disclosing
~ it to: my eart
the son of
P * ~ { I ~ Jes'se
~ouhavingsymu l ~ 1H:9
psthyc for me and disclosing to my ear that my
ss11 w:m
own son has raised up my awn servant against
me as a lier in arnbushd the way it is this day."
9 At thls E)otegv the E'dom-ite, being staTltlo
tloned as he was overu the servants of Saul, answered and said: y "I saw the son of Jes'se come
mc :!z:O to Noh t o A.him1e.lechZthe son of A-hi'tub.'
Mt 2fi:51)
InAnd he proceeded to Inquireo of Jehovahf for
ISn :'I:
2 2 210
b l r 2 :G
him, and provisions" he gave him, and the
swordo of Go-li'ath the Phi.lis'tine he gave him."
At once the king swt to call A.him'e.lech the
plsrl 3 1 : ~ son of A.hlrtub the priest and all the house of
' I s f L 2 1 : 1 h i s father, the priests that were in Nob.' So dl
of them came to the king.



disguisedx his sanity under their eyes and be- rq w:3

gan acting insane in their hand and kept mak- yPrnlm
ing cross marha on t h e doors of the gateb and
let his saliva run down upon his b e d . " Finally
A'cRish said to his servants: 'Were row see a
man behaving crazy.z Why should You bring
him to me? 1 5 h I in need of peopIe driven;::2 gp6
crazy, so that YOU have brought this one to behave crazy by me? Should this one come into .ISRm:~o

my home?"



~tronghold."Sg, "PIie'pah." b"On the high place," in

1 , S X ~'"EQrfln"
**ltlon, wlurh reads, "in Ba'ma.''
Bl, "in Rh'noh."
U ternlly, "no one of p u feeling eick (iu ak
cnae) OPPY II~P," 11. dL'ldipr i u a~~lhmh,"
XfVg; "enemy," L n .

R ~ @ @ l t W nwith

Or, 'klang~ida'" ""Jcbavnh,"

JITg; lbCfod,'"XXSy.


1 SAMUEL 22:19-23:5

1% 22:9 of liinen.8 lo Even Nobe the city of the p r l ~ t he
12 Saul now said: "Listen, please, you son of
~ ~ ; ; as
: gwoman, childo as well as suckling and bull
A.hi'tub!" to which he said: "Here 1 am, my
* IS3
~ o s 15.3
l 3 And SauI went on to say to him:
1cI;14 and ass and sheep with the edge of the s~t-olrd.~
"Why have YOU men conspired' against me,you .:;;;3;!7g
20 However, one son of A.hirn'e.lech the son
and the son of Jes'se, by your giving him bread ;:; ;;;,y,
of A.hirEub, whase name was'a:thar,n made
nnd a sword, and there being an inquiryn of God h m S.IO
2SaZfl:25 his escape and went running away to fallow
for him, to rise up against me as a lier in amrJg 9:5
D8vid.r 3 Then Abi'athar toid David: "Saul has
bushb the way it is this day?""id At this Amhim'. ii!jBQ
kiIled the priests of Jehovah." " At this David
e-lech answered the king and said: "And who
B I S ~ Z I : ~said t o A-bi'akhar: "I well knew on that day,B



Rmong all your servants is like Davkl,l<faith- Jc;$:Jd::&

ful,l%nd t h e son-in-lawTof the king and a chiefC ;:;;h
over your bodyguard and honored in your ;z
house?' Is it today that I have started t o in- :;'I: $11;
quireQf God for him? It is unthinkable on my 7:?:'2),';.?"
part? Do not let the king lay anythit~gagainst "''"'"
his servant [and] against the entire house of
my father, for in all this your servant did not
u1Sr a5:1
know a thing smallu or great."
16 But t h e king said: 'You will positively
die,' A.him'e.lech, you with all the heuse of v98m1
your father."y l7 With that the king aid t o the giiyi'(
iwnnersZstationed about h h : "Turn m d put t o $JB1zI;B
death the priests of Jehovah, because their FA?:;,
handnalso i s with David and because they knew 3
:; TI
that he fvas a runaway and they did not disclose
it to my ear!" And the servants af the king did * ~ $ a '
not want t o thrust out their hand to assault the &A'3:
priests of Jehovah.' lBFinally the Mng said t o
Doreg:" "Tou turn and assault the priests!" K,;Ti:$
Immediately Do'eg the E'dornmitebturned and 6kA;;:\
himself assaulted the priests and put t o death4 y4i'\$!.!21
on that day eighty-five men bearing an eph'ad' +y;z:$j

because Do'eg the E'dom-Jte was there, that he

would without fajl tell Saul, 1 personally have
wrong& every soul of the house of your father-t 23 Just dwell with me. Do not be afraid,
PS 4 4 2 2
for whoever looks for my soul looks for your
,soul,Ufor you are one needing protection with
Joh L5:ZO me. "V
doh 163

In time they came reparting to David,

"Elere the Phi.lis'tlnes are warring
and they are pillaging the
i5iy threshing floors."" And
Dnvld proceeded to
zLe 2 6 3 6
De 2 ~ 3 3i inquire' of Jehovah, sayha: "Shall I go and
Jg 6:11
must I strike down these Phi.1brtines?" In tm
15a22:10 Jehovah said to David; "Go, and you must


.strike down the PP~i.lis'tlnesmd save KeitLaah."

At this the men of David said to him: "Look!


:Ch 1+.10

~ ~ ~

we are afraid while here i n J'udah: and how

much more so in case we should go to Kei'lah
against t h e battle linesr of the Phi.lisrtines!"
So David inquired yet ngain of Jehovah.@
CJ 6.39
l k = i ~ : sJehovah now answered him and said: '"Rise up,
'.lrls 8:7
go down t o Kellah, bec~useI am giving the
Tr 3 3

~ 1 %a 5

:F,?j?, {-p;;%

"The1.e being an inq*?'

The R~hros~ e here
~ kia i n tho inRnitive! ~~l).wlute
nnd henee impe~xonalnu11indcfl~ritrntr th tiurr. b4'Lim
in ambuali

." ?rllTg:"wem;r." L-LK.

ldCtHc*i'." 'TLSS.


Phi-lis'tines into your hand."'


9,: :
--. "Of linen," NTgSy; amittad by KXX, b Eit~rully,('1 have turned
w~ninst,~'M; '-1m respnsiblc for? LdLT;"1 nm gtrilty respect"'fir"


1 SAMUEL 23:14--20
DavId went with his men t o Kei'Iah and fought
against the Phi-lis'tines and drove off with their
livestock but struck them down with a great
slaughter, and David came to be the savlor of

;!*f S a mf:;&

the inhabitants of Keilah.

6 Now it came about that when'a.thaP
the son of A.himfe.lech ran away to David at
Keilah there was an ephrod' that went dotma *gByjB
in his hand. 'In time the report was made to
Saul: "David has come to KeiTah."" And Saul *$;\s;?
began to say: "God has soldv~ him info my N C ~ : I T
hand,k for he has shut" himself up by coming k F a
into a city with doors and bar." SO Saul sum- ;y+y;!
moned aU the people to war, to go down lo nlcs 14;s
Keilah, to besieger David and his men,a And .?,"'::!:
David got to know that Saul was fabricating r$:,2ikyf7
mischiefs against him. Hence he said to A-bi'athar the priest: "Do bring the eph'od near.'" ~ ~ ~ 1
lo And David went on to say: "0Jehovah the
";&;:; r
God of Israel, your servant has definitely heard ~ c w:3
that Saul is seeking to come to Kei'lah t o lay uISa2a:19
the city in rmh on my account." l1
Will the landf$,,
o ~ r n e r of
s ~Keilah
surrender me into his hand?
WiU Saul come down just as your servant has
heard? 0 Jehovah the God of Israel, tell your
servant, please." To this Jehovah said: "He will
come down."V " And David went an to say:
"Will the landowner@ of Kei'lah surrender me
and m y men into Saul's hand?"r In turn Jeho- Y"R 3f:a
vah said: "They will do the surrendering."=~2?;&,
13 At once David rose up with his men, about


"There was an eph'od that went downy M ; Nhe hra~aditdown

the eph'od," IT. bUSold,'l L Z I T ; "alirnated (rejrctrcl)," M ;
"delivered," by altering the first letter of the m r d in ~ I I FHebrew
text, 1-g. ' ~ d o m e r s . ' N,
' be''; Vg, "men."

six"hundred m e n , k d they went out of Keilah

and continued walking about wherever they
could walk about. And to Saul it was reported
that David had escaped from Keilah and so he
gave up going out.

And David took up dwell-

in^ In the wilderness in places dificult to approach, and he kept dwelling in the mountain~ ~ ~ ous
~ : region"
~ f W in the wilderness of ZiphP And
PS 51.3
S a d kept looking for him a l w a y ~ ,and
~ Godb
F r 1I :, ~$ W
*rwZI 3 confhued In leap because Saul had gone out
1sa-l: 9
t o look for his soul while David was in t h e
r.;3-4 18
~v!ldernessof Ziph at Hotresh.*
p, 37.3
Jonra.thnn the son of Saul now rose up
,,,:, and16went
to David at I-IoVreh,d that he might
his hand in regard t o God.h' And
to say to him: "Do not be afraid?
@I)p J:YH
~ .I rlh if, 5
for the hand of Saul my father will not find
l'r 27.9
yoult and you yourself wiIl be kingn over Israel
I.:C .,::I
and I myself shall become second to you, and
my father also has knowledge to that
~ 1n , i aeffect."' la Then the two of them concluded a
2 s : ~n : ~ covenantflbefore Jehovah, and David kept dwell1 ! S I N20,31
IS,,-.I:XI Ing in Ho'resh" and JonPa.thanhimself went t o
i>::2 his own home.
L'SIL ",1:
19 Later the men of Zipbe went up to Saul
Gib'eah, saying:' ''Is not David concealing
r7r ~ l . 0 himself close by us in the places difficult to
rllsn 2.1415
i s3
approach at Ro'wsh,~on the hi11 of Hach.ilah,v
yI<n 3 24
which is t o the right side of Je.shi'm~n?~Y
a1 1 S R
3 21 =* And now In harmony with the desire2 of your
J ' % 112 10
,-,, swl, 0 king, to come dom, come down and our




31VKS,v; Ibfour:' Lax-.

b +God,'qJTVgSy; "Jehovah,"
Q4'Conttt~urdin Pcnr," hy a different wrl-el-pointing of
IT~hrrrr r ~ r l ) ;lite~mllg,"got to see (tlnat),'' 3f. Meaning
I'lrtce." 9 Or, YRC Ziph'lte," 11, f Or, $'the (desert) desoSFX,"



1. SAMUEL 23:21-28


part wlll be to m e n d e r him into the hand of '21EgL

the Mng."' *IAt this Saul said: '93lessedg are
YOU of J e h o ~ a hfor
, ~ YOU have had cornp~ssion~
on me.&P a Go,please, persevere some more and nRc.3 i t
ascertain and see his place where his foot comes
to be-whoever saw hlm there-for It has been
said t o me that he himself is surely cunning.
see and ascertnin about all the hiding
places where he hides hirnself,O and you must
l ~ t u r nt o me with the evldence,a and I will go
with YOU, and it must occur that, if he Is in the
land, then I shall certainly search' for him care- %l
fully among all the thousandsbe of Judah."
Dc l:15
24 So they mse up and went to Zfph" ahead !g
of Saul, while David and his men were in the nIsa23:1.1
wilderness of Maron' in the Ar'aPbahcl< to the
southd of Je.shi'mon. " Later Saul came with ICne
his men to look for him. When they told David,
J 15!8
he at once went down to the cragn find con- ~IS&
tinued dwelIinge in the wilderness of Ma'on.
When Saul got to hear of it, he went chasing
after David into the wilderness of Ma'on.
2R Eventunlly SauI came to this side of the
mountain, and David and his men were on that
side of the mountain. So David became hurried
to go awayr because of Saul; ell the while Saul
and his men were closingn in on David and his r&%;B;E
men to grab hold of them. #'But there lrtas a 2
messenger that came to Saul, saying:t "Do s2Ch2"01a
PS 17:D
hasten and go, for the Philisttines have made t ~ ~ 2 ~ : ~
a raid on the land!"u At f hat Saul turned back ga3&?
from chasing after Davfd and went to meet the &S&$,



Or, "on a afirtain*; amnredly.'" Or, "tribal subdi~isions."a *'The

Ar'a.ba11," M. This i s the rift v ~ l l c ythat runs mull) EQ the Red SPA.
* liternlly, "to the right ~sitlc,''that is, when OIIP faces east. "'She
crag nnrl cantinued rlvclli~~g,"A1 VgSy; " t l ~ e cmC:that is,'' LLT,

Phi.lis'tines. That is w h y they have called that

place the Cmg of the Divi9ions.a
29 Thenb David made his way up from there
and took up dwelling in the places dimcult ta
gp approach at En-ge'di-v
And It came about that, as soon as SauI
returned from following the PhimlisJr1a2sa tines,y they came reporting to him, saying:
"Look! David is in t h e wilderness of En-ge'di.'"
2 And Saul proceeded to take three thousand
cklown mena out of a3J Israel and to go looking
David' and his men upon the bare rocks"
*gg! offorthe
mountain goats. "At
length he came t o
r2s.n 7:':
sheepfolds" along the road, where a
I C I l 1'27
CDc2R:13 cave was. So Saul came in t o ease
J: 32.1
while David and his men were in t h e pwts of
* P ~ ~ ~Mr
; .the mve* farthest back, sitting down. 'And
"Here Is the
F?;!;; 142 David's men bcgan to say t o
day on which Jehovah does say t o you, 'look!
~ 1 s l l ~ 3 : 7 I am giving your enemy into your hand"and you
ISa :':a3
must do to him just as it may seem good in
y o w eyes,' ' T o David ime up nnd quietly cut
off the skirt of the sleeveless coat that belonged
t o Saul. "ut
it came about aftempard that
David's heartmkept striking ltirn for the reason
1.10 3.20 that he had cut off the skirt [of the sleeveless
~ C : P 4 1.7
nllu::;::za coatld that belonged to Saul. * Hence he said ta
ISfr 1 I:.15
his men: "It is unthinkable" on my past, from
I ~ .:
Jehovah's standpoint, that I should do this thing
my lord,CD the anointedf of Jehovah, by


Or, "caEled that plnce Sp'la-ham-mah.letkoLh!' M: this with refernnm to tlte fimooth or slippery places. b Clmpter 24 brfins Iirre
in M. Liturnlly, L'camein to c o c a La f ~ c t . !d~ "Skirt of thc slc~velm robt," LLTVgSs-T rind cigbt Hebrew ~nnnnscripts; "~kirt,''31.
Or, "masher." f *'hoinlpd!: & mu-shi'ahlr; L X X , cfrria.tos';
YE,ahria'bu8; Xg, m'sshilsk.


thrusting out m y hand against him, for he is

the anointeda of Jehovah," Accordingly David
dispersed his men with these words and he did
not allow them to rise up against Saul.n As nPgFJ
hlE 5:44
for SnuI, he rose up from the cave and kept Ro12:17
rlSa 2333
going on his way.r
8 So Davld rose up afterward and went out
from the cave and called out after Saul, saylng:
"My lordRthe king!" At this Saul looked behind :&S,"1?jf7


him and J3~vIdproceeded to bow low with his ~

face t o the eartht and prostrate himself. And,:;.:p;;&!
David went on to say t o Saul: "Why do you lSr12fi.19
listen t o the words of mantv saying, 'Look! P.;
P~ I ! I + B
r v IG "%
David is seeking your hurt'? laHere this day 1.e 17:;'
your eyes have seen how Jehovah gave you vlSa 24:4
today into my hand in thc cavc, and someonev
said to kkl you, but X felt sorry for you and ,;;:,l:'$g
said, T shnll not thrust out my hand against my ; I; ;
lard, for he Is the anotntedn~of Jehovah.' l1And, 2 1 ~ 1 1 314
my father,E see, yes, see thc skirt of your sleeve- '??'??'*
less coat in my hand, for who? 1cut off the skirt ?;zi;&s
fi $0
of your sleeveless coat T did not LilI you. Know ClI<J
ElSm 23.14
and see that thereism, evil'or transgressionOin ;
my hand and I have not sinned against you,
while you sre lying in wait for my soul to take
it away." l a May Jehovah judge between me and
you," and Jehovah must tnkc vengeance0for me 91 U.I I 2i>3195
from you, but my own hand will not come to be ~~~;,?~;',E
upon yau.*l~Just as the proverb" of the ancients r';:; ;:;y2
says: 'Fram the wickedmones wickedness will go j;"
forth,'' hut my own hand upillnot come to be up14
on you, Alter whom has the king of Israel k~,s"1?:43
gone out?' After whom are you chasing? After ;?.!?!
a deadc dog?lcAfter a single flea?" l%d Jeho- :





L'Anolntd!' M,'ahk;


LdLT,ch*is.des'; Vg, cfir5#'rri#; 6y,

'vah must became judge and he must judge between me and you, and he will seemand he will
*Jaa:al conduct the legal easel for me and judge me
FS 35:i
P. 53.1
[ l o free me] fr*c)myour hand."
16 And it came about that, at the moment
that David finished speaking these words to
tlsa 20157 Saul, Saul proceeded t o say: "Is this your vojce,
uCr 9X:W
E, Ir, my son David ?"t And Saul began to ralse his
ky3:r;21own voice and weep. ITAnd he went on t o say

~ to David:
~"You~are more righteousvthan 1am,u
v,qt $?,;:I for it is you who have rendered me g o d V and
R ~ J J J It
~ Js I who have rendered you evil. lBAndyouyou have told today what goad you have done
In connection \rPithme En that Jehovah mrrendY;;R,;,$S
ered me into your hands and you did not kill
me. "Now in the case where a man finds his
enemy, will he send him away on a good road?
Jehovah himself will reward you with good,
to the fact that this day you have done it
PH I H : ~ to me.=2o And now, look! I well know that you
*:<n";i,~iswill, without fail, rule as king* and that in your
izj: $:,7,3 hand
the kingdom of Israel will certainly endure. '30
now do swear" t o me by Jehovah that
25.1 3 17
h l t ? ~ youwi1Inotcutoff my seedaftermeandthat
cr;aa 2 1 , ~
you will not annihilate my name out of the
L L ~ 31:aa
f.2SR U'I
IS^ 2 ~ 7 house of
my fathernnA" Accordingly David
t h ~ 1t i l : X
. I S , 1 2 3 : : ~ swore to Saul, after ~vhfchSaul went t o his
rn.1SR 24:3
homes0As for David and his men, they went up
N l l 2'l::g
to the pIace dimcult to approach:
'wjsn T ; I ~
In time Samuel diedmand a11 Israel pro1 l i l 2:14
ceeded to collect together and bew~il"
21'11 .?:I'M
Lslb 31.13 him and buryo him a t his housea In Rawah.*
Then Da~lidrose up and went damn to the
- - wilderness of Pa'ranmhk
fi " A t l l j ~house," 3LL+LPVg:"in hia burial place," Sy, bt'Pn'r8n,"







AlfzyVg; "Ms'on," LLT.

2 Now them wits a man in Mapon" and hfs n l S B 2 4

work was in Cdmel.u And the man was very
great and he had three thousand sheep and a
thousand goats,@and he came t o bc? [engaged] in 02Ch 28:21

Nowadays the servants8 that are breaking

eway, each one on account of his mmter,l' have
filSaz2:P hecome many." l1 And do I have t o take my
s : ~breadlc and my waterCand my slaughtered meat
5~ R:G
shearingf his sheep at Certmel.n :' And the man's
rq 7x8
that I have butchered for my shearers and give
name was Na%al and his wife's name was Ab'i- 1Sn 30:5
it t o men of whom I do not even know from
gail." And the wife was good a t discernmentnand BFrU&!?
u:1 where they are?""
beautiful in form, but the husband was h a h and gF gi&
12 Upon that David's young men turned
bad in his practices,%d he wns a C~'le'b.ite.~~
on their way and !vent back and came
And David got to hear in the ~vjldernessthat U1~.r aC I32:5
a n d reported t o him in accord with all these
Na'bal was shearing his sheep. 90David sent v G e 3 8 : ~
morels. Immediately David sald to his men:
ten young men and David said t o the young men:
"Gird on every one his sword!" So they girded
"Go up to Car'rnela and YOU must come to Na'bal
on every one his sword and David nlso girded
and R S him
in my name about his we1fare.Y y1SR17;n
on his own sword, and they began to go up
And this is what YOU must say to my brother:
after David, about four hundred men, while
M a y you be well* and also p r househotd be IFh%:%
rlsa 19:p two hundred sat by the bnggage.r
1Sn 1 .,2
well and a31 that you have be well. And now I zkgg
14 Meanwhile, to Ab'i'gail, 'Nalaa1.l"~
wlfe, one
have heard that you have shearew. Now the zulo:a
lun 1gl:z,l
young men reported, saying: "Look!
shepherds that belong to you happened themDavid sent messengers from the wilderness ta
selves t o be with us? We dicl not molest themA~ ~ $ , " , ~ ~
~vishour rnasterb well," but he screamed reand nothing at all showed up rnfssing of theirs all
sMr 1B:H bulces~at them. l6 And the men were very good
the days they happened to be in C a r ' r n ~ l %k
to us find they did not molest us and we did not
your own young men and they will tell you, that
a single thing all the days a our walking
myc young men may find favor in your eyes, beabout
with them while we happened to be in
~ Sha sPIS
cause i t n~asupon a g o d day* that 1 ~ e
carneed eES959
the fie1d.t 1% wwall was what they proved to
~ S1.1::'~
Just give; please, whatever your hand may find +Lu11:41
~f9h1.10 he around us both by night and by day all the
"ISa a4:16
to your servants and to your ~on'l'David.' "
J!,r l3:2Q
z ~ c 2 . 5 dnys t h a t we happened t o be with them, shep9 Accordingly David" yyoung men came and
herding the flock. And now know and see what
spoke t o Na'bal in accord with all these words
you are goirig t o do, for evil has been deterin the name of David and then w a i t d , l oAt *<gga
mined2 against our masterb and aminst all his
this NaWl answered David's sewants and said: :%s:%
"\Tho is David and who is the son of Jes'se?' c:i$;74
':$ fellowe. to speak ta him!'

rLCnr8rnel?'In the

monatainona region of Jadnh nnd seven miles

~rauthof Hc'bron; see Joshua 15: 2n, 54, 56, b OF,''to the living
one;' I f . a Liternllg, "the,') M. d"l3cennse upoil n, good day we
have come," LALTVgSy and many LIchrem mnausclipts,


bfI3fnster." 31,*rimp. 8~ rhnptcr 20, verse 35,

VVgFjy i '\!6tiuc,'' LxX. filnro literally, "to
rllnstpr,'f 31. BLiternllr, "a son 01: 13e'libnl (or, worthless-

Or, 'dsln~PR,H



," nfn



1 S k M U n 25:18-25


18 At once Ab'igafIDhastenednand took twoo D;g$i

hundred loaves of bread and two large jars of L;y~53&5
wine and five sheep dresscd' and five seah
measurcsiQofroastedmgrain and a hundred cakes :
of raislnaa and two l~undredcakes of pressed *k{~';i4
figs" nnd put them upon the asses. Then she k2$
said to her young men: '"ass on ahead of me." '$% g:?
Look! I am coming after sow." But to her hur- m;;;$Fto
kGe ~ : 1 6
band Narbal she told nothing.
20 And it occurred that ivhlle she f ~ ~ riding
on the assn and secretly going down t h e rnoun- n,J~l;Fi,5,:18
tain, why, there were David and his men corning 2fii 424
d o i n to meet her. So she encountered them.
Aa for David, he had snid : "It was altogether
for disappointment that I guarded every thing
that bcJongs t o this fellow in the wildernens and
not a ainnle thing of all that belongs to him
showed up missingarand yet he repays me evil s c e 4 4 : i
in return for good.' SO m y God do to the ene- PP Ss 335:32120
mies of Davidb and so may he add to jtt If I E:q:jz
shall let any one of all who arc his that urinatest' g:$$T
against the wall remsin unti 1 the morning."
23 When Ab'i.gaf1 caught sight of David, she
at once hastened and got dawn off the ass and U ~ ~ / ~ ~ :
fell upan her face before David and bo~'c?ed
to ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ; 2
t h e earthVv='She then fell a t his feety and said: v;z,"iI;'::.$l
"Upon me myseIf, 0 my lord, be t h e error,a 1'Ey8:4,:37
and, please, let your slave sfrl speak in your xrg:,4;2
ears,' and listen to the words of your sIave?~~',,I;?~
girl, fB Please, do not let my lord set his heartm,2,zg,,g
upon this good-for-nothinp rnmcNarbal, for, arJ $a;425,-:
his name is, so he 1s. Na'bald is his name and ~


- - a h n t 11.2

quarts (U.S.A,). ""Do to D~l+id,"
3 Samuel 12 : 1.1, fnotnote a, Lit~rally," t h i ~rnnn of
nh'li.r~l (or, rvorthlessnesa)," U. lieaning " S e n ~ e l e a
; ~St upid"

senselessness&is with him. As for me your slave


girl, I did not see my lord's young men that you

had sent. *%ATld
now, my lord, as Jehovah is
livingo and as your soul is living,' Jehovah has

held you backG from entering into bloodyflth"

and having your own hand come to your salvation.cA And now let your enemies and those
seeking injury to my lord become like N a h I , '
A l l y 12.19
11 And now as regards this gift blessingk that
your maidservant has brought t o my Eord, it
?2 must be given to the young men that are walk~ ~ J K ~ : I Uing about In the steps" of my lord, 2q Pardon,
please, the transgression of your dave girl, because Jehovah will without fail make far my
s JehorlK19:5
;g+s2 lord a l~stinghouse,drbecause the ~ v a r of
ns for
1Ch 17.10
7 ) s s929 evil, it will not be found in you throughout your
# 1Sa 1745
d n y ~ : ' an
~ When man rises up to pursue you and
?$::iy look for your soul, the soul of my lord will certainly prove t o be wrapped up in the bag of
r "!Sa 14:19
lifec with Jehovah your Gad,u but, as for the
i!:g;p sou1 of your enernirls, he will slingv it forth as
:::\$$ from inside the hollow of the sling. #@Andit
~: ~, ,~ ~ ;must
~ ~ occur
$ ~ that, because Jehovah will do t o my
lord the good toward you according to all that
2 I 1 P9:x
, ~ certainly will commission
,,,,, ,.,, he has s ~ o k e n he
:i; :zit4 YOU as leaderz over Israel, 8' And let this not
, G 21 become to you a cause for staggeringf' or a
stumbling block t o the heart of m y lord, both
s shedding of blood without cause and by
~l"'l~a.lah',M, b Liter~lly,"bloods," Y. a 'dHnring~ O I I Po m hnnd
:lil 2:2
I 4 30
llcl 1. '6


w n i i n to

The H r b l ~ wvc1.h hrre is in tlie inllnitive

~your Ilrnc~
is impersonal n ~ ~indcflriite
as Za tin~c.d Or#

s l ~ u i l l ~ ~and

rnithful (fll.rrtIy eutahIished) b ~ u s e , " *Literdl;r, "in you from

lived from your birth.
I "'Htnggering." rigurutive of qnnllns o f conscicrree,

Ywilr days.s," that in, nll t h e days you hare

having [the hand of J my lords [f tself ] came to

his sat~ation.~
A n d Jehovah will certainly do n l ~ a ~ ~
g o d to my lord and you must ptmembeP your
slave girl.'"
AGe 4rr:l.l
32 At this David said to Ab-'l.gail: 'T313lessed Lu 23-32
be Jehovah the Cod of IsraelJbwho has sent bg?3,q
you this day to meet me! "And blessed be your
sensibleness' and blessed be you who have re- ;
strained me this day from entering Into blood- .psy141.5
F r 9:)
guiltM and having my own hand come t o my ej,e
s a l ~ a t i o n .B 4~And, on the other hand, as Jeho- 1Sa25:26
vah the Gad of Israel Is living, who has held
me back from doing injury to you,' if you had
not hastened that you might come to meet me,
there would certainly not have remained to
N R %until
~ the rnolmin~light anyone urinnting* against n waII." 33 With that Dnvid accepted
from her hand what she had brought him, and
to her he said : "Go up in peace to your
z ~9 d'
See, X have llstened 1.0 your voicc that I may kl*
291 i5.n
Z;~I 5::n
have considerationn for your pclson."
La 7
nGe 13..'E
36 Later Ab'bgaiI came in to Na"balJ and
there he was having a feast3 in his house like - a m
the feast of the king,' ~ n NaUalls
heart was %?<::%
feeling good within him and he nrRs as d~unk Lu l 4 : l Q
as could be,#and she did not tell him a thlng, 8:Ei$z
small or grent, until the morning light. And Tr m : ~
it came about in the morning, ivlvllen the rviinc I.= ar;:3
had gone out of Na'bd, that his wife went tell- ~i,o
E P 5~9 4
ing him these things. And his heart! came to be tg;$!!s
dead inside him and h e himself became as a
stone. 88 After that about ten days elapsed and





* IdThahand of Iny lord," L.XY; ' h y lord," M. blitcmllp, 'T~blood~.'~

'"llnring my o w n hand co~nct o m y snlrntion." Thr Rcbww verb

bere is in the ialFniti~eabsotate and llcnce is impersonal and indsRnite as to tiinc.

~ 5 2x1 15:s

then Jehovah stsucku Na'baE, so that he died.

39 And David g o t t o hear that Na'bd had

SO he said; "Blessed be Jehovah, who

the legalv case of my reproach
Na'bal's hand and has kept
I 43:1
13r r 2 : m hi3 servant back from evil)' and the evilness of
$" 1 % 2 2 2 8
Tcfa'bal Jehovah has turned back upon his sum
A n d David pxwceecled to send and proa 5 r l a:38
to take her as hls wife.' '[' So
1'3 ~ : I G DavId'~servants came to Ab'i.gai1 at Car'mel
*PI. 1P:?2
l l r s1:lo and spoke t o her, saying: "David himself has
'$$j;,31 sent us to you to take you as his t ~ i f e . " ~hmediately she rose up and bowed with her face
t o the earth" and said : "Here is your slave girl
as R maidservant to wash( the feet of the sew;; ;j
F[:P I H : ~ ants of my lord." 4z Then Abri.gail*
hastened and
.tOh 135
m e up and went ridinp' on the ass with five
11.1 5 10
I liri 25:3
ptq;,324,6l mnlds of hers walking behind her,* and she went
accornpanyingh the messengers of David and
then bwame his wife,
43 David had also taken A.hin'a.amVrorn
Z'SR 3:2
1556 Jm'seoeE,*
andl the women came to be, even both
ln~ ~ la:m~ P ~ l ~ wives.k
44 As for Saul, he had given Mi4chaln his
daughter, David's wife, to Pal'tir the son oP
*l*nlQ:m LB'ish, who was from Ga1'Iim.a
IJrm 1 5 : s
In time the men of Ziphct came to Saul at
Gib'e.ah,u saying: "Is not David conceallsll Ti):26
lslh !;:4
on the hill of Hach.i'Iah,V facing
v 1511 3:19
r !sit h 2 3 Je.shi'rnon?"~ And Saul proceeded to rise upy
and go down to t h e wilderness of Ziph, and with
~ 1 9 f l 2 4 : Z him three thousand
the chosen ones of
t o look for David in the wilderness of
-I,ilr*vnlly, " n t her foot," $1. b Or, "following!' a OI.,"the ZiphC
12 23

d i d and



a "Conrcnlilng himsoif cloee by us," LZS.


* Or, "thc (deuert)

Ziph. And Saul took up camping on the hill of

Hach.i"ah,T which faces Je.shi'rnon,a" by the *1Sa 2224
road, while David was dwelling in the wilderness. And he got to see that Saul had come after
him into the wilderness. ' S o David sent spiesC
t h a t he might know that Saul had for a fact
came. Later David rose up and went to the place
where Saul had encamped, and David got to
see the place where Saul had lain down, and
also Ab'ne? the son of Ner the chief of his Aigi$;g
army; and Saul was lying in the camp enclosureQ ;
with the people camping all around him. Then +Ge 10.15
David answered and said to A.him'e.1ecl-i the G G I ~ : . ~ Q
Hit'tite' and A.bish'aie the son of Ze.rutiah,' the 22; ii::
brother of Jo'ab: "Who will go down with me 2sa23:39
t o Saul into the camp?"O To this A-bish'ai said: ; :$: :;&
"I myself shall go down with you."'" And David 2Sa
2 ~ 185
made his way with A-bish'ai to the people by ZE~?;;
night,k and, look! Saul was lying asleep in the *J 7 10
campR enclosure with his spear stuck into the kI&l ~14:7
h5 : ~
earth a t his head, and Abkner and the people nJ"7:1*
were lying all around him.
JE 1:4
8 A.bishfai now said to David: "Godbr has rJosal:44
today surrenderedByour enemy into your hand. ;g; ;i;i4
And now let me, please, pin him t o the earth sg;52::$0
with the spear just once and I shall not do it
to him twice."t However, David said to A.bishr-P
ai: "Do not bring him t o ruin, for who is it that
has thrust his hand out against the anointedc vf'$;;$;J;
of Jehovah" and has remained innocent?" YlSa
P.5 94 1
lo And David went on to say: "As Jehovah is
living,v Jehovah will be the one t o smite him,P zGe
or his day will comez and he will have to die, g:j+;:j
Or, "the (desert) de~olakion.'~b ''God," >ITy'; "your God," A?;
4'Jehovah," LXT, "Anointed?' 31, nrrl.shiJrtkk; Sy, m'sl~il~h;
ckris.tosJ; Srg, ehris'tus.


1 SAMUEL 26:11-17

or down into battle he will go and he will certainly be swept away.' l1 It is unthinkable' on
508 !?2:29
rsa 14:45 my part, from Jehovah's standpoint, to thrust
,i2i$ii my hand outA against the anointeda of JehoSo now take, please, the spear that is at
E%:: vah!+
and the watero canteen, and let us get
S a 52 :4m
2 ~ 1a3 4
Accordingly David took the
Ps 105;15
spear and the water cantwn from the place a t
Saul's head and then they got on their way,
*lsa m4
and there was no one seeing' nor anyone taking
note nor anyone making up, far all of them
f;z:2 were asleep, because it was a deep deepBfrom
Isa29:10 Jehovah that had fallen upon them. I q h e n
David passed on to the other side and stood
i;~a4j;14:8 upon the top of the mountain at a distance,"
the space between them being great.
14 And David began t o calI out to t h e peopIe
and to Ab'ner the son of Ner, saying: "Will
YOU not answer, Ab'ner?" And Ab'nei began
1Sa 14:M
ansver arid say: "Who are you that have
$ ; to
called out To the king?" And David went on
to say to Ab'ner: "Are you not a man? And
who is like you in Israel? Why, then, did you
not watch over your lordb the king? For someone came to the people t o bring the king your
Iclsax:8 lordb t o ruin.k '"This
thing that you have done
is not good. As Jehovah is living,n YOU men den#a8;;g45
1 s 20:21
serve t o die,cr because you have not watched
r1Sa 3 7 3 1
:SR 12:s
over YOUR lord,h over t h e anointed" of Jehovah.~
.St( 19:28
And now see where the king's spear and the
water canteen' are that were at his head."
l l C 1 18:O
17 And Saul began to recognize the voice of
David and to say: "Is this your voice, my son


E G 44:7

*"Ar~ninted." See verse 9, footnote c, b "Lord." 31,, the nf a.ddrt', the plural 09 excellence. See chapter 20, verse 38,
a. c Literally, ,#rormen are the sons of death," &I.

1 MMWEL 26 :1&25




David?"" To this David said: "It Is my voice, ~ ~ ~

my lord the king.'' l8 And he added: "Why is
this that my lord is chasing after his servant,' V]#;$$::fL
for what have I done and n3mt evjl is there in PS 68:3
my hnnd?P '*And now let my lord t h e king, y3'&7c48
p!~ase,listen to the words of his servant: If it h(L"
is Jehovah that has incited you agafnst me,":'$:$:i!


let him smell a grain offering.' But 1F it is the ig;

sons of man,au they are cursed0 before Jeho- :6:bi?,:li
valz," because they have drjvcn me out today ,E
Srom feeling myself attached to thc possessionb: ~ ~ 5 - ~ ~
of J e h ~ a h ,saying,
'Go, serve other gods!"
'"And t ~ o wdo not let my blood Pall t o the earth ;gi;:52L:18 I
before the face of Jehovah," for the king of Is- g:1"i<?4
rael has gone out to look for a single flea,OHjust 'gj'4dn5
as one chases a partridge upon the mountains." :;z$;;lyj
21 In turn SauI said: "1 have sinned." Come
back, my son David, for I shall no more do you ?&;<;$:
injury, in view of the fact that my soul has gp&!;i7
been preciousk in your eyes this day. Look! I klSn ~ k . 3 0
have acted foolishly and Rm very much in the '"':"
wrong." l2
Then David answered and said:
"Here i s the spear of the Iting, mcl let one of
the young men come on over and fetch it. =%And
Jehovah it is who will repay to each one his
own righteousnesson and hfs awn faithfulness, :!2,8,:&
in that Jehovah today gave you into my hand Fs@+gI.i
and 1 was unwilling to thrust my hand out ;;$gip
against the anointeddof JehovahBr" And, Imk!
r;; ;:;;
just CESyour soul was great this day in my eyes, BPS 18.25
so may my soul be great in the eyes ofJ e b o ~ a h ,fii
that he may deliver me out of all distress."ct :fJ.'I:Pe
this Saul said to David: "Blessed may you 1><31:17


LitPrnllg, "mns of the


a bblnnkfar n

man [ha-n.darnY ," I T . b Or, "inheritance."'

sin@ Rn," 3I\*pSy; "bok for lur soul? &.KT.

"hnmint~ti." see

T P ~ P
9, forttnrrte


I SAMUEL 27:l-8
David. Not only will you without
t you will also without fail come off
'v h d David proceeded to go on
d, as for Saul, he returned to his

However, David said in his henPtiO"NOW

I shall be swept away one day by Saul's
ere is nothing better for mez than that
escape' without fail t o the land of the
eslJ and Saul must despair of me in
r me any longer in all Ihe territory
nd I shall certainly escape from his
1Sn2S:. hand," So David rose up and he and slx hun:;$i2,
dreclAmen that were with him passed over t o
alsa25:13 A'chish0 the son of Ma'och, the king 03: Gath.
9Sn W3:9
t l q r i 21:10
And David continued to dwell with A'chish In
1KI 2:40
Gath, he and his men, each one with his house22%
hold, David nnd his two wives,' A.hin'o.am4 the
s l S n 2 z 3 find Ab'," Na'bal's wife, the
15a s:42
Car' time report was made ta SauI
that David had run away t o Gath, and so he did
'ISa26:" not go looking for him still mother time."
5 Then Davld said to A'chish: "If, now, 1
have found favor in your eyes, let them give
me a place In one of the cities of the countryside
that I tmny dwtlll there, for why shotild your
41Ge 96.34
2c0 6117 servant dwell in the myal city with you?"*
k Jux 15:31
Accordingly A'chish gave him Zik'lngk on that
.lot 19:s
)day. Thnt is why ZiB'lag has come to belong
S;I i,:l
to the kings of Judah down to this day.
T And l h e number of the days t h a t David
11 '11 12:a
l l : 2 8 dwelt in the countryside of tho Phi.lfsttfnes
I! 1Sn ?9:3
13:z came to be a year and four months," And
rl.:t 1726
;, T1329
Davjd proccded t o go up with h!s men that
I they might raid the Gesht~v.itesr
and the Gir'I:4r,
j;'?;l?;:is lziten and the A.ma1'ek.ites.s for they were in~


1 SAMUEL 27:9-2S:3


habiting the land that [extended] from Teelamat t i - 1 ~ 1

as far as Shur" and dawn to the land of Egypt.' ug$;g
And David struck the Iand, but he preserved visa 153 neither man nor woman a1ive;Y and he took yJos
De m:19
flocks and herds and asses and camels and cloth- lsa 15:3
ing, after which he returned and came to
A'chish. l o Then A'chish said: "Where did YOU
men make a raid2 today?" To this David said: ~ 1 S a m : 1 4
"Upon the south of Judah* and upon the south th2Sa247
of the Je.rahtme-el-itesnand upon the south of 01Chp2:"
the Xen'ite~."~
l1 As for man and woman, David
was not preserving any alive t o bring them t o
Gath, saying: "That they may not tell on us,
saying, 'This is the way David did.' " O (And this $ISL az:a2
way has been his procedure a11 the days that he
dwelt in the countryside of the Phi.lis'tines.)
I Z Consequently A'chish believed" David, saying
to himself: "He has unquestionably become a
stench0 among his people Israel,' and he will


have to become my servant to time indefinite." 1Sa13:4

And it came about in those days that
the Phi.lisltines began t o collect their
camps for the army to make war against IsraeLe e&3;37
So A'chish said to David: "You undoubtedly ;p;$j;
know that it is with me that you should go out 1 ~ m:i
into the camp, you and your men."' At that ';"s",Z$:i2
David said to A'chish: "That is why you youpselfb h o w what your servant is t o do."" Ac- #lsaar:lo
ZSa 16:19
cordingIy A'chish said to David: "That is why
guardian of my head I shall appoint you always."
3 Now Samuel himself had died and all Israel
had proceeded to bewail him and bury him in


aLiternlly, 4 ' f ~ o mlong ago (rlme-to.lnm')," 11.It is conjectured that

this should read : "from Te'1arn.j' There are 12 manuscriwta of LXX:
that read : (4i"romT e l n (m).J'See Joshua 15 :24; 1 ~irnuel15 :4.
b 'LYourself/ RISy ; "nor," LXXYg.

1 SAMUEL 28 :6 l X

kkp&5il Ra'mah his own city.l( As for Saul, he had re-


De ~ s : l o
Ac 16.16

moved the spirit mediumsRand t h e professional

foretellers of events from the land."
4 Subsequently the Bhi.lis'tines collected ta-

gether and came and pitched camp in Shurnern.=

So Saul colIectd all IsraeI together and they
. ~h e n Saul got ta
slsa J I : ~ pitched camp in G i l - b ~ ' a T
?Sn 1:G
2 s a 1.21 see the camp of the Phi-lis'tines he became
2% 21:12
afraid and his heart began to tremble very
Saul would inquire o f Jeho$Isa7:2
answered him,Y either by
1sa 57:X
or by the prophets.'
u;~; ;;;;I
Finally Saul said to his servants: "Look for
VTT i:m
a womano who is a mistress of spirit mediumGe46:2
shipa f o r me and let me go to her and consult
Nu 12.6
~er23*:28 ~ E P . " Then his servants said t o him: "Look!
~t 1:70
ZEX 2630 there is a woman who is a mistress of spirit
Nu 27:21
D, 33:8 mediumship in En-dor,"'
8 So Saul disguisedPhimself and clothed him'
other garments and went, he and two
.Esi$ menwith
him, and they came t o the woman by
; for me by spirit mediumship
and bring up f o r
Wos 17;11
me t h e one whom I shall designate to you."
'/::; $;$-, However, the woman said to him: "Here you
' ryftsllg
~ ~ ~ ~yourself
~ 0 , , well know what Saul did, how he cut
off the spirit mediums and the professional fore"1s" *8:3 teIlers of events from the land." W h y ,then, are
you acting like a trapper against my soul to
*2K15:7 have me put ta death?"" loImrnediately Saul
swore to her by Jehovah, saying: "As Jehovah
*lg" 1439 is alive," guilt for error will not befall you in
this matter!" At this the woman said: "Whorn



- ulediums." Hutnnn

agents used as n vessel of a spirit of
I'y(,l~c,t!ny demon o f dirinntion. (See Acts 16 :lo.) LXX, "s-entl-ilo~ l ~ r l n l n;"Wg, "magi {(astrologers)!'

I S W E L 28:12-17
shall I bring up for you?" To this he said:

"Bring up Samuel for me." lWhevl t h e woman

saw "Samuc1"k she began crying out at the jc/$!&y2
top of her voice," and the woman went on to
say to Snul:" "Why did you trick me when you l8IK114:$
yoursel C are Saul?" l 3 But the Iring said to her:
"Do not be afraid, but what dicl you see?" And r.Pa R ~ : B
the woman \vent on to say to Saul: "A g d h r I $!
saw coming up out of the earth.": 14At once C"?sn4+11
he s ~ l dt~ her: 'What is his form?" to which
she said: "It is an oldc man coming up, and he
has himself covered with a sleeveless coat,"" 9%k5An
At that Saul recognized that it was "Samue1,"t t'"'!'h 2:iO
and! he proceeded to bow law with his face to
the earth and to prostrate himself,
15 And ''Samuel" begnn to say to Saul:
"Why have you disturbed me by having me
FX R.,
bl.ouehl up?"'^ To this Saul snid: "I am in very "'~148:4
sore s t r ~ i t s , 'as the Phi.lis8tinw are fighting v;',; 4:;;;
against me and God" himmlf has departed'
from me and has answered me no more, either G!&r;;;;,
Ihn Y?;I?
by nleans of the p ~ o p h c t sor
~ by dreams,* sa ZI1%
;..7.t 9
that I am calling you to let me know what I .k1!5;Il2
shall do."
xu .i:?l
16 And "Samuel" went on to say: "Why, $P;8f:;
then, do you inquire of me, when Jehovah himself has departed from youo and proves to be mK16:m
your udversary?eA And Jehovah wiII do f o r A t a m
Liternlly, "with a grent voicc," 31, b "A god," McI,rl.onhi?~i$the
plurlil o f ~l.o'~rllr,
Evide~ltlgtlw plaml of escelIenco ar FI-nnrleur
rind thus nhcwly npplpinf: to nn individual. for the wotnnn saw only
tlw fnrlil OF nn old man c ~ ~ un e. This. even thongh the nc~otnpnnp
iag 1*1L l l ~ ~ i i i n gisi ' in the $rnl ~luolrrr.Con~pn,r rho itvr 17,
v n l n 30, funinnto a. c llO1d,u
fCLdpXl 'r'nl'afn, d "God." ElboJrin~',
tlre plnral o f excellence, with tho
rerh "21ns departed" in the ~inpalnr~lnnlhrr, "Tour ~ i r l r e r a o l - v , "
Jf'I'g; "nit h your fellaa mnn t y u n ~n ~ i g l ~ l ~,"
o rSyL-LT.

himselfE just as he spoke by means of me4 and

Jehovah will rip the kingdom away from your
hand and give it t o your fellow man David.'
AS YOU did not obey the voice of Jehovah*
nlSn 13 11
and you did not execute his burning anger
;:~$$!#~ against Arn'a.lek,o* thnt is why this is the thing
;$/,5 I,:y1:,; 3 that Jehovah will certainly do to you this day.*
lsn 15.27


:SII s H








' And Jehovah will also give Israel zvjtll you

into the hand of the Phi.lis'tines,lx and tomorrow
youn and your sonsFwill be with me.h Even the
camp of Israel Jehovah will give into the hand
of the Phi-]isttines,"fi
20 At that Saul quickly fell down his fuII
length to the earth and became very much
a f r ~ i dbecause
of "Samuel's" ~vorcls.Also there
happened t o be no power in him, because he
hnd not eaten food the whole day and t h e whole
night. The woman now came to Saul and satv
that he had been greatly terrified. So she said
t o him: "Here your niaidservant has obeyed
your voice and 1 proceeded t o put my soul in
my palm' and obey the words that you spoke
to me -t And now, please, you, in turn, obey
the voice of your maidservant, and let me set
before you a piece of tlread, and you eat, that
power may come to 1x in you, because you will
go an your WRY." g x "But he refused and said:
"I am not going t o eat."y However, his servants
and also the woman"ltept urging him.# Flnally
he obeyed their voice and rose up from the
I earth and sat an the bed. 24 Now the woman had
a fattened calfz in the house.' So she gukkly

*'ll'or h i m u ~ l f , MSy;
"to you," LXXVg and flve I-lebrcw manu~ ~ r i l ~ tbqo.' r l b u l ~ ~ r oYOU
w and goar sons (will he) ~ i t bme,''
'Il YgSy; "bmomvr you m d your popa with yon mII P ~ l l , "L-LY.

sacrifice@ It and took flour and kneaded dough

and baked it into unfermented0 cakes. " Then caKf23:g
she served them to Snul and his sewanb and
they ate. After that they rose up md went away
during that nlglzt.
A n d the Phtlis'tfnes" proceeded to wl- " l s a m
lect all their camps together at A'phek,( Q 1 1 ~ 1 2 0 ~ ~
while the Israelites were camping by the spring rJos 19:Ig
that was ln Jez're.el:
A n d the axls lordsq of
the Phi.lis'tfnes mere passjng along by hundreds ;
IKI a : ~
and by thousands, and David and his men were $>'?hx
passing along afterward with A'chish." And "Juq 13.3
t h o princes of the Phi.lfsttines b g m to say: ;{g8
"What do these Hebrews2 mean?" A t this ?
A'chish said to the prlnces of the Phi-lls'tines:
"1s this not David the servant of Saul ldng of
Israel, who happened to bc with me here a year
or t~r?o,~*
and I have not foundk in him a single
thing from t h e day of his deserting [to me] E$;9:s
until this day?" And the princes or the Phi- J I ~ P3 : ~
Ils'tines became indignant' at hlnl and thel~~c15:11
princes of the Phi.lis'tines went an to say to
hlm: "Make the man go backn and let him go nLEtgi1B
back to his place where you assigned him, and
do not let him ga down ~ S t hus into the battle,
that he may not become a resistercr of us in the ''lSa
I3attle. And with what should t h h person put
himself in favor with his l o r d ? V s It not wit11
the heads of those [our] men? Is this not
David t o whom they kept responding in the
dances, saying, 'Saul has s t n ~ c kdown his thou- ,,a15,
sands, and David his tens of thousandst?'Q
1'1' 27'24
6 Consequently Akchishl called David and f:zl:
*'Snrridcrrl," JIL.LY. bi1Tl\iu semnd y~nr!' L - n ; i6y~nm,"MTg.
Ba ,!an; 1I; rrrl,'r.i.~i,q,
VE. d 'LLord."I[, (',the plwnl



of a.dfim . See cllnptcr PO, rerac! 55, footnote


::,said to him: "-4s Jehovah is Ilvlng," you are
I a a 65:111 uprightlYand your going oaty and your coming

i n with me in the camp has been good in my

eyes, for I have not found evil in you from the
jFu f;u2;;17
day of your coming to me until tl~lsday,# But
EX1 l!l :T
p, 121 .s in the eyes of the a x b lords" you are not good.
,*:'&J\!iQ;:l~3 3 : And now return and go in peace that you, may
not do anything bad In the eyes of the axis lords
J g 3.3
of t h e Pi~E.lis'tines." Wowever; David said to
1% r j . ~ R
C I Y R 12.9 A'chish: ''CThy, what Ilnve I doneU and what
1Sa 17'2r)
have you found in your servant from the day
1% 2 ~LA:
that I came to be before you until this day:
that I should not come and actually fight against
t h e enemies of my 101-rl the king?" 'At this

v?:t 5
1Pc 2.12

IPU : ~ : c o

Akhish answered and said to David: "I well

know thnt you have been good in my awn eyes,
an angelo of God.' Only it is the princes of
the Phl.lis'tines that have said, 'Let him not
Ga d::.i
US into the battle.' I" And now rise
go up
up early jn the morning with the servants of
your lordn that c m e with you, and YOU men
must rise up e s l y in the morning when it has
become llgllt for YOU.' Then go,"
11 Accordingly David rose up early, he and
his men, t o go in the mol-ning"' and return to
the land of the Phi.lls'tines, and the Phi.lis'tines
themselwrz went up to Jez'm.el.'
And it came &out while David and his
1 Sa 27.1;
m e n mere cornt ng t o Zik'lngmon the third
I<EY 1 7 ; s
day that the A.mal'eli8iteskmade a raid on the
and an Zik'lag, and tlley proceeded t o
'"a "
':n strike Zik'lag and bum it with fire," and to
c a r r y olT captive the women [and a]t h ~ t b



*"T~rd,'' 31, the plurnl of a.dbw'. See chapter 20,

rrnrnr3H, footnote o , b "The n*omen nllrl nll thi~igatlintm,'lLBS; "the
n.~)riacntlint,l' MSy.

I SAMUEL 30:ll-17
rvere in It, from the smallest to the greatest.
11 And they gat to find a man, an EgyplcDcas:7 tfan,'"n
the field. So they took him to David
They did not put anyonen to dea21-1," but they n$p7zF
drove them along and went on their way.
and gave him bread that he might eat and gave
David came with his men to the city, 1'Tp"e":;i9
; :11
::;!; him w ~ t e rt o drink." Further, they gave him
why, there it was burned with Are!' and, as for ~ $ ; ~ ~ : ~ rlSa25:lR a slice of a cake of pressed flgsl' and two cakes
jPr:lB of raising. Then he ate and his spiritn returned
their wives and their sons and thejr daughters, 72
they had been carried off captive. "nd
Davjd g ; b z 1
to him, for he had not eaten bread or drunk
1Es4:16 water for three dayst and three nights. IADavid
and the peopIe that were with him began to t I S a W : Q
now said to him: "To whom do yo11helong, and
raise their voice and \veepF untll there was in ,,z%&2
them no power to weep [any mare], 'I And :;;
where are you from?'' to which he said: "'Iam
David's two tvives had been ca1.rld off captive, ~$,?:3;~;
an Egyptlan3 attendant, a skiveLof an A.rndJ::!g;'t%;!,
A.hin'omnt the Jez' and Ab'i.gailu the ,P,fil:,:?
ck.ite man, but my master left me because I
wife aP Na'bal the Car'mel.ite, "nd
it b e c m e 'ythl$::;t
sick three days ago." We were the ones
'$;!8tJ3 took
J O ~ I io:31
very distressing t o David,v because the people gJs
a raid on the south of the Cl~er'e1X.1'5
said to stone him,^ for the soul of ~ l the
l people -.
Wa 17.3
\yz:Ip;jt thjtesv and upon that which belongs !so Judah
htld become bitter,=each one because of his sons .'p;:E!'
!j; !,!.;J and upon the south of Ca'leb,y and Zik'lag we
2 5
and his daughters. So David took t o strengthen- T; Zi$,
buimed with fire." l5 At this David said to him:
.lnx I.L:13
PS 33s
jng hlmscIl by Jehovah his GocE.'
.to* I;, rs "Will you lead me dawn to this marauder
Ps 39:;
7,107 2.1:
7 Hcnce David said to'
the priest, ;
band?" To this he sald: '30swearp to me by
J ~ N !II 1 3
the son of A.himte.kch: "Do, plcnsc, hslng the PS43:s
God" that you will not put me to death m d that
eph'od near to me." And'n.Ihnr cnmc hrlng- Gz ?!:
you will not surrender me into the hand of my
Ing the ephpodnear to David. Ant1 David began :
'I: ;:;:! master,. and I shall lead you down t o this
t o inquire of Jehovah,' saying: "Shall I chase ;
marauder bandoVb
; igg
nftelmtiis mara~~des
band? Shall I overtake ,;gg:i;
16 Accordingly he led him c l o ~ ~ and
q , ~t h ~ r e
them?" At this he said t o him:; "Go in chase, ;$:;$$
they were spread disorderly over the surface of
f o r you wil! without fai1 overtake tl~ernand you lici 2.15
1 SAMUEL 3 U : L I O




11-illnuithout fail make a delivernnce,"

9 Promptly David got on his way, he and the

3Ir 2:26




six hundred' men that were with him, and they

\vent on as far as t l i e torrent valley of 13e'ser,"ga;;~!

and the men that were to be left behind stood ;y;;:j6

still. '"And Dax-id kept up the chose, he and P S ~ S : G
lour hundred men, but hvo hundred men that *P5
were too tired" to pass over the torrent valley &%:fl
u ag:~
of Re'sor stood still.
lga 14:n

''Allyone [or,


man]," MTg; "a mnn or ~ o t u n n , LXX,


aa the earth eating and drinkin@ and having a

' !&






feast on account of all the great spoil that they

had taken from the land of t,he Phl.lis'tines and
the land of J ~ d a h l7. ~And D ~ v i dwent striking
them down from the morning darkness until

devote them t o
,,,, 'the
%;:! !
;wening,andthatnothea might
man of them escaped' ex-



>!, El.a.hi>n'; LXT, ho T?te.oaF, L S S L a ~ a t ~edition

: ATE^ IICmmre to hian,'"
"TIint he u ~ ! g ~ rlerntr
them to
I ~ I ~ ~ I I P I E I ~ ~ Ily
~ ~ I ~nn
I I , 'emendntion
of thc J-lchretv t ~ x t , ,The literal
r r ~ u d <)I'
i ~1'~1lll?t.p
~ ~ is: "01 their following 11ny.''


cept four hundred young men that rode upon

camelso and took t o flight. ' U n d David got t o O z K l a ; O
deliver ~ l that
the A,mal'ek.ites had taken: @Ga14:1B
and his two wives David delivered. lUAnd there
was nothing of theirs lacking, from the smallest
to the greatest and to sons and daughters and
Prom the spoil even to anything that they had
tnken for themselves," Everything David re- '$E#B
covered, 3U SO David took all the fiocks and the PsQl:IO
herds, whlcl~they drove before t h a t [other] livestock. Then they said: "This is David" spoil."'
21 At length David came to the two hundred
menk that had been too tired to go along with k1%~m:lo
David". and whom theyh had kept sitting by t h e
torrent valley of Be'sor, and they came out t o
meet Davld and to meet the people" that were O%a7:10
wlth him. When David came near to the peoplen ng,"2i:r
he hegan to ask them how they were.' ""ow- rag l & l J
ever, every bad and good-for-nothingman out
of the men that had gone with David3 answered 41snn:2
and kept saying: "For the reason that they did
not go with usC we will gjve them none of the
spoil that we delivered, except to each one his
wife and his sons, and let them Iead them and
go." a-ut David said: "You must not do that
way, m y b r o t h ~ r s ,with
what Jehovah has i$.pe:#&
given US," in that he salegunrdcd usV and gave i;;;fl
the marauder band that came against us into uph$;q,
our hand.^ " h d rvPlo will listen to YOU as t o VgFh
L., 5':':9
4 I.,
this saying?d For as the share of the one that
went down into the battie even so mil1 t h e share "1'3
of the ane that sat by the baggage* be, All will {:;f:2i1
""Along with David," or, "aftrr Dnvid." b"They," 3 1 S ~ ; "llcr,"
c411Tithus," LS-SSgSy r ~ t h r I six Ilrbrew ~nanuwril>ta;
''with tltc," h1. 4 "This sn?-itig?" 3fVgSy; "this aa;Fing? I:or klkcy
A m r~otless that1 mou are," L X S .

have a share togethe."' e5AndIt came about

rs 6B:n from t h ~ day
t forward that he kept it set as a
regulation and a, judicial decislon for Israel
down to this day.
26 When David came to Zik'lag he proceeded
to send some of the spoi1 to the older men of
"Here I s a aft blessPr 18:lfi Judah, his f r i ~ n d ssaying:
Isa 32:s
33:11 ing for you from the spoil of Jehovah's ene:% ;BiiF rnie~."~ITTo those who were in Beth'el,%nd t o
those in Ratmoth+of the south, and t o those in
Jat'tir,' 2%nd to those in A.ra%er,and to those
J O Z 21.14
.in Siph'moth, and to those in Esh.te.rn~'a,~
' a
d t o those in Ra'ml, and to those In the
nlSa n : I O
cities of the Je-rah'rne-el.ites,n and to those In
,::$zifi" the cities of the K e n ? t e ~ ,80~ and t o those in
wJos19:4 Hor'mah,~ and to those in Borta.shan,L and to
-. n33.7 those In A'thach, and t o those in Hc'bron,'"
~ n s i 9 : ~and to all the places where David had walked
1Ch 4.32
lckt s:59 :about, he and his men.
IrJns 13333
Now the Phi81isttines were flghting
gain st E~rael,~
and the men of Israel
took to fllght because sf the Phi.llsrt~nesand
~ 14171%ID:I
12:B: they kept falling d o w r dain in Mount'a.r
xis0 28:4
And the Phi.lis'tlnes kept in dose range of
Zha 1.21
Saul and his sons, and the PhLlis'tines ~t last
struck down Jon'a.than* and A,bin'addabaand
A ~ ~ 9: h~ 9MUch!-shu'&,"Saul's sons. "nd
the fighting
.became h e ~ v against
Saul, and the shooters, the
bo~vrnen,final1 y Eound him and he got severewounded by the shooters.&: d Then Saul said
L I ~ ,l4:6
to his ~rrnor-bearer: "Draw your sn1ord*and
l5r117:26 I
1 : 2 ~ run me through tvith it, that these ~zncircum,l#jr!I.?s
, , . ,,,,:, Icisedo men may not come and eertalnly run me
* "l\mlhe got nrrrrrly tvound~dby the sllootrrs." To ngrre d b
JO?O 21:s


r,F' ;,

1 , X S . Rnt 31 litrrnllg rends: '"nil he was in nlnch nnguigh from

I h ~ )wliootem!'

through and deal abusively with me." And his

armor-bearer was unwilling, because he was
very much afraid." So Saul took the sword and
fell upon it." When his armor-bearer saw that *gg
Saul had died, then he too fell upon his own f?;;:
i c h 10:14
sword and died with him.k Thus Saul and his RlCh
three sons and his amor-bearer, even all his
men, came t o die together on that day.n ' When n,t$:$
the men of Lsrael that were in the region of t h e &",h9;f:6
low plain and that were in the region of the
Jordan saw that the men of Israel had fled and
t h a t Saul and his sons had died, then they began
to leave the cities and flee, after which t h e
Phi.lis'tines came on in and took up dwelling
rLe 26:32
in themar
8 And it came about the next day that, when
the Phi.listtines came to strip the slain,. they
got t o find Saul and his three sons fallen upon 2Ch 20:25
Mount'a.D And they proceeded t o cut
off his headu and strip off his armorv and send zF3?$,g
into the land of t h e Phi.lisrtines dl around to y:c,;!zo
informy the houses of their idols= and the people. l o Finally they put his a m o r ' in the house *1Sa~1:9
of the Ash'to.rethD images, and his corpse they 'Js
fastened on the wall of Beth-shan." "And as
regards him, the inhabitants of Ja'besh-gil'e.ad2 ;$;a ;ZI
got t o hear what the Phi.lisrtines had done to Z S 21:12
Saul. 'Vrnmediately all the valiant men rose up +2Ch 16:14
and went all night long and took t h e corpse of
SauI and the corpses of his sons off the wall of e~~ c -3 52; ~~
Beth-shan and camea to Ja'besh and burned
them there.' l-en
they took their boness and "yg,"&3$
buried" them under the tamarisk" tree in Ja'- QKi9:28
besh, and they went fasting f o r seven days.' #Ge":lo


or, according t o the fll-eek Septuagktt,



{(And came," MVg; '<and brought them," LXXSy. Compare

1 Chronicles 10 : 12.

And it came about after Saul's death and

when David himself had returned from
striking down the A.rnal'ek.itesa' that David
JOS 1'33
=a 27:s continued to dwell at Zik'lagn two days. And it
came alsout on the third day that there a manA
from the camp, from Saul, with his
, ~ ~ j $coming
aparto and dirt' upon his headiO
( GC 3732.9
that when he came to David
Jos 14.b
h e a t once felldownto theeartheandprostrated
* 20:41 himself.
3 And David proceeded to say to him : "Where
2"a14:4 do you come from?" at which he said t o him:
al~116:16 ' L F r ~ m
the campe of Israel I have escaped+"*
*Job 1:15
And David went on t o say t o him: "How did
the affair turn out?" Tell me, please." To this
he said: "The people have fled from t h e battle
and also many of the people have faIIen so that
t h e y died," and even Saul" and Jon's-thana his
son have died." Then David said to the young
man that was teIling him: 'How do you really
know that Saul has died and also Jonfa.Ulanhis
son?"t At thk t h e young man that was telling
him said: "I unexpectedly chanced t o be on
Gil.bora,uand there was Saul supporting
upon his spear,v and, look! the chariotv llt+.ti 31:4
eersb and the mounted men had caught up with
1% 30.18




Sy and Eve Hebrew manllsoripts; "AmfaIrk," l I L L X V g , JJ Or, f'chnriots."



2 SAMUEL 1:7-16


hlm.y ' When he turned back and saw me,then yIlsrt

C 1W3
~ a
he c d l d me and I said, 'Here I am?'*a And he zJg9:went on t o say to me, 'Who are you?"t which *g;e+;
Y said t o him, 'I am an A.mal'ek~~te."
* Then he N U 24:20
said, 'Stand, pIease, over me and deflnitely put DISe,21555~13
me to death, for the crampRhas seized me, be- %
cause all my soulCzis yet in me.' 'a So X stood :t:$l,r.
over him and definitely put him to death: for D e a : p s
I knew that he could not live" after he had :Fgiy
fallen. Then I took the diadem* that was upon $
: %;;8
his head and the bracelet that was upon his e;",";f;3o
arm, that I might bring them to my lord here."
I1 At this David took hold af his clothes and
rlpped them apart' and st, did all the men also
that were with him. And they began to wail
and weep and fast until the evening over Saul
and aver Jon'a-than his son and over the people
of Jehovahb and aver the house of Israel, because they had fallen by the sword.'
13 David now said to the young man that
was telling him: "Where are you from?" t o
which he said: "I am the sonC of a tempornrp
resident, an A.rnal'ek.iEe.'" l4 Then David said
to him: 'Wow was it that you did not Pear* to
thrust your hand out to bring the anointedckof
Jehovah to ruin?" With that Davld called one
of the young men and said: 'Go near, Smite
hlm."n Accordingly he struck him down so that
he d1ed.P '"avid then said t o him : "The bloodfor youd be upon your own head,r because your own mouth has testified against


Pr 24:17
x2Sa 1!8


v2Sa 1 : I n
YO 51.1~
2r31 %:25
klsn 3 1 : ~

c2rcl 9 2 4
r l ) c d:10




5 ? s n31.8
I\lb 4.2






you,U saying, Z myself definitely put the

anointedn d Jehovah to death.'"'
17 And David proceeded to chant this dirgeJr
Over Saul and Jon'a.than hfs sonn '"and to say
that the sons of Judah* should be taughtm "The
Bow."-" There it is written in the book of

"The beauty,' 0 Israel," Is slain upon your

LH 2:1

r 1 1 c 1I I:=
Bl lr W:27

lslr 3 1 3

h?!C ]:lo

L J w:in
J C l~t ) : ~

=EMl 5 : M
1% 19!B

SlCh 10:4

klSa 17:s
I S I I91.4
nlCh 10:i
25rt 233.4





Or, "giddil~~ss?9p. T'he exact meanin of the IIehrew word is

#till unsnutnin, 'Wmab,'' JI\.g$y; *'~a!nh." I n .0 'ubnointed."
31, mn.slhi'trkk; SF, ?*'skihh; L X S , chrqla.toe'j T'g, chrig'ttcs. d Liternlly, "yonr bloods," &I.

~r 6:2
Lu In:m

high places.

How have the mighty' men fallen!

"Do not, yw people, tell it In Gath;'
Do not announce it: in the streets of
For fear that the daughters of the Fhi.lis'tines may rejoice,'
For fear that the daughters of the uncirc
c men
~ may
" exult.le
"YOU mountains of'a,n let no dew, let
no rain' be upon YOU,' nor let there be
fields of holy c o n t r i b u t i ~ n s , ~ ~
Because there the shielda sf mighty ones
was befouled,*

The shield of Saul, so that there was none

rlKI 1:anointede with oil.=*
elSn 10.1
2z "From the blood of the slain, from the fat
1 1 % 2:4
of rnightyt ones,
ulBn 14:8
The bow of Jon's-than did not turn hack,u
1Yrr 16:4
And the sword of Saul ~vouldnot return
vlJa 14:d7
aJ "Saul and JonJa.than, the lovable ones and
y l s a 1a:r
the pleasant ones,+
nlSn M.1
their lifez and fn thelr death* they were
' 1 9 1 31:B
not separated.
."Arinint~d." S P ~rel-+ic 14, footnote c. Or, " t h ~Cprigl~tOne."
" lq'ic*l[lm of fir~tfruitx," LX9T7g, Or, 'krejectrd wit11 Iuntling,''

a L ' l \ i ~n ~
t cid d 1 q 1 ,nlrl


SwIPteP than the eagles" they were,
MSghtie? than the lionsw they were.
'You daughters of Israel, weep over Saul, i; $g
Who clothed YOU in scarlet with flnery, ,;y:,J$
Who put ornamerats of gold upon YOUR ; ? q p ~
;:0PB ti.s::~a
"How have the mighty ones fallen in the *asn I:IQ


Ln 8:lR
midst of the battle!'
Jon'a.than slain upon your highP places! m{{ngj&
Pa "I am distressed over you, my brotheP
*Mu 18:X
Very pleasant you were to me."
More mamelous was your love to me than *I& 18:s
the love from women.'
ISa 18:s
1Sn N:17
"How have the mighty ones fallenk
IS3 21J 41
1Sn :'J 16
And the weapons of war perished!""
k'2sn 1:19
And it came about afterwad that Dnvld
proceeded to inquire of Jehovah,r saying: $
"Shall I go up into one of the cities of Judah?"" :gt$%,
At this Jehovah said to him: "Go up." And ;z;y;;
David went on to say: "Where shall I go up?'harsn
i ( ; ~ ZB
Then he said: 'To He%ron."t Accordingly yr:;y;;c;a4
David {vent up there and also his two wives, 15, al:al
A.hin".amu the Jez' Ab'l=gailvthe
1 ~ 37:s
wife of Na%d t h e CarJmel.ite, "nd
the menr "Isn
that were with him David brought up, each with ;; <;?
his household, and they tmk up dwelling in the f; q,;
cities of He'bmn [tenltory]: Then the men Eic_n!f:h
: 1 2
of Judah' came and anointedB David there as e Jl K, ,l~~I:l5
kingp over the house0 of Judah."
n s n ri:z.
And they came telling David, saylng: '$The*r;pdo:s
men of Ja'besh-gilre-ad+were the onea that $3"g;:;
burled Saul." Hence David sent messengers 2f!;;f,s
t o the men of Ja'besh-gilPehad
and said to them: QlSn 31:11

Rnther, grifon dtures, b African lions.


2 SAMUEL 26-13

''Blessed may mu be of Jehovah,- because m

this laving-kjndnessm toward YOUR

lord,b towa1.d Saul, in that YOU buried him.

And now may Jehovah exerclse toward YOU
lovin&-kindness~and trustworth inessd and I,
too, shall exercise to you this goodness because
YOU have done thls thing.' ' And now let POUR
C2Sa 21:20 hands8>
strengthen themselves and prove your"2Sa
selves valiant men," because yaun lordb Saul is
OIK1 4:25 dead and it Is even I nlhom the 1,louse of Judah"
have anointedc as king" over them."
Dc 2-37
8 As for Ab'nern the son of Ner the chi@
of the army that had Exlonged to Saul, he took
IQh-bO'sheth,S Saul's son, and proceeded to bring
12Sx 3::
2 ~ 4:s
acrosslQo Ma.ha.naPim,*" and to make him
1C3 8.33
mlic, r::i
king over Gil'e.adw 'and the Ash'uc.ftesc and
rE xG i33:Z
W:B JeZlre.eIVand over E'phra.imcY and Benjamin2
2Sa 1727
and over Israel, a11 of it. Forty years old
tNu 32:1
e2$A1Ish-bo'sheth, Saul's son, was when he became
d two years he ruled as
;$; iz;g8 king over Isrrael, ~ n for
of Judah" proved them:&;BdU
selves followe~sof David. " And the number of
the days that David proved to be king in HE', = %. bran over the house of Judah came to be seven
;?!i,?Y years and six m o n t l ~ s . ~
$ ~ ~ ~ ?12 ~Inmtime Ab'ner the son of Ner and the
a ~ ~ ~w7 aj nmt s of Ish-bo'sheth, Saul's son, went out
from'fmAt o Glbceaon.#la As for Jo'aab*
+l$gj%lthe son of Zearu'isthmand the servants of David,
iy;Ei23 they went outf and later met together by the
2.18 pool" of Gfb'e.on, and they kept sitting, these

Ilr, "loyal love," *Zord," M,,sim', the p l n r ~ lof cando'wP.See

1 Hunmel 20: 38, footnote a . 0 Or, "trul.11."d "Bring him out of the
mr~ip,"L-Y3. m"Gesh'ur.itesT VgSy; "Aab'cr.itee," T. fNWent
11111 from He%ron," L.LTiA,

2 SAMUEL 2 :I623


on this side of tbe pool ma those on that side

of the pool. l4 Finally AbRnersaid to Jo'ab: "Let
the young men rise up, please, and let them put

to turn aside, and Ab'ner got t o strike him in the

abdomen* with the butt ends of the spear, so that
=a m:10 the spear came out from his back and he fell
there and died where he was. And i t came about
that all those who came to the place where
"zsam:12 &'a-he1 fell and t h e n died would stand still."
24 And Jo'ab and A.bish'ai went chasing
after Ab'ner. As the sun was setting they thcmselves came to the hill of Am'mah, which is in
front of Gi'ah on the nay to the tvilderness of
Gibre.on.* 16 And the sons of Benjamin" went
#JW 8 2 7
collecting together behind Ab'ner, and they
2Ch 1 3
came t o be one company and kept standing upon
the top of one hill. And Ab'ner began to call
k2Sall:Ei to Jjo'ab and s a y : "Is the sword going to eat
Isa 1:endlessly?k Do you not really know that bitterJ
is what will develop a t Inst?ll How longyr
;:%/% ness
nPr IT14 then, will it be before you say to the people to
turn back from following their brothers?"e
Ps 4:2
Jcr 4:21 ? T At that Jo'ab said: "As The 1true] Godb is IivnAc 7:26
rlsa1~.3gkg,' if you had not spolcen,u then a111y by the
1Sa 2226
morning would the people have been withdrawn,
1I<i 2:24
2Kt 2:3
one from following his brother."
,,, ,:, each
now- blew the trumpetv and all the people came
1 ~ ~ ; ~ ~ : : ~ .
to a halt and dl$ not contlnue chasing after
I,U 1 4 . n
Y J O S ~ : ~ ISrael any more, and they did not renew the
J r 3T
IS^ 1 3 3 fighting any more.
ass 1R:lB
29 As for Ab'ner and his men, they marched
ylh? 1:7
through the Arra.l>ahr all t h ~ night
and went
, I
5il 25:4
st:,, 32.10 crossing the Jordan* and marching tl~roughthe
entire gully and flnnlly came to'im.*
,,:, ,:,
; ;$ !+;$ As for Jo'ab, he tuyned back from following

zt $p

on a combat before us."* To this Jo'ab said:

'"t them rise up." l b SO they rose up and went
across by number, twelve belonging to Benjamin and Ish-bo'sheth," Saul's son, and twelve
from the servants of David. InAnd they began
grabbing hold of one another by the head, with
the sword of each one in the side of t h e other,
so that they fell down together. And t h a t place
came ta be called Hel'kath-haz.zu'rirn," which
is in Gib'e.omn
17 And the fighting came to be extremely ;;%A7
hard on that day and Ab'nerr and the men of
Israel were finally defeat* before the servantsn,;j:4;r
of David. ' W o w the three sons of Ze.ruYlaht I S ~ P G ~ ~
happened t o be there, Jo'abu and A.bishPaiyand :?
As'a4hel,y and As's-he1 was swift2 on his feet ,,$:',~~~~
like one of the gazelIes that are fn the opcn :,I:<:;$;!
field. '"And As'a.he1 went chnsing after Ab'ner, g;;;:;;
and he did not incline to go to tile right* or t o
the left from following Ab'ner, '"At length ~ " t li;o
Ab'ner locked behind him and said: "Is this v31q" .: ~'141:la
you, As'a-hel?" to which he said: "It is I." :,'",:t:,
Then Ab'ner said t o him: "Veer to your rjght $14;
or to your left and seize one sf the young men" ;%;.:11.?,?,
as yours and take what you strip" off him rrs
yours." And As'a-he1 did not want to turn aside *Jrl..
"I:] 2% 2
fiwm fallowing him. z z 20 Ab'ner said t o As's-he1 a, 5 , T T : ~
yet again: "Turn your course aside from follorving me. Why should I strilr;e"yo
down t o t h e
carth?O HOW,then, cor~ldI raise my face to O ~ ~ \ ~ ~ ~ l o Jo'ab your brother?'" z 9 But he kept refusing + z s a 3 ; s
Or, "the hinclw p n r t , ' b s ~ i h l ylvi tli n hnc,!wnrrl moor~nentof the
tq,mr. b "The [tmp] 006" 31, i n . W i . a . l ~ i m, tllo d ~ f l n i nt ~r t i ~ l eha
3Ienning "Field of Flints." Or,p m i h l y . "Field of Rides" ia in( "'l'l~c") here prcr-~rlingtbe rrtlp IS'!' d o ~ ~ J ) t fur
l c ~ elupt~aeis.




b "Following

me lest 1 strike," L.LT:.

I,?; .Y lrgS;r; i'Jehovali.''

2 SAMUEL 2;31-3:7

you had relations with the concubineq of
1K12:21 father?" '"And Ab'ner got very angry at

Ab'ner and began to collect all the people together. And there were missing from the sewants of David nineteen men and AsPa.hel, And
the servants of David, for their part, had struck
doun those of Benjamin and of the men of


words of Ish-bo'sheth and went on to say: "Am

I a dog's' headHthat belongs to Judah? Today

2434 I keep exercising lovlng-kindness& toward The

were three hundred and sixty

men that died.= And they proceeded to carry :!zl,$?#
As'a.he1 and bury him in the burial place" of
his father, which is at Beth'le.hern.Then J o ' R ~ ;2.,,r
r. 11 tR.l.1
nnd his men went marching on all night long 21 11:[,I
and it k c m e daylight for them at He'bron.' ':$?$+"
Rib 1-19
And the war beb'c-en the hame of Snul
sod t h e house of David came to be long
:;:;ij:3 I . Y ~
and David kept getting stlanner .yie
and the house of SauI kept declining more and n 35 113 l
24 71 11:1
U'Ilil X.I:30
2 Meantfme, sons were born t o Davjd in 1%'%?<la
bran,' and his first-born came t o be Amhonk
by A.hin'sbarnnthe Jez' And his !:;,B,F,
swond was ChiI'e.abl' by Ab'i.gnllu the wife o f
Na'bal the Cartmel.ite, and the third was Ab'sa- 4
ir:'al\ 1s:1
n 13,~ ~ 4 3
lorn' the son of Ma'a.cah the daughter of Ta1'- rlr'ti :T 1
mail1 the king of Gesh'ur. And the fourth was ~Iw1 57e25.49
1:m'jahv the son of Hagtgith,Y and the flft h
war Slleph.a.ti'ahz the son of A+biFtal."nd
sixth was Ith'rem' by Eglah, David" wife, l t : 1 3 . 3
These were the ones born to David in He'bron.
6 And it came about that while the war
between the house of Saul and the house of
David kept up AbrneP himself was continually
strengthening his position in the house sf Saul, n$t$&
? Now SauI had had a concubineo whose name 02Snla:1s
was R i ~ ' p a h , the
~ daughter of A'iaheb Later t,22,R$+i,R1
Ish-bo'sshetha' said to Ab'ner: "CVhg was it that +ns:l2:io




a "'lsh-lro'sh~th," L-LTTp!;r; "he,"



2 5 8 9.8

house of Saul your father, to l~jsbrothers and

his personal friends, and I have not let you find
PS 2:6
yourself in the 11and of David," and yet you
call me t o account for an error concerning a
woman today. So mny God do t o Ab'ner and
X a 1:17
5.17 SO may he add to it,^' if, just RS Jehovah swore
to David,* that is not the way that I shalt do t o
~ 25:22
l a so as to transfer the kingdom from the
2%; 1 ~ ~ 1him,
1KL 19:2
*ISX 1593 house of Saul and to estnblish the throne of
f 31 2 ~ 1 7Davld eyer Israel and over Judah from Dant to
FZg.2 Beper-she'ba."~ And he was not able to say
one word more in reply to Ab'ner because of
J E20::
being afraid of him,'
1 1 ~ 142.5
r ~ s 3:33
12 Accordingly Abtner sent messengers ta
David on the spot, snyit~g:"To whom does the
~29aZO:l land belong?"y adding: "Do conclude your coveau16:8
nant with me,' and, look! my hand will be with
YOU to turn to your side the whole of Israel.""
*32 a~ 19:X4
,;? TOthis he said: "Good! I myself shell conclude
2l 5i 3h 1941
a covenant tvitll you. Only one thing there is
that I am asking of you, saying, 'You may not
c...3 . ~ : 2 3 see my face- except nrst you bring Mi'chal,"
( : p 4 . a : ~ *6ad's daughter, when you come to see m y
A I S R 1E:20
Further, David sent messengers to
1 5 n l f i . 2 ~ face."'
1511 19:11
"Do give aver
IS,, 19:17 Ish-borsheth,+Saul's son, s~ylng:
sl:<j:gjz\my wife Mitchal,whom f engaged t o myself for a
of the Phi.lisPtines."'"0 Ish';;:;
bo'sheth sent ~ n tool<
d her from her l~usband,b
ZTA& Pal'ti.elss the son of La'ish, '"ut her husbanda
a IEr, ''Iogerl love." b"Ber Lnrrhnnd." LSXTgS7; "a man," N.
a 1 hltcd simply *'Pal'tiJ'at 1 Snmuel 26 : 44,
X i i &:I3


2 SAMUEL 3:17-24



2 SAMUEL 3 ~ 2 5 4 2

kept walking with her, tveeping' as he walked.
m a 1 9 : 6 and said: "What have you d ~ n e ? ~ L o oAb'ner
after her as Ear as B a . h ~ V i r nThen
. ~ Ab'ner said
has come to you. W h y was it that you sent him
llil 19:18
to him: "Go, return!" At that he returned.
off so that he successfuIly went away? 23 You
17 Meanwhile there had come to be cornmu-'
svell know Ab'ner the son of Ner,R that it was
nlcatlon by Ab'ner with the older men of Lsrael,
t o fool you that he came and to get to h o w
saying: "Both yesterday and previauslyk YQV I C ~~1 : a
going out and your m i n g in and to get
proved yourselves seeking David as king over
everything that you are dojng."'
De ~ 8 . 6
unu. I%nd now act, for Jehovah himself saidn
that J o k b went out Erom David and
1'- l"1:S
to David, 'By t h e hand of Davfdr my servant I Il S:f&t 111L.19
Iqn 57::s
after Ab'ner, and they then
H,c 13:1S
shall save my people Israel from the hand of r;;;$$
,J 14.13 had him return from the cistern of Si'rnh; and
the Phi.lisftines and from the hand of all their PS i3517
David himself did not know of it, 3 \+'hen Ab'$<:fi;l
enemies,' '"* Then Ab'ner also spoke in the cars
ner returncd to He'bron,' Jo'ab not$*led him
of Benjamin," after which Ab'ner also went t o
Pr 27::
aside inside the gate to speak with him quietly."
nne 2
speak In the ears of Davld a t He'hron all that bt",?j;o
'sa 2 23 Ho~vever,there he struck him in the abdomen*
sia 4 G
was good in the eyes of Israel ~ n din the eyes
?+ 2n:ro so that he died because of the blood of As'amhelk
l h l 2:5
of t h e whole house of Benjamin.
his brother. When David heard of it afterk:Ya2.19
-5% 2:3
20 When Ab'ner came to Dnvld at HeWon,
ward, he at once said: "I and my kingdom, from
and with him twenty men, Dnvjd proceeded t o
the standpoint of Jehovah, are innocentn formake a feast3 for Ab'ncr and for the men that e1Ksm5
ever of blood guilt"^ for Ab'ner the son of Ner.
\yere with him.t " Then Ah'ncr snid to David: "zgiz
?D May it whirl back upon the headm
of Jo'ab and
8 J~
: $
9~ 5
"Let me rjse up and ga and callcct all Israel E 2 l : a
; there not be cut off from Jo'ab's houseand
together to my lord the king, that they may
P X 7.16
8 man
1's 91:')3
conclude a covenant with you, and you will cerwith a running dischargeu or a lepergvor a man
P, 5.22
(2Ki 1 1
tainIy become king over all that your soul
,lsa 2 3 2 'taking hold of the twirling spindlev or one fallcraves.'""~ David sent Ab'ner off and he got on UE:2;g
P j 1m:10
ing by the sword or one in need of bread!" " &
rs ao:.~
his way in peace.
XU 5 2
vf+$ 13 44 for Jatab and A-bish'aia his brother, they killed
22 And here David's servants nnd Jo'ab were
-k15:n Abtner* over the fact that he hacl put As'a.hel
j ' P r 3139
corning from a raid and the spoilv that they $
x 3 a 2.24 their brother to death a t Gibre.on in the battle.=
1Sa 14.9
brought with them was great. As for Ab'ner, he
25a r:5
31 Then David said to So'ab and all the peo1's 2.5.17
was not with David in He'bron, for he had sent
, ~ 2 6 : 4 ple that mere with hirn: "Rip Youn clothes
<'1I<i 20:31
hirn off and he was on hie way in peace. '3 And
aparti rind tie on sackclothm and wall before
t s 2 ~ n2:22
f-.los $:6
J Q ' R ~nnd all the army that was with him came
Ab'ner." Even King David was walking behind
in, and they now reported t o Jo'nb,s saying: s:z,"fit
the couch,' And they had the burial of Ab'ner
'"Anex" the son of Her* came to the king, and z;;;;:,:.E
he proceeded to send him off and he is on his ,;;;;,;,,
"l'ou sent bin1 off that be might go in peace? " 00r do yon not
nbnlly hnoa the bndnrss of Ab'ncr the son of Serl'' L-LY, Literway in peace." % S o Jo'ab went jn to the king
nlly, "bloodsl" N.




In He'bron, and the king began to raise his

voice and weep at Ab'ner's burial place, and all
the people gave way to weeping.' And t h e king
went on to chant over Ab'ner and say:
"As with the death of a senselesse person m2Sa
Pr 18:7
should Ab'ner die?
Jer 17:lI
Lu 12:20
"Your hands had not been bound ones,' "Ps
And your feet had not been put into fet.
ters of copper.*
"As one falling before the sons of mright.
eousness* y o u have fallen."
At that all the people wept" over him again,
35 Later all the people came to give David
breadk for consolation while it mas yet that day,
but David swore, saying: "So may God do t o me1
and so may he add t o it, if before the sun sets"
shaIl taste bread or anything at all!" 36 And all
the people themselves took notice and it w m good
in their eyes, Like everything that the king did
it was in the eyes of all the people goodBE
" And
all the people and all Israel got to know on that
day that it had not originated wit11 the king t o
have Ab'neru the son of ?Jer put to death. " And
the king went on to say to his servants : "DoYOU
not know that it is a princedand a great man that
has fallen this day in I~rael?~
$"~nd I today am z2S.a
* 1 C h 2:16
weaky althongh anointedz as king, and these WSa
2% 39:13
men, the scns of Ze.ruliah,' are too severe for A1K1
meo May Jehovah repay the doer of what is l l i l 2.34
Ps 7:16
bad according t o his o m n badness."*
Fs 2 8 4
bZaa 2:s
2Sa 3:7
When the sond of Saul heard that Ab'ner +2Sa
"had died* in He'bron, then his hands be- WSa
Err 4:4
came Imble" and all the Israelites themselves Ke
Isa 1 3 3
were disturbed." And there were two men, *XATt
2 S a 3:21
chiefs of the marauding bands,' that happened 2Ki 5:2

to belong t o the son of S a ~ lthe

, ~ name of the
one being Ba'a.nah and the name of the other
bejng Re'chab, the sons of Rim'mon the'oth.ite, of the sons of Benjamin; f o r'oth,k
too, used t o be counted as part of Benjamin.
~ * l sn
a :7 And the'oth.ites went running awayr to
"We 11:33,s and they came to be temporary residents there dorm t o this day.
4 Now Jonn'a.than,tSaul's son, had a son lame
in the feet. Five years old he happened to be
when the report about Saul and Jon'a.than came
from Jezrre.elJUand his nurse began t o carry
lsa31:2 him and flee, but it came about that as she was
running in panic to flee he then had a fall and
was lamed. And his name was Me-phib'o.sheth . Y
5 And the sons of Rh'rnon the 13e-er'oth.ite,
Rekhab and Bafa.nah, proceeded to go and come
of ~Ish-bo'shethz
~to the kmousey
~ the day
~zsa2:s had warmed up, as he was taking his noonday
2sg 3-7
siesta. "nd here they came into the middle of
* $ $ ~ j ~the
l , houseasmen fetchingwheat*and thenstruck
"2Sa2:23 him in the abdomeqo and Re'chab and Ba'a-nahA
2% 3 2 7
2sa 20:10 his brother themselves escaped detection. "hen
WSn 4:2
they went into the house, he was lying upon his
couch in his inner bedroom, and then they struck
him so that they put him to death, after which
1~a31:9 they removed his head and took his headv and
walked on the road t o the Ar'a.bah all night
Iong. Eventually t h e y came bringing the head
';:.:?;;$;$:l of Esh-bo'sheth t o David a t He'bron and said to
the king: "Here is the head of Zsh-bo'sheth the
! ' ~ I ;'7415
1.1.1 :;;la!) son of Saul your enemy who looked f o r your
soul,@but Jehovah gave t o my lord the king re.'::l'y?to
venge" this day upon Saul and his offspring."
, , " , , 9 However, David answered Re'chab and BaJl n l t t ~ l d t rttr
~ ~ Isll-ko'sheth the son of Saul," LXX.
~ ' I L

2 SAMUEL 4:lO-5:4


amah hls brother, the sons of Rirn'rnon the b?Sa
% He'bron he mtlecl ns klng over Judah for
2~ I f 9.3'oth.ite, and said to them: "As Jehovah *r;r:l h i ~ 2 : )
151 seven years" and six months, and in Jerusalem3
: he ruled as king for thirty-three years over an
who rcdwrned' my soulDout of all distressc is i:: ;f:;
1Ch 3:3
living when there was one reporting to rne,Ic
Israel and Judah. Cahsequently the king and his
saying, 'l-Iere Saul is dead,' and he himself in 7;
men went to Jerusalemv ngafnst the Jeb3u.sitesY
!>\I C I ,10~
his own eyes became like a bringer of good news,
inhabiting the land, and they began to say to
; : : 1 4!:
I , however, took hold of him and killed him In "j!f 2l;:i
David: "You will. not come in here, but the blind3
Zik'lag when it was due [for me] t o ~ i v chim ",:; y1;7,,
and the lame ones noillcertainly turn you away,"
the messenger's fee;n " how m ~ ~ more
c h so when r:;'cil;;23a
they thinking: "David wHI not come in l~ere."
Just the same, Davlcl proceeded t o capture the
wicked" menr themseives have killed a right.In
mus man in his own house upon his bed? k n d
t r o n g h oof
l d Zbn,x that is8the c i t p of David,*
now should I not require" his blood from Tovn
So David said on that day: "Anyone striking
hands and must I not clear YOU out of the ";-';'%':?
the Jeb'u.sites, let him,') by means of the water
"2K120:m tunnel,' make contact with both the lame and the
carth?":t Ig With that David commanded the :c2:,',l,:\
young men and they killed them11 and cut off
Mind, hateful to the soul of David!" That is why
their hands a d their feet and hangedv them hy t ; ; 5 ; : : !j3a
they say: "The blind one and the lame one mill
Ihe pool in He'bron, and the head of Tsh-ba'sheth - 1 13 1:
come J n t ~the Irouse," V n d David took up
J ~ r uJ.1.13
1 9'15 r
they took and then buried in the burial placer 2s.t
lK19:24 1 dwelling in the stronghold, find: it came to be
~ : I I
of Ab'ner in He'bron.
called the city of David, ~ n David
began to build
.I 1: R:2
In time all the tribes of Isrnel camez t o$;;<;1!;$;
David at He'bron* and said: "Look! u-e c i j a 21::~
:;i:o ~
e 1 : ~Jehovahq

ourselves are your bone and your flesh," Both IKrl
J S ~ II ~ ' : J S
1'- 4 6 : i
~o 8.31
11 And Hitt.arn' the king of Tyre proceeded
yesterday and previouslyAwhile Saul happened .:?:
I K I "0.9
send messengers t o David, and also cedar
t o be king over us, you yourself became t h e one, iY7;:&
* I l i i 5:2
leading Israel out and bringing it in.O And Jeho- e ~ ; ' ; l . ~ ! ~ ~ ~ , ~ 1 ; i , 5 : 9 tree6 and workers in wood and workers in
$?jl stone for a wall, and ihey began t o build a house
vah proceeded t o say to you, 'You yourself will ;;;FjF
for David,u l a And David came to know that
shepherd'rny people Israel and you yourself will <;\ ;:&
Jehovah had firm1y established him as king over
become leadee over Israel.' " a So all the older
1t-a 1 - i : ~ Israelk and that he had cxaltcd his kingdom fcr
men' of Israel came t o the k i n r a t Hethr.on a n d ":-t.h
J I : ~
11 11il 1 0 3
i i l H' '3
-(.rl 2 : u
the sake of his people Israe1.l'
Icing David concluded a covenant"1' with them Pl
rzsa lf15
I.:.: 4.14
13 Meantime, David went on taking more conin I Te'bron before J e k o ~ a hafter
, ~ which they ':?b.1:ji17
11,Jh' 13.11
lrl817.17 cubinesl' and wives: O L I ~of Jerusalem after he
nnolntcdr David as king over Israe1,a
1411 53,117
l(.I1 3:g
14:a came from He'bron, and more sons and daugk4 ThIrty~years old David was when he be- rl.S:h
n1.u 9,23
j$!t ters eantlnued t o be born t o David. L4 And these
m n c kdng. Far forty yearst he ruled as king. t1c.1) ~ l r ~ s




1 :#a

a t I I ~'L!'r'om
r ~ t 'thin

Mil'Io [nhesning filli in^'],'* b The fimt aocmmce

Kin@ 19: ltl, 14.

See 1


me t h e names of those born to hfm in Jerusa- ;:Ek!;:4

lem: Sham'mua~ and Shdbabt ~ n dNathan' 11:t;i;P
and Sol'o.mon,v =%and
f i ' h a r r and ;F,; ;:,%4
and Ne'pheg* and Ja-phi'a," '%d E.Iish'a.maAh r t . t ~ a n
1 ' I C'll 1 Ill3
and E-li'a-da- and E-liph'e-let.'
rl(-lt 3
17 And the Phi.lis'tineso got to hear that they 1??/i:lr7
had anointed David as king aver I ~ r a e lAt
. ~ that
all the Phi.lisrtinescame up to look for David. It;,
When David heard of it, then he went down t o I!" 11:1"
the place hard to approach.' And the PF~i.lis'-";%E4&
tines, for their part, came in and kept tramping F.:,%::;e
f i c IS:.;
about in the low plain" of Reph'a.irn.UQAnd * slIL'l1
David began to issquire of Jehovah," saying: r + n 17:s
"Shall I go up against the Phi-lir'tinea? Wlll y w %, i?.:r
give them into my hand?" At this Jehovah said lzg <?it~ David:= "GO up, for X shall without fail give r$E;:!
the Phi.lis'ttines into your hands," 2"0 Davjd
came t o Ba'al-pe.raPzima and David got to strilre D r s a 2 8 2 1
them down there. At that he said: "Jehovah has
broken through my enemies3 ahead of me,like a Or"
gap made by waters,"" That is why ha caIlec1 the m2Sa*:t2
name of that place Ea'al-pe.ra'zim,at :L Conse- tlch14:fl
quently they left their idolsbu there and so trJ1.$aiO!B
r I? 7 :,5David and his men took them awayaV
1j~vT : * d
22 Later the Phitlis'tines came up once agains ylC" ""I3
and tramped about in the low pIain of Reph'aimaa At that David inquired' of Jehovah, but rf;:t\yt5
he said: "You must not go up. Go around t o
the r e a p of them and you must come against
them in front of the ba'ca bushes."" And let it ~ ~ c b ' i . l : i r
occur that when you hear the sound of a marchSngd' in the tops of the ba'ca bushesc at that "KI 7:s

Menning Yinster of Breakings TThrongb," b "Idols," hIVg8p;

"gods," LU. "Gods," at 1 Cbronides 14: 12. 3n.m' (in tho
~ I u P R ~ ) , N; "plnce of wwping,'QAU.
"The ~narching," nt
I Chronicles 14:15.

2 SAMUEL 5:25--6:6

time you act with declslon,' because at that time

Jehovah will have gone out ahead of you t o
strike down the camp of the Phl.lis'tine~."~
=%ccordingly David did that way, just as Jehovah: had ordered him, and he went striking
da~vnthe Phi.lis?hes from Ge'baa' to as far
as Ge'2er.k
And David proceeded again to gather

the choice men in Israel,11thirty thousand.

- Then David and all the people that were with
rJns 1Tr.Q
i3;jl: UP from there the arkr$of The [ m e ]
IS called by a name,t t h e name of Jehovah of
11.41. :2:
~ 6113
armics,sl sitting an the chen~hs.'~ However,
22 11
thcy had lhe ark of The [true] Godc ride upon
$ a new ntaaon,*y thth~tthey might carry it from
:l r - 1y1 ,!:l\;17.21
~ the Iiouse of A.binta-dablzwhich was on the bill,
and Uz'z~k*and A.hi'olothe sons of A.binTa.dab,
1 ~ 1 :25:!!!2
were leading the new wagon.
I > < RI:I
4 SO they carried it from A,bln'a.dab's house,
]Sit 8::
was on the! hill with the ark of The [true]
l s 713:B
n: t
t 11 .I, 13:7 God,d ~ n A.hi'o
was walking ahead of the Ark.
And David and all the house of Israel were
celebrating before Jehovah with all sorts of in:!: ;!:; stmtments of juniper wood and with harpsc"and
l<L "
i1'r l 5 ivitll string instrumentsband with tambourines'
. I11: \'h1 13.3
5 . ~ 1 and rvith sfstntrnsCand svith ccymbaIs.@
a And
they came gradually as far as the threshing
r t4flprhh," M ; f i ~ . h d . p ~ 5 ' L-xy.
4 ' G i h t ~ ~ n at
, r '1 Chranicles 14:16.
b "Tlrc [ t ~ w r ] Ciod,'' M, Bn-EI.o.Linrr, the title hsrilig the definite
rlriiidt- An ("TIIF") hcforr it. I,,X?C
bo,T h ~ . a dAt
. 1 Chmnieles 13: 6






"The [trur] Ca
i1 Jelh~rnh.''=''The :trne] Gad."' ,\I, ha-

b t rr.hirnf, tllc dt~tl~ritc

twlic-le I~tr ("T~P'') h e i ~ ~ c, a~ d e n t l pprefiged
I ~ , r~rrilrllnsi+. J.SS, ",J(rl~ovnl~,''d 'Tlln [trnc] God." lI, Ira-E1.o/,I 11,'. I l ~ r( I l h H ~ l i tn~r t i r l ~~ I C I ( "Tl~e?')
Ilcflg evidently p r d x e d f o r


Ur) + b ~ ~ ~rnitl~.''

2 SAMUEL 6 :7-14


floor of Na'eon,& and Uz'zahmnow thrust [his

hand] out t o the ark of The [true] Godb and xu 4 ~ 1 9
grabbed hold of it,' for the bulls nearly caused y:2j22
an upset. :At that Jehovah's" anger blazed O2ICi 24:20
against Uz'znh md The [true] Godb struck him
down1<there for the irreverent act so that he
died there close by the ark of The [true] Godabt>


Alid D ~ v j dbecame angry over the fact that

Jehovah had broken through in a rupture
against Uzhzah, and that place came to he caller1
Petrez-uzkzahc down t o this day.r " And DavlcF rlCml
became ~frnid'of Jehovahvn that day ancl be- :iF1fiz
gan to say: "How will the ark of Jehovah came
t o me?"t And David was not willing to remove ,:;;~fi";&N
the arlc of Jehovah t o him ~t the city of Dnvirl.u
So David hnd it carrier1 FL~.ide to the house of
VICR 1 9 : ~
O'bed-e'dorn' the Git'tite.~
1Ch 15:s
11 h n d the ark of Jchovah kept dwelling at &::Ti4
the house of O'bd-e'dom the Git'tite three $2; $;;:
months, and Jehovah Iccpt h l ~ s s i n gO'bcd-e'dom
and all hls househoId.~TinnIlyt h e report was
made to Ring David, saying: "Jehovah has * i c h 1 3 : ~
blessed the house of O'bed-e'dom and all that
is his on account of the ark" of The [true] D1c1'15:1
God."" At that David proceeded to go and hrlng
the ark of The I t r u e ] God.' out of the house of ESz4
O'bed-e'dom up to the city of David with glad.
ness." l a And it came about that when the car- Ofi;;;;5
riersP of the ark of Jehovah had marched six l c h 15:ls
steps he Srnrnediately sacrificed a bull and w *$FA$,%
14 And David was danclnp around before Je- ~~~i~~

hovah with all his power, fill the while Davld begirded with an cph'od' of linen. '"And David
.3e1$?Fand all the house of Israel were bringing up the
l(;zf;&?f aarlcDof Jehovah with joyful shoutinglr and tr'um1's 47.1
nXu 1u:2 petn sound. f l And it occurred that when the ark
of Jehovah came into the city of David Mi'cha1,r
Ezr 6330
1 1 3 Saul's daughter, herself lookcd d o \ n through the
1.2Sn 3.14
window' and got t o see King David leaping and
dancing around before Jehovah and she bemn to
despise* him in her hearLC:'Sothey brought the
Ps 69:7
ark of Jehovah in and set it in i t s place inside the
tent that David had pitched for it,t after rvhlch
David offered up burnt sacrificesUand cornmulll l l K l 8:s
?Ch 5 : ~ ion offeringsv before Jchovall. '"When David
was finished with offering up the burnt sacrifices
~ U - and
3 ~l.he
~ communiol~oflerings, he then blcssedy
rlChr6:2 the people in the name of Jehovah of ai.rnies,"
"Wrther, he apportioned to all the people, to
the ~vl-~olc
crowd of Israel, man as well as wornan, to each one a ring-shaped cake of bread and
a date cake and a raisin cake, after which all
&;Sjhh g% the p p l e went each to his o m house.'
20 David now returned to bless h3s own
"'cll1fi:43h o ~ ~ s e h o land
d , ~ Mi'chal, Saul's daughter, came
on out t o m e t David and then said: "How glorinpn
ous the king of Israel made himself todayk when
"'Kil:m he uncovered himself today to t h e eyes-of
slave girls of his servants just as one of the
empty-headed menuVncovers hjmself out'j:,Yi:,
right!" At this David said to Mi'chal: "It upas
before Jehovah, w h o l ~ c h o s eme rather than
I ~ I LtG:12
I .,T , : : ~ your father* and all his household t o put me in
Ih.lH f b : 3 I
command as leader over Jehovah's people Israel,
q S a 2%
l a a 2 2 : 1 ~ ing


,, ,,:,

Cnllrrl "Chi'don" n& 1 Chronirlr~i 13: 9, The [trnr] God." 31,

Ra-El.o.Rk~',the definite 01-ticlp ha (*'The") hhrinp ccf tlcntly prefixed for PIH~IIRSIR.
t Jle~l~litja
LIRuptnreagni 11sl I'x'znh," d "The
[true] htatl." hI, II a-El.o.binr ; L.LX, "the Lord''; Sy, "Jrhoeah."


" IC~~lptg-hendcd
mcn," M ;"dancers,"' LXS, b "It Tas before JehaVAII,
w l ~ r i ,M;
~ ~ ' L B ~ fJeho~ah
~ r ~ I sllnll dance, Blessed be Jehovnh,


and I will celebratee before Jehovah. P' And I w'sn
1Ch 1k29
tvill make myself even more lightly esteemed
thnn this' and I will become law in myn cy~s;**ISR
Isn 5 l : T
h l l 5:11
and with the slave girls whom you mentioned, *Jr,h
with them X am determined to glorjfy rnyself."l' k.lIS~ ;b \h .l%:G
" So, as regards Mi'chaPnnSaul's daughter, she nlSn
1Slh 1.q:20
came to have no childr dawn t o the day* of her 2 s : ~3:l:l
r15,:1 1:i;
R19,ri l5:.?J
And it came about that, when the king
dwelt in his own houset and Jchavah 11im- t16h 17:1
self had given him rest from all his cnernics
round ahout,u then t h e king proceeded t o say uJds
IKL 5:4
to Nathanv the prophet: "See, now, I am dwell- v2.C.n
l r i l ;?):a
ing in a house of cedars+ while the nrkx s[ The 2yzsn
1 ' . 1::i::
[true] God& is dwelling in the middle of cur*Ex
tnins."' 'Upon that Nathan said t o the king: 1Ctl*l9:21
l l i t h:17
"Everything that js in your heart-go, do: Dl<:li

bccause Jehovah is rvith you."

4 And it came about on that njght thnt the
word of Jehovaho came to Nathan," s n y l n ~ :yK,"g
YCII 17:s
8 1?3
" G o , and you must say t o my servant" David, olrcl
b l S C I S:d
i l H:18
'This is what Jehovah has said: "Should you J1T['I1
!I 2'27
yourself build me a house far me to drrvell in?" *J3 [:nc
a For I have not dwelt in a house from the day l l i l K::G
lt,'!l 17:s
of my bringing the sons of Israel up out of 511<1
O!?X %>:I4
Egypts to this day,' but I was conEinualIy walk- L P 21: ! 2.3
I>*2 , i : lt
I n q a b u t in a tenr and in a tabernacle.' ? Drrr- rnIc:t~
ing all the t h e t h a t I have walked nbotlt among nc .14I:'!q
~ 1 the
1 sons of Israel," ~vasthere a rvord that I * L C 2(i:1.2
spoke with one of the tribesc of Isltnelk that I lclCh
112Sil 2:2
1's 7X:71
commanded t o shepherdl"y people Israel, say- 3 s ; ~.ti>:21
in^, 'Why did YOU people not build me a ]louse Inr~ICL34:2
'+Mp," RIP.gSy; "your," LXX, b "The [truo] God,'' nl, RnX1.h

RI.o.hid, thr drfinite article k n ( " T ~ P " )p r c r ~ r l i ntlw

~ titlr E1,uItirlt', evidently f o r cmphziis. LA=, ho Thc4as8.
* "Trll,c.e," hlfg5jy;
''j~dgw>nt 1 Charides 17: 6,

" ' a And now this is what you will

servant David, 'This Is what Jehovah
x r 1.35 of armies has said: "I myself took you from the
2 C h 11:22 pasture ground from following the flock7f to
l t t 2:6
t l S a 16:14 1 become a Icaderp over my people I.srael, a And
ulSa 21:6 I shall prove to be with you \vherever you do
2Sa 22:l
Ps 18:R goi and I will cut off all your enemies on account
YGC 12i2
1Ch 11.8 of you,^ and I shall ccrt~lnly make for you a
Lu 152 great name,v IIkc the name of the great ones
1'PS 8i:3
t irci 1.40 that are in the earthmy And I shall certainly
z1Ch 1-29
Fs 3:8
appoint a place for my people' Israel and plant
Am 9:15
'PS m:22 tlxrnE and they wlll indeed wside where they
FEx 1:13
are and no more will they be disturbed,' and the
j g 4:3
"Jg 2 1 6
sons of unrightmcousness will not afflict them
(T's 46:9
'iKI 2.24 again as they did a t the first,'
even from the
mi 11:m
1 C h 17'10 day that 1 put judge9 in command over my peo1Ch 21Cr
Ps 89.4
ple Israel, and E: shall certainly five you rest
P S 1E:l
from all your cnernie~.~
FlKl 2:1
'De 31316
" ' "And Jehovah has told you that a house' is
lICi 1:al
Xc 13:36
SGc 154 what Jehovah wlll make for you. ' W h e n your
Ge 49:10
and you must lie down
11Ci 8:20 days come to the fullmi'
l s a 9.7
then I shall certainly
I < nI L : 1
h!L 21:9
you, which will come
nrt z w z
114' 2.37
and 1 shall indeed

rlSa 16:U

1Ch I T : 7
ClCh 4 3 9
s?Sa 621

'of cedars?'
'say to my


firmly estabIIsh his kingdom.'" He is the one

that will build a house for my name,k and I shall
:1L 16:iS
I ttlb 3 5 certainly establish the throne' of his kingdom
I i 2:s
y forever.a:r1 I" mysetf shall become his
; II IiL
1:37 M
li1 5 13 fatherr and he himself will become my ~ 0 1 1 . ~
I t ' l l ?5:7
's Rq 4
117hen he does \vrong,L then I shall certainly reI
I , T I 1:?3
prove him wit11 t h e roclrl of men and with the
! b l l h h17x3
blo~sysof the sons of Adam.?'In
A Afor
~ my lovingah11 J:17
I I l b l r 1'5
I I 4 l ,m:.w kindness," it will not dcpart from him the way
I t\.r,
lrr!23 I removed it from Saul,v tvhorn I removed from
. !*:I1 r Erh, "k, time inde8nit.e." Of, ''of nn earthling." M, adwn? '"of
IL l l < i .::5
It'13 22:lO
iiv 6 13







OrJ "Ioyal love,"

2 SAMUEL 7 :16-23


before you. le And your house and your kingdom will certainly be steadfast forevera before
you; your vcry throne will become one firmly
YPT 8 8 : s
estnbl khed forever.'" ' " 1 ~
17 According t o all these words and according t o all this vision was the way that Nathan
rlCh 1 ~ x 5
spoke to David."
18 At that King David came in and sat down
before Jehovah and said: "Who am I,' 0 Lord *Ge 32:10
J e h o v a b ? U n d what is my house that you have
brought me thus far?" l oAs though this should ";al;;;;
even be something little in your eyes, O Lord gc2y::;3
Jehovah,b yet you also speak respecting the *De9:5
house of your servant down to a distant future 30s
time, and this is the law given for mankind,c 0 ,&:1"2
Lord Jehovahqb"" And what more can David xy;l:f&,
add and speak to you, when you yourself know $21;::::
your servant
0 Lord Jehovah?b " For the
; 15:if
sake of your word' and in agreement with your #EX
1% 2:2
own hearl? you have done all these great things P.k s a : ~ ~
to cause your servant t o know them, "That is 2ay5:.%
why you are indeed great," 0 Lord Jehovahjh &;:?;!
for there is no other like you* and there is no g:it:839
Godd except youk among all of whom we have ,;~t~y~;f
heard with our ears. P%d what onee nationo n D e 4 h
Ps 147.20
in the earth is like your people Israel," whom GlKI
Godd wentf to redeemo to himself as a peoplef 'g; ?&
and t o assign himself anames and t o do f o r themE SF,"S%:16

$: : :

Or, "to time indefinite." bL'Lord Jehovnll." 31,' Fe.howilt'. See Genesis 16 :2, footnotes e, f. "Jlankind."
YE,A . d m w ~ ; LXX, "the man," dWGod,''11,El.o.hi~n'; L X X , ( ( k o )
'S'hr8.o~'.* "Onp," MSy; L'other?jL E .f "Rent.'' The Hebrew verh
h~1-ni s in thp plural number, to correspond with its suhject EE.0hijn', wllicli i~ in ihe plum1 of excellence or majesty. In 1 CLronic l ~ 17
s : 21 nnrl LX,YVgSy the verh is in the singular number, g "For
th~ni," ncco~ding lo four Hebrew mannscripts. Compare also
TgSyT. "For rov (people) i'J3,


great and fear-inspiring thingst-to drive outa

of your peopleJu whom you have reUgf::$
deemed t o yourself from Egypt, the nations and
VEX 1232 their gods?'v 2 * And you proceeded t o establish
sDe26:lg your people Israel,' firmly for yourself as your
people forever,h and you yourself, 0 Jehovah,
'EX 1512
have become their god,^
25 "And now, Jehovah GodlC the word that
ICII 3 17:25
Jer n : d you have spoken concerning your servant and
LlCh 17:24
concerning his house carry out forever and do
ps m:19
just as you have spoken." 20 And let your own
',1,2,i2,9, name" become great forever: saying, 'Jehovah
of armies3 is God over I ~ r a e l ,and
' ~ let the very
+ G e m 10 house of your servant David become firmly
De 3 3 3
ISa 20:16 established before you,' 27 For you, Jehovah of
2Sa 3:l
armies-he God of Israel, have made a rcvelaZ C IT25
tion to your servant's ear, saying, 'A house I
"2sa7:11 shall build for you,'" That is why your servant
# i ~ h 1 7 : 2 6 has taken heartd to pray t o you with this
Ps 10.17 prayer.* 28 And now, 0 Lord Jehovah,e you are
The [true] God, and, as for your rvords,lc let
them prove to be truth,gE since you speak to
your servant this goodness, 2%And
now go ahead
ng1Ff$7 and b l e w the house of your servant, that it
r u 1 1 5 : ~ may prove to be forever before you, for you
yourself, 0 Lord J e h ~ v a hhave
, ~ spoken, and due
to your blessing let the house of your servant
=:51 be blessed for eve^."^
And it came about afterward that David
proceeded to strike the Phi.listtiness down



in agreenlent m-ifh L X X and I C?lroniclrs 17 : 21.
''lr'nr ynur lanrl," 31; "upon the land (earth) ,!'Tg. b O,r, "to ti111e
!lrtlr~llniir." E LbJphoralm Gvd." 31, T @ l t o . ~ ~ a El.o.hi~n
. Its first
rtr*c41rmrnrcsince Exodus 9 : 30, d "HAS
taken heart." Literally, "hna
J'llin~lll l i ~heark," 31, e"h1.d Jehovah?' See Genesis 16:2. footni11i1+1 r, f ; 2 SnnrueI 7: 18, footnote b,
"Tile [tlue] God.'> 11,
Irlr 1,'l.n.trilt~'; L X X 2 Lo 7 k e . o ~ ' ;T-g, DB'US,g Or, "true." 31, ena'etk.

and subdue themt and DavM got to take Meth'. tF&

eg-am'mahu out of the hand of the Phi.lis'tjnes.*
2 And he went an to strike downy the Mo'~b;
Stesoand measure them with a line, making them ;{:;::,,7
Jle downa on the earth, that he might measure ;::qy;i;i
them with lines, f ~ tooput them to death, and I,, 11 ts.9
FL full line to preserve them alive, and the Mo'ab- %?
ites came to be David's servanis* t o cnrry :j;,] ,',';i&
;!tit :$.I
3 ['I1 L'li:8
3 And David went on to strlkc down Ihd.8de'zePA the son of R e l ~ o bthe Idng of Zo'bnhe b;G!;;,;.;7
as 11e was going his way to put his control hack l:;:;lI;;
again at the riverc Eu-ph~a'tes.~" And Dnvid
got to capture from him one thousand sewn .4,,. 15 16
hundred horsemen and twenty thousnnd mcn I,: y::;!:
on foot,k and David proceded t o hnrnstrinf 1Kt
I ,..72.6
all the chariot horses," but he Iet n hundred ?,;$:I;
.jnu I I .F
chariot horsese of them remain.'
5 When Sy-riaf of Damascu~ncnmc t o help? , l, ;,f:i;;zR
Had.~d,e'zerthe king of Zo'bahIR Dnvid then YY;;,~;;~
struck down among the Syrians twentytwo
thousand men.t Fui%hetl,Davirl put gnrrjsonse 2,:;,yl,
I > \ K:W
1 s : ~r:LI
in Syria of Damascus, and the Syrians came to s13i1
be David's servants to carry tribute." And Jeho- ,?ek 5R?
VRIY continued to save David wherever he went.." S;:; j,,:
RZoreover, David took the circular sllieldsa of ;;;;:;;;2
gold: that happened to be on the servants of i'l!.:~ G,-:'zer and brought them to Jerusalem.

And from Be'tahn and &.iv*tha!, cities of Hadade'zer, King David took capper in very great



"Making them lie don.''

The LT~hrowrwh hero i~ in tlw iaflnitirt! ahsolute trnd hence is hdeflnitp ?a to ti~neant1 i~ itiipcrsonnl,
'b Or, "gift." C"Had.nd.c'zer,p'AI, Lemn .nrl Codrlx I3 l l ) A , Cniro
Coder of the Pmpbts nnd many ether%chmv i~mt~,oalr~riripts,
a t I Chronioles 18: 10 "'zer," I,SSYgKy nnrl almut 5R
m ~ n n ~ ~ ~ dip' t~sa. p h r d t ~ ~Only
' i t l ~ nvuwd poitltr fur
1 b i ~name appear in 31,.but the nnine n l ~ p c n rin
~ L,LTVgSy nnd
in the m a i ~ i nof M and m &bout46 o t l ~ Ja l~~ h r ~ ~nnrlz~scriptu,
It i s
n VrrF ur'la JiVJ~trb; see Judges 20 : 13, fnntnota c, * Or, pouaibly,
I 'Lsyr*,D
m T g ; **A'rnm,"
J ~ J .

9 Now Tdib the klng of Hn'mathmgat to hear
that David had struclc down all the miIitary
&IChIS:g force of H~d~acl~e'zer.' "S To'ih sent Jo'ram
his son to Ring Davld to aslc him about hjs weland congratulatcf' him over the fact that
4gnE:T fare"
fought against'zer so that he
struck him down (for'zer had become
trained in warfare against To'i), and In his hand
there proved to be artlclcs of silver and articles
6 1 ~ ~ of- ~
o and articles of capper? llThese also
King David sanctifiedr1to Jehovah, together
with the silver' and t h e gold that he had sancti'ch
fie@ from all the nations that he had subdued,"
1Ch 2 2 2 4
1 c h :6:26
from Syria* and from hIdahlC and from the
*?SR X ? l l ~ : 2 sons of Ampman" and from the Phi.lisrtinesr and
1\25? D.31
rrBa 8.i from Amka.leknand frotn the spoil of'"gf: Eg zer the son of Rethob the kIng of 2o'bah.t IS And
proceeded t o m ~ k ae name when he came
~Z2 C
1~4 3
back from striking down the E'd~m.ites~
In the
V I ~ 11:14
I ~ I ~ : E
Valley of S a 1 t t 1 4 g h t e e nthousand.' l 4 And he
kept gwrlsons placcd in E'domr In all Efdom
":il:5::3-9 he placed garrisons,)' ~ n dall the E'dom-ites
htl s . 1 8 m
e to be sewanis of David," and Jehovah
17il 22:,ll
V-II J S : : ~ kept saving David wherever he \~~ent.'
1'. 37::s
15 And DavId continued reigning over a f E
r j -,~ 3
n 12 Israel," and David w ~ s
continually rendering
for all his
:. zii2
18 : 8 tho nnnw r e ~ d a"Tib'lmth,"
iib'tnh," & K g , At 1 Cl~ronicrl~a
(!ir~lll)rrrc"Te%nh" at Qerle~is3 2 : 34, "'I'n'i," 31; "Tho'ou," LLT;
"blms,'' LI,
'"S'l~lr'll," Vg. "To'u," nt I C'hronicl~sIH : 17, 111. 01%
'ICh 18-3



- a

snered." * "The E'rlom.itcs ( ~ . d o , n ' ),"' L , S X S ~ and
ITvhi=w m n ~ ~ u e c r i p t nnd
1 Chbonidcw 18; 12; "Syria
( A.ramp),'%or,
'*the Syriinns," liS7g.

4 4 brI


2 SAMUEL 8:16-9:6



p e ~ p l e Is
. ~And Jo'ab4 the son of Ze.rufiah was


over the army, and Je.hosh'a-phat' the son of ;:fi4

A-hi'lud was recorderaaEl7 And Za'clok' the son o
of Ahi'tub and A.hirnre.lech' the son of'a- 1ch 11:6

t l l a r b were priests' and Se.rai'ah"vas

secret a r 3 r . R I s And Be.naitahcv the son of Je.hoi'a.da

[was overld the Cher'e.thitesa and the Pel'ethites.c As for the sons of David, they became

+IKL 4:3



1Ctl 6 5 3

1 C h 24:3

And David proceeded t o say: "Is there yet ""21:1

1% 22:11
anyone that is left over of the house of hg,"i$125
Saul, that I may exercise loving-kindnessP to- ~
ward him for the sake of Sonta.than?"v =Noxv r;Ey1";d4"2
the house of Saul had a servant whose name
was Zi5a.Y So they called him t o David, and the slsa 30~14
Ere 25.16
Icing then said t o him: "Are you Zilba?" to 2s"1"18
which he said: "I am your servant." And the :5"s",22&,
king went on t o say: "Is there nobody of the V:2,",I,f5
house of SauI any more, that I may exercise ~;4,";jj:,~
toward him t h e loving-kindnessf of God?""At z 1%~ 10:15
20 14
this Zi'ba said t o the king: "There is yet a son.
of Jonta.than, lame in the feeLt" Then t h e king $*:; ?&,
said t o him: "Where is he?"So Zi'ba said t o
the king: "There he is in the house of Ma'chirc n2Sa17:n
AJOS 13:26
the son o f Am'mi.el at Lo-detbar,"*
5 Immediately King David sent and took him
from the house of Ma'chir the son of Am'mi.elo2Sa
at Lo-de'bar. \When Me.phibPosheth' the son +Eh'?&
of Jon's-than the son of Saul came in t o David, lCh9:40
he at once fell upon his face and prostrated him-

Or, more literally, "rememb~aneer.""LSnd

A.hi~n'~.lechthe son
of'a.thar," RLL,P;TT-g ; "end A.hi'a.thar the son o f A. him'elech,"
Literally, B'wn.irarB w, 31, "Was orer,'VrgSgT and
1 Ghronicles 18: 1 7 ; "and:' or, "was ~ t h ?3ILXX. "Priests,"
31Tg; "chiefs of the col~~t,''L X Q "ehiefs,j' Ey. 'W~irstin position
at the side of the king," at 1 Chronicles 18 : 17. Or, ('loyal love."

2 SAMUEL 9: 7-13

Then David said: "Me.phib'o.sheth!" to

which he said r "Here is your servant." ' And

David went on to say t o him: "Do not be afraid,"

for without fail I shall exercise loving-kindnessa
*lSa18:3 toward you for the sake of Jon's-than your Eather,* and I must return to you all the field1<of
01Kl15:Q Saul your grandfatherjb"and you yourself will
,:*,1 eat breadGa t my table constantly."n
8 At that he prostrated himself and said:
$Lu 2 ~ 73 0 'What
is your servamt that you have paid attenrlSa 24:14
tion t o the dead dogr such as 1 am?" T h e king
2 ~ 3a8
2Sn 16.9
15.26 now called Zi'ba,a Saul's attendant, and said to
that had come to belong to
Sat11and t o all his house I do givet t o t h e grand2% 19:zg
~ ~ I 16:24
sonc of yow r n a ~ t e r . ~And you must cultivateu
uCe 2.5
Ge 3:23
the ground for him, you and your sons and your
JPr =:I1
V Z S ~16:l servants, and you must do the gathering inv
and it must serve as f o o d q o r [those belonging
to] the grandsone of your masterf and they
must eat, but Me.phib'oaheth himself, the
grandsonc of your master,f mill eat bread a t
a ~ ~ ~ ~ : : ~my
, 2 , table
Lu l4.l5 NOWZi'ba had fifteen sons and twenty serv=2Sn19:17 ants.s " So Zi'ba said to the king: "h accord
1:43 with all that my lordz the king commands f o r
his servant is the way that your servant will
do;' but Me-phib'o.shetho is eating at my tableg
Pg,":;;z5 like one of the sons of the king,'' " Now Mephib'o.shet11 had a young sonh whose name was
1Ch 8:QO
erCh.r:Q3 Mirca,*and a11 those dwelling0 in the house of
Zilba were servants t o Me.phibTo.sheth.l3And
lsa 1 i : z o
Lu 1,13

Or. %?.a1 I o ~ e .b ~Or,

~ 'Lfather." a Or, "son," M, dLlter~lly,
"br~nd,"31. e '+Forthe household," LxxLaeal'aian edltlo1l. f rr&tas1 ~ r . "11, fl.da.nim', the plurd nmnher of*va', to denote excellency
or majesty. g "ilIg table," 31Vg: "Da\-id's table," LXIC; "table of
1 lvl king," Sy. h T,iterallp, " a little (small) son: M.

2 SAMUEL 10:1-6


Me.phibro.shethhimself was dwelling in Jerusalem,f o r i t was constantly at the table of the

king that he was eatjng,hand he was lame* in 4g;:Xig
21i1 ~ k l 1 1
both of IS feet.
43Sll .L!.l
And it came about afterward that the
king at the sons of Amtrnm' came to die


twenty thousand men on foot, and the king of

f$qaj1' Ma'a.c&," a thousand men,and Ish'talslAA
Js11:s thousand men, W h e n David heard of It, then
he sent Jo'ab and all the army [and] the mlghty
the sons of Am'mon began to go
&%&,%!out and"And
draw up in battle formation ~t the en'1Ch 15:7 trance of the gate,"' also the Syrians of Zo'bah
and of Re'hob,E and Zsh'toha and Mnla.cah by
J;: 151
themselves in the open Aeld. O When Jo'ah saw
that the battle charges had come to he ~lgalnst
him from the front nnd from the rear, he at
once chose same of all the choice men in Israel
and drew them up in formation to meet the
J n m..i? Syrians.' lo And the rest of the people h~ gave
-sn 2 . 1 ~ info the hand of A.btsh'aiQhis brother t h ~ he
IL'Il 2; 11)
1p;aR might draw them up in formation t o meet the
sons of Am'rno11.1( And he went on to say: '7f
%IF 3[.,!)
the Syrians become too strong for mc, then
:sn 2.51 YOU must serve as a salvationGfor me,but if the
sans of Am'rnon themseIves become too strong

and Ha'nun his .son began t o reign instead of 9; ;

him." At this Davjd snid: "I shaII exercis~ ~1..1::1'+
Av. 13!1
loving-kindncssa 1:oward I.lnYntm the son of d7r.h
Nath~sh,lcjust as his fathcr ~xercisedloving- Illsn 1l:I
kinclnewUtoward me." Accardingly David sent
by means of his servants t o cornforto him over 0 i c h t : B
his father, and the servants d David proceeded
t o tome into the land of the sons of Am'mon.
However, the princes of the sons of Am'mon
~ I ; V
said to Ha'nun thejr lord:', "Is David honoring
your falher in your eyes In that he has sent t o
you comforters? Is it not for the sake of searching through the city= and to spyn it out and t o n,G,cj$?II
overthrow It that David has sent his serv~lnts 2; $;y
nh:h,l$i2 for YOU, then I must come t o save you.ll la Be
to you?'"" ' So Ha'nun took the servants of rlcti l!l:3
that we may show owselves courageousP
David and shaved off half their heardss and cut mk',:2F
:G; I; strong,
of our people and in behalf of the
their gnrments in half to their buttockst and ,:;;:;,;,:
:cis I : R
God,- and, as for Jehovah, he will
sent them awayVu Later people reported it to
''<.'I13 **7
Then Jo'ab
~ 7 r . 1 i~lllrgdo what is goocl in his own eyes."'
David and he at oilce sent ta meet them, be. uy:;l r $;;*;I I~D ~A
115-13 [ H
cause t11b men had come t o feeling very humili'""5:26
ated, and the king isrent on to say: "Dwell In
ffeehg because of h1m.u H A s for the sons of
until YOUR beards grow abundantly,
I;\ 37 3
they saw that the Syrians had fled,
l l i i 1G.34
Then YOU must retur'11."
I'r ;Hk:25
3Vll 1H:5
to flight because of A*bishtaiand
6 In time the sons of Am'mon saw that they 7i:r ~ ~ 3 1 1
~IC1119:18 hence came into t h e city.' After that Jo'ab rehad become foul-smellingr t o David, and t h e . ?:f';~
t u r n d froin the sons of Am'mon and came to
sons. of Am'mon proceeded to send and hire;,E; i::112
Syrians of Beth-re'hobx and Syrians of Zo'ball,' I
-.a Or, "lag~llorqe," ''hrddJ'
the plwal of ndbn', to
"all tlu army-the miglitg nlen," M,
IOr, "incn a! T O ~ . 'bLiter~llg,
sllow axr~llenccor rnajestg, a''C'~ty," lZLdY,'iVgGy; but 1 Chrorliclea
31111, w r 2Smmnei
16: 6 ; 20 : 7; 23 :8. e "ante," BnlLdLYYgSy; but



I9 : 3 reads, 'alnnd.p'


1 c:lwotiirlc.s; 10: 9 rends "~.ity."

2 SAMUEL 10:15-11 :2



15 When the Syrians saw that they had been

defeated before Israel, they proceeded to gatherZ ~r","~2,:;
themselves together. le So'zerksent and
brought out the Syriansn that were in the re- *pj:;l
gion of the River,* and then they came t o He'- _AGP
lam,a with Sho'bach5 the chief of the army of P-.
5c m2.1'zer before them. When the report rF\$igl
was made l o David he immediately gathered all 01CM9A6
Israel and crossed the Jordan and came to He'lam. The Syrians now drew up in formation to
meet David and began to fight against him.+
'@Andthe Syrians took to flightc because ofyl;g;;;;; ps18:3z
Israel, and David got to kilI of the Syrians seven xpiGji'
hundred charioteers2and forty thousand horsemen' and Sho'bach the chiefI=of their army he ,!%kg:$
struck down sa that he died there. When all lcag 4:2
the kings," the servants of'zer, saw nJ","S\%;
that they had been defeated before Israel, they
promptly made peaee with Israel and began to D= z:37
serve them, and the Syrians were afraid t o t r y
r2Sa 8:6
saving the sons of Am'mon any more.
1Ch 19:19
Ps 1x37
And it came about at the return of the
year). a t the time that kings sally forth,'
that David proceeded t o send Jo'ab and his S;E~
~ E C ~ : S
utClr 20:1
servants with him and all Israel, that they 14.3
might bring the sons of Am'mon t o ruinU and v ~ B ~ & ,
lay siege to Rabfbah," while David was dwelling
yDe 2 2 : ~
in Jerusalem.
Jos 2:6
2 And it came about at the time of evening
that David proceeded t o rise from his bed an! ;;;?g3
walk about on the rooftopy of the king's house, ~ I K 311
and from the rooftop he caught sightZof a woman '?,"?2i2~
bathing hers elf,^ and the woman was very good gti::kn
aEiThenthey came t o E~'lain,~?inagreement vith L.XXSp; "he l ~ d
their army khere:' Tg. Or, "it came nbout the next spring." Or,
"and he caught vight of re lromnn bathing h e r d on a rooftop."





Pr 3 1 . 9

2 SAMUEL 11:3--11

in appearance.* Then David sent and inquired

about the womanoand someone said : "Is this not

the daughter of E3i'ama4 the wife3
A2Sa 1224
I K I I 11 of U.riPah+the HitYite?"@ After that David
UlCEl 3:5
rPSa 2359 sent messengers that he might take her, So she
llit 155
came in to him and he cohabited with her, while
%E g;:; she tvas sanctifying herself from her uncleanness,* Later she returned to her house.
5 And the woman became pregnarat.O1' Consequently she sent and told David and said: "I
am pregnant."" At this David sent to Jo'ab,
Le 18:20
l s a 2 5 2 saying: "Send to mer U.ri'ah the Hit'tite." So
Heb 3 3 4
J d a b sent W.ri'ah t o David. ' When U.ritah came
aLe 122
Le 15:19
t o him, David began t o ask how Jo'ab was getk$$:ii ting along and how the people were getting
along and how the war was getting along.
Finally David said to U.ri'ah: "Go doim TO
2 ~ 15:16
house and bathe your feet."" Accordingly
P S 2s.13
U.riYahwent out from the king's house and the
U G 18:4
vGe 4x24 king's caurtesy gift" went out following himv
Wowever, U.ribh lay down a t the entrance of
the king's house with all the other servants of
his lord,c and he did not go down to his own
house.^ la So they told David, saying: "U.ritah
EX 1995
~ o s 7 : 1 3 did not go down to his own house.'' Upon that
David said t o U.ri'ah; "It is from a journey that
you have come in,is it not? Why have you not
gone down to your own house?" l1At this U.ritnlsad:4
ah said to David: "The ArkZ and Israel and
ZSa 7:2
* ~23.34
Judah are dwelling in booths" and my lard Sotab
1Ki 20 Id
I1zsn2 0 5 and the servants of my lorda are camping on the
face of the fieldAand I--shall I go into my o m
-a 'Au~'mi.el," ni I Chronicles 3 : 5. b Or, 9 h e king's portion," The
DJer 5.8



tnrticm that the lrost sends to the p e s t to be honored. Compare

MI a . d o a ~ i w 9the
, plural of a.ddm to

43 : 34. c (Zord.')

r~lbr~wvxcellence or majesty.

house t o eat and drink and to cohabit wlth my

AS you are living and as your soul is
living,' 3 shall not do this thing!"
12 Then David said t o W'ri'st.1: "Dwetl here
also today, and tomorrow I shall send you
away." Therefore U.rj'ah kept dtvelling in Jerusalem on that day and the day Further, D ~ v i dcalled him t h a t he mi&t eat before
him and chink. So he gat hlrn drunk.' Neverthe. see
Ge 19:32

less, hc writ out in the evmlng to lie down an Pr
Pr 2331
Efo 4:11
his bed wit11 the servants of his lord,a and t o his Ga
own house he did not go down, And it eRme
about in the morning that David proceeded t o
K 1 m8
write a letter' ;to Jo'ab and send it by the hand a Fs
s 62:9
af U,ri'~h. '90he wrote In the letter, saying: PMlc
"PUT UbrI1al1In front of the heaviest b ~ t t l e
charges," and YOU men must retreat from be- Ic1Sa
1% IRE3
Ps 51:I;
hind him and he must be struck down and die."" n2Sa
16 And it came a b u t that while Jo'ab was
keeping guard over the clty he continually put
U.ri'ah in tlze place wherc he knew that there
nvre valiant' men. When the men of the city
came on out and {ventfighting against Jo'ab, then
some of the people, the servants of David, fell and
U.ritah the Hit'tite also djctl.s l' Jo'ab now snit
that he r n i ~ l l reportt
t o David all the aflairs of
the war." L " And he \rent on to command t h e messenger, saying: "As soon as you iiniSh speaking
to the king about all t h e aff nips of the war, then
It must acrmr that if the rnge of the ldng should
come up slnd he must say to you, 'Why did you
have t o go so near t o the city t o fight? Did YOU
men not Icnow that they would shoot from on top
of the wall? "Who IVRS it that struck down
a"lorr1." 111', the pl~~rnt
of n d k ' , to rlenot~excellence
or mnjcsty.

the son af Je.rub'be.sheth?av Was
If not a woman that pitched an upper milEstone
yJg 9 : s
upon hjmy from on top of the wall so that he
BJg9:m died at The%ez?"Why did YOU men have to go
so close to the wall?' then you must say, 'Your
: g!j servant Ubrf'ahthe Hlt'tite also died.' "'
22 So the messenger went md came and told
David all about which Jo'ab had sent him. '3 And
the messenger went on t o say ta David: "The
men pmved superior to LIS,SO that they came out
against us into the fie& hut lve kept pressing
them r i ~ hup
t to the entrance of the gate. '.' And
the shooters kept shooting at your servant.s
wm 2B:W from on lop of the 'IT'RI~ ' SO f hat some of Ihe
servants of the king died, and your servant W.ri'a s s =:I5
ezSn 2:26 ah the Hit'tite also died."**2n At that David said
I b f l 1:20
t o the messenger: "This Is whet you will say
Jpr 12:*
.JPr 46:lQ to Jo'ab: 'Do not let this matter appear bad in
eyes, for the sward)eats up one as well as
'55n 1
= ( ; 1 - 2 ~ : 4 1another, Intensify yaup battle against the city
2.% 3:31
:lsn 1.i .! flnd throw it down," And encourage him.''
;.. t'di
I 1' 1 1
26 And the wife of U+ri'ah got to hear that
1'r :iF.ll
and she began
I , , : U-ri'nh ht?r llusbnnd h ~ diecl,
C I : ~I:IT
t o wail* over her o~vncr.'~''' 7 When tIrc motlrnu Z S ~ ~ 1 ing
period was past, David Immediately sent
2Sll 1 2 3
kt . l r : ~ o and took her home to his house and she camc to
l!>tt 2 1 3
be his wife." In time she bore to him a mn, but
1 .
the thhg that David had done appeared had in
;:?;,:?, the cycs of Jehovah.'<
And Jehovah proceded to send N~thann
to David. So he came in to himr and said
S ' h i 11.5
yilla to him:8 "There were two men that happened t o
h l l 1:4:.74
, ,, ,,:,, be in one city, the one rich and the other of little





~ b I ! ~ ~ . r ~ ~ h ' h ~ +31;
~ l t"Jer.0-ba'rtl,"
L 1 4 Y P ~ ."'fil~at
~ t I p . ; i (i: 32 ; T : 1 ; J
I : 1, 10, 24, 29, '*Ul;.llel.,"AT, bffi'ctl, Rcc Qea1
:1 ; I
I 24 :1, 4.

means. a The rich man happened to have very

many sheep and mttle,t "but the man of little
mcnna had nothing but one female Iamb, a small


vBa11:15 down with

* your
~ wifey


2Sa 15:18

the swordv and his wife you took as

m~d him you killed by the sward of
the sons of Arn'mon. lo And now a sword will
not depart from your orm house t o time Indef: inite, as a consequence of the fact that you de!spised me so that you took the wjfe of U.ri'ah
the HitrZitcto become your wife.' This b what
Jehovah h ~ said:
'Here I am raising up against
2 ~ 1n5 : ~ you evil out of your own house,*and I shnll cercUe 28.30
2Sn 16:21 tainly take your wives under your ou7neyes and
2$g:f;3i give them to your fellow' man and he will cerc$g:ji:3 tainly cohabit with your tvives under the eyes
=sa11:15 of this
Whereas you youlmselfacted in
C?K1 2311
(Zsal1i.22 secret,' I, for my part, shall do this thing in
*>It lk.26
LN 12.2
front of all Israel' and in front of the sun.'
*LP 5.5
13 David* now said to Nathan: "1 have
~ ~ ~ 4 1 sinned2
. 4
against Jehovah."' At this Nathnn said
*:5a 24:lCI
dot, 7.20 to David: "Jehovah, in tuz-n, does let your sin
ps 51
3 2 4. ~
pass by," You will not dienk" Notwithstanding
this, because you have unquestionably treated
with dlsrespectal by this thing," in turn
g4 Jehovah
the son himself, just bornto you,upjllpositively
72c a: l
k Lc 23:lO die."r
l'h 51:ZT
15 Then Nathan went t o his own house.
I xu 14:ll
And Jehovah proceeded to deal a blown to the
rlNt! 5.9
r.1'~118 32
94:12 child that the wife of U.rirah had borne t o David
IJr 3:11
SO that it took sjck.
And David began to seek
.],, 3?:39
IS n 2::
of the boy and David

one, that he- had b0ught.u And he was preserving L1$75;:d3

It alive and it was growingup with him and with
his sons, a11 together. From his morsel it would
eat and from his cup it would drink and in his bosomv It would lie, and it came to be as a daughter vbIlc7:a
to him. "After a while a visitory came to the rich YGC 18:6
man, hut he sparedz taking some from his OMTI eJaa
sheep and hisorvn cattle to get such ready far the
traveler that hadcome in t o him.' So he took the
female Iamb of the man of little means and got it
ready for the man that hnd come in to him.""{d","fQ;m
5 At this David's angerm Erprv very hot
agnlnst the man' and he said to Nathan: "As o l s n l c r l ~
Jehovah is living," the man doing this deserves 1
to die!u4"And for the- female lamb he should cLs,;f\
mnkc compensation" with four,' RS a conse- ~ ~ ~ S ' ~ l : l ~
cluence of the fact that he hns done this thing *$; $il,;
and because he did not have compassion."'^
, P S ~7.h
21 :7
7 Then Nathan said to David: "You yourself lS,r 1q 21
are the man! This is what Jehovah the God of ;:;
Ismel has said: ? myself anointedmyou as king P+$:; rx
over Israel m d I myself deliveredk you out of 111511 13:14
the hand of Saul. And I W A S willing t o give you
?$;' 1
the house of your lordbn and t h e wives of your ;$:s $i{
lard1"* into your bosom and to give you the t:y&;y
-E~ouseCof Israel and of Judah.*And if it were not ;;y,:ji
a '~Trp~lted
J ~ h ~ v nwith
h diswepert." This i s tlrc ori~innlrending.
enough, I was r~iIIingt o add t o you things like IIGG;;!~~
Ilat here the Jcwibh Snllhc?lnirn( ~ r r i h e s )niade ant- of' tlwir F:ifil~f~rbn
these as well as other things.' "Vhy did you Le 2,~;17
I.lrr~rndntiona,out of 1n19tnkt-nrtbcp~ctfor Jrliovnlr ~~nrtic~ulnrly
desplwe the wordu of Jehovah by dolng what is ?2R:"4:b
l'ur llnvirl, and inwtblrrl Illo e x l ~ r e ~ ~ i"ot nh ~r i i r i r i i r ~ hni"" III~~UI'B
"".~h~rvnh,"to mnkc 11 w n t i : "tr~atedt h P~H P I ~ ~ PnfR ,~I~!IOTRII1vit11
bad in his eyes? U.ri'ah the Wit'titt? you struck r;;li42,R







"Dmcrrra ta die !" Litmslly, ''is n son of ttcnth!" 3J.

11, n.rfo.sim', the plnral of a.dfis', to tipnote n~njestpor excellclncc.

" ~ ~ 0 t 1 9 @ nI,?,.UiT-g;



footnote a. Alco cnnlpnra I S I I ~ I U P

""The [true] God." 31, Ira-Rl.o.l~lm', a1tl1tl~e
~ l v l b t r ~ tnrtirle
BII ("T~IP+')
llrfnre the title Ebo.lrim' far eniphsis.
I ~ I M ~ V R ~ I P CFPC
~ . ' ' C i ~ n t l s i qlfi: 22,

b ''T~ard.~'

l'i: 22, foot not^ b.

latr sf1It Inlt,


n2sa 11:s
24 And David began to comfort Bath-she W
rGe 2630
G~3 0 : ~ his wife, Further, he came in to her and co-

went an a strict fast and came in and spent the

night and lay down on the earth.t l q ~ the
s older
men of his house stood up over him to raise him
up from t h e earth and he did not consent and
did not take bread in company with them.u u1sam23
l q n d it came about on the seventh day that
the child4 graduaIIy died. And the servants of '1K13:25
David were afraid t o tell him that the child had
died, for they said: "Look! while the child continued alive we did speak to him and he did not
listen to our voice, so how can we say to him,
T h e child has died'? Then he wilI certainly do
something bad.'"
19 When David got to see that his servants
were whispering together, David began to discern that the child had died. So David said t o v;,";:E
his servants: "Has the child died?" To this they
said: "Re has died." 20 Then David got up from LR 3141

:d 7%
$ 2:


t h e earthv and washed and rubbedJ'himself with Y2"s"[L31&

oil and changed his garments and came to the
house* of Jehovaho and prostrated" himself, :igi g7:;
after which he came into his own house and &",*Zg
asked and they promptly set bread before him
and he began t o eat.* Consequently his serv- g;g:;
is& 1:19
ants said to him: "What does this thing mean 1Sa
ICI? ze:ao
that you have done? For t h e sake of the child p:;iG6
while alive you fasted and kept weeping, and ~
just as soon as t h e child had died you got up and
began t o eat bread." 2P TO this he said: "While J o e 1:14
the child was yet alive I did fast' and I kept @Isn
~ ~ s 4 : g
~ I s a38:5
weeping,@because I said to myself, 'Who is there J oe 2 : ~
knowing whether Jehovah may show me favor
and the child will certainly five?'ea Now that he
has died, why is it I am fasting? Am I able to
bring him back again? I am going t o him,' but,
E C 9:s
as for him, he will not return t o me.""
Ac 2 2 9




habitedr with her. In time she bore a son,s and

his name came t o be called And
Jehovah himself did loveo him.u 28 SOhe sent by
means of Nathanv the propheto and called his
1 ~ h 2 ~ : name
Jed.i.di'ah,by for the sake of Jehovah.
ulCh 28:1
Jo'ab~ continued to fight against
2 ~ 12:1
1Ki 1:11 Rab'bah8 of the sons of Am'mon and got t o capture the cityO of the kingdom,c So Jo'ab sent
ve lNKe113:26
messengers t o David and said: "I
have fought
B L 3:17
t h e city
And now gather the rest of the
* D e s:11 of waters,
people and encamp against the city, and capture
Ezc 2L:20 itt that I myself may not be the one to capture
the city and my name should not have to be
wQh7:18called upon it."'
29 Accordingly David gathered all the people
and went t o Rab'bah and fought against it and
captured it. And he got to take the crown4 of
MaYcarnd+off its head, the weight of which was
a talent of gold, along with precious stones,O
and it came to be upon David's head. And the
spoil3 of the city that he brought out was very
1kh30:20 much. "And the people that were in it he
2Sn 3,m
: Y : I R : I Z brought out that he might put them a t sawing
~ and at
~ sharp instruments of imno and a t
axes of imn, and he made them servee at brick':E32$3making." And that was the way he proceeded to



l ~ i t r m l l ~"and
one proceeded t o call his name Solro.mon," U;
L'rrild shr prbceeded t o call his name Solfo.mon," EgTRI"arg'n and

n r " r w other Eelmew mnuscripts. "Sol'o.mon" means 'Yeaceable."

k M1111rlin~
l'Beloved of Jah (Jehovah)." * Prohnbly "the city of
rrr~tvrn." A S indicated in verse 27. d Or, possibly, "Ul'corn;'
lrlc~l~cltlof the Amtmon.ites. Vg, "their king." LXX,"&Iel.chol their
l i i ~ h ~ . a" 6 ' f i e ~ ~ e , by
' ' correction of ona letter of the Hebrew text;
" ~ L H Y I {through)," N.

do t o all the cities of the sans of A r n ' r n ~ n .Fi~ 31Kilf!7

nally David and all the people returned t o
And it came about after such things that y;; Fz
~ : l
Ah"sa.lom=t h e son of David had a beau- kcla
Ge F l : B
tifuF' sister whose name wst Ta'mar,n nnd Amrnonr the son of Davjd fell In loves rvlth her. PF ;!;::a
:And it wns so distressinat to Am'non that he "
felt sicku an account of Tn'mar his shtcr, because slrt? Z\~RSa vir~ln,'vnnd jt tvas difficult in,:;,;:;';I
the eycs af Am'non to do ~nythingat all i o her. x1%;;
NOWAm'non had a companiony whose name tl:;t
nCd 5 , 6
was J e . h ~ n ' a . d a bthe
, ~ ~son of Shimte.nh,"
1 :2
brother, and Je-hon'abd~bR
was a vwy wise' y ~ 2cx : : ~
man. So he said to htm : "Why are you, the
son of the king, so downcnst ns this, rnotming by &,h
morning? lY111 you not tell me?"' At this Am'mm said to him: "With Ta'rnar the sisterb of
Ab'sa41ammy brother I am In love."' Wtrpon that +r,.k
said to him: "Lie down on your
bed and play sick. And your father mill certainly
come to see you and you must say t o him,
'Please, let Ta'mar my sister come in and give
me bread as a patient, and she will h ~ v et o
make the bread of mnsalntion under my eyes
in order thnt I may see it and I shall have t o
mml 21:~
eat from her hand,' "m
Ps 50:19
6 Accordingly Am'non lay down and played,
sick and the king came in ta see him. Then
Am'non s ~ i dto the king: "Please, let Tatmar
my sister came in and hake two heart-shaped
cakes under rny eyes, that I m a y take bread as
a patient from her hand." At that David sent
to Ta'rnar at the house, saying: "Go, please,





Literally, "Snn'n.dnb," 31, But see



to the house of Am'non your brother and make

i?;W the bread of consolation for him." So Tahmar"
k?Stl~:'* went to the house of Amhonk her brother while
1Ut13 1
n?Sn 13,s he was lying down." Then she took the flour
dough and lcneaded it and made the cakes under his eyes and cooked the heart-shaped cakes.'
Finally she took the deep pan and poured it
out M o r e him, but Am'non refused to eat and
rJ"ff~!o said: "HAITeverybody go out from rne!"rThen
everybody went out: from him.
10 Am'non nowr said to Tatmar:"Brlng the
bread of consolation t o the Interior room, that
T may take it CIS a patient from your hand." So

Ta'rnar took the heart-shaped cakes that she

made and brought them in to Am'non her
t ~ 20c 10 brother in the Interior room, '"'hen
she came
G~ ,7tr:ls
.7,J:7 near t o him for him t o eat, he at once grabbedR
Fgn';-'l!J h01d of her and said to her: "Come, cohabitt
C ~ K I 1.19
with me, my sister."" However, she said to
tvlEL:z;@&J n r ) him: "No, my brother! Do not humiliate me,m
n Israe1.v D o
Le ?''.IT for it is not usunl t o do that way i
De 2
l.y not do this disgrac&~l fo1ly.r l S And I-where
na 2.21 shall I cause my reproach t o go? And you-you
. ~1!):2.7
wilI become Iilre one of the senseless men in
Israel. And now speak, please, to Lhe king, for
zee 19.8
And he
Jb. 19:3-t he will not withhold me from you."z
*$ iyi?d did not consent t o listen t o her voice, but used
strength superior to hers and humiliated her*
cohabited: with her.' '"nd M n o n began
r Jle r l :1'"
L l c / ~ik3:17 hating her with a very great hatredIAbecnuse
the hatred with which he hated her ~ r a greater
than the love with which he had loved her, so
that h h o n said to her: "Get up, go away!"
LR At this she sajd t o him:
"No, my brother,
6Ga m12

~ ~ 7 : 1 3had
E C 735


mmething like dm~ghnutsand mnde in deep-fat frying,

rnl llvr tllnn baked in



2 SAMUEL 13:17-24



for=this badness in sending me away4 3s meater ba"!fl

than the other that you have done with me!"
And he did not cansent to listen to her.
17 With that he called his attendant who
waited upon him and said: "Send this person
away from me, please, to the outside and lock
the door behind her." '"Now upon her there
was a stripedmrobe, for t h a t w a s the way the 'g;g;'jifa
daughters of the king,*the virgins, used t-o dress
with a top garment.) So his waiter proceeded
to lead her clear outside, and he locked the door
behind her. ?'hen TaJrnarplaced ashes" upon
her head, and the skiped robe that was upon $!,2;1!
her she ripped apart and she kept her handsh
put upon her headk and lr7ent walking Rtvny, k3Pr2:37
crying out as she walked.
20 At this Ab'sa.lornt1 her brother said to
her: "Was it Arn'non~ your brother thnt hap. ;:;;,
pened t o be with you? And now, my sister, keep !(']I 8:r
silent," He is your brother. Do not set your
heart an this matter." And Ta'rnar began t o
dwell, whiIe heing kept from assaclatiant [with teeSQ:u
others], at the house of Abfsa.lomher brother.
And King David himself heard about all these
things, and he became very angry.u
Ah'- ?$$n3!jz
sa.lorn did not speak with Am'non either bad
or good, for Ab'sa.lom hatedv Arn'non over the V,L,e:f;,l,'
fact that he had bumdiated Ta'rnar his sister. F{y&
23 A n d it turned out after two full years that 1foa:15
Ab'sadom came to have sheepshetwe~sya t Ba'al- yg,s!f
ha'zor,~which is close by E',' and Ab'- ,T!,l:;.l,
sa-lorn proceeded to invite all the sons of the
king3 =' So AVsa.lom came in to the king and "$<f
said: 'Were, now, your servant has sheep- 1lill::s


Pa 65:X




"No,rnybrother, for," in ag-reement with ~ , n h s a r a i a ndltlony+

b .nHnnds,"
"bnnd," AI.


2 S A M U E L 13:25-32

she~rers!Let the king go," please, and also his

servants, with your servant." " But the king said
to AbOsn.lom
: "No, my son! Do not let all of us go,

please, that we may not he a burden upon you."

he kept urging4him, he did not mment
;::;1" to go b11t blessed
him.' -"Finally Ab'sa.lom said:
*p~2.1 "If not [youl, letAmtnon mybrothergowith
.,Sn 1 i:22
r-s. o . ~utzs, phase,"' A t this the king said to him: '"Why
3Sit 11.13
I * * 5 F ~:>I
t a urge him, so that he sent Arn'non and all the
sons of the lringn with him.
25 Then Abtsa.lom commanded his attendwSa22:17 .ants,' saying: T e e , please, that just as soon
as Am'non's heart is in a merry mood with
and I shall certainly say to you, 'Strike
J w 3!189
down Am'non!' then YOU must put him t o death.
?<SFI.X:.M DO not be afraid." Have not I myself commandA n 11 1 3
ed YOU?" Ee strong and prove yourscJves to be
I I ~ :~)lli~
1:: :hi:la valiant men." 39 And Ab'sa.lom's attendants proceeded to do to Am'non just as, Ab'sa-lorn had
carnrnanded,Qand all the other sons of the king
~ ~I .I+ ~
" :I';, If l I bcfian t o rise up and mount each one his mulebt
and tnlce t o flight. S U n d it came about that,
h.71~'7 3
1% q
tvhile they were on the way, the report itself
I ' 32.!l
came t o David, aaying: "Ab'sa.lom has struck
donm 811 the sons of the king and not one 01
thtsrn has h e n left over." " At this the king
;? get up and ripped his clothes apartu and sat
-"II"~ 1-:.
don- upon the earth,' m d d l his servants were
V?'41b 1.': 16
I ' * li!l I 1'1) 8
standing by with their clothes ripped apartbcY
~ : " : ~ 1 13 3
32 However, Jehan'a.dab" %the son of ShW-


r ~ ! ' tilev ki~ig." ~ " ~ I u l r .11,
" IIFP'PI?. The A r ~ toecrmence of this
a l w l l in 1110 FTrfilsturcs. a LXX, %nd nll his semnnfa that s e r e
rtlmut Ili111 ripp~dt h d r oatrr gnrmcnts apart." Also I7gL
* I ,ll~~r.tilly,"nlot~'n.dnh," 31. Uut scc reme 5.

go outs to Abtsa.lom, for he had comfortede

e.ah,* David's brother, answered and said: "Do
z g g to
concerning Am'non because he was dead.
not let my lord think thnt It is all the young
"2Sn 2 3 8
men the sons of the king that ihcy have put t o
Jo'abYthe son of Zearuflnh*came to
alCh 216 '
dcath, for it is Am'nan done that has died, bei
cause at the order of Ab'sa.lom it has occurred
Ab'sa.lom.'c a Accordingly Jo'ab sent to Te.ko'an
2% 1 9 2
as something appointedCfrom the day that he rGo
and tml~from there a wiser woman%and said t o
Pn 7.19
Z ~ ! ~ T I . ~ her:
humiIiatedL Ta'rnar his sister.O And now do 'LoJ&? '!"S
"Go in mourning," please, and dress yourI
Ar 3.5
not let my lord the king talre to his heart' the 6:sar 7:H
with mourning dothes and do not
r ~ l 4
word, saying, 'All the king's sans themselves -"~n LV:1I)
3 : rub yourself with oil,{ and you must become like
S n 11 :96
hhve died,' but it is Am'non alone that 11ns died."
la womnn here who has been mou~ningmany
days over someone deadTu And you must come
34 RIeantime, Ab'sa.lam went running away.'
.7111;:17 in t o the king and speak to him a word like
Lnter the young man, the n.atchman,k raised
U' :" ":.u
this," With that So'ab put the words in her
his eyes and saw, and, look! thew were many
F.1 Ti1 7.31 mouth,: V
people coming from the road behind him by the
4 And the Te.korfte woman proceeded t o
m0untainside.a 3%t this Je.h~n'n.dab~'~
said to
come In" to the king and fall upon hcr face t o
the Icing: "Look! the kln~'ssons tl~ernselves:
the earth,' and prostrate herself and say: "'Do
have come in. In accord with the word of your
tx<r a:=
save,%O king!" %At this the king mid to her:
servant so i t has taken place." 3"And it came
nlL 21.8
"What is the matter with you?" To this she said:
about that, as soon as he finished speaking,
*Ex22:"For a fact I am a widowed' woman, now that
here the king's sons ~ ~ ~ Ienme
R in,
~ V P S
my husb~ndI s deadBt And your rnnidservmtO
they began t o rake their voice and weep, and
~ E a = : 1 had two sons, and the two of them began t o
even the king and all his servants wept with a
struggle with each other in the fieldA while
very great weeping." As for Ab'sa.lom, he ran
o z u 2:14 there was no delivererqo part t h e r n . ~Finally
off thnt he might go ta Tal?nmaiLthe son of Amthe one struck the other down and put him t o
mi'hud the king of GeshQur,' Ancl DavidC condeath. And here all the family have rjsen up
tinued t o mournC aver his son all the days, As
against your maidservant' and keep saying,
for Abrsa.lom,he ran ofl and r n ~ d ehis way to
'Give over the striker of his brother, that we
and he came to he there three years.
may put him to death for the soul of his brother
39 Finally the sould of Dnvid the king longed
whom he killed4 and l& us even annihilate the
L X X , *dAnc?the lookout cnme nrnr nnd snnoanced t o the king
heir!lo And they will certainly extinguish the
nnil w i d : '1 hnve seen nrcn f180m the wng to Hor.o.narin hp tho
'Ge a7:45
glow of nzy charcoals that has remain ad,"^
~ n o r ~ l i t n i nilp.?
a i " b LiternlIp, "Jon'n.dnb," 3L But see verm 5,
E1Ki9:7 /as t o a s s i ~ nt o my husband neithc13 a nameo
0 ''Ihvid,'V-,rrFp. Inserted to irletllily tho ~ n b j e c tof the rvrh foll o ~ v i ~ ~,~f;'$l,
+'RingDavid." 11, "l~c."d "Tlw soul." I11s~rtedk"Longed to go oat." Litclrnllg, "failed [aith lonfing] to go out,"


cnunr tbc w r h "longed" is f~niininrin Hehww, ont of hornlonp

wit11 "T!nvid the king," nntl hcncr cnEls for n feminine subject, liaa
''Cllr sou1," LA= rends : "thr? upirit oP the Ling,''


in: LX?i\'gS;vT nnd inany Bcbrcw ~~innuscripta;

"Tu part thcn~."Lit~mlrj-~
'%ebecn It~c~n,"'

b "Conse



2 S A M U E L 14:8-16


nor a remnant& on the surface of t h e

8 Then the king said to t h e ~vomatl:"Go t o
your housc, and I myself shal1 give orders r
gazrlin~you."lC'At this t h e Te.lro%.c tvornan


wicl 10 the king: "Upon me, 0 my lord the klng, ;;;bl~~;;~

bc lIlc guilt, and also upon the house of my I h a l ~ : ~
iathcr,ll while the king and hb throne are inno- nf$R:!R;$
cent,"!' And the king went on ta say: J'Ifthcre ~ N I :k5::l:i
I It? 21 !H
is anyone spealcing t o you, then you must bring I tcr :! 33
hjm i o me and he will never hurt you ngain.'"
But she said: "Let the king, please, remember
J ~ l ~ o v your
a l ~ God,t that the avengeru of blood k F 14:m
may net be continually causing ruin and that
they may not annihilate my son." To this he NU %7,27
said: "As Jehovah is
not a single hairs .\%:,?5
of your son mill fa13 to the earth." a 2 The woman
: :1]_: ' - : ; ; : ' '
now m aid: "Let your maidservant,"please, speak &';t';;f5,
a word* to my lord the king." So he said:

13 And the woman went

ZIsn 5 . 2 4

on to say: "Why,



.I21,:i. ~n

then, have you reasoned like tklsd against the -2sn 12.7
people of God?$ As t h e king is spenlting this t:Ek:':$O
I Y O Y ~he is like one that is guilty," in that the 31cit 21:s
king does not bring back his awn banished one.' -23a1331
" For w e shaII die without failp and bc li kc mn- .>;y,
ters that are k i n g poured down to the cnrth, ;h$$,;;lh
wvhich cannot be gathered.* But God does not
take away a soul,' and he has thought out .;Ilrb
Oh 11:12
masons w l ~ ythe one banished should not be r?8i;i,\4
bnnjshed from hirn.k '"nd
now that I have m~$h'~;~~o
come in t o speak this word ta the king my Iol'd, ,;;&li!;zs
it is bacause the people made me afraid. So your
tnnidsclrvant said, 'Let me speak, please, to the
k l n ~ .Pcrhaps the king will act on the word af
his slrtvc girl. lGBecauwthe king proceeded t o
UP, ' ' B U ~ V O ~ ! '

listen so as to delivero his slave girl out of the

palm of the man [seeking] to annihilate m e
and my lone son from the possession given by
l7 then your maidservant said, 'Let the
word of my lord the king serve, please, to give
~ rest.'
~ "For, just~ like; an~angel:"
~ of The Itrue] Godc
is tbe way my lord thc Icing is, to distinguish
what is good and what is bad,''and may Jehovah
Job 6:m your God himself prove t o be with you,"
18 The king now answered ancl said t o the
,woman: "Do not, please, conceala from me a
;thing about which I am isking you." To this
the woman said: "Let my lord the king speak,
l o And the king went on to say: "Is
2% 11:14 the hand of Jo'abt with you in all this?" Then
1x12:5 the woman answered ond said: "As your soul is
living,Ql 0 my lord the king, no man can go t o
ig$ii$s the right or go to the left'' from all that my lord
2 ~ ~ 1 2 the
, ~
king has spolren, for it mas your servant
v S u 20.17
that cammanded mer and he it was that
Ue 2834
JO, 1 : ~ put in the mouth crl your inaidservant all these
word^.^ 'O For the sake of alterlng the face of
z1."K4.15 the matter your servant Jo'ab has done this
nlK17:14 thing, but my lard is wise as with the wisdoma
of the angel' of The [true] Go& so as to know
aEI that is in the earth."=
21 Subsequently the king said to Jo'ab:
**?%14fl Were, now, I shall certainly dod this thing?
So go, bring the young man Ab'sa.lom bacI<.''
"At this Jdab fell upon his face to the earth



~~~~~~ 1

ml'Sceking to annihilnte rile,'' in ngrcemrnt d t h T,XX'I:,the

t i l d n "seeting3'b&g miwining in bf. b "[iorl," PI4SXT7gSy;
1+nh LXI;td~gardlnll ptlillullT, mdlThe [ t r u ~ jCfnrl." 31, Bn-El.0birr:', t h e definite nlticlo hn ("The") p r ~ r t ' r l ithe
~ ~ ~title Bl.a.bim'
rrl ~lrntlrfor emphnei:is I I E ~ P . "drlin~nh,"T. I h t RPP C)CHPS~S
31: 11,
t'flflt llntc d.
H P ~ ~IC
U B C ~ ' ~ ~1'6'tld
~ B : '"wc~





and prcrsknted himself and blessed the kingto 6:$Ayha9

and Jo'ab went an to say: "Today your servant
does knarv that I have found favor: in your 'En235
eyes: O my lord the king, because the king has 'F&95:3

acted on the word of his servant." "' With that

Jo'ab rose up and went to Gesh'ur' and brought
Ab'sa.lomMto Jerusalem. ="owever, the kSng m ? s l k 13:37
said: "Let him turn toward his own house, 17t1t
my face he may not see."" So Ablsa.lam turned '8; $,:';
.9u 3'1b
toward his own house, and the face of the king 21tc
he did not see.
25 Now compared nfth Ab'sa.Iom there
proved t o be no man so beautifull<in all IsrneE
as to be praised so much. From the solen of his 2;;$&fJ
foot fa the c r o m of his head there proved to be ;;;;i;i7
no defect in him. ze And when ha shaved his
hcad-and it occurred at the end of cvcry year 'IK1 ':71
t l l n t hc would shave it: because it wns so h ~ a v y
upon him, 1le shaved it-he weighed tlie hnir
ol' hie head,' two hundred shelrels'~by lhc royal lh2Sa18:o
stone weight. =7 And there came to be I~smt o
Ab'sa.lom three soust and one daughter whose ;"'",b:$$;
name was Ta'mareu She proved t o be a wornm m
t lK
~ I 152
most beautiful in appearance.
2Clr 11:m
28 And Ab'sa-lorn continued dwelling In Jewsalcm for two M1 years, and the face of the
klng he did not see.v '"0 Ab'saJom sent f o r a v = l d : * 4
fo'ab to send him to the king, and he did net
consent to come to him. Then he sent again, a :
second time, and he did not conaent t o come.
Finally he said to his servants: "See Jo'ab's
tract of land beside mine and there he has barn
ley. Go and set it ablaze with fire.'"= Accord- oasa,aa:n
lngly the servants of Ab'sa.lorn set the tract of
land ablaze with Ere.' At thls Jo'ab rose up 'LKi21:11


2 SAMUEL 11:32-154

and came to AbPsa.lornat the house and said

to him: 'Why did your servants set the tract;
of land that is mine ablaze with fire?" 5 2 So
Abfsa.lom safd to Jokb: "Look! I sent to you,
saying, 'Come here and let me send you t o the
c2sa14:23 king, saying; "Why have I come from Gesh'ur?"
It would he better for me t h ~ It should still be
there. And now let me see the face of the klng
and, if there is any errorAin me,then you must
me t o death." ' " 0
g i g
Subsequei~tlyJoFab cnrne in t o the king
Pr 26.13
~ c 2:?2
him, Then he called Ab'sa.lom, who
P.0 3:19
,now came in to the king and prostrated himseIf
;to him, [fafling l a upon his face t o The gmund
. cc
c 3e3 :~~ -1 before
the king, after which the king kissed*
G e 45:15 ' Awsa.lom,
Lu 15:20
And jt came about following such W g s
that Ab'sa,lom proceeded to have a chariota made for himself, with horses3 and with
fifty men running befare him? And Abrsa.lom
lrci I,? rose up early-and
stood at the dde of the road
came about, when any man
nl'r 1:x
t ~ : g happened t o have a legal case to come ta t h e
t 22-15
I ,,. ;'Ti.7 king for fidgmentfk then Ab's&.lorn would call
kllit 3:16 him and say: "From what city are you?"md
he ~rvouldsay: "From one of the tribes of Israel
your servant is."'%d Ab'sa.Iorn ~vouIdsay to
I l ~ ~ ~ 2 :him:
"See, your matters are good and sbaight,"
but there is no one from the king giving you a
/#v ~ : I I hearing."r 'And Ah's~.lomwould go on to say:
1" :ul:i7
"011 that T were appointed judge in the land,s
h l l 15:'l
r w 11 -0
that to me every man miglit colne that happens
to have a legal case or judgment! Then I should
':;'ill certainly do justice to him."t



q i . 1

I., I,



Migsjng from M bat in ngrcement with


f 67
5 It also occurred that, when a man drew
near to bow down to him, he thrust his hand
out and grabbed hold of hirnu and kissedv him. uF;lt:?::,e,
a And Ab'sa-Porn kept doing a thing like this to
; :?; : ;
all Israelites that ~ r o u l dcome in for judgment I*.1.::
to the king, and Ab'sa.lom kept stealing the
hearts of the men of Israe1.y
7 And it m e about at the end of forty +1''2'3
yearsa that Ab'sa-lorn proceeded to say to the :2:"2i:$
king: "Let me goyzplease, and pay in He'bron:" ;k1:!,':;j;!,
my VOW' that I s o ~ e made
~ y t o Jehovah.' '15" 16.2
For your servant made a solemn voUp when $ ~ ~
I was dwelling in Gesh'ur* in Syria, saying, 'If 1:-,<i[3;
Jehovah will without fail bring me back to ;::;[::I
Jerusalem,' then I must render service to Jeho- "2; :.$,?
vah.' "" -a So t h e kingsaid ta him; "Go in peace,""
r 93With t h a t he m e up and went to He'bron.
YlSll 1:1
10 Ab'sa-lorn now sent spieS through all the *?.!; ~~;~~~
' S n M'IO
tribes of Israel, saying; '2s soon as you hear ' (,I,?!#
the sound of the trumpet, then YOU musf ?
'Ab'sa.lom has become kjngk in He'hron!' "l\,.:;;;;?,i;,
1' Now there had gone with AWsa.lom two hun- WGP20:s
dred men f ~ o mJerusalem, being calledr and lI.,S n1'12.15
going tm~uspectingly,~s
and they did not know
a single thing. T2 Further, when he offered the
:; !I
sacrifices, Ab'sa.lorn sent for A.hjth'o.pheP the ;;'.>iy;i:il
Gilon- it^,^ David's
from his city ;;;; y$rtr



GY1oh.s And the conspiracy kept getting strong- Y : J ~ I:,! ~ nl

er and the people were continually growing in $;;'/

number with Ab%a-lorn.'

13 In time an informer came to David. sayIng: 'The heaW of the men of Israel has


( 112 5 2 7

nyi :?jl


"Forty y e w . " ITLXXTg: "four yenm," B j L X X tnn

~ ~ t Ion.
Pmb~bIgfort;r p e m from the anointing of Dnvid, b Litwalty, "in
their innocence,'' Y. "Swt for," N; "scm t m d called," IL.riYa

Lagardlan cdi tion,

2 SAMUEL 15:1&21

come to be behind Abrsa+lom." At once David

said t o all his servants that were with him in
"Get up and let us run away; for
* : ~ t ~ l ! Jc~r~salern:

there ulill prove to Zle no escaping for us because

of Ablsa.lom! Go hurriedly, for fear he may
i hurry up and actually catch up with us and
bring down upon us what is bad and strike the
L V L I 10':~s city with the edge of the stvotd!'" " At this
the king's servants said to the king: "Accordn Inr1 A : l ~ i ~ 2 1 'ing
to a11 that my lord the king may choose,
!:; 1.141
!ilyd , here wu.e your servants,"" l o So the king went
,,,,, .,., out with RIE his household behind on fear and
to take
,, r';:, the king left ten \rlomen," cclncubin~,~
: WI *(l..i
h i s way out with all Ihe people behind on foot,
J + ~ - : ~ 1 ~ :and
they came to a stop st Beth-mer'hakalc
18 And a11 his servants were crossing at his
side, and a11 the Cherke.thitesnand all the PeI'eI r
I I :nn thitesr and all the Git'tites,. six hundred ment
1 1 . 1 1 lb.17
4 I I
that h ~ followed
from Gath,I1were cross!.+I :v>
ing before the king" face. '"en
the king said to
,I I , , 2
1 -b%fh lH:a
It'taiY the Glt'tlte : "Why should you yourself
rll11 1:12
R ~ S Ogo with ug? GO back2 and d\velI with the
' "fl*:"l king, for you are a foreignerCand, besides, you
sre an exile from your place. ?Testerday was
'~;:,,1~~,, when you came and today shall I make you wander* with us, to go when I am going wherever I.
. Is)n:~3$3
am going Po Go back and take your brothers back
;,.. ;5 n
with YOU, [and may Jehovah exercise toward
I I .
?i/:lyou] loving-kindnew and trustrvorthiness!"c
But It'tai anslvered the king and said: "As
~ ' ~ t t l -






l l r , "tlw Far Honw," bUtrrnlly, "ltnd come a t his feet."' DonbtIrma tllr f ~ r to f It'tni ~nentinncd in thc ncxt vcrse. "And map
toward yonpJR ~ flllcd
in &fore "lu~ng-kindness
ntlql t r u ~ f ~ ~ n ~ ~ t l ~
in~ ar iprruc ~ i, n" ~ nd tt h L,XS, m-hich rends: "And
.Irdrr1~14l1w ~ l Pl X C I - 4 . i ~ ~tcrlviird yon loring-kitldaess and fmtlrorthiI",,"

2 SAMUEL 15 :22-28


Jehovah is livingP and as my lord the king Is O:WR,$;,!8

living, in the place where my lord the king may :?/ ;;ii,
come to be, whether f o r death or for life, there is
where your servant wiIl eomc t o be!"' " At t11nt '
David said to Itatai:' "Go and cross over.''So lh\7;$f
lt'ttti the Git'tite crossed over, and also a11 his $42
men and dl the little ones that were with him. nRo 12.s
23 And all the people of the landa were weep- F<:.: 4::$
ing with a loud r.oice,f and all the people were ;;!;I
crossing over, and the king tt-as standing by the:r;$;i?,,
torrent valley of Kid'ron,'~ and dl the people
were crossing oi7er tipon the open road t o the $7
I ] < I L:.(.,
" And here also there were Za':%
dokr and with him all the Levites'*cwryingR the :Ell&X
arkt of the covenant of The [true] God,' and
they proceeded t o set the ark of The [true] ;:;/?
Godc down by'a-thasL1uuntil all the people g; ;z!;~
completed crossing over from the city. '"But 7c.11 k : a
the king said to Za'dok : "Take the arkv of The !z2:z2rn
[tme] God" back to t h e city.r If I shall find
favor in the eyes of Jehovah, then Ilr? mill cer- V!c,;j>;fj
tainly bring me backz and let me see it and its $i;!v$;
abiding place.wh But if this is what he should
say, T have found no delight' in you,-here I am, * Y S ~~ 1 . i
let him do to m e just as it is good in his eyes." ??zzii
27Andthe king went on to say t o Za'dak the Ad;:,';$
priest: "You are a seer,bre you? Do return ~ ~ ~ ! ~
to the city in peace, and also A.hirn' your ,;!4,.;
son and 3onra.than' the son of'a.thar, the A;,
tnVo sons of YOU men, with YOU. :: See, I am




L i t ~ ~ a l l"And
all the Iand [earth) ." IE. b Possibly. "tllc kinq a n q
I ~ T the torsent raU~!- of Kcl'mn. nnrl all the p r o p l ~s c r ~
prcls-n~g orPr hefore him hy the u . 7 ~
of thc nlire tlvr ill tlrr wi1iltL.rI~~S~.''-L-LS-UCE&".
C '*The itme; God." 31, hn-Rl.o.kitr~', tlic t l ~ f inite s r t i ~ l ehe (('The") prcrcding the title El.o.hirr~'. .re J n r l : . ~
2U : 27. fdotnofe h. d .'By A.hirn.thar1"bp arl ci~imrlntiannl' thr 1 Icbrew text. Literally, " n ~ l d A .bi'n.tlinr p ~ ' ~ t ~ ~ dto* go
r l II]),'' JI.

IEngerinp by the fordsa of the wiIderness unVtiI

word comes from aou men to inform me."
?" AccorclIngly Za'dok and'a.thar took the
ark of The [true] GodhJback to Jerusalem and
they continuedC to dwell there.
30 AndDavidaasgoingupbytheaswntof
Olives,'' weeping as he went up, with his
AC 1.1:
1x9 1 head covcred; nnd he was walking barefoot,*
.I.:- a:]:
and all the people that were with him covered
rI+n 7.8 1
1'4 ].%:a
each one his head, and they went up weepingk
11I 5 . c
I:,, ,:,1 5 as they tveiit up. :'lAnd to David the report was
"a!:, i1i112 made, stying : "A.hith'o-phelnhimself is among
~:lj,t,l~i\;l?,1 .I:! those conspiringr with Abfsaalom."At this David
said : '"urn, please, t h e counselE of A.hith'ophel Into fooEishness,~0 Jehovah!"'
l K 1 lb:23
; l u , 32 Andit cameabout thatwhenDavidhim1~
sell came to t l ~ es ~ ~ r n m iwhere
peop1e"sed t o
him was Hu'":$;~,?;!
ripped apartx
;:I i;f:i&
s ~ s t I.:'
David said
:%I1 7 ' 1 8
s 4 ; to him: "If you actually went across with me,
' "3C1517 then you would certainly become a load" upon
1 9 : ~men3 :Ir But if YOU return t o the city and you
actually say to Ab'snJom, 'I am your s e r v ~ l t ,
0 King, I used t o prove myself the servant of
your father, even I at that time, but now even
A2Snal:1* I clrn your servant,lh then you will certainly
(:'Sn 177 ;frustrate0 the counsel of A.hith'o.phe1 for me.
Are not Za'dok' and'a.thar the priests
there ~vithyou? And it must occur that evenrthing that you may hear from the house of the

! s 9

."lly thr fortl.~,"31; 'lit) t l i ~drsrrt plnina.'! 11's n~nrgitulrending.

1,X ,Y V f i ~ y b, *'Tllp itrl~e]C;od." 11, ktt-ISrl.~.k;i~~',
t h e defit~itrarticle
hn [*'l"tlr~")
p ~ ~ ~ r ~f rl ~
l title
r t ~ Rl.o.kitn'.
SFC Judges 20: 27, foott v i t i r 11. m'd.%~lrE thrv ~.r,utinurtl,"11VgSg; "rind it rontinud," L X I .
4 4 lr, l l o n ~ , 'or,

2 SAMUEL 15:36-16:6


throwing stones at David and at a11 the senants

king you should tell to Za'dok and'a.thar
of King David; and all the people and all the
the priests.m""~ook! there with them are their ezSa17:16
mighty men were at his right and a t his left?
two sons, Abhim'"beIonging to Zatdok and " $ S s " , : ~ : ~
r c l o 20
And this is what S11im'e.i said as he called
Jon%.thans belonging to A.bita.thar, and by &H;;l$
evil: "Get out, get out, you bloodguiltyz
means of them YOU men must send t o me every- 1Ki 1:42
e h " 1 2 : U a n a and scoundrellb* a Jehovah has brought
thing that YOU may hear." " So Hu'shai, David's
1'- 51:14
'ne 1 3 : y back upon youGall the bloodguilt* for the house
cornpanion,k came into the city. As for Ab'sa- klFgg;$j
Pr 17!17_
E a 22.12
?:17 of Saul in place of whom you have ruled as king
lorn," he proceeded to come into Jerusalem.
nzsa 16:1p
and Jehovah gives the kingship into the hand
When David himself had crossed over a
of Ab'sa.lom your son. And here you are in your
little beyond t h e ~ u r n m f tthere
, ~ was 21'- rgg;F;w
calamity, because you are a bloodguilty man!"a
bp the attendant of Me.phib'o.shetht t o meet him '2sa 9:9
9 Finally A.bish'ai+t h e son of Ze.m5ahesaid
with a couple of asses1 saddled and upon them :?%?iz:~
ta fie king: "Why should this dead dog" call
-1Sn 24:14
two hundred loaves of breadv and a hundred "giz::?&' B1Ch22:16
cakes of raisins>-and a hundred loads of figsZand ,2gz:%
*Ex 22:28 down evil upon my lord t h e king?' Let me go
~ ~ 2 3 . 5over, please, and take off his head.Ok lo But the
Then the king said t o zYer 4U:lO
a large jar of
lclSa 26:8
king said: "What do I have t o do with YOU
Zitba: "What do these things mean on your f g ~ ;
you sons of Ze.m'iah?r Thus let him c d
part?"" To this Zi'ba said: "The assesAare fox pISn10:3
1Sn 16:N
because Jehovah himself has said to
the household of the king to ride and the bread :p r 18;le
down evil upon David!' So whod
and the load of figs are for the young menqto eat A$gR5$Qa6
LU 4
did you do that way?' l1 And
and the wine1<is for the one weary' in the wilder- h'it
2 ~ x 7
rlKi 2 5
say to A.bishJai and all his
nesato drink." The king now said: "And where bg;41;zg
La 5 : s
own son, who has come
is the son of your master?"&"A t this Zi'ba said e;ga;;:g
1 r 2 S a a : ~forth out of my awn inward parts, is looking
t o the king: "There he is dwelling in Jerusalem, 7 2 ~ n9:3
2Sa l 7 : l
for my S O U I , ~ md how much more now a Ben'jaV L ' S ~2.31
for he said, 'Today t h e house of IsraeI will return
Let him alone that he may call down
t o me the kingdom of my father.' "* ' The king =$Fl;g;27
has said so to him!Y ITerhaps
then said to Zi'ba:
EK 3 3
Jehovah will see with his eyeeEand Jehovah will
t h a t belongs to Me.phibJo.sheth."r Upon that ~ P S ~ ~ : I O
Let me find favor "g~$$$~
Zi'ba said: "I do bow
a Literally, "a wan of l~loods,"X. b Or, "good-for-nothing man.''
in your eyes, my lord t h e king."
l,iternlly, "man of Be'' CLiternlly. "IThat [is there] to nle nntl
5 And King David came as far as'rim,t tzl$jF
lo POT men?'' See Joshun 23 : 24, footnote b, and Judges 11 : 12,
t'cmtnote a. d Tbia IR according t o the Qere, o r ~~iltrginal
rending, of
and, look! coming out from there was a man of
51. "In case he calls down evil and i n ewe Jehovah has said to him,
the famiIy of Saul's house, and his name was
down evil upon D a ~ d ! 'who, thexl'f" &I. 'in-ith his eye" is
Shirn'e.i,u the son of Ge'ra, coming out and call- ' ~ ~ $ s ~ ~ 6'['nll
tlw wading of the 01igjnal text, but t h e Sopheri111lnnde one of their
ing dotvn evil as he came out.' And he began Vgat;2,:\
Il:~gllteenEmendations here to make it rend "on my emor," that is,
r l r l the error con~~nitted
against me. L-XXT-gSy, "on my aEction.'!
""Master." H,', the plnral of a.ddnt, t o denote excellence
HEW Ifenesis 18 : 22, footnote a,




or mnjrslj*.

actually return to me goodnes Instead of hls

rnalN1ictEono this day."' '"Vith that David and %$I&%
his men kept going on in the road, while Shim'- gtdifp"7
c.i was walking on the side of the mountain,
rv~lklngabreast of him that he mlght call down
evil,uand he kept throwing stones while abreast yEx22:2a
of him, and he threw a lot of dust.c"
94 At length the king and all the people that
were with him arrived tired. So they refreshed
themselves there,
15 As for Ab'sa.Iornand all the peopIe, themen
of Israel, they entered Jerusalem, ancl A.hlthro- " s ~ " 3 7
phelWas with him. l8 And it came about that, as b ~ ~ h \ ~
soon as Hukhaimthe Ar'chitc,"Davld's compan- :;:;:;;a
Ion," came in to Ab"sa.Iom,Hu'shni proceeded to *18n 15:n
sny to Ah'sn.lom: " k t the king IIve!l( Let the k;g;&24
kin^ livcl" At this Ab'sa.lom said to Hu'shai: g y z ~ 1 ~
"This is the loving-kindnesxfi of yours tauyard MI 21:s
your companion, is it? Why did you not go with
your companion?"n '30
Hu'shni seid to Ab'sa- 7$$2$&?j
lorn; '"0, but the one whom Jehovall has c11o- 7,5;
::;::;: 5:2
senr and also this people and all the men of Israel,
his I shall become" and with hirn I shall dtvell.
And for the second time [Imillst say 1 , Whom
shall I myself seme? Is i t not befolr? his son?
Just as T served before your lathcr, so I shall ,,,,,:.
1Sa 2B:S
prove to be' befare you."'"
2Sa 15%
20 Later Abfsa.lorn said to A.hlthraaphel:tE;&:2
L ' Y ~men,
give counseICon YOUR part. !%"hat zra7;g
shall we do?" T h e n A-hith'o,phel said to Ab'- 2:2iB
sa.lom; "Have relationsU with the concubinesq vT;e~5:22
of your father,y whom he left behind to take ~
care of the house. Then all Israel will certajnly Yk;i:::l"l
a OF,'loynl lore!'
b Or, "I ~ h n l prove
to b~.~qnI,
ph.yeJb' ( i 1 9 i l K ) , the
BRnlo os at Uenlesia 26 : 3; 31 : a ; Exodus 3 : 14, "1 shall prove t o

he." Soo reraa 18, footnote


hear that you hare made yourself f oul-smelling=

to your tather- and Ule hands' of all those who

are with you will certainly become strong,"
they pitched a tent for Ab'sa.lorn
A2sa11:2 upon the roofAand Ab'sa-lorn began to have relations with the concubines of hiis father* under
"a 1s:la the eyes" of all Lsrael.
2Sil 31:3
23 And the counsel of A.hEth'o.phel, with
. 5::,.I2;
I,., 3 :t
which he counseled in those days, was just as
word of The
'F$b22;2when a mans uwuld inquiremof the
*:sn 1 7 : ~ [true] God.b That was the w ~ all
t h e counsel*
~ S I 1T:23
Ir:'sn 1 5 : ~of A.hfth'o.phelk was both to David and to Abc
And A-hithlo.phel proceeded t o say to
Ab'sa.'lom: "ktme choose, please, t~~*eIve
thousand men and rise up and chase after David
Pr 4 : ~ tonight.[] 'AndIshall corncupon 11imwhen he
rnc ~ ~ l ; ti
ss n - e ~ r yand
r feeble in both hands, ~ n Id shall
2Sa 1G:14
eertalt~lydrive him into trembling, and all the
people that are with him will have t o flee, nnd
I shaIl certainly strike down the kingd by himn$$$g1
self. dnA"
let me bring all the people back to
~ * ~ a ~ !you.'
a l Equivalent to the returning of all is the
man whom you are seeking: [andJ all t h e people
C:zfI;6m mill themselves come to be at
the word was just rightv in the eyes of Ab'sa.lom
-1". 2'. 12

"1;~.4 3 4


n ~ ~ n ,Only
" the vowel point for this ~ x p ~ e s a i aappear8
in If,
rxpr~fisionappears i n about 3u 1Te))rew nlhnurcripts,In 31

11111 tllu

Ihin is


Qovi: raVo /cCtJrib. See Judg~s20: 1 3 , I'oatnot~a, b"T1ie

I II'UP]0loc1," 31, Irn-Kl,o.hdm< t h e

drflnit~n~lic.1011n ( " T ~ P " )pre~ v ~ l i tlw

n ~ :li tlr El.a.hirn' doubtle*~fnr ~i~rpkasir.
I I F ~ Pin the first
I)rvllrrcIIce o f this expre~sion"the aord of Thr [true] Gad." J h n ~
I rt~ihrlr~tor?i
j take ''wurd"
k(&r.bad) here to h~ ~ q r l i v a l ~ ~ton t"inncrt4111nt 1.00111" ((I.!&) nt I Rings 0 : 5, etc.
rlw to A c o p p
ov~rfiigllt,the passage is to he read : "I,pt me I~ring1111 tba
I W Y I ~ I Ihrlck
to you just as the bride retnma t o her husband, It is
~ 1 1 ~tl~rn
l v w 1 ~ 1o f one man that yon are setking, and nll t h people
wrll l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ icame
e c l vt co sbe a t peace." l'hii; ngreea with L...S.

2 SAMUEL 175-12

and in the eyes of all the alder men of Tsrael.

5 H m v e r , Ab'sa.10rn said: "Call, please,
Hu'shaiy the Ar'chite also find let us hear what
is in his mouth, his too." So Hu'shai came in
to Ab'saJom. Then Abtsa.lomsaid to I~lm: ' A c cording t o this word is the way A.hith'a.phe1
spoke. Shall we act upon hia word? If not, you
yourself speak." a At t11is Hw'shai said to Ab'sa.lorn: "The counsel with which A.kithFo.pEzel
has counsclcd fs not gooclx in this instnncef"
8 And Hu'shal went on t o say: c4Youyourself
nTeL1h o w your father and the men of his, that
they are mighty* and they are bitter of SOUI,~
Hke a female b e d that h ~ lost
s her cubs Jn the
field, and your fatherb Is a warrior and he ivilI
not spend the night with the people. 'Look! now
he himsclf has taken conccalmcnt' in one of the
lloldows or in one of the other places, and it will
certainly occur that, just BS soon BS he falls
upon them a t the start, then the one I~cnrjngof
It will be bound to hear and say, 'A defeatn has
taken placc among the people that are following
Ab'sa.lom!' l o And even thc valiant man whose
heart is as the heart" of the lionaDwill himself
surely soften in weakness,* for a31 Israel is
aware t h ~ your
father Is a mighty manicand
so, toe, are the valiant men that arc with him.
" I myself do say in counsel: Let all Israel tvithout fail be gathered to you, from Dan to Bepersherba,1l as the sand particlesr that are by ihe
seaQ for multitude: with your own personbs
walking In among thcm.c Then we must come
a The Africnn lion. b Liter~lly,"your own Pnce." a T n nmong t h ~ m , "
LXXVgSy: "in the h t t l e [nn'ic word] ,I) 11. Tlut accortling
to Ciescbt~iusthe Ucbrew f a p r ~ b i 0is~an abl>~evintionfor 'in their




2 SAMUEL 17:13-18

Ilur~z3:aa against

him in one of the placest where he is

certain to be found, and we ourselves will be up11*8:"
on him just as the dewu falls upon the ground,
and there tvill certainly not be left even a single
one among him and all the men that are with
YrFn I*l3
him.v l g And if it is into some city t h a t he will
withdraw, then all Israel must carry ropes to
that city and we shall certainly drag it down to
the torrent valley, until there shall not be found
yut 24:2
there even n pebble."r
14 Then Ah's~.lomand all the men of Israel
rn- ~ : m said: "The counsel of Hu'shaj the Mchite is
5% E;z better than the counsel of A.hith'o.phel!" And
. 13:3H
1 C ' u . V ~ h o v ahimselfz
had glven orders' t o frus"jn
of A.hithJo.phel althou~h
~':Sll 1 -.34
goodpain order that Jehovah might bring calarn3.:,:;,
ity upon Ah'sa.lom.
I ' l ? 21.30
I . , ~h
15 Later Hu'shai said to Za'dokb and A-bf'at.r.u l h %
17 thar the prlests: "This and that was the way
r . l l I .x
that A.hith'oaphel counseled AWsa.lom and the
older men of Israel, and thjs and that W R ~the
,way t h a t I rnyseIf counseled. l o And now send
spedily and tell David, saying., 'Do not lodge in
the desert plainr of the wilderness tonight, + but
ws'l l5:I4 you also ought to cross ovw without fail,' for
fear that It may be communlcnted t o the king
and to all the people that are with him,'
17 AS Jan'a.thanmand A.him'a.azS were stand'
m,"; ; ;,:.,$ ing at En-ro'geltica maidservant went ofl and
I I * ~01 la
told them, So they themselves went off, as they
I1 I4lU 1'17
rll. I4l,lri hnd t o tell King David, for they were not nble
, I , I I 'I
to appear entering the city. '"I-Eowever, a young
man got t o see t h m and told Ab'sa.lom. So the
two of t h ~ m
went off speedily and came to the

I r k


, "for

St.rrr that thr ktng and dl the people


that are with him

2 SAMUEL 17:19-25



2 SAMUEL 17:26-18 :3

the Israeljte,a who had relatlona wlth AbrT.gail

house of a man in'rim,n who had a well? "P@mm
in his courtyard," and they went down Into it.$:A:$:
:kT$:i6 the daughter of h'a'ha~h,~the sister of Z e d iahVrJo'ab's mother. "" And Israel ctnd Ab"sablom
Alter that the woman took and spread out a
1 t ; ~ Q 2 took upcamping In the land of Gi1'
cavcring over the face of the ~vr.elland heaped
.TP+% 1326
27 And it came about that, as soon as David
up cracked grain upon it,' and not a thing be* rJo'm~
n l s n f:i
: l ~ z l 11:2
came known of
The servants of Ab'sa.lom
t o,t Sho'bi the son of Na'rt
. I ~ I A1325 hashn from Rnls'b~h~
of the sons of Arn'rnon,y
now came to the woman at her house rind said:
W s 1?:28
"'Where are A.him' and Jonta.than?" At this
y:'Sn 12:2G and Ma'chirx the son of Arn'm!.el" from LoY:L'SA9:4
de'bar, ancl Bar~zil'l~1~
the Gil'
the woman said to them: "They passed on from
I bi*ought]~bes"and basins' and
here to the waters."' Then they kept on search- tP,"B%:j
potter's vessels,* ~ n d
wheat" and barleyk and
ing, and they did not find themu and so returned 32; JyI;4
t 1 FCi 1:7
IGM 7 i ; l i
*-<;119:31 flourn and roasted gre1nvand broad bean+ and
to Jerusalem.
UJUJ 2:22
"1% 4 : l l
-?C;n11:2 lentils" and parchcd grain, 'D and honeyt and
21 And it came ahout after their going away
3 - 1 1 16.14
that then they m e up out of the well and went
rlliI21:17 ;butteru and sheep: and curdsY of cattle they
on and told King David and said fa David: "Yoe'
;:j:.gjy brought forward lor David and the people that
were with him to eat, for they said : "The people
people, rise up and speedily pass over the waters,
for Ihis is thc way that A.hith'o.phcEVcounseIed VISR17:2
are hungry and tlred and thirsty in the wiIderTISZ ~ 2 1 8
rf i t # 2?34
YOU." " Immedjatcly David rose up nnd
~ S 23:11
1 1 lC1 14.3
also all the people that wcrc with him and they
And David proceeded t o number the
kept crossing the Jordan until the mornlng hcv.It: 5rn.5
people that were wlth him and t o place
came light,^ until not a one was IackInp t h ~ yt g f :lijj
over them chiefsd of thousands and chiefsd of
hnd not passed over the Jordan.
hundreds.2 :Further, David sent one third' of
23 As for A.hith'o.phe1, he saw' that his *;;;:%
t='bll;0:7 the people under the hand of Jorabn and one
counsel had not been acted upon and he prafi14'1'2:16 third under the hand of A+bish'ail the son of
ceedd to saddle an ass and rise up and go off t o'jah, Jo'ab's brother, and one third under
his house at his own cityma
Then he gave orders WICI 20:1
1539 the hand of It'tai" the Glt'tite. Then the king
t o his household" and strangIed" himself& and
said to the people: 4""Xyselfalso shall without
thus died.' So he was buried in the burial place l I i t)l 16.15
21 '3
'mn17m fail go out with I-ow."'Ca But the people said:
I', 5:lo
of his forefathers.
'wnzr:17 "You must not go out,* for if we should a t
24 As for David, he came ta Ma.ha=naiirn,*,/:;jz
all flee they would not set heart upon us,"
and AbJssa.lom himself crossed the Jordan, he nu 1n2:IN'
if half of us ~ ~ o u die
l d they would not set
n~ 3 3 28
and all the men of Israel with him, "'nd
ZSn 2.H
the- one whom Abtsaalornput In
a F nrrt~ilitcl,'~
MVpSy; ","
L,?LYA and I C h l ~ n j c l e s
'Q I j,
" N n r l ~ ~ ~ hTLXdY1*gSj;
the place of Jo'ab# over the army, end A.rnats~;s,, 5rl:la
T h i ~word io mpplied here
was the son of a man whose name was Ith'ral' :cE,%:],6fH I I I ~ I ~ : ~ H ' I I H ~ P I P H 2 : 13-10. "I%~*nufillt.'~
111 t ~ u r ~ - r * w
i r~~t~bLSY.
~ ~ t d "ChieEn!' hi, un.rin18. &CB tlencs19 40 : 2,








"Hnnged himself," I X X , as at SIatthew 27: 3.


Ialrrl I ~ I I ~d.


2 SAMUEL 18:4-11


heart upon, us, because you are worth ten thousand of us;" and now it would be better If you =La4%
uPouldbe of service to us t o give help from the
city."" SO the king said to Ihsm: "Whatever WEx
2Sa lO:11
sccms good in YOUR eyes I shall do." Ancl the
king Irepe standing at the s i d ~of the gate,lc and Ir2Sa
Isa 28:6
all the people themselves went out by I~undreds
and by th~usands.~
"nd the king went on t o dSa 29:2
command Jo'ab and A-bish'ai md It't~i,saying:
"Deal izentlyr for my sake \vlth the young man rDe
2Sa 1611
Ab's~.lom."And all the people thcmsc?lvesheard Ps 103:13
when the king commanded all the chiefsa over
the matter of Ab'sa.lom.
6 And the people continued on their way out
t o the Aeld to meet Israel, and the h~ttIecame
to be En the forest of E'* Finally the ~ J O T17:I5
people of Israel rrreredefeated( there before the 2% 15%
servants of David, and the slaughter there
p r ll:n
t u r n d out to be greatUon that day, of twenty uPr
thousand men." And the battle tllere got t o be 2Ch 13
spread out over all the land Ihat nlns in sight. 2Ch 2 8 5
Furtharmore, the forest did more In eating up
t l ~ cpeople than the sword did In eating them up
013 that day.s
IKI m:m
9 Eventually Ab'sa.lom found himself before Ps 3:T
the servants of David. And Ab'sa,lorn~was rid- ~ 2 %
ing upon R mule, and the mule got to came un1723
der tho network of boughs of a massive big tree, '2Sa
>!it 27:5
so that his head" got caught fast in the big tree" 0 2 s ~2:33
I K l S:2i
and he was taken up between the heavensc and 3oDe
as the mule itself that was under Ur 2196
him passed along. lGThena certain man saw it D?
J o b 3:3
and told Jo'abA and said: "Look! I have seen Fs
P r :0':11
AbFsa.lamhung in a big tree." At this Sotab WSa
2Sn 18:2
chief^," W,sla.&mt,See Qenesis 40 : 2, footnoto d, b LLE',"
hJZ.dLSVg;f'&'iq" ~ X x L & m r d i a *dillon,

said t o the man who was telling him: "And here

you saw it, and why did you not strike him datttn
to the earth there? Then it would have been my
obligation to give you 1;en pieces of silver and a
l LBut the man said to Jo'ah: "And alcl?n37:25
though I were weighing upon my palms a thousand pieces of silver, I sl~ouldnot thrust my
/hand out against the king's son,for in our hearIngn it was that the king comm~ndedyou and
A.bis11'ai and It'tai, saying, 'Wntch over the
young man AhJsa.lom for my sake.'* IWOtherwise I sl~ouldhave dealt treacherously against
his soul and the whole matter it~elfwo~tldnot
be hidden from the kin@ and you yourself would
:Sn 4 ' 1 ~ ~
: tlhll.i!3
take a position off on the side."' " To this Jo'ab
.--,n 14.19
said: "'Let me not hold myself up this way before you!" Wjth that he took t t l r ~shaftsb in
his palm and proceeded to driven them through
J X 5:26
t h e heart of Abrsa.lom while he IVW yet alive
?I,.; .I?,?
t t ~ ].!:do
in the heart1'.of the big tree. ' B Then ten attendants11
carrying Jo'ab's weapons came around
~ ~ ~ l - l ~and
: 3 5 struck Abtsa.lom, that: they might put him
to death. lEJo*abnow blew the trumpet,r that
r ,h ' iI11i:5
1~ 2 ~ ~
the people might return from chasing after
, 2 M Israel,
for Jo'ab had heId hack the people.
2:;1\ 211:22
I t Finally they took Ab'sa.lom and pitched him
In the forest into a big hollow and xaised up
~~1~~ H:yjl
him a very big pile of stones." As for all
1 1
they fled each man to his 11orne.~
1 , :
Ab'sa.larn himself, while he was alive,
I*, l"2
iI I
had taken and proceeded t o raise up for himself
"in 1 t.27
I , , , ,l H la R pillar,' which is in the Low Plain of the King,u
folqhc said: "I have no son In order to keep m y
l ' l "'
So he called the pillar
,, , ., . :,, nnmc in remembran~e."~




" I ,II ~+vr~llp,





Or, r'wenpons?' Litrmlly, L'mds," Liter-

2 SAMUEL 18:I S 2 5
by his own name,Y and it continues to be called YE;


Ab'sa.lomis Monument down t o this day.

19 Now as regards A.himta.azVhe son of R::;fpE
Za'dok, he said: "Let me run, please, and break
the news t o the king, bec~zrse Jehovah has
jrtdged7 him [to free him] f rorn the hand of his 'IKt v'T
enemies."* But Jotab said t o him: "You are mFR7:10
1% g:4
not a man of news this day,' and you must break
the news on another day, but this day you must
not b r e ~ kthe news for t h e very reason that"
the king's awn son hw died.ItA Then Jo'nb n29n
sald to the C ~ s h ' i t e : ~ Gtell
o ~ the king tvhat P
~ ;
you have seen." At that the Cush'ite bowed to
Jo'ab and began t o run. q2' the son
of Za'dok now said once again to Jo'flb: "Let,
now,happen whatever {vill, Jet me also myself,
please, mln behind t h e Cush'ite." However, Jo'ab
said: "Why is it that you yourself have to run,
my son, when there is no news being found for
you?" la[Still: he said: ]b "Let, now, happen
whatever will, let me run." So he said to him :
"Run?" And A-hirn'a-azbegnn to run by the way
of the District,ce and he eventually passed
the Cush'ite.
n:,3j:311x1 7:YB
24 Now David was sftting between t h e two ~ ' ( - 1 14!17
gates,Weantimc, the watchmank went to the ' ~ ~ ~ ~ ; ? 1 f
roof of the gate by the wall. At length he raked h,.?<R
Ill. 9:17
his eyes and s a and,
~ ~ look! there was a man 1 21:fi
r u n n f n ~by himself. " So the watchman called E1:.X 23n .I2
and told the king, at which the king said:
he is ;by himself, there Is news in his mouth."

"Tlie v p wason
that," Thle Hrhrm text is TOWPI-pointedfirm to
read, litrrrillg, "that is why" ('nl ken), nllhough the serond I l r b r ~ w
watbrl is inirring it1 31, but; R P P P ~ Y R in solne Hehrelv nintlu~cripts,
This i s O W III! tilt! ( I r r e wFIo Iifik,iljmsee 3 Pamuel 10:23, f o o t r ~ n l eA.
"Still tlr vaid :" LXXTg6y. 0 Or, "Unbin." See Cieneais 13 : 10,
fmtrlota b.

And he kept comfng, steadily getting nearer.

The watchman now saw another man running.
The watchman therefore called to the gatekeeper and said: '%oak! another man rtlnning
by himself!" at which the king said: "This one
also is a news bearer," E7 And the watchman
went on t o say: "I am seeing that the runnfng
style of the first is like the running style of
of Za'dok," at ~vhiohthe
5 k l 1 ~ : l 9 king said: "Thjs is a good man,' and with good
rl I i l 1;4:
rv 2.7: I a newpqhe should come," * Eventually A.hirn'
nllr Z r % 5
~51.:; ~called~and said to the king: "It is well!"n With
?.!t 2L:I.I
I r , : l ~ that he bowed to the king with his face to the
tr it. I i 3 1 earth. And he went on to say: "Blessedt be
;T1g;: Jehovah your God, who has surrenderedu tile
men that lifted up their hand against my lord
L -. II4 U
I ~ I 1.1-1
,1 0 11
the king!"
29 However, the k h g said: "fs it well with
,IS^^ ,: I : I ~ the young man Ab'samlom?"To this A.himtaaz
''1 saw the D e n t crowd at the time Jatnh
sent the king's sgrvant and your servant, and
rmnls:lfi I did not know what it was."v aC So the king
said: "Step aside, take your position here." At
that he stepped aaide and kept standing stHE,
vco 1o:fl
31 And here was the Cush'iteY coming in, and
~ V L L15:l
2se J P . ~ I the Cush'ite begnn to say: "'Let my lord the
king accept news, for Jehovah has judged you
today [to free you] from the hand of all those
up against
g p But the king sald to
F. ;To rising
I ~ .n.:iH
with the yoring man
I*. sli i
Ab'sa.lom?" To this the Cush'ite ssfd: "May the
'enemies of my lord the king and a11 those who
rose up against you for evil become as the



2 SAMUEL 18:2-2



wrll!" Literrtllfi "Pence !'I 11, Compm vmeu 29, 32.

tl117 I l ~ ~ l ~ rtextc w chapter 15 ends here.

/this will certainly be worse for you than all the

injurp that has come upon you from your
! t7c 1 2 9 : ~ ;youth until n o ~ v . " Accordingly
the king rose
(up and seated himself In the gate,' and to all
the people they made the report, saying: "There
'is the king sittfng In the gate," And all the pew
ple began t o come before the king. As for Is'''Fg~E!s rael,* they had flcd each one t o his h0rne.R
t F i m 2 : 3 V And all the people came t o be involved i
:'I<! 14:12

33 Then the king became disturbed and went

up to the mf chamber" over the gateway and aJ":9yz
gave way t o weeping, and this is what he said @7;:1!
r 1:1:13
as he walked: "My sen Ab'sa.lorn, my son, my
son'. Ab'sa.lomt Oh that I might have died, I b2cn '"I
myself, instead of you, Ab'sa.lom my son, my





OTSn 12:ln
Pa 103:13

~r 10;1--

Later it was reported to Jdab: "Look! j l r 1!1:13

the king is weeping and he c~rrieson
rnotlx-ning over Ab'sam1omhr"So the salvatjan *$:R,
on t h a t day came t o be an occasion of mourning 17r 17,zs
on the part of all t h e people, became the people


heard say on that day: "The king has felt hurt

over his son.'- %d the people began to steal ' R ~ $ ~
away on that day to come into the city,' just as ":%
thc pople would steal"away when tlley felt dis- w(1c31:;;
grnccd because they fled in thc battle. ' And
thc king himself covered up his face'( ~ n the
d k::ti$36
king continued crying out with n loud voice: Il ~ s n l : 1 7
"My son Ab'sa.lom! Ab'sa.1om my Ron, my fion!'jr Imxfl
5 Finally Jo'ab came in t o the king &t the
house and said: "You have today put to shame
the face of all your servants, the ones pmviding
escape for your soul todayn and for the mu1 of ngl&m
your sonst and your daughtersu and the soul sf
your wivesv and the soul of your concubines,r ,~;:%j
', by loving those hating you and by hat in^: those v. q m 1r5 313
loving you, for you have reported todny that ,:,,,I:
'hfl lG"'
princes and servants are nothing to yon, because
I well know today that if only Ab'sa.lom wcre
alive and all of us others were today dead, why,
in that ease it would be right ill your eyes."-. 291153 22 54
And now rise up, go out and speak straight t o $;~,!;:t;lu
the heart* of your servants, because, by Jeho~:IJ
vah, I do swear that, in case you are not going '3' I I O pi:28
out, not a man mill lodge with you tonight, and



dispute* in all the tribes of Israel, snylng: "It

was the king that deljvered us out of the palm

enemies" and he it was that provided

us out of the palm of the PhI.listtines,
2% 5 2 9
: GI
and now he has run a\r+ayout of the land from
1':'SaX5:14 Abrsa.lorn.k l o A $ for Ab's~t.Iom, whom W
$anointed aver us," he has died in the battle.P
;r;ygp So now why are YOU doing nothinga t o bring the
king back?"
11 As for King Davld, he sent to Zn'dokt and
3 5.25
2s;~17:15'a.thar" the priests, sayjng: "Speak t o the
1 1 ~ 11:s
older men of J ~ d a h saying,
'Why should You
1qlh j3r1:7
become the last ones t o brltrg the king back to
,, ,;':;"c1.-* his house, when t h e word of nll Israel itself has
,11,.,,,L !+.I3
come t o the king ~t his house? My brothers3
>'~3 YOU are, my honey and my flesh YOU are. So
. f t : 11,:'
.. n .- 1 why should aoc become thc Inst ones to bring
the king back?' I U n d to A.marsaz YOU should
I!'" 1 Y : l R
s ~ y 'Are
you not my bone and my flesh? So
',I 1I it1,3 may God do t o me and so may he add t o it* if
you will not become the army chief before me
'Try; {iE always infitead o f 30'ab."'~
I H el
14 And he proceeded t o bend the heart of all
"'I ",
thc men of Judah as one man," so t h a t they sent
word to the king: "Come back, you and all your
" ~ $ ~ : ~of; ~our
lsn 1 9 5






2 SAMUEL 19:15-22



15 And the king began t o go back and got t o

come- as f a r as the Jordanc As for Judah, they mlm?:de
came to Gil'galP to go and meet the king, to 9:;: :;:lq
conduct the king across t h e Jordan. ICThen
Shim'el' the son of Ge'ras the Bentja.min.ite, '5;i6$
who was from,"hurried and went 4% ;:$4
down with the men of Judah to meet King -;"s",~;:~
David.' And there were with him a thousand *g;;4
men from Benjamin, (And also Zi'bak t h e at- bit 5:25
tendant of the house of Saul and liis fifteen 'iz".2,":i21
sonsIEand twenty servants of his were with him,
and they made it successfulIyA to the Jordan -;'p",",$:$28
before the king. And heb crossed the for& t o ,g
conduct the household of the king across and u+3P2:15
t o do what was good in his eyes.) As for Shim'- R O 4:7
2Co 5.19
e-i the son of Ge'ra, he fell down before the king rps 79';8
when he was a b u t to cross the J0rdan.B ' W e 1b.Q
er 3134
now said to the king:t "Do not let my lord at- y@;itiy
tribute error" to mea and do not let him remem- ;;;;:;;8
berv the wrong that your servant didY on the day p r 2s:20
that my lord the king went out of Jei-u~alern,~
so that the king should lay i t to his heart.' 2C;L, ~48:20
2o For your servant well knows t h a t I am the
one that sinned, and so here I have today come 97;&315
the first of all t h e house of Joseph"'" to go down A;Z;
ozsa 2:13
to meet my lord the king."
'Eu 2 2 : 2 8
21 At once A.bish'aiAt h e son of'iahc ; ~ g ; ; ; ~
answered and said: "In return for this should elSa26:CI
not Shimte.i be put to death,' in that he called $?If,BG
evil down upon the anointedc of J e h o ~ a h ? " ~
22 But David said: "What do I have t o do with "
YOU men,dYYOU sons of Ze.rutiah, that you



Or, " t h r ~sped d o m . "

Or, possibly, C:ther.'j'rak7r; ti)-, mJalrihh;L,XT,

"Yrhat [is there] to ine and to

"Anointed." 11,

~ I T ~ S . I O S ' Tg,
chfdfi't~ts. d Literally,
TOE men 7" See Jashna

note b, and Judges 11:12, footnote a.

22 21,

SAMUEL 19 :23-29

should become today a resister"* of me? WilI

anyone today be put to death in Israel?" For
do 1 not tveI1 know that today I am king over
L~~~ 5 4 Israel?"n 23 Then the king said to Shim'e.i:
,lrri 16:5
"YOUwill not die."k' And the king went on to
:Ei$g sweara to him.
24 As for Me-phib'o.shetht the grandson of
Saul,b he came down t o meet the king, and he
12% 9:s
25x 16:4 had not attended to his feetn nor had he attendulSa 9:3
zsa 7 7 . 3 0 ed t o his mustachev nor had he washed his
J e r 4115: 3j
clothes from the day that the king went away
until t h e day that he came in peace, "' nd
came about that, when he came to Jerusalem t o
meet the king, then the king said t o him: "Why
f;ZSa16:17 did you not go with me, Me.phibto.sheth?"$
2R To this he said: "My lord the king, i t was my
9 3
servantz that tricked me. For your servant had
*25a 1 ~ 2 said, 'Let me saddle the female ass* for me that
I may ride upon it and go withc the king,' for
your servant is 1arne.O " So he slanderedAyour
y s a 1 6 3 servant to my lord the king. But my lord the
IJc 15:3
17s6 3 : ~ king is as an angelg of The [true] God,d and so
IPS 101
6 :5
do what is good in your eyes. z s For all the household of my father would have become nothing
but doomed to deathe+t o my lord the king, and
'ls;! 26.15 yet you placed your servant among those eating
"'s" " 7 at your tableme
So what do I still have as a justi:'Sn 9 9 0
;'sit 9:u fication far crying' out further t o the king?"
-:'I<] 8.3
29 However, the king said to him: "Why do
YOU yet keep speaking your words?* I do say,
%Sr~.!om'J 31; ~rr'ta??,Vp; sn.ta'fzn. Sy, b"The son o f Saul," IrlTg;
, 2:
PK1 11.14
IKI llj?5
klSa 11.13



"ll111 son of Soli' the son of Snal," SF; .*the son o f t l ~ cson
Sn111,'j LXXB. "With,'> IUIXSyS-g ; "to," about 00 JIehrem
111 1111 ~trroripts.d &'The [ t r l ~ ~
31! ttd-EI.o.h impjthe definite wti~ l l r t lirr ("The")
receding the t i t l ~El.o.11irii~.
Henre literally, "The
tJeu1." t<ut see Gencsls 31: 11, footnoke d, Literallyj "nothing b u t
l t ~ ~ (
~ t~l lr ~ ~ ~ ~ t ~ ~ , J 7


you." 3s All the peopIe now began t o cross t h e
You and Zi'ba should share in the field."* 30 At Pr 29:4
Jordan, and the king himself crossd; but the
this Me.phib40~sheth
said to the king: "Let him
king kissed' Bar.zil'lai and blesseds him, after
even take the whole, now that my lord the king
Ru 1:14
which he returned t o his place. 4 W e n the king
has come in peace t o his house,"
1KI 1Ll:20
AC 2 0 : ~ went
across to Gilfgal,t Chim'harn himself
31 And Ear.zillain the Gi1' himself n&K;$:&
aGe 14:lS
with him, and also alI the people of
came down from'limr that he might pass
Ge 47:7
also half the people of Israel, that
on to the Jordan with the king so as to escort
p,"pd they might bring the king across."
him to the Jordan. s 2 And Bar.ziltlai was very
41 And, look! all the men of Israel were com$
old, being eighty years of age,' and he himself ~Psm:10
t o the king, and they proceeded to say to
supplied the king with foodr while he was dwellthe king: "Why didv our brothers t h e men of
ing in'im,g for he was a very greatt's~~e,~6f2, Y$$:~
Y G 31:26
Judah stealy you that they Ynight bring the king
25a 17:24
man. a " ~ the king said to Bar.zilllai: "You tlSa
and his household and all the men of David with
yourself cross over with me and 1 shall certainly J O 1:s
z a m ; u ,him over the Jordan?"z 4 2 At this all the men
supply you with food with me in Jemalem."u uZZ;;~
]of Judah answered the men of Israel: "Because
34ButBar.zil?ai said to the king: "What are
the king is closely related to
and why is it
the days of the years of my life like,' that I vgb3~~:14
this; thing?
should go up with the king to Jerusalem? S"
or has
am eighty years old today.y Could I discern be- yPs90:10
&~t;t1.8g;g a gift been carried to us
tween good and bad,^ or couId your servant taste
43 However, the men of IsraeI answered the
what I ate" and what I drank, or could I Iisten" *F&I$ii
men of Judah and said: ' W e b have ten parts
any more to the voice of maleh and femaIeP p;$$
in the king," so that even jn David web are more
yz{ than
singers?' So why should your servant become a Q ~ ~ " i ' $ r
you." Why, then, have you treated usd with
burdene any more to my lord the king? For +EC 12:4
contempt and why did not oure matter become
it is just a little way that your servant couId @i$::$g
.first Tor usd to bring oure king back?" But the
bring the king along t o the Jordan, and why
word of the men of Judah was more severe than
should the king repay me with this reward?'
t h e ward of the men of Israel.&
37 Let your servant return, please, and let me
4 2 S a 12:lO
Now there happened4 t o be there a gooddie* in my city close by the burial place of my *E:f;p4
+De 1313
for-nothing' man,f whose name was Shepfather and my mother." But here is your serv- &&%+&,
JR 10:22
1ss : , l a
ba,' the son of Bich'ri a Een'ja.min.ite, and he
ant Chim'ham." Let him moss over with my
lord the king, and you do t a him what is good I K I 13:22
JK 3.27
13:.0 proceeded to blow the trumpet" and say: "We



in your eyes."

38 Accordingly the king said: "With me

Chim'harn will go across, and I myself shall do
t o him what is good in your eyes, and all that
you may choose [to lay] upon me I shall do for

nlIC1 2:7

J e r 41:17

liter all^, "me," in a coIlective sense. QternIIy, "I," in a co1lm

tive sense. a''I have ten parts in t h e king, and I am the first-born
rather than yon, and so in Darid I nin nbor-e ~ou: L a . Literally,
'me," M. eLiferalhj *by:' 31. Or, "a ~coundrel,'~
Literally, "a,
man of {or, worthlemness),?' M.

have no share in David. and we have no inheritanceo in the son of Jes'sc.' Every one ta his
gods,nk 0 Israel!'" A t that all thc men of Isrnel
Regran to go up from following David to follow
She'ba the son of Bich'ri," and the men of Sudah
themselves stuck to their king from the Jordan

1 after She'ba the son of Bich'ri.

They were close

by the m a t stone that is in CibPe+an."
and A.mapsa* himself came t o meet them. Now J d a b was
girded, cIothed with a garment, and upon him
there was girded a word attached to his hip,
in its sheath, and Itn came out and so feu down.
9 And Jo'ab proceeded t o say t o A.marsa:
"Is it all right with you, my brother?"" Then
Jo'ab's right hand tooIr: hold of A.maPsa'sbeard
so as t o kissn him. As for A-ma'sa,he was not
on guard against the sword that was in Jo'ab's
hand,]' so that he struck himp ztllth it in the abdoment and his inte~tines'~
spilled out t o the
earth, and he did not have to da it to him agaimV
So he died. And Jo'ab and AbEsh'ai his brother.
for their part, chased after She'ba the son of
11 And a certain one of Jorab'e young men
stood over him and kept saying: *'Whoever has
found delight In Jo'ab and wlloever belongs to
David,Y Iet him Pollo~vJo'ab!" I P All the while'sau was wallowing in the blood in the middle of the highway.' When the man saw that
all the peopIe stood still, then he moved'sa from the highway to the Reld. Finally he cast
a garment over him, as he saw that everyone
coming up to him stood still." l 5 As s o m as he
had removed him from the highway, each man
passed by follotving Jo'ab t o chase after She'ba"
tho son of Bich'rj.
14 And [She'ba] went passing through all
the tribes of Israel t o A%eloof Beth-ma'azah.
As for all the Bfcl~'rites,~
they then assembled
together and also went in after him.
' In nprw wit11 J,,ry.whirh rmds "tho sward." But 11 wnds

;,?; \$g~


l i 4 1 . 1

J u h ""

r 2 ~ 1a
to J e r ~ s a l e m . ~
3 EventuaUy David came t o his house at
Jerusalem, Then t h e king took the ten ~ t r m e n 'Zg,"
the concubines3 whom he had left behind to take c"~n"'i
care of t h e hcruse, and he put them in a house
of confinement, but he kept on supplying food
to them. And with them he did not have any
relafions,t hut they continued shut up closely lgr$$:8

until t h e day of their dying, in a widowhood 2Sn ~ 2 2

with a living husbar~d.~
4 The king now said to'sa:" "Call the I1*&l7:*5
men of Judah together to me within three days,
and you yourself stand here." So Ahrnatsawent
t o call Judah together, but he came latcr than ylsa
the fixed time that he had appointed for h i m . ~x2So
" Then David said to A.bish'ai : a "Now She'ba* ibsn.2:18
the son of Bich'ri will be worse for us than
Ab'sa.10m.~You yourself take the servants" of :?!,?,
your Iardc and chase after him, that he may not ,:'!; ;:tY;jz
actually find for himself fortified cities and =:;,:;I:,/;
escape before our eyes."d Acmrcltngly the men a;? ; I ; ~ I
of Jo'abb and the Cher'e-thites' and the Pel'e- r:sn R I G
thiteb and dI t h e mighty men went out after 'i%?ji4
him, and they tvent on out of Jerusalem to chase Ef2:,'::A8
a O.ka.titn', 11. Literally, t't~nts,7'Thin is one of tha Ei~hteenEmendntions of the Sopherim, t h e orifiinal JIchrew text bcling allagod
to rrlncl : r ' ~ d s For "Ciod" ( e l . o . k i ~ l infitend
of o o l h n . l i r n ~b T,ilcr~ d l p "[in]
R ~4dowhoodo! S i v i n ~ n c ~ s ,N..
" " L i v i n ~ulirlr~~vm,l~
"living in widowhood," T g, ''Zolnd." 31,', the plural of
abd6n', to denote excellence or majesty, a Libmllg, "nod snatch
nwRy our eyes," XI.




2 SAMUEL 20 :15--22



2 SAMUEL 20:23--21:5

to his home,& and Jo'ab himself returned to

15 And they proceeded to come and lay siege
3:28 Jerusalem to the king.*&
against him in A'hl of Beth-rnara.cah and cast
23 And Jo'abr was over a11 the army of Brael,
up a siege rampart against the city: as it was 21% i o : ~
l ( ! l l 1U:15
":sf,2.7:31 and Be.nai'ahn the son of Je.hoira.dat was ever
standing within a rampart.* And all the people
lli! 1 . M
4 rc.11 17.27 the CIler'e.thitesu and over the PeI'e.thit~.~
that were with Jo'ab were undelminfng the .i:;,!li;'"
l(:h 5 5
.t>.l4 14 And Ado'rarny was over those conscripted for
wall,O to throwr it down. " And a wise woman" 1); ?\, ' ,
.Sf! 5 In
tg forced labor m d Je.hosh'a.phatz the son of
began ta call from the city: "'Listen, men, lis- js; !;I$2
,:'c\r r i l 1: ' 8 A.hi'lud was the recorder.lJ 2J And She'va* was
ten! Say, please, to Jo'ab, 'Come near as far as ;;!;!;;A
secretary; and ZaVdokA and'; were
r ! l : l i:x
here and let me speak to you.' " " So he went
'OAnd, loo, I'ra* the Sa3r.itea himself
near to her and the woman then said: "Areyou
I :5n R 17
-;II I n n became a priest of David.
Jo'ab?" t o which he said: "I am." At this she
.<M l 7 : I S
said to him: "Listen t o the words af your slave
Now there ceme to be a faminea in the
t:urr 18:Il
? K l ?:I
girl."" In turn he said: "I am listening." And
David for three years, year
..%t 73.23
11'h11:40 after year, and Dwid proceeded to consult t h e
she went on t o say: "Without exception they
r.1,: 111 3
: 4 : f ~ c of
used to speak in former times, saying, 'Let them
e Jehovah. Then Jehovah sajd: "Upon Saul
N u,:1, ~ : ~ s
but inquire in A'bel, and thus they will certainly
and his house there is bloodg~ilt,~*
because h e
end the matter.' I represent the peaceablen ~-,ncmil
put the,ttes t o death." a So the king
and faithful onesr of Israel. You are seeking to fie ma3
called the Gibte.on.itesk and talked t o them, (In:
put to deathC a city" and a mother' in Israel. ~ & ~ ~ $ . ~ R ,
cidentally, the GibJe.on.ites were not of the sons
Why should you swallow^ up the passessionv of
of Israel, but of the remainder of the Am'orJehovah?" To this Jo'ab answered and said: ya;57$;
: 1':'3:$:2
; ~ ~ ~ ' , Ites;Oll
2 $ ~ ~ and the sons of Israel themselves had
"It is altogether unthinkabley on my part t h ~ t1 ~ 13 2 . ~
t o them,r but Saul sought t o strike them
. f l l q 9:1
I should swallow up and that X should bring to
do\lrn in his tolerating no rivalry against the
ruin." " The matter is not that way, but a man 2: ;'$
sells of B r ~ and
d Judah,) a And David went on
from the mmtainous region of E'phra-im,' %zf;(li7
t o say to t h e Gib'e.on.ites: "J7'hat shall I do to
whose name is She%anthe son of Bich'ri, has :1;
YOU and with what shall I make atonement,d2t
I.'' 1 :
lifted up his hand against King David." You
you may certainly bless" the possession11 of
ISlh 2 "11~2
IIJ:;II L ~ I I B Jehovah?"
people, give him over by hirn~clf,~
and I will clsn :I:R
90the Gibfe.on.ites said t o hirn:
"It is not a matter of silver or gold for usC in
withdraw from the city.'" Then the woman said CF;::!::?~
to Jo'ab : "Here is his head" pitched to you over ~ ~ 1 $ ,8: ; :~:$V ~
connection with SaulVand his household, neither
*Xu IA:>F
Is it ours t o put a man to death in hrael." At
the wall!''"
ZlSn r;:sE
that he said: 'Whatever YOU are saying I shall
22 At once the woman went in her wjsdorn* 1'5K.7L 3111.?I
do for YOU," s A t this they said to t h e king:
to all the people, and they proceeded to cut off ;I~p,l;;a
-.the head of She'ba the son of Bich'ri and pitch 1::+6:1s
* Ir~h.rt~lly,
"tents," M, Or, "wmemhrnncer!' a Literally, y,%llook,"
it ta Jo'ab. Upon that he blew the -petk
and ?
M. Ilr., "nmmrfa," Litcrnllp, '.And DLESS [imperatiye, plml]?
* I,il(~rnltj,"nw," $1; but in a wklectirc seusc. "Ug" M"arsm".
so athey were scattered from the city, each one







2 S A M U E L 21:13-48

"The man Mat exterminated usy and that sgpg$l

bones of Saul" and the bones of Jon's-than his
a : ~ ~ ~ ~ : ~
schemeds to annihilateo us from subsisting in cp;&238
son from the landowners of Ja'besh-gil'e.adP
any of the territory of Israel, "let there be given ZES9:z4
who had stolen them from the square of BethOJog l 7 : l l shan,%whom the Phidis'tines had hanged there*
to us seven men of hfs sons,' and we must ex- ~
*lSa 31.10
poseauthem t o Jehovah in Gib'e.ahAof Saul, the m
on the day that the Phi.lisYines struck down
chosen oneb of Jehovah."" Accordingly the king ?&?%
Saul on'a.* And he proceeded to bring
ISa 31:1
Jos 10:ZB
said: "I myself shall give them."
u p from there the bones of Saul and the bones
iISa 10:26
2% I:ZI
7 However, the king felt compassiono upon;;;::;{;
:$;I;;; 'of Jonra.than his s m , and they proceeded to
Me.phib'o.sheth+ the son of Jon'a-thane the son
.0sa21:12 gather the bones of the men being exposed.'
ofSaul on account of the oath" of Jehovah" that zig
l 1 Then they buriedu t h e bones of Sat11 and of
was between them, between David and Jon'a- -;"s",",j',o
Jon's-than his sona in the land of Benjamin in
1 kJos
than the son of Saul. Tonsequently the king
in the buriaI place of Kish" his father,
I S ~ I O :Ze'laK
n l ~ 9a:l
took t h e two sons of Riz'pah" the daughter of I s a 2 0 : ~ 1
might do everything that the king
L'lR18:* had commanded," So God let himself be entreatA'iah whom she bore to Saul, Ar.mofni and ;;%%%''
ed for the land after such things.'
Me.phib'o.sheth, and the five sons of Mi'chalCk klsalS:pD
the daughter of Saul whom she bore to A'dri.elk
15 And the Phi.lis'tiness came to have war
sZSa 5.17
the son of Bar.zil'lai the Me.hol'ath.ite. Then
2 ~ 5:22
with Israel. Accordingly David and his
1Ch 20:4
he gave them into the hand of the Gibfe.on-ites
JOY r a : ~servants with him went down and fought the
and they proceeded to expose them on the mounPhf.lisftines, and David got tired.t And Ish'biKji 7%
Ec12 3
taino before Jehovah,n so that the seven of them TE",l;:,'5
,,Nu 13:32 be'nob, who was among the children of the
fell together; and they themselves were put to E;?:?
Reph',b" the weight of whose spearv was
1sa 1 5 : ~
Do 3 1 1
death in the first days of
at the start 2XCi
three hundred shekels of copper and who was
11Sa 1?:7
of the barley harvestWaoHowever, Riz'pah he C J O 5:k
f c h 11:23 girded with a new sword,c began to think of
1Ch 20:5
daughter o f A'iahs took sackclotht and spread i?g&li?
At once A.bishtai"the
17:44 striking David down.Y IT
?Sn 205
it for herself upon the rockc from the start of :fgg:i&
iXs,22;19 son of'iah came t o his help* and struck the
harvest until water poured down upon t h m J o e m S
Phi.lis'tine down and put him to death. At t h a t
from the heavens,u and she did not allow the u J ~ r ~ 1 6 ~ 4 ''.'ch1"15 time the men of David sworec t o him, saying:
fowlsovof the heavens to rest upon them by day FG",l$:$
"You must not go out with us t o the battle any
'E l l Z l 711.26: more,O
nor the wild beastsCy of the field by night."
that you may not extinguishAthe lampc+
11 At length it was reported* to David what zDe21:23
I I ~ln:d
I'x 132: 1 1
Riz'pah the daughter of A'iah, Saul's concu- lnU
J D 1:9
18 And it came about after this that war
J0h 5.35
bine," had done. " So David went and took the
- arose once more with the Phi-lis'tines at Gobnd
a lrEqo5e" (that is, n<th arms and legs broken), U ; 4csacrifice,', Sy ;
a LXX adds : "and of those hanged in the sun."'b Ha-Ra.pknk', N.
"hang i n the sun:' L X X ; 'Lcrucifyl"Vg. b "The chosen one," Ai;literally, "the Ita'phah.'' The fatIlexls name here is taken t o atand
(&theone ofice
ITg; ('the ones ehasen," LXX. "On the maunfor the entire giant race. E "A new (sxord)," MVg; "a dub''
tnin," e~idently;see rerse 9. t "Afe'rab:' SyLXXLagardian eaitl*n
( Lo.ryFmB; f r q n e n t l y hod with iron for fighting), LXX. d "Uepzer,"
and two Hebrew manusmiripts.
nt 1 Chronicles 20 :4.




2 SAMUEL 221:19-22 :3


Then it was that Silo%e.cai' the HuFshath.itee

struck down Saph," who was among the children

of the Reph'a.ima*
19 And war arose once again with the Phi.1is8tines at Gob, and El.hatnankthe son of Ja'a-reor'e-gh the Eethle.hem.jte got to strike down'athbthe Git'tite,c the shaft of whose spear
was like the beam of Ioarn workers."
20 And war m e yet again at Gath,r when
there happened to be a man of extraordinary
size," with six fingers on each of his hands' and
six toes on each of his feet, t wenty-f our in number, and h e too had been born t o the Reph'""
And he kept taunting^ Israel, Finally Jon'athan' the son of Shirn'e.i,dy David's brother,

I l Ill1 12:2
1.4 I

'l*,ll 3: 1


% l'hl


The snaresS of death confrontd me.'

'IIn my distress I kept calling upon Jehovah,'

4 19 IX 5


u8ltat l f i 4

And to my God I kept calling!

"Then out of his temple he heard my voice,'
With m y cry f o r help in his ears.*
"And back and forth the earth began t o
shake and to rockyk
The forindation of the heavenso themselves

.I'A T X : O

MI*^ 3t:15

I ~ J I T PI
l l , l ~ * l2fi:i1

became aaltatcd,l=

And they kept shaking back m d forth because he had been nngered.Y
"Smoke" went up at his nostrils, and there
WRS fireCdevouring from his mouth,"
Burning coals themselves blazed up from

1 % 1817
1 % 7'7: IR

, ll<llh::!d
h1 \

I -.I

I a , x nv..:Ly




"And he proceeded to bend the heavens
I ~ r l
down and to descend,"
.I I I
lY.1 8 . I Z
thlck gloom was beneath his feet.v
In :I
1 1 . 1 I, :a
he came riding upon a cherubg and
I ,rt .I I
E . Ilh 17
And he was vjsibleb upon the wings of a
I I L 10
spiri tmc1
I., 1111 3
' i l ~ ~ ' d l , ' M, RkrGl: SF, FLI:wtt; Tp, i t t . j ~ ~ ' ~ t t 1E
8 ; T , 6cde~th"


1 ~ 1 1, v l



l I





Pr l h . 1 0

P nf
Hn-Rn.pkoh8, 111. See 2 S~rnuel21 : 18. footnob h. " T ~ q011
Jn''e-gim the Beth'le.lletn.ih got to trike down Oo.licnt1~."
Evidently a corruption of the Hehrew text here for "ttir so11 of
Jn'ir g ~ to
t strike down Lnhrmi the brother of'nlh," ns nt
1 Ghrcn~cl~s
20: 5. C Or, "'nth the man of Oath," 31, d "[3bInlre.a," ~t I Chronicles 20 :7; "Sham%ah,'+ nt I Snluuel la: 9,


the Provider of escape far me.'

"My Gud is my rock." I shall take refuge in


F Pls:d



s h i e ~ nand my hornr of salvation, my
secure height,a


P I ' \ I L .J
- I > %(;!I.IJ

struck him down.

22 These four had been born to the Reph'aImu in Gath,z and they came to fall by the hand
of David and by the hand of his servants.'
And David proceeded to speak to Jehovah the words of this song' in the day
that Jehovah had delivered him out of the palm
of all his enemiesAand out of Saul's palm,c = and
he went on t o say:
"Jehovah is m y crag' and my strongholde and

And my place for flight,cmy S a ~ i o rfrom

violence you save me.r
* "On the One to be praised,y Jehovah, I shall
And from my enemies 1 shall be saved.%
"For deadly breaking waves encircled me,'
Very flash floods of no usefuhess kept
frightening me."
'The ropes of She'ola3 themselves surround-

t B u?H:2


1 ~r.,t'rrtr.lns).KFF (:VITFFY~~37 : 35, font I I O ~ P R and the c-omment on

r 1 Irl r l ~ o,I pp*,11li~Oil volnnlc I. pnpp 851. Or, possil,i;p, h?- corI 1 1-l I V I V onlu I l r ~ l ~ r rI~
v tw
t ~ b r ,''l~clmela ~?onncin~,"
ns at Pdrn 18: 10
I ~ I I , 1~1 1 I ~ I I ~ I I YI I I ~ ~ ~
~ L ~ I I ~ a Or, "wings of wind.''

2 SAMUEL 22: 12-20


"Then he put a darknesso around him as OJabS:5

*PS m
Dark waters,aEthick clouds."
18 r l R ~ m
the brightness In front of hIm burn- ,
H n h 3:5
ing coals of fire blazed up.&
~ E 1B:lB
l4 "FYorn heaven Jehovah began to thunder
And the Most High himse1P began t o give 4;;
f o ~ t hhis voice.'
1's 7:13
"And he kept sending out molvs, that he .::,"iii;I
PS 14:6
might scatter them,*
Ha3 8:il
LightninglGthat he might throw them into

He IvaE rescuing me,because he had found


delight in me.I
rewards me according to my
According to the cleanness of my hands
he repays
Be "For I have kept the mays of Jehovah,'
And I have not \vickedly departed from



"And the stream beds of the sea became







rI = *c 2:
The foundations of the productive landblc P S T : ~
nJob %:I1
became uncovered.ll
1's 106:D
At the rebuke of Jehovah, from the blast ::b'$:~~
of the breathc3 of his nostrils.'
~ PI : YC 1
I 5:8
lv'He was sending from an high, he wa. 1.:si:5
alyc 18:16
taking me,s
H e ~ v a sdrawing me out of great waters.' Li::$,2
Ps 2A:4
lB ''Hewas delivering me from my strong PS 130:1
ISA 4 3 2
Ln 3 5 4
Fmm those hating me;because they were
PS 5 6 3
stronger than I was.V
v Ps 1Y :17
1Sa 19:11
'I'They kept confronting me in the day of Y1Sa
2sa 1 5 : l O
my disaster,~
%pi IR.IS
But Jehovah became my support*
1's T1:a
90 '<And he proceeded to bring me out Into a
T'S 31:srs
roomy place;'
wntprs." b "The inhnhitd ~ n r t h , 'L-LT
as at .\l{ttthrw 24: 14. "Tprreptrinl circle (or'hk)," S'R. a "Breath."
M, m'nlaki L X S , p~~su?wtcs;T'y, spdtri.tus, Sec Ucilcjis 1:2, footnote d.
a liternllg, 'tdnrknrss of

i T:i2

I,, 19:s
~ V K17:8

M I XP e:11


I 'C 1 8 : ~ ~

LtCr 6:9
I :o.
,!jmIb 1 : l
1 % w:ll


I 'I ~1,"3

a lrn 3:10

my God."
"For all his judicial decisions are in front
of me,'
And as for his
I shalI not turn
nsicle from thern.nS
"And I shall prove myself faultless tciv~rd
h d I will keep myseE from error on my
P6 "And let Jehovah repay me according to my
righ teousne~s,~
According t o my clesnness in front of his

"With one ofloving-kindness you 1 - 1 1act in

1Mt fi:7


I! I 'H
I l 'r


I R:26
h l t 5:s



With the faultless, mighty one you will
deal faultlessly,"
'"With the one keeping clean you will show

yourself clean,'
And with the crookedone you willact assllfy.~
Qs "And the humble people you will save,#
But your eyes are against the haughty ones,
[that] you may bring [them] 1ow.b'
I*I' i1:17
so "For you are my lamp, 0 Jehovah,'
And it 1s Jehovah that makes my darkness
* I . ,1!%.2n
I'*!llII I
I . , , r,41 19
r Id~f~urnllg,
Lait"(Frlllinine), U.R Or,mare literally, '%ut your orrs
1"- 1 3 5
Iwn -?:?:!I

I , Y2:s:Lfi
I r H:?:R
bra l,liI:tz





w i l l Iuwvr ngnixlst the haughty oi~ea!'


'*Forby you I can run against a marauder


By my God I can climb a wall.'

0 ~ h dg: ~ a
+ ~ Ig R : ~




Isrr 4 5 5
Ps 44:5

" "Asfor The [true] God,a3perfectIs hh way," zz &;z4



~3 1 ~ : 2

The saying of Jehovah is a refined one.'
nGP 49:8
A shield he is to all those taking refuge
LA 23327
Jud 111:24
in him."
Pr 3 , s
89 ''For who is a G c d b besides 3ehovalr:k
k $ \ ~ ~ k ~ rPs
PS 21:s
And who is a rock besides our God?""
P4 9 1 : 4
Ps 18 31
aE "The [true] Goda 1s my strong fortress,dr
job n:9
And he wilI cause my way to be perfect,* :-;
"Mnkinp m y feet like those of the hinds,r $;%
EL^ XI:^
And upon places high3 for me he keeps OIICI11:7
I'a S . 5

me standing.u

teaching my hands for warfare,v

And my m s have pressed down a brv of
afiO"Andyou win give me your shield of
Andit 5syour humility that mnkesme great,'
BP "YOU will make room Enrge enough for my



l)n 2 3 5

~51 IC

i'4.c 10:s


r7Sn I S 3


IIah nm18



I 84 rLl.8
r m l hJ
. ~N ~ U
I u r j !ir1:5

l r l i e ni:in


::: zlil!

I +lt IL;:I

11 ["1 , tr~2 ~3
*I r,? :C7.29
I q r r l m5l

. 4.1'





' h q # In 4%

t;;;, ;! .'i7

31,ha-R!, hnring the dednite article hla ( " T ~ P " )

I!ePnrs the tttle KI. See G~nehin91: 33, Pnotnole a ; Genesis d(i: 3,
foatnnb a: nnd Demtwono~ay7 : R, Poatt~otcb. b "God." 31, El;
LXS. " l i t m n ~ " ; TTg Detvs, 0 'il:atl." A1 El.o.lriml; JXN, AO
The.09'; YE, De'ws.
In amemmt mith h s d m 1S : 32, this text
might b4 corret-tcd to r e d : "The [true] Gad is girding mc with vitnl
energy." Or, "setting."

vl\a 10:B

F; $:!:
ST,@ J
17s I9 32
t w 18 3.7

steps under me,"
And my ankIes will certainly not wobble.'
an "1 will pur~ttemy enemies, that I rnay anni- ;R
hilate them,"
F., IN:%
~ P l'i:5
And 1 aha11 not return until they are ex- 42Sn 5:10
9% lh.37
8P "And I shall exterminate them and break
I l
them in pieces that t h ~ may
not rise up:
*I% 18:s
And they will fall under my feet."
Ps 110:l

"TIIF [trlre] Gad!'



'. l S a.I,, ill



I<'M b 44


* 1 6 1 :.n







"And you will glrd me with vital energy for

the battle."
YOU will make those rising against me
coIlapse under me.k
"And as for my enemies.@yaw will certainly
give me the back of their neckn
Those hntfng me intensely-I shall also
silence them,^
8 a "Tl~eycry for help, but there 1s no csavior,"
To Jehovah, but he actualIy does not

answer themmt
4'And I shall pound them fine like the dust
of the earth,n'
Like the mire of t h e streets 1 shall pulverize them iV
I shall beat them flat.Y
'4 "And you will provide me escape from the
faultfinding of m y people.=
You will safeguard me to be the head of
A people that X have not known-they will
serve meaD
themselves will come cringing
t o nlqn

Ears n.111 be obedient to hear me.@

4 a "Foreigners' themselves will fade away,+
And they will come quaking out from their
4v'Jehavah is living," and blessed3 be my
Ancl let the God of the rock of my saJvalion be exaltednk
"The [true] Godb is the Giver of acts of
to men

I .l!r.~nlIv, "mnn ne Foraignness

1 1)


4 llrrl."

(or, a f&gn
hl, hn-itl, Srav vcrsc 31, footnote

corntry)." b"ThO

2 SAMUEL 2 3 : M

And the One bringing the peoples down
under me,=
"And the One bringing me out from my

t ~m
2Ch 19:7

And above those who rise up against me
you will lift me up;f
From the man of violent deeds you will
deliver me.u
"That is why I shall thank you, 0 Jehovah,
among the nations,'
And to your name I shall make rnelody,~
"The One doing great acts of salvation' for
his king=
And exercising Ioving-kindnessaG t o his
anointed1' one,*
To David and to his seedc3 forever."dn
And these are the last words of David :"
"The utterance of David the son of JesPse,O
"And the utterance of the mano that was
raised up on high,+
The anointedb of the God of Jacob,"
And the darling- of the melodiesf of Am 6:s
L u 20:42
* "The spiriP of Jehovah it was t h a t spoke byh z:gi$:,5



Heb 3:7

And-his word1 was upon my

k2Pe 1:21
nEx s:3:15
"The God of Israel said,"
me 32:31
To me the RocY of Israel spoke:
" When one ruling over mankind is right-


Ruling in the fear of God,t

'"'Then it is as the lightE of morning, when

CJob 3:9

O l K l S.32


Or, Iloynl
b "Anointed." 31, ~la.8bi'ah7t; SF, mJshbhk; LXX,
ch&s.tosf; Vg, chri3'tus. C Or, 6(ofisp~il~g."
d Or, "to time indefimte."
* drhIsn."AIj g e b ' ~ ~See
. Exodus 10:ll,,footnote (1. That is, musically accompanied songs. 31, P ) n i ruth , g Or, "And the pleasant
singer of Isrsel." h Or, "uith." A s at Kumhel*s 12 : 8a. 1 "Ttrord,"
31, w~il.lnh'. An Ar.a.lna'ic word, used only in poet^, at Psalm
19 : 4; 139 : 4; I'ro~erbs 25 : 9 ; and 34 times in the hook o f Job,

uJg 5:31
PS 110a
Pr 4: 18
CIK1 321
vHo 6,3
QlKi R:35
sI3e 32:2
P s 72:6
Mfc 2 7

the sun shines forth,^

A mornin@ without c1ouds.V
" 'From brightness, from rain,o there is grass
out of the earth.'^
'Tor is not my household like that with
Because it is an everlasting covenant"'
that he has assigned t o me,a
Nicely put in order in everything and
Because it is all my salvationb and all my
Is that not why he will make it grow?B
"But good-for-nothing personsc" are chased
away, like thornbushes," all of them,
For it is not by the hand that they should
be taken."
"When a man touches them
He should be fully armed with iron and
the shaft of a spear,
"And with fire they will thoroughly be burned

12% 7:ia

*2Sa 7:15
1Ch 17:11
Ps 8928
EPs 83:3
L1Sa 2 3 2 9
25a 72%
1Ki 11:38

Ps 119:81
Wsa 4:2
Isn Y:6
Iaa ll:i

Isn 2 7 5

A m 9:11
ICo 3.6
2 12
2% 29:1
~ 1 3:2~ :
Ac 7.30
I r !+n &:la

Ezc 2:G

nFnn 2?:4

.M.I. 'l.bAn
.. . ..
I 3 t l l$Y2+7
, ,

8 These are the names of the mighty men

that belonged to David: Jo'sheb-bas.she'bethr
a Tah.che'mo.nite,s the head of the threeaeHe
was brandishing his spearf over eight hundred
31, El; LXX, 'Yhe Strong One"; Vg, Ds'ers.
Or, "a




illdefinite time." 0 Elternlly, "But (vorthlees31 ndds here, "in the d~velling,"but this expression
*I~UI+IM 10 hnvr becn inserted here by lnietake because of the similar
I Ir l l l ~ q r w
)laPrnlr>n (bns.sAe'beth) i n the next Line.
1 t 1n#nl
. - ~ I I ~ Ifo(I4~ H
, was
~ brandishing his spear." This diffilwll Ilnwnngrl im thus rendered by a correct~onof the Hebrew text in
I r r r r l l ~ * r ~ w ~with
1 Chronicles 11:11. M literally appears to read:
I l r , nE1vI A~l'l.r~n
(Itc Kx'nite,jl


,*' M.










55zz d 2 G A d


X V , n m a _ 9 5 -F g

- - V l r t




P Y i; g
e g zd w
m T.=

g~ a y g yj S
0 rn

4 &

3 ,+ m:g nu
j m o + a
a;j.s* e +g s s ~
G z q 2 ~


z s z ? -~rat~=r



s g eg ~m ,s 2,: Ubr.X


8-30 3



8 g 2." g ~ l m o a
2.yT 2 Bzgg
5 " & p m g k..:
~ 3 g e~32393
4m p

$ 2 - ";*"

e 3
art;'ol m ern
c CLI m
C.6 =1m 2 F e g g e
2 g a r + 2~ E Z O D



county of Israel and Jud~h."" 0 the king said

Jo'abs t h e chief" of t h e military forces who
with him: "Move about, please, through all
of Israel, from Dan to l3e'er-shefba,*
L'Sa 320
"7~1'.11 and YOU men register the people,= and I s h d l
rank of the three he did not corne,z but David ZlCh 11:25
LlLJt 21:2
. c c 26.4
certainly know the number of the people."* V u t
appointed him t o his own guard.
1)- P.13
Jorab said t o the king: "May Jehovah your God
24 As'a.helu the brother of Jo'ab was m o n g 3g,:
Pr l R l 2
the thirty; El.harnan4 the son ofDo'do of Beth'- ;::;;$?;
pr 29.23 wen add t o the pcople a hundred times as many
as they are while the very eyes of my lord t h e
le.hem, 25 Sham'mahb the Ba'rod.ite, E8liPkathe n1r.ll
OlClr 27%
king are seeing it. Rut as for my lord the king,
the Pal'tite, I'ram the son
why has he found delight in this thing?"l
of lk'keshn the Te-ko'ite,"'zera the An'- t!%???$s
r'r 14:''s
n.thoth,ite,rhle.bunfnai the Hutshathnite,~*
Za1'- ky:,1:;?12
4 Fjnally the king's ~lartlprevailed* upon
"fig Jo'ab and the chjefs of t h e miljtary forces. So
mon the A.ho%i.te,t 3.2a'ha.raill the Ne.tophta- ';Ti; ;!?AA
thlte, "" He'leW the son of Ba1a.nahY the Ne- mf;:,l;+
Jo'ab and the chiefs of the military forms went
*Nu f:2
togh'a-thite, It'taiz the son of Ritbai of Gib'e.ah :;it bhg
out from before the king to rcgisteI.4 the people
of the sons of Benjamin, Be.nni'ahn' a Pir'a- ,.II-IL :17:15
"Then they crossed the Jordan and \vent
i ( ' h
thon.itc, Hid'dais of the torrcnt vnHeys of Ga'- ~xlr7,i
'yF,P,ZjE9 ,into camp a t'era to the right of the cityc
ash," A'bi-al'bOn0 the Ar'bal h.ifc, Az'ma-vethk ",:t'/: 53:
tzg::? that is in the middle of the torrent valley, toward
the Bar-hu'mite, 3"'eh.balc the ShnnnZ'bo.nite, t ; . ~ ~ 3 ~ : ~ , ~ m ;;y,$:y the Gad'iteslWand to Ja'zer.k W t e r that they
t h e sons of Ja'shen, Jonta.than,9 muSham'mn h etc:11 11:51
NU 3 ~ 3 5 came on t~ Gfl'eaadnand the land of Tah'timL W I 16:8
the EInr'a.rite, A.hi'am' the son of Shn'rar the "lch 1I:aa
n4:v s1:21 hod'shid and continued on t o Dan-ja'ann and went
I-larkrite, "'E.1iphre.let the son of ABlms'bait h e
around to Si5lon.t Then they came to the forNu
son of the Ma.acPa.thite,'ame the son of BL2sall:s
tress of Tyret1 and all the ciijes of the HiPvitesv
!.H 1H:ZY
"''15 and of the Ca'naan.itesv and came to the ?@miA.hith'o.phelxthe Gilon.ite, Hez'ro" the Car1- '2%
.hlK [I:%
J ~ I *~ ! ) : a g nating point In the Nefebz of Judah a t Be'errnel.ite, Pata.raithe M b i t e , 1"aI the son of L;:;: :;+?
JE I F 23
Nathank of Zdbah, Ba'ni the Gad'ite, Ze'lekn k l1c ''lIt1 1
u.rl,h c h . 3 she'ba.' T h u s they went moving about tl~rsugh
3 1 39
Y 111- 11:7
the Am'mon-ite, hfa'ha.rail' the Re*er'oth-ite,rlcli I I : ~
.'I,,,, Ir:ts all the land and came t o Jelusalem at t h e end of
armor-bearers of Jo'ab the sen of, 12Sa20:26
ninernonthsmd t~ventyclays."o'abnowgave
S'rae the Ith'rite, Gafebt the Ith'rite, U,ri'the number of the registration of the people to
:j :?$
- ~ h uthe Hit'tite-thirty-seven fn all.
L lIii
I ~1
~ %
I3 ~~ ~
fir, rrfrr; LXS, irruler"; Tg, Iprillce,'' ""To Jo'nb and to the
And againy the anger of Jehov~hcameL:;l, ;:j'
o r thc r~iilitaryforcrs who rttcro ~ 4 t hhim," rlx,7;tfigarfiran
II*~'.HCW VPI'RP -1 nnd 1 l ' l ~ r r u ~ i r ~91
l r n: 3. " ~ T Pillto
H ~ romp a t
t o be hot against IsraelI3when one0 in. C l l i l n : l
A rrl'r-r !I, t11v rigl~tuf tl~ccity," 11; "'brann n t dnm'cr ni~rtat the
cited Davidd against them, saying: "Go, t ~ k ea

hb own spear." =" Thew things Be.naf'ahaV the VlllCh11:23

Y S R ~
son of Je.hoita.da did, and he had a reputation I c h 27;s
like the threeb mighty men.?' Although he was,r"h
distinguished even more than the thirty, to the

: ~ ~


2Sa &.I6
2~n2+:23 WBS


11 I



rLiterally,' M. bliternlly, "among tho three,"

JIL,LTVg; ""among the thirty:'
fig. * Or, "be!'
Sco 1 Chniclcrr
21 : 1. 4 Or, "when David was infjtcd,"


h l v , ~ ' I,S S T ~ r ~ ~ ~ ~ @dl

t ' ~ticll;'
l ~ a t3lol
l ~ n e sL S X nranuscripta Sos, 19,
(1,uvian's recension) ; " c n l l ~ e iu A,ro'rr at rba right of
I bin ~ u l p , ' ? \ f ~ . d "1,nnd of Tnh'trin-hn~l'~bi,"11; LLlancF
QE the 1%'r lr r r 1 trrvn rcl l<r~'~lt.sla,'lL 4 ~ y ~ ~ ~ s r vna ~l l dl o~~ ~n, ~ i


2 SAMUEL 24:17-23


the king, md Israel amounted to eight hundred

thousand valiant men drawing sword, and the'
men of Judah were five hundred thousand men." ng;
10 Ahd David's heart began to b a t him after ;
: ;;:;3
he had so numbered the people.' Consequently A;?;:;;$:
David said to Jehovah: ''I have slnned9ery IL*IIJ
LC'11 1'1:s
much in what I have done. And now, Jehovah,
let your servant's error pass by,' please, for I *g$z$l
have acted very fmlishly."* l 1 When David pro- ~ s l n
ceeded to rise up in the morning, Jehovah's


word ifseIf came to G a d the prophet, David's

seer," saying: l2 "Go,IL and you must say to # l s : t Y : q
David, 'This is what Jehovah has sald: "Three kcg;g:j;
pr 3 : U
things I am laying upon y0tt.k Choose for your- rt.v
self one of them that I may do it t o yon." ' "n .sn 21:1
l 1Accordingly Gad came in to David and told. &!'2$!;+2
him and said t o him: "Should there come to you: $:;.?
sevenl' years oi famine' in your land,' or three :;-;liyX
mantl~sof your fleeing before your adversar-, ;$($$
ies,OHwith them pursuing you, or the occurring'
of three days of pestilencec" in your land?t Now \I I+, 1:~[J:s
know and see what I shall reply to the One send- ;:k'\i:!:1:113
1'6.1 l!vlr43
ing me." So David said to Gad: "It Is very',,,,,
distressing to meu Let us fall, please, Into the ;L;114$v;E.:l
hand of Jehovah,' for many are his mercies,"r';g;
but into the hand of mana do not let me fall."'"z :!h' 1;4l.i
15 Then Jehovah gave a pestilence* in Israel $2;


from the morning until the time appointed,: so

o . 1 ~21;:1

t h a t out of the people from Dan t o Be'er-she'ba"

seventy thousand persons died. And the angel* :.l;$f:;

aLiterallg, "Thme Rill be


a going: M. The rerb here is in tho

infinitire e h f u t e and hence is impemnal and indefinite ns to tinkc.
'.Serm," VVgSy ; "threern LXY snrl 1 Chroniclw 21 : If. a Or,
"llnlm-pest." LXK, "death ( d ~ a d l y plague)"; VB, "pcstile~lcr."
d -*lllan." M, a.dmn'.
5.LY adds hrre: .'And T~ax-id ~ t ~ aliisd ~
cho~ecof the deadly plague. 35Aud it was the dnp, sf t l ~ cwheat

1o:n kept

hfs hand thrust out toward Jerusalemo to

bring it t o ruin,k and Jehovah began to feel
r e ~ ~ . eover
t ~ ~ the
. calnmlty and so he said t o the
angel that was bringing ruin among the people:
"11 is enough! Now let your hand drop." And
JehovahkSDangel himself happened t o be close
'2Ch 3:1
by the threshing floor of A.rau'nah* the Jeb'u1t1ch21:ra

W& 10:lB
Jou 1518

17 And David proceeded to say to Jehovah,

when he 8aw the angel that was striking the
people down, yes, he proceeded to say: "Hem it
'3% Ei7is I that have sinned"and it is I that have done
*!';F!;;1171 1 1 1 wronc, hul llrescl s I l c ~ ~ " - - l v ~ha ~t v they
1,cll your l ~ n ~ plcasc,
come upon me1<and the
I .; I I
I : :
house of my Father."
1tr ;<.~ld::C?
18 Later Gad came in to David on that day
nnd said t o him: "Go up, set up far Jehovah an
altar on the threshing floor of A-rau'nah the
n2Ch n:lHJeb"~~~site."ll
David began to go up in accord with the word of Gad, acco~dingt o what
$$;% Jehovah had commanded.r Do When A.rau'nahs
: ' C ' l ~:ul:it{
lonkcrl down ~ n SRW
d the king and his servants
h'tb V * A \
rl1.h 2 b : ~ f l passing nlong toward him, Abrautnahat once
wrwl out nnd bowcd' down, to the king with his

:'!;I( !I >,
, , I , . E ,;l

I:ICCto the cnrth,ll Then A.rau'nah said: "Why

come t o his servant?" At
t h a t D ~ v j dsaid: "TObuyv from you the threshing floor SOP building kn altal*to Jehovah, that
t h scour@'
may be halted from upon the peo5
E u ~A.rautnah said t o David: "Let my
1 ' . 1iIf:::uJ
; 1
the king take itx and offer up what is good
o I ~ ~ (;:I.&
,t , t lord
in his eyes. See the cattle* for the b~irntoffering
and the threshing sledge and the implements of
the cattle lor the wood. " Everything A.rauhnah,
0 king,n does give to the king.'' And A.raufnah


hns my lord the king



a t

br, lilCvor;r.thingA.rm'nnb oe a king,"


SAMUEL 24:24-25


\vent on to say to the king: 'Way Jehovah your

God receive you delightfully."'
24 Rotvever, the king said to A.rauPnah: "No,
but rviihaut faiI I shall buy it from you for a
price) and 1 shall not ofler up to Jehovah: my
God burnt sacrifices without cost." Accordfngly
David bought the threshing Roor and the cattle
for fifty silver shekels.":d n A " '
David pracecdrd
t o build there an a l t a F to Jehovah and oiTcr
up burnt sacrifices and communion offcrincrs,
and Jehovah began letting himself he enlrented
for the land,' so that the scourge .ems halted




from upon Israel.


mL'Rftysiher shekels." k silver sh~kcla r n r n ~ n t i nto~ nhnnt COP,

nr 2s. (id.. this sum rrould amount to nhtrnt .$lr!.rlli, or E(i 5s. See
Grnouis 23: 35, footnote 11.


or, accorrling to t l ~ pOrwk R~pf~rfigirgt,


old,' advanced in
1Now Xingand would
tlrey would cwer

him with
clothes but he
not feel
a So his
servants s ~ f dt~ hlm: "Let them look for a girl,
ak$tji:n a vfrginj0for my lord the klnr, and she will have
to attendAupon the Iring, t h a t she may become
t L 2 4 : 5 3 his nurse,4 and slle must lie in your bosom,*
Cr 39:g
-GV 16:s
and my lord the king will certainly feel warm."*
:Sa 123
" A n d they went looking for a beautiful girl
~. ks
E 2:2
throughout all the acrritory of Ismel' and finally
found Ab'E.shagmtlie SRu'narn.rnitek and then
*:$: ; ;1$
the girl was
l~i7,0,s;~::~8brought her in to the king. dnA"
2Ki 4 . ~ #beautifulin the extreme, and she came to be the
?Ki 4 2 5
king's nurse and kept r v a i t i n ~upon him, and t h e
himself h ~ no
d intercoursen with her.
5 All the while Ad.o.nj'jah7 the son of Hag';Lu1-I-1% githfl was lifting hlrnself up,i saying: '" 1yse1f
a m going t o rule as king!"^ And he proceeaed
irDe 1T:la
a5 9 5
to have a chariot made for himself with horse1 C b "3-5
and fifty men running before hirnmV
" And
I C %:
bhT31. 1;:fB:
his father did not hurt his feelings at any time"
158 1.71
1% W : T
by saying: "Why is this the way you have
~ 1 5 ~ 3 : l done?"y
And he was also very good-looking in
I'r 23:13
~ 1 % 9 : ~ form,= and [his motherlb had barns him after
2Sn 14:25
Ab'sa.lorn. And he came to have dealings with
' 2 s n 2o:as Jo'ab the son of'iah and wjth A.bita.thar*
~ c l ~ 2 ~years.'
: ~ ~
Fs 90:IO

LGe l . ~ . ~ i
Ge 24:l
JOS 2 3 : l

*"At. any tilne." Or, "all hia life,$'

X b bLit~mUg, he; 31.

Liternlly, "from his d a p



the priest, and they began offering help as folPIT

lowers of Ad-oai'jah.' As far Za'dokl' f he I CE~mS R1.1
priest and Ee-nai'ahan the son of Je.hoi'a.das n11> S>l;2-,>'u
and Nathans the prophet and Shirn'e'it ~ u r;~.z,;:;



1 KINGS 1:l6-23

waiting upon the king, la Then Bath-she'ba

bowed low2 and prostrated' hemelf t o the king,
24:s upon which the klng said : '"%?hat do you have
[to ask] ?"= i7 A t this she said to him: "My
lord," it was you that swore by Jehovaha your
Rc'i the mighty men that beloi~gedt o D ~ v l t l "~.~;~;~*,
" ~ ; c18.13 God t o your sEwe ~ l r l 'So1'o.mon
they did not become involved with Ad.onni'jah
your son is
Eph 5-23
1 ~ 3e: ~ the one that will become kina after me and he
9 Eventually Ad.o.nj'jahhheld a sacrlficev of
' ~And
sheep and cattle and failings close by the stone0 C$2tF$i2
4:Fi&!i is the one that rvill sit upon my t h r ~ n e . IR
'2ss.1520 now, look! Ad.o.nlPjahhimself has become king,'
I ~ I - x ~ : ~
of Zorhe.leth,cwhich is beside En-ro'gcl,~and y2Sn
1x1 1 ; ~
and now my lord the king himself does not know
11eproceeded t o invite all his brothers t h e king's
of it at all."In SO he sacrificed bulls and fatlings
sonsz and all the men of Judah the Iring's serv- =2gRIJ:2=
.lKi 1 3
=:sa13:~_and sheep in great quantity' and invited all the
ants;*'%and Nathann the prophet and Bc.nai'~h" L%;$l,$;+l
L,S a M:23
sons of the kingq and A-hi's-thar" the priest and
and the mighty men and Sol'oaman his brother ".;lz:ls
Jo'abn the chief3 oi the army, but Sol'o.mon~
he did nut invite. Nathan" now said to Bath- Ag;:;f7
< i,
your servant he has not Invited. *"And you my
~ h ~ ? ' hSoICo.mon's
mother:' "Have you not ;
the king-the eyesaRof all Israel are upon
heard that'jahb the son of Haf:'gitlzq h m f l . - i . h 3..;
: lord
you, to tell them who is gofng t o sit upon the
bccoine king and our IordWavid does not l<norv
f'JSnz3:2 throne of my Iord the klng nfter him.t 21 And
of it at all? l2 50 now come, let me, please,
?Ch 229
.ch 2 s : ~ it will certainly occus that as mon as my lord
solemnly co~tnsel~
you,' and you provide cscnpe ?$yi;zt
ICh 23.1
the king lies down with his forefathers" I myself
l ~ 15.15
for your own soul" and for the soul of youi*son :;, $q;$~
shall certainly be~
$ and
~my son
S01'o.rnon.~ j-0 and enter in t o Ring David, * c e m i 7
and you must say to him, 'Was it not you my
;?:' ' $:;; come offenders."V
22 And, look? while she was yet speakfng
lord the Icing that swore t o your slave'' girl c"rz:"
saying: "Sol's-mm your son is the one tha; '$f;&
the k1ng.y Nathan' the prophet himself
will become king after me and he is, the one that 1;5o;jf;
'came in. ~3 At once they told the king, saying:
mili sit upon my throne"?r So why has'- n : I,~ 22.7
"Here is Nathan the prophet!" After that he
vr ,r, 17 L >
jaRh become king?' lcook! while you arc yet l ~ i i
came in before the k'lng and prcwtra ted himself
speaking there with the king, then I myself k,:$:ff
n".Tehovnh." The fiwt ocwrrence of the ramp in tba hooks of the
shall come in after you and I shall certainly t; !:B
Concerning the G r e ~ kfieptuapint trnn~lntionof the Hehren
a2i.e 17:1
confirm your W O ~ ~ S . " "
t:Sn 1.':24
Slbriphrea, Qriger~,the prodacctl of tl~c.7fe.mpfa, snid : "111thc most
15 Accordingly Bathshe'bat went In to the l!;l:{;I;
t'ni thfnl ~nanuficriptaTHE XAl1F: i~ rvti ttcw in Ilrlwew charncters,
klng in the interiorT1room, atld the kingS was 01l i l x : l g
fllnl is, not in rtiodcm, hut in nrchnic I-lrbr~a~.~'
'Thir ~tatelaentof
is now ronfirn~ed11y n Cniro p n l i ~ ~ l p a rnf~ t~ r n r t cof
! 3 ICinps
very oldv and Abfi.shagY the Shu'narn.rnjle w ~ s;i;ii:f?jl
r r l ~ ~4
l Kings iu t h ~
G l a ~ k Sopttsagivt, whirb cnrr~spnndn i t h
1 liinp and 3 King9 in tllr R r ~ l ~ r rScriptur-PP,
Rrbr tllc Yoreword
a B'W~L.~"I%
If. b;arAt~, 'drl. a Or, "the Q l i d i n ~Stone,'"
rtl' Iho ,Veul n'orfrl l'~a.v/trlionn i 6 h ~
L ' I ~ r t ~ l bGreek
~ ~ ~ b Gcriptures,
d ' L J ~ r d . "M,', the plural number of a.rlr711',to Pxprem
I ~ F L10-15.
E ~ ~ See Z Liiugs SU : 13,footnotc~b.
majesty or acellenee. See Genekis 39: 2, hotllob d.

1 KINGS 1:24-32



b the king with his face t o the earth.' "Then I:$;:*

Nathan said: "My Iord the king, did you yourself say, 'Ad-o-ni'jaha is the one that will be- lpe2:17
come king after me and he is the one that will
sit upon my throne'?' 72j For he has today gone ':E:f:,lj:,
down that he might sacrifice* bulls and fatlings
and sheep in great quantity and might invite all 2Ch 24.21
the sons of the king and the chiefs of the army oSR1

1 KINGS 1 : 3 U O

prophet and Be.nai'ah& the son of Je-h~i'a.da.''~

So they came in before the king. " And the king
on to say t o them: "Take with You the
+2Sn W.6
C'Ge 41:43 servantsf of YOUR lordb and YOU must make Sol'$,","& o.mon my son ride upon the she-mule that be;4;21fi: longs to mem and lead him down ta Gi'hon."
And Za'dok the priest and Nathan the prophG2K1 9.3
e t must anointiu him there as king over Israel,
+I% 10:l
l$a 16:lz and YOU must blow t h e trumpetk and say, 'Let
and'a-thar the priestpaand there they are&
25 2.1
eating and drinking before him and they keep $
King Solro.mon live!'" " And YOU must come up
2s; 5.3
1cSSn 15:lO
saying, 'Let King''jahn live!' 28 But as 2ch 23.11
arii 9.3 following him and he must come in and sit upon
3 t t 21:9
nPKi11:12 my throne and he himself will be king in place
for me your servant, me and Za'dok* the priest m2sa &:IT
1 K i 1'8
and Be-nai'ahb" the son of Je.hoi'a.daR and - I C ~27:s
of me, and him I shall have to cornmission to
rlCh23:l become leader over Israel and over Judah."r
Sol'o-monk your servant he has not invited. " If
it is from my lord the king that this thing has n,2$,'f$75
Agzg:g36 At once Be,nai'aha the son of Je.hoita-da anbeen brought about, then you have not caused 2 % ;8;::;:4
swered the king and said: "So let it be!cs Thus
;$;, $;,:
your servant t o known who should sit upon the s;s;j;g3g
may Jehovah the God of my lord the king say.dt
throne of my lord the king after him."
: X S 1 ~% ~
;$i:,122 : ~ 37 Just as Jehovah proved to be with my lord the
ISa 25:king,^ SO let him prove to be with Sol'o-mon and
28 King David now answered and said: "You @.a 4:s
Jos 1 :5
men, call Bath-she'bar for me." At that she, :E: :?$
may he make his throne greater than the
came in before the king and stood before the ~~~~~;~ agj;3
1Ch2$:20 throne of my lord King David."V
P s 46:7
king. ?=Andthe king proceeded t o swear andltP;,";;de
V I K ~ 3:12
38 And Za'dokY the priest and Nathanz the
1KI 10.23
say: "As Jehovahc is Iiving" who redeemed0 my
2 ~ h g i z prophet and Be.nai'aha* the son of Je.haiPa.da
soul3 out of all distressyt" just as I have sworn ;
2 and the Cher'e.thiteso and the Pel'e.thitesL pro;g;;;
to you by Jehovah~the God of Israel, saying, PS
7 2 : ~
t o ~go down
and~ make; Sol'o.mon
~ ceeded
'Solto.mon your son is the one that will become pPs~ 103:4
1 x 4
upon the she-mule of King Davido and then
king aiter me and he is the one that will sit k,$3,!:
:Fji7 brought him to Gi'hon: Sg Za'dok the priest now
upon my throne in place of me!"at
ats the way LKL%F3
!iFi $&, took the horn of oil3 out of the tent3 and anointI shall do this day.ypus1 Then Bath-she'ba bowed
ed" So170.mon, and they began to blow the
low with her face to the earth" and prostrated~Zpe%i
trumpet* and all the people broke out saying:
herself to the king and said: "Let my lord King
"Let King Solto.monlive!"k 4o After that all the
David liveo to time
* 2 ~ 8a9 7
hL!$p$:1224 peopleC came on up following him and the peo32 Immediately King David said: "You men, &:h&:15
playing on flutesn and rejoicing with
call for me Za'dok* the priest and Nathann the D ~ ~ : j ~ l , ~ ; ~ $ple
~ were
l l
A.domi.ia'her, M,
"live forever!'

Bcna,iu'hw, Y.

See verse 17,footnote a,


4 2 ~ 23:20


73*un.dafhfc,31, b "Lord?' See vefse 11,footnote d. 0 '%a let it be!"

h1, u.9rte?af. d "Say,'! MTg; "do;' Sy and three Hebrew manuscripts.

p a t gladness,r m that the earth-was

the noise of


split by

1 1 sa 4.3

today given one to sit upon my

my own eyes swing It!'

throne,' with


p?Sa 34;3

4'1, And Ad.o.nitjaha and a11 the on- invited

49 And all those invited that were with Adthat were with him got t o hear it, \tlhen they
began to tremble and rise up d go
themselves had k i s h e d eating.' When dotab nlxn:B
each one In hjs own direct1an.t And'got t o hear t h e sound of the trumpet he &tonce
jah" himself was &aid because of Solb.rnon.
said: "What does the noiset of the townu in an lEx
So he rose up and went a~r'ayand grabbed hold
uhIt 21:10
uproarVmean?" '"While he was yet speakhg, ;$;2:q:;T
EX %:a
2 ~ 1 4 of the horns of the altar,il
In time t h e report
why,here Jon'a.thanY t h e son of A.biPa.tharthe
I K I ~ : ~ Ewas made t o S~1'o.mon,saying: "Here'Ps 118:27
priest came. Then'jaha said: 'Come on
jaha himself hns become afraid of Klng S o b
in, for you are a valiant man and you bring good axn ~e:rr
mon and here he has taken hold on the horns
news.''R '9 But Jon'a.than anm-erect and said t o iEi ?&i8
the altarlo saying, 'Let King Sol' first
Ad-o.nitjah:a"No! Our lordb3 King David him- Z t f c l l S m 7
s\t7eart o me that he will not put his sewself has made Sol'o.mon king.' *' So the king 'IK'
ant to death by the sword.' " " To this Sol'o.mon
sent with him Za'dek the priest and Nathan the
\*lSa14&5 said: "If he will become a valiant man, there
2Sn 14:ll
prophet and Ee-nai'ahc the son of Je.l~ai'a.da
a single hafrv of his to the earth,
Irt ~o:m , will not %I1
and the Cher'e-thites and the Pel'e.Zhltes, and
n hlmp then
I but if what is bad should be found i
they made him ride upon the she-mule of the rK11;m
So Klng Sol'o.rnon
$;; ,',':he
6;!will certainly die."-'
Er B!R
kinga '
Za'dok the priest and N n t h ~ nthe
J!:l$ip sent and they brought him down from off t h e
prophet anointed him as k i n p In GiFhon,O afttr 1lr
r r al:u altar, Then he came h~and bowed down t o King
which they came up from there rejoicing, and k,Y>r::y
, 1Ki14:14Solfotrnon, after which Sol'onmon said t o him:
the tourn is in an uproar.' That was the nolse !f$F$;T
" r;e~ ~
3e1:9 z 9 "GO to your own house."
lle 3124
that aov men heard.e 4 G And, besides, Sol'o.mon "::t12:;iG
TIC 33:l
And the days0 of Dada gr~dudlydrew new
has sat down upon the throne of the kingship.' * 1 , C & ~ f ~ . ~ ~
for hirn t o diez and he proceeded to give
4 7 And, another thing, the scrvants of thc king "I+~~l,K:~s
;:$itE orders t o Sol'o-mon his son,* saying: "I am
have come in to wish our lol.db King David rvell, l':;~<'~;.:'~l ';;;3S2
.;9 going in the way of a11 the earth," and you must
I be strone and prove yourse'lf to be a man.'
saylng, 'May your Godd make So1'o.mon's name n:;?,,l;!<O
Sp ; ; ; : ; ; ;
And you must keep the obli~ationto Jehovah
more splendid than your name and may he
I .~!,h
God by walking in his !brays,' by keeping
make his throne greater than your throne!'";;$::!
his statutes, his commandments and his judicial
At that the king prostrated himself upon the f:tj!i$ja
. T ~ R 1%
28:2[1 decisions* and his testirnonies,hccording to
bed." aa And, too, this is what the king said, j:,: ;';:;;
b(~,f;$!i~a what is written in the law ol Moses,' in order
'Blessedn be Jehovah the God of Israel, who has $$:;'
t h a t you may act prudently in everything that
*i 4:1
*'h~r, M. b "Lord," See verse 11 footnote d. 0 R5ta.iarktr,
;';:,:!& YOU do and everywhere thnt you turn;" a in orld. d .'Your God," It; '.Jeho~ahyonr aod;l 8s;idhtMjnargln?,lJ
.,'ht~,?iI, b Of,"w~ainders; rxhartntions.."




3 KINGS 2:5-9


der that Jehovah may carry out his word that k2Sa
1Ch 17:11
he spoke respecting me,k saying, 'If your sonsn 1Ch 2R:E
will take care of their way by walkingr before PPSs m:29
me in truthao with all their hearta and with all CPs
nPs X9:70
their soul, there wiI1 not be cut off a man of Ps 132:12
yours from [sitting] upon the throne of Israel.'t rGe
Le 2G:3
2Ki 20:3
5 "And, too, you yourself well know what ?r$l 23:3
,Lh 17:3
Jo'ab the son of Ze.ruliah did to men in what he RDC
did t o two chiefs of the armi~sof Israel, to Ue
>It 22.37
Ab%nerv the son of Ner and A.matsaY the son of lICi 7.12
Je'ther,z when he proceeded to kilI them and uZSa
258 19:s
place the blood of war in peacetime and put t h e vYSa
y2Sa 20:10
blood' of war on his belt that was about his z2Sa 17 W
hips and in his sandals that were en his feet. 'De
Jrr 2134
Fure 2-15'
And you must act according to your wisdomDrPr 20:26
and not let his grayA hairs go down in peaceo C2Ki
:Job 7:9
to SheroI.
Fr 16:31
Ge 9:6
7 "And toward the sons of Bar.zilrIai+ the FNU
Gil' you should exercise loving-kindness," Is8 28
and they must prove to be among those eating +ZSn 14:31
at your table," for that was the way they drew e2Sa 9:7
near t o me when I ran away because of Ab'sa~ 2 S aIF27
lorn your brother."
8 "And here there is with you Shim'e.iL the *2Sa 16:7
son of Ge%athe Eentja.rnin.ite from Ba.huPrim,kk2Sa 16:s
and he it was that called down evil upon me with
a painful malediction0 on the day that I was 32Ki 22:19
going to'irn,n and he it was that came n2Sa 17:24
down to meet me a t the J ~ r d a nso
, ~that I swore r2Sa 19:17
t o him by Jehovah, saying, 'I shall not put you
t o death by the sword.'a " And now d o not leave s2Sa
tEx 20.7
E x 22:28
him unpunished,Vor you are a !vise manu and Job 9128
you well h o w what you ought to do t o him ulK1.
1Ki 3128

Or, 'rfaithfuln~ss." M, Shcdl; L X X , "Ha'des"; Vg, intfa.ri;

87)Shi.uZ', See Genesis 35 : 35, footnote a. Or,"loyal love."


and you
?NU 3225

must bring his grayy hairs down to

She'ola with blood,"Y
10 Then David lay dorm with his forefathers5
and was buried in t h e city of David.* I1 And the
days that David had reigned over Israel were
z:gE: :?is forty year^."^ h He'brono he had reigned seven
yearsAand in Jerusalem he had reigned thirty*
lICi 11:43 three yean.0
1Ch 11:7
12 As for Solto.rnon, he sat down upon the
k2Sa 2:3
1c11m 2 - 1 throne of David his father,+ and gradually his
2 ~ 5:7
kingship became very firmly established.@
13 In time Ad.o.nifjahb the son of Hag'gith"
t o Bath-she"oale SoYo.mon$ mother. At
P~ 1=:12 this she said; "Is your coming p e a ~ e a b l e ? "to
d2Sa ;:la
PS 7 2 3
which he said: "It is peaceable," l 4 And he went
Ps 88:37
~ a s a3 4
on to say: "There is a matter I have for you."
1Ch 3 2
"2Sa12:24 SO she said: "Speak."n =$Andhe continued:
~ c 12:17
hI B : ~ You yourself well know that the kingship was
n?Sn 14:12
to have become mine and it was toward me
that all Israel had set their face for me to ke7 ~ 1 : 5 come king,' but the kingship turned and came
1K1 s:a5
to be my brother's, for it was from Jehovah that
gi,B it became his." lBAnd now there is one request
P61123 t h ~ It am making of you, Do not turn my face
",; Ej1* away."t Accordingly she said to him: "Speak."
And he went on to say: "Please, say t o Sol'omon the king (for he will not turn your face
lllKi1:a away) that he should give me Abri.shagu the
VJns 19:18
LSn z8:4
Shu'nam.mitev as a \vife."Y la To this Bath2lCi 4:8
she'ba said: "Good! I myself shall speak for you
y:~~l J:7
2511 12:s
to the king."?;
19 So Bath-she'ba came in to King SoIto.mon
to him for'jah.~*
At once the
1 : : 1 ~ ~ ~to
: ~ speak
n l ' c i 14
kingo rose to meet her and bowed down to her.O
~ l K 1.21
1 c h B:ZB
Job 1Q:l
EC 12:s
Ac 229


* M, Slsbiil; I;XX,"Ha'des";
H7: :1{1, I'ootrlote a.

Tg,; Sy, Shi-ttl'. See Genesis

A . d o . ~ t i m ' h z ~ RI.


Eatherk and because you suffered affliction durk22,"&!t4

Ich 1 5 : ~ing all the time that my father suffered d i e throne set for the mothero of the king, that she ,~&y::g
IhlSa 22:22 t i ~ n , ' ' ~So Sol'o.mon drove out'a.thar
might sit at his right," "And she proceeded t o
2Sa 15:24
from serving as a priest of Jehovah, to fulfill
say: "There is one little request that I am mak'IKi 2f:lr Jehovah's0 word that be had spoken against the
ing of y0u.O Do not turn my face away." So the +g~0;;$
25a 16:22
r1Sa2:31 house of E l i r in Shi'1oh.a
king said t o her: "Make it, my mother, for I @
1Sa 3:12
shall not turn your face away.'' 91 And she went ,I"= !;:
28 And the report itself came clear to Jopabl
on t o say: "Let Ab'i-shag the Shu'nam.mite be $;:i;t
-for Jo'ab himself had inclined to follow Ad.0tm11:7 ni'jaht although Ab'sa-lorna h e had not inclined
given to'jaha your brother as a wife."' *!g; ;
"Ea18:15 to followu-and
22 At this King SoYo.mon answered and said t o
Jo'ab went fleeing t o the tent
his mother: "And why are you requesting nzsn @:is
of Jehovah and began to hold fast to the horns
Abti.shag the Shu'narn.mite for'jah ?a' r!% 2%
of the altar.' "Then King Sol'o.mon was told:
Request also for him the kingship' (because he gy&%i?M
"Jo'ab has fled ta the tent of Jehovah, and there
is my brother older than 1 am),* even for him :g &g,,
he is beside the altar." So Sol'o.rnon sent Beand for A.hi'a.thark the priest and for Jo'abn l;;:$,
nai'ahb the son of Je.hoifa.da,saying: "Go, fall
FS 1 4 0 9
the son of'iaI~."~
upon hirn!"z Accordingly Be.nai'ahb came to
Pr 183
21!mthe tent\of Jehovah and said to him: "This is
23 With that King Solro.mon swore by Jeho- ?;$:%
what the king has said, 'Come on out!' " But
vah, saying: "So may God do t o me and so may he uJ
he said: "No! For here is where I shall die."
add to it," if it svasnot againsthisown soul that IKI 1.i:l
At that Be.nai'ah"brought
word back to the
Ad.o.niTjahaspoke this thing.t And now, as Je- :#
' 13d6g
king, saying: "This is what Jo'ab spoke and
hovah is livingUwho has firmly established mev y$Ekg23
this is what he answered me." a1 Then t h e king
and keeps me seated upon t h e throne of David my zZ;
1 ~ 2 : s said t o him: "Do just as he has spokenu and
fathery and who made a houses for me just as he ,::,
AGe 9:5
ce 9:s
fall upon him, and you must bury him and rehas spoken,' today'jah&will be put to n&;\f;:2
14-U 35:33
EC le.iz
move from off me and from off the house af my
death."" 28 Immediately King SoYo.mon sent by Azsa
De 18:13
1Ki 1:s
fathervthe bloodcAundeservedly shed that Jo'ab
means of Be.nai'ahbAthe son of J e - h ~ i ' a d aand
, ~ OlCh 27:s
ale 21:8
spilled. 32 And Jehovah will certainly bring back
he proceeded t o fall upon him, so that he died.cb '(g,";'5133
%a 1 3 5
pr 2sa7
blood upon his own head,' because he feU
26 And t o the priest the king 41
sa 2 2 2 0
upon two men more righteous and better than
said: "Go t o Ari'a.thoth" t o your fieIds! For you 1K1
I C 15:11
1's 9%
he was* and he proceeded to kill them with the
are deserving of death,a# but on this day I shall "
m1Sa 13:28
sword, when my father David himself had not
not put you t o death,O because you carried the ,!;i&1i16
21'11 21;13
known of it," namely, Ab'ner* the son of Ner
ark of the Lard Jehovaheo before David my g":G$g
b:8s,3:27 the chief of the army of Israel and A.rna'sak the
a, M. b Bonano.k'hu, hi. c LXX. m d s : ('upon him and
son of Je'thern t h e chief of the army of Judah.

Then he sat down upon his throne and had a

Ad.o ni'jah died on that day.'> a Literally, "yon are a man of death,"
etrThe Lord Jehocah." M,' Ye.ha.wi1~'. See Genesis 15:2,

footnotes e, f.

"Ab'sa.lam," 3UXXB; "Sol'o.mon," V g S ~ ~ x x L a g a r d fedltion.

DPna.ia'hta, M, *Liternlly, i%loods," deno"titing cases of bloodshed.

1 KINGS 2:41--3:s

1 KINGS 2:33--46

" h d their Wmd must came back upon the

headS of Js'ab and upon the head of his off- C C J 1~ ~ ~ 1
spring forever,"' but for Davidmand for his off- T"pl$$
spring and for his house and for his throne thcre ?
!\,ill come to be peace foreverb from Jehovah."~t;:~gys
Then Be.naiFahc t h e son of Je.hoi'a,da went
on up end fell upon him and put him to death,ll U1,n
~ n he
d g o t t o be buried at his own house in the
~vilderness.~' Upon that the king put Be.nail- tT;p,,7;~{,
ahc the son of Se.hoi'a-da in placc of him aver
the arrny,Y and Za'dok the prlest the Icing putMJflbad:r
jn the place of A-bi'a.thar.*
1Sa 235
36 Finally the king sent and called Sh1m'e.i' !:[; !f?
% 1L9.3
and said to him: "Build yourself a housea In Ar.
1'- I
Jerusalem, and you must dwell there and not go ;-;* ;;;I;B
outAfrom there to this place and that. '?And it
must occur that on the day of your going out w<nlli 24
and when you do pass over the torrent valley of 26,'
Kid'ronr you should unmistakably know that "Fj ji::;,:
you will positively die,' Bloodguilt"for youe will
itself come to be upon your own head,'' At this %
; ; ;/;:?
Sh1m'e.i said to the king: "The word Is good.' h; :,!I
Just as my lord the king has spoken is the way I.:,(. Ih.13
that: your servant will do." And Shfrn's-i kept\ : ; ' %),':9
dtvelling in Jerusalem many days.
39 And it came about at the end of three
years that two Slavesc of Shimki went running etKlk22
away to A'ckish' the son of Mafa.cah the klng *:?:g;jO
of Gath,k and people came telling Shimtee.i,
say- k;~;u;kza
ing: "Look! your slaves are at Gath." 4"~rne- n s ~ l 2 1 : 2 0
diately Shimre.igot up and saddled his ass and
went t o Gath to A'chish to look for his slaves,
after which Shim'e.i went and brought his



'-"' '

Liternllr, "Tonr blood," N.


Or,"to time indefite." Wr, "until time indefinite!'

M. d "The king put;> 31; "the Eag put as the high priest," LLY,

slaves from Gath.n Then Solro+rnonwas told:

"Shim'e-i has gone out of Jerusalem to Gath
and is back." At that the king sent and called
Shim'e-i and said to him: "Did I not put you
r ~ 15:4
under oath by Jehovah that I might warn you,r
Lu 14.22
a:% saying, 'On the day of your going outside and
~ z 21.
when you do go here and there you should unu?Ch: m:12
mistakably know that you will positively die,'
and so did you not say to me, 'Good is the word
~ le:le
y1K1 2:32 that I have heard?# d 9 W l ~ y ,then, did you not
ps 7:16
keep the oath> of Jehovnhl and the commandPr 5:TZ
E Z C I Y : I ~ ment that I solemnly l ~ i dupon you?"u "And
n o 4.9
the king went on to say to 3hirnk.i: " Y w yourZPS 21.1
Ps 72:17
self certainly know all the injury which your
r,f,F3:? heart ~velE knows that you did to David my
father,v and Jehovah will certainly return the
L 1 ~ i 3 : 1 2 injury by youupon your own head,yd"ut
2 C h i:l
pr 29:4
Sollo.mon will be blesseilx and the throne of
E?Ch 1R:i
Ezr9.14 David itself will prove to be flrrnly established
before Jehovah P ~ r e v c r , With
" ~ ~ that
~ ~ the king
$,&! $?jl
who then went out and fell upon him, so that
k 1Ki 9 3 5
I I L i7:4
the kingdom was firmly established in
Ee 2.524
ne 12:s the hand of SaZ'o.rnon."
I,Uh 3 3 3
I1Ki 23.35
And SolJa.monproceeded to foim a marriage
alliancee with Phartaoh3the king of Egypt
riKI 5.3
Il C C
h 1~7 . 4
and to take Phar'aah's daughterc' andl bring her
to the city-$of Davld until he finished building
his awn house:' and the house of Jehovah" and
:M I W 6:s
$,54 Jerusalem%
wall all around.I( W n l y the people
I>@10 12
:sa 12:24 were sacrificing on the high placcs,n for a house
I,.; 31:23
had no2 been built to the llarne of Jehovah'
ati 2.37
dolvn to those days,p And Solro,mon continued
to lovea Jehavwh by walklng In the statutes of



a Or,

"before Jellorah uiltil t ilne i~~rlcllni


U51tt.ia'lr1t, X,



'(God," 11sp; "Jehovah," L L Y T . b Or, "IayaI love-," c "A Eon

Liternlly, "a son sitting," Xf. d More litw~llg,"a hearing
heart:' hi, Or, "numlerous." Literally, "heav," 31. 1 Or, "good,?'
g31,'('The Lard") ; one of the 134 places where the
Jewish fiopheri~nellanged YLha.uursh'in the Hcb~e~:text: t6 Adoslay'. See Gencsis 18: 3, footnote a. "Jehovah," LXXVgSy aud
I ~ I H
Ve h r ~ v

thing.a l1 And God&went on to say to him: "For

the reason that you have requested t h i s thing
;g;Jas ;;4$3 and have not requested for yourself many daysV
nor requested for yourself richesy nor requested
E L K i 21:20
elm 2 2 : ~the soulb of your enemiesoand you have request1Ch 29:19
Pr l6:lG ed for yourself understanding to hear judicial
'Ps 10.17
'"look! I shall certainly do according t o
Isa 6 5 : ~
Look! I shall certainly give you a
~ D:Et$;~:
heart," so that one like
Lvtlz.Q you there has not happened t o be before you,
CPS 84 11
E h 320 and after you there will not rise up one like
Pr 3 ; ~ YOU.* Is And also what you have not requested I
GlKi 10:23
2Ch1.12 shall certainly give you,v both riches' and
c 1Ch 16:29
~~~hm.2 glory? SO that there will not have happened to
be any among the kings Like you, all your days.@
De25:15 Ir And if you will walk in my ways by keeping
Ps 21:4
PS 81:1$
my regulations' and my commandments, just as
Pr 3:2
your father walked,# then I shall certaini=Ge
Jer 41:7
12Sa 6:17 ly lengthen your days,'lk
1Ch 161
15 When So'l'o.rnon awoke,n why, here it had
.xLe 721
a dream. Then he came t o Jerusalem and
before' the ark of the covenant of JehovahE
,:",h33yG2and offered
up burnt sacrifices and rendered up
x r G:~I cornunions offerings and spread a feasts for
l'Is3 5:12
t ~ r 34:3i
, ~
all his
( ; c 38.15
I W 2317
16 At that time two women, prostitute^,^ g o t
.T[)S el7
~ ~ I I : Ito came in t o the king and stand befare him."
.IF 16:l
vxU2,:a l P Then the one woman said: "Excuse me, my
','t;;ti;y lord,Y I and this woman are dwelling in one
UP' 1 5 s

David his father.t Only it was on the high tEi:$y

pIacesU that he was reguI&rIy sacrificing and $
:;?; 15:14
making off e r h g s smoke,
1x1 22.43
4 Accordingly the king went t o Gib'e.onv t o Y J O S ~ : ~
1K1 9:2
sacrifice there, for that was the great high ylCh16:JB
p1ace.y A thousand burnt sacrifices Sol'o-mon ~ c 2h~ 2 9
proceeded to offer upon that altar.z In Gib'e.on 12Ch
Jehovah appeared" t o Sol"-mon in a dreamU*
by nighP and Goda proceeded to say: "Request OGC zs:12
what I should give you. "A " At this Sol'o.mon &; y2:;
said: "You yourself have exercised great loving- e2Ch 2:7
kindnessm toward your servant David my father
according as he walked before you in truth and
in righteousnessa and in uprightness of heart @ P s l m
rvith you,' and you continued keeping toward him +=a 2 ~ 4 7
this great loving-kindne~s,~
so that you gave him
2 4
a son to sit=upon his throne as at this day.' 'And
now, Jehovah0 my God, you yourself have made
your servant king in the place of David my fa- "C,hlF;i
ther, and I am but a little boy.' I do not know &r;;!17
how to go out and how to come in.*"d
your ~e 31:a
2% 5.2
servant is in the middle of your people whom k~~
you have chosen," a multitsrdinous people that ,$Bi7jg:23
cannot be numbered or counted for multit~de,~n
%d you must give t o your servant an obedient.
heartdo to judge your p e ~ p l e ,to
~ discern be-8
tween good and bad,. for who is able to judge! ;:$:3
this difficulte peopIe of yours?"t
Jas 1:5
10 And t h e thing was pleasingf In the eyes of 'T,"bg;;.
Jehouah,g because Sol'o.mon had requested this tF$!T1,l

to sit."

."God," JL; "Jphovah," L I X T g S y . b Or, 'life." M, gaeph'esh;

I,.YX, ps~.ck8' (in the plural nuinher) ; TTg, n'ni.mrs (in plural).
Or, "discerning."
0 Or, i'discernmcnt.l' a Or, ''ta ohey judgment."
f",Jrl~ovah,"Ilssoetic BihIe editions by C. D. Ginsburg (1926)
rtrltl hy R i . r). Cassuto (1953) ; C'Jehorrah in Zion;' L X X ; i'Jehovah,"
\'fiSy. This is one of the 134 places where the Jewish Sopherim
t*t~ringerlT'ho.?c~h' to rend',which appews in R. Kittel's
a t l i t i ~ ~of'
n M. See verse 10, footnote g,

1 KINGS 3 ;18-26



house, so that I gave birth close by her In the

house. I 8 h d it came about on the third day
after I gave birth this lvornan also proceeded to
give birth, And we were together. There litas
no stranger""with as in the house, no one but
the two of us in the house, I!' Later the son of
this woman died at night because she lay
upon him. " So she g a t up in the middle of the
night" and took my son from beside me while aMt
Joh 320
your slave girl herself was asleep and laid him
in her own besom, and her dead+ son" she Inid
in my bosom. 21 When S got up in the morning
to nurse* my son, r~~hy,
there he U'RS Aend. So I
examined him closely in the rnornIng,- md,
look! he did not prove to be my son that T had
hrne." " But the other woman said: "No, hut
my son 1s the living'- one and your son is the
dcnd one!" All the while this woman was saying: "No, but your son is the dead one nnd my
son is the living one." And they kept on speaking before the king!
23 Finally the king said; "This one is saying,
'This is my son, the living one, and your son is
the dead one!' and that one is say in^, 'No, but
your son is the dead one and my son is the Hving
one!' " e4 And t h e king \lTenton to sny: "You
men, gd me a word." Fa they brought the
sword' before the king. ?5 And the king proceed.
ed to say: "'You men, cut the living chIldP in
two and give the one half to the one woman ~ n d
the other half to the other.'"' At once the waman wllose son was the living one said to t h e king
(for her inward emotionsb were excited t a w ~ r d
her sonjOso that she said) : "Excuse me,*my
lord! you men, give her the living child." Do not
by any means put him to death." All the while

1. KINGS 3 : 27-4 :10

this other woman was saying: "Neither mine

4 nor yours will he become. You men, do the cutD e 179 ting!" 2 i A t that the klng answered and said:
L J rs:~!
I-'Yow men, give her the Iiving child, and YOU
2% 8:13
r l i 2:3
must by no means put him to death. She Is his



JOS 4314

3 s 12:lB

I C ~ 2924

2, 2,



28 h d all Israel got t o hear of the judicial
decision' that the klng had handed down and
they became fearful' because of the king,#for
they saw that t h e \vlsdornk of God was within
him t o execute judicial decision.
And King Sol'o.mon continued king over all

1 ~ ~ 1 ~ 1 3

he had: Az.a.ri'ahtj the son of Za'dokt the
2,S,h,gT priest; "D.i.hor'eph and A.hi'jah, the sans of
Shirsha,U s~cretaries;~
Je.hosh'a.phaty the son
i y o la:a of A.hi'lud," the recorder;c" and Re.nai'ahm the
t2sa X:17
son of Je.hoi'a.daA was aver the armyj0 and
Eze 4 4 2 5 Za'dok and A+bi'a-thar' were priests;
: j ~ ~ ~Az.a.ritaIlb
~ 0 i ~ 5the son of Nathana was aver the
deputies, and Za'bud the son of N ~ t h ~
n a
priest,' the friendHof the klng; and A.hi'shar
' 1 ~ h1~:15was ovep the Isousehald, and Ad.o.nitram' the
r A a 20:23
3 ~ 1 is
son of Ab'da, over those conscripted for forced
-"-??I 27:s
7 And Sol'o.mon had twelve deputies over all
Lsa 12:1
:xi m.ra
1:iQh e I , and they provided the king and his home;:;'' g:g hold with food, It would devolve upon each one
I>Cj4f?$4"4 to provide the food one month in the year.r
l l f ~ 1 9 : i 5 And these were their names: The son ~f Hur,
1JC1 12:18
t 1r7h 27:1 in the mountainous region of E';fl
H Jg 1 7 3
,insl9:42 6011of De'ker, in Ma'kaz and in Sl~a~al'bimt
eth-she'meshu and E'lon-beth-ha'nm; lo
He'sed, in Aarub'both (he had So'coh and
h*Prinms.''Rf7 sa-vim'; Vg, prin'ci.prs. b ' ~ . r n r . i a ' h ~ tM.


"rrmmb~aneer."d BCna.b'lr tt, 31,


1 W G S 4: 23-31
all the land of Re'pher) ; y l1 the son of A.bin'a- sJol12;17
flour and sixty cor measures of flour, ten fat
dab, all the mountain ridge of Dora CTa'phath, 'Josm23
cattle and twenty pastured cattle and a hundred
SolPo.rnon'sdaughter, herseU became his rvVe) ;
sheep, besides some stagst and gazelles" and
t n 1:G
I3a'a.n~the s o n of A.hi'tud, in Ta'a.nach0 and *Jml7:n '
u i l c i?:rs ropbu&s and fattened cuckms. 24 For he was
Me.gid'domnnd all Beth-she'an, which is beside
tiolding in subjection everything this side of the
rCe 2:lJ
Zar' below Je~',~
from Beth-she'nn "
river,"^ from Tjph'sah t o Ga'za,r even all the
to A'bel-rne8holaheto the region of;'
this side of the River,&and peacex itself
the son of Ge'ber, in Ra'mothgil'e-ad4 (he had$;;,3\;;1;
became his in every region of his, all around.!>
the tent vilIages of ofaa'i+ the son of Manas'- E
And Judah' a i d Isrncl continued t o dwell in
31r4ll;~ ' 2 . 8 security,*
seh,O whfch are in GI1';n he had the region _:rl.rrl < l ','.
everyone under his own vine" nnd un6-i"
rL'1<1 4 :j!l
of Ar'gah,~ which is in B a ' ~ h o n :sixty
~ ~ large i;:;:: '$;:;
his awn fig tree," from Dan t o Be'cr-she'ba,"
cities zvlth wallp and capper bar); A.hin'a+dah 3:2,122i:f'i:,3=21,1 I\ 31 all the days of
the son of Id'do, in'Im ;r A.hima',
i n ,!,I:;
-JK 2 1 ~ 1
26 And %l1~.rnoncame to have forty thou- ' i R 17.11
Naph'ta.lJu (he, too, took Bade-math,Sol'o.mon's
stalls of horses- for his chariotsEand twelve
:?(.I1 j.17
daughter, as a wife) ;v 1" the son of Hu'- g;;
Jon 13:n
1'9 2Y.12
17 I[{
shai, in Ash'ers and Beta.loth; I7 Je.hosh'a.phat Ir;,.
~ ' ~ ' 2
27 And these deputies*supplied food t o King
the sort of Pa.ruR&h,
in 1s'sa.char;Z'"hirnPe.i* the
3 I i 1 111.25
,:,.I So1'o.m and everyone approaching the table3
..,. *I:JO
son of Ela, in
Ge'ber the son of
of King Sol'o=mon,each one in his month. They
,$, ,
U'ri, in the land of Gilye.nd,4the land of Si'honE
nothing lackjng. :"And t h e barley and the
the king of the Am'or.iten,' and of Of the king
for the horses and for t h e teams of
of Ba'shan,"and there was one deputy [over all
horsesa they kept bringing t o wherever the
the other deputies] that were in t h e land.
*KLI21 2 1
place might prove to be, each one according to
X U 31.33
20 Judah and Israel were many, like the *.up
.lKE 10:23 hiS MmiSSjOn.
2ch 1:m
grains of sand that are by the sea for multi29 And God' continued giving Sol'o.mon wistude," eating and drinking and rejoiciug.bk
*GP P ~ : I T
and understanding*) in very great measufe
klCh m39
i,Z,: 1.3
21 As for Sol'o.rnon, he proved to be ruler
broadnesq of heart, like the sand that is
I 2.2
over all the kingdo* from the Rivercp to the
upon the seashore.* "' And Sol'o.mon0swisdom
land of the Phi.lis'thesc and to t h e bomdargm ;;fR1;
i16rzn was vaster than the wisdom of all the Orientalsck
v1r11 I Z ' l ~ I and than all the w i d o m of
of Egypt." They were bringing gifts and serving I.;,;;;;;!:
And he
Sol'o.rnon a11 the days of his life."
]It8 3 1 . ~ 1
ryr<l 1:3
22 And Sel'o-mon's food for each days reguthe Eztra.hite and He'rnan8 and Cal'colt and
-larly proved t o be thirty copa measures of fine a15:n
n Th:~tin, the En.phraYtcaRir*e~q,b 31nny ELehre~vl!lnn~l~cri~?tb
Or, ''he had Hav'voth-,ja'ir!) b Chnpter 4 in the Hebrew text
rrrul : "and p n r o itrrltP l)rr*nlnrhis nt tho in~!na~c.of rill









entla bre. a Thnt is, the Gu.phxa'to~R i v ~ rd, Litei*nlly, LaSnl'o.mon's

brcatl for ana day,') Jf. ' A cor, dry ra~msnre,~qunlsI1 buehels
4 quarts (U.S. a),and corrcslmnds with a dr;r.mcasnrr homer.

III-; ~ ~ t v , u r trill
s ol.ound,'' a "Clod,'l 11\'gSy; "Jehovnl~. .T,NXTPyI iahurlrrlnr. d Cty, " d i s ~ ~ ~ - n n l p l ~ tLitcmlly,
"rill thu m t l ~of t h p
k < i t d , ' ' 11. f 31, J ~ ~ - U + C $ I , ~ J Iitt~rdIy~
"ihe t~aan.''

1 KINGS 4:32-5:6


22 9

Dar'da the sons of Ma%ol, and his famea came

to be i n all the nationsQall around." And he ~~~~,~
could speak three thousand proverbsoy and his vpr
W c 1.1
h ~ i o
S O I I ~ S Y came t o be a thousand and f i m b And
he would speak about the trees, from the cedarz
that is in Leb'a.non-to the hyssopn that is coml9:23
ing forth on the wall, and he would speak about
the beastsAand about the flyin@ creaturesoand "fi; ii;::
a b u t t h e creeping things' and about the fishes.- ge;l;?19
84 And they kept corning from all the peoples to
hear Sol'o.rnonJs wisdom, even from all the
kings of the earth who had heard of his wisdom," *G,
"2Ch 8:f
And Hipram#the king of Tysek proceeded t o 2%gig
send his servants t o Sol'o.mon, for he had ~ ~ 1 2 0 : ; ~
heard that it was he that they had anointed as I- 2 3 : ~
king in place of his father, for a loverC of David
Hi'ram had always proved to be.' In turn Solr- qhy4y
o.rnon sent t o Hirrm, saying:" a "You yourself e2Ch2:3
well know that David my father was not able to
build a house to the name of Jehovah his God
because of the warfare with which they surrounded him until Jehovah put them under the,,
soles of his feet.t And now Jehovah my God
has given me rest all around." There is no re- ~~$;.'g
sister" and there i s nothing bad happening. U?$:$i?$
And here I am thinking of buildinge a house eny,792:'$'
to the name of Jehovah my God,V just as Jebovah promised to David m y father, saying: 'Your Y;:; ;+?!a
son whom I shall put upon your throne in place :g-+~;;o
of you, he is the one that will build the house: Zec 6 : r ~
t o my name.'y And now command that theyiZ:8ii%
cut for me cedarsf from Leb'a.n~n,~
and my $$%;,8



''name," N. b "A thousand and dve;" NPgSy; "five

thou~and,l' LXXYgla m&""acr'~ta. Or, "fi.iend." vg, a.mBetu.
d Ba.tlad, M; aa.ta'na, Sy; sra'tom, Vg. elliterally, "I am sapng
[ t o mysdf] to build," 11. f Or, "ktrees." LIX, s y ' i ~("trees").
a literally,


O G e 10:15

Ezr 3:7

1 KINGS 5:7-12

servants themselves will prove to be with your

servants, and the wages of your servants I shall
give to you according to all that you may say,"
for you yourself well know that there is among
us no one knowing how to cut trees like the
7 And it came about that as soon as Hi'ramA

heard the words of Sol'o.mon he began to rejoice greatly and he went on to say: "BlessedQ
is Jehovah today in that he has given David a
over this numerous people!'?@ Accord' $ 2 ingly son
Hi'ram sent to Sol'o.rnon, saying: "I have
Pr 23:24 heard what you sent to me. FOPmy p&, I shall
QCh 2 : u
do all your deIight in the matter of timbers of
72Sa 6:5
lrrl s;ls cedar trees and timbers of juniper" trees. My
$$$% servants* themselves will bring them down out
to the
~ of Leb%,nonk
~ a n d I,
7 for my psrl;,
shall put them in log rafts [to go] by sea clear
''2ChZ:1Qo the place that you will send me notice of,n
and I shall certainly have them broken up there
and you, for your part, will carry them; and
you, for your part, will do my delight by giving
r$$Fij+5 the food for my h o ~ s e h o l d . " ~
1 0 So Hi'ram became a giver of timbers of
cedar trees and timbers of juniper trees to Sol'o.rnon according to all his delight. l1 And Sol'omon, for his past, gave HYram twenty thousand
as food supplies for his
2 of
: wheatc
measures of beaten;g g?;
IEr 29:40 OUV oilqbThat was what Sol'o.mon kept giving
Le 242
Hi'ram year by year. l2 And Jehovah, for his
1 ~ i 4 : 2 9 part, gave Solro.rnan wisdom, just as he had
promised him,^ and there came to be peace be:$!,1;?
lt cor, E q d d measure, amounted t o about; 98 gallons (U. S. A,).

$iPi$9 s

That is, oil made by heating or ponnding t b e olirea in a moitar;

rlwpcciallp fine and costly.

1 KINGS 5:1-



tween Hi'rarn and %l%.mon and both of them

proceeded to conclude a covenantav
IKI a=
13 And King Sol'omon kept bringing up $?;Id
those conscripted for forced lnbory out of all Y;E;;;;~
Israel, and those conscripted Sox forced labor irri 9.21
amounted to thirty thousand men, '"Anc'l
would send them t o Leb'aaon in shifts of ten
thousand a month. For a months they it~mldZ;FSC$~
continue in LRb'a-non, for two months at their 22t%6~g
homes; ~ t n dAd-o-ni'rarn* was over those con- AL5h46P;i8
scrfpted3 for forced labar,* And Sol'o.mon iz;
csme t o have0seventy thousand burden bearers' ;g$.i
and elghty thousand cutterlP in t h e m o u n t ~ f n , ~ '
beddes Sol'o.rnon's prince1y deputies"' who m~Ifi:;;
were over the work," three thousand three hun- CEZaCr 2~5::: s
dred fowmena over the pcople who wrrc active 'y&%s
In the work. Accordingly t h e king commanded ,$g:;yu
that they shmld quarry grcat stones,i expen- eE;s;
sive stones,T1
t o lay the foundation1'of the house
with hewn stones. l5 SO Sollo.mon's builders and ;
l c c h a:ls
Hi'r~lmk builders and the Gc'bnlaltesndid the '?I'!L~?~:
cutting and they kept preparing the timbers and A::$.:
1c03 : ~
the stones to build the house.
I Pe 2:6
And it came about In the four hundred and ~ RJcO21:14
eightieth ye& after the sons of Israel came EPSzen:i
out from the land of Egypt,' fn the fourth 'E;:iji;
? C ~3:2
yearJzlIn the month of ZivlVthat is, the second UvIKI


,'"U':hmonth,r after Sol'o-mon became king over Isrmel, that he proceeded to build the house to
= And the house that King Sol'o.mon
was sixty cubits in its length1
1 : ~:I
and twenty in its width and thirty cubits in its
height.' a d the porch" in front of the temple
I:ZL' 41 :I
of the house was twenty cuhjls in its length, in
c : I ir011t of the width of the house. Ten cubits it
was in its depth, in front of the house.
4 A n d for the house he went on to mnke
of narrowing f~arnes."T~lrrther,he
~ ~ ~ $ ~windowso
,111:lB built against the wall of the house n side struci.:zu 41 ;28
ture d l around, [against] the walls of tha house
a11 around the templeoand t h e innermost room,"'
3.:< dj(,:21 and made side chambersmall around, ' The larvI,,~~ f i . 2
XU f i ~ est side charnberQvas five cubits in Its width,
3 ' h .I.i0
and the middle m e was stx cubits In its width,
j [,,I>
- 1 ril fi so and the third one was seven cubits in its rvidth,
!'/I. 4 l : R
lor there were cutbacks' that he gnve to t h e
' ""'
lmuse all around outside, that. it might not have

* I ~ Q

c l 2.5

h ~ l dEn the walls of the house?

7 As for the house, while it was belng built,
it IVBS of quarry stone" already completed that

m t t b boltorri of pveriorts pop+] erlanlly in I'hoeuitinn,

I'nlnryrtwr, ,koWncnn, and Old k n u m i s inrtriplioir, n m l ~ a b a nlio
i n Syri~~c.., , Tltc ~rntntionby meflu> uf I t t t 1 ~ 1 . ($1'
t h ~nlph:rl,et is
on P h o c ~ ~ i r i nruins
(hut 11nt the rrnolirart), on thn coiris o f
nnd since mecliae~nltirllr~h c llcr~l
in g~mraI,
(ILIIIIREI 1105 univrl+s~I,~ t s e (not, for e x n m p l ~ ,in thr Kpijiri~phn f
I lhr* K t . Pi.t~l'.rl~~~rg
1 1 1 ~ 1 1 1 1 ~of~ pA,]).
i ) j (5, or i l l ~ h rEl~igrnl?hs
la!' nt~i!11y c ~ t l ~ o~rn ; ~ n u a r ~ i p t s )

[ ('ontitttrrrl

* J~itcr~llp,lrp~.inceeof

the dopt~ties," 31, b "Four hundred and

cightirtll year," J K ~ S S ;"four hundl-cd rind fortieth year," L T S .
Snys S.R. Driver in ATof~so j i 1Frr Hcbrcw Tart arid Ilbd Topography
nf the Rooka of Samuel (1913), in footnntc 2 an p a p 97 (italica
bra) : 'There! is no ground for supposing ( a is
~ no~iaetim~
tllnt in nnrient times nnnrerals
rrprt3enfed in IIchr~rrmanuartipta Ir?r t h letters
of the nlphabtl, Ir tllc nun~wnlarr-crc not mitt r u ill Plill, hut, expressed by syritbals, the ancient EIchrem, it is
rcn~onnblcto suppose, would b n r ~ado tcadn ~pdrnl~inlilart o that
i n n w nnlrngat their nrighbour~,fountf( +9 Efl bmtto?~r01 )reat page.]


Or, '.fIli+hinc1niop.t chnmhr.'' LXX, ho dtr.lrif'; Sy, ''hnusp of the

~rl.arl,itiratorp rover (the Most Holy)." YE, o.rr~'~rr.liim(''the orav l r . " ), rill tho inro~rvctthwry t l ~ n tthc TI~.l~rtaw
\vul.~t rl.'~ir wnet firvtrt~tlf'rrlnr t310 1 It~Ij~~elr
verb do.bnr' ("to r p ' ~ ~ l i ' "C'nfi~~>nrc
ttrl~dr, I I I P R IIR
~ ~ "the innermosta*; filso the APIIII~ o JJ),, 'a F(~dwr,
I ~ I I * ~ I H ~ I I"I)nck,"
b ''Side cl~an~be~b,"
LSX; c'sille strrrcturc," 31.


I ICINGS 6 :L 1 6


it was built," and, as f a r hammers and axes or ~ R 923
any tools of iron,@they were not heard in the "1Ch22:3
house while it was being built. The entrance8 SEE 41:11
sf the lowesta side chamber was on the rightb
side of the house, and by a winding staircase
they would go up to the middle one and from the
middle one up to the third one. Turther, he
continued building the house that he might
finish it' and covered in the house with beams t l K t a 3 8
and rows in cedar wood.^ loMoreover, he built u;g/P$O
the side chambersv against the whole house five;;;;:$
cubits in their height, and they had a hold on VBF;:~~
the house by timbers of cedar t r e e s . ~
Eze 41.26
11 Meantime, the word of Jehovah carne to' Yz IECt he 17:12
Solto.mon,z saying: l a "As regards this house %:fi?2
that you are building, if you will walk in my 2: z:F
statutes' and perform m y judicialQ decisionsa z&y$$'G
and actually keep all my commandments by g
walking in them," then I shall certainly carry ng?;1,:&
out my word with you that I: spoke to David
your father,' IS and I shall indeed tent" in the z7;2:$1,
middle of the sons of Israel' and I shall not
42Sa 7:13
leave my people
1 C h 22:10
14 And Sol'o.rnon continued building the +~;;:i;~
house that he might finish it.' IB
And he proceeded to buiId the walls of the house inside it z;n2i;3
RG 21:3
with boards of cedar. From the floor of the e ~ ~ a ~ 6 2
house up to the rafterscl of the ceiling he overlaid it with timber inside, and he went an t o ;+k;$;
overlay the floor of the house with boards of
juniper? l s Further, he built twenty cubits at
the rear sides of t h e house with boards of cedar,
from the Aoor up to the rafters," and built for,

' L L ~ w ~ ~LtX, "X T ; "middle," MVgSr, LiteralI~,"light," that is,

when one faces east. eliterally, "walls," M ; possil~ly,by a slight
correction, "rafters,"

it inside the innermostk room, the Most Holy.On

2Ch 3:s
nHeb 9.3
rHeb 9 2

slK1 6:2
t l K 1 6:32

And it was forty cubjts that the house proved

to be, that is, the ternpler in front of la And

cedarwod was the whole house inside, with

carvingst of gourd-shapedu ornaments and gar2K14:39
vEu26:33 lands of blossoms.~MI of it was cedarwood;
Ex 3727
lKi 1:26 there was no stone to be seen.
19 And the innerrnosty room in the interior
he prepared inside, t o put there the
2%:$:? ofarkzt h eofhouse
covenant of Jehovah, =OAnd the
zp;Fzt; c h 5 : ~ innermosttheroom
was twenty cubits in length
H P 9:4
* i ~ i e : 2 and twenty cubits in width* and twenty cubits
in its height, and he proceeded to overlay it with
and t o overlay the a l W with cedarA ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ goldn
1 8
':,"g:g wood. s= And Sol'o.mon went on t o overlayv the
inside with pure gold3+and to make chain:&; ;EIICI'I:~IT house
work* of gold pass across in front of the inner":$%;% most roomx and to overlay It with gold. 22 And
the whole house he overlaid with gold,* until
all the house was completed; and all the altark
that belongs to the innermost room he overlaid
nEx $ 0 3 with g01d.n
23 Further, he made in the i n n e m s t mom
a K 1 l * i 5 two cherubs3 of oil-tree wood, ten cubits being
;::2Ch5:8 the height of each one,' "And five cubits was
the one wing of the cherub, and five cubits was
the other wing of the cherub. Ten cubits it was
from the tip of his wing t o the tip of his 1ving.s
a 5 And the second cherub was ten cubits. The
two cherubs had the same measure and the
lzCh3;12 same shape.t ZG The height of the one cherub
was ten cubits, and that was s o of the other
cherub. P7Then he put the cherubs inside the
inner house, so that they spread out the wings
U I X ~7:24


"'The templo in front of the doors of the oracle (innermost room) ,"

1 KINGS 6: 2-8


of the cherubs3 nnd the wing of the one reached

to the wall and the !sing of the other cheruba;:;;:;;
was reaching to t h e other wall, and their wings
were towarcl the middle of the house, reaching
wing to wing.- 2* Moreover, he overlaid the '\:%?$
cherubs with gold.''
29 And an the walls of the house round about 7;+;$o
he carved ~ ~ 4 tengraved
carvings of cherubsr ~.;n
:$;I 1~2.15
and palm figures= and engravings of blmsoms' :.."h :; 1.1
inside and outside, "" d the floor" of the hoitse "ii:~:~f;~fl
he overlaid with gold, inside and outside. "' And *;$:>.$'
the entrance of t h e innermost room he made A?,; ;:j;
with d m " of ofl-lxe wood: side pillars, door-:!.,?;;;c;
posts [and] a fifth. 32 And the hvo doors were
of oil-tree wood, and he carved upon them carv- I I,:E,
ings of cherubs' and palm figures" and the en;$:'::P
savings of blossomsxand he overlaid them with ',:!iC
gold,' and he proceeded to beat the gold dortm
upon the cherubs and the palm figures. " And
that was the way he made for t h e entrance of
the temple, the doorposts of oil-tree wood, foursquared. " And t h e two doors were af juniperk \'tTPz:
rvood. The two leaves of the one door turned on ig,\!q;gq
pivots, and the two leaves of the other door
turned on pivots." And he carved cherubs and ;
palm figures and engravings of hIossorns and P &I:\: A r35.0
:<.i7 2
overlaid gold foil upon the represmtations.''
36 And he ~ e n on
t to build the inner" court- yii''li.j
yardPnith three rowst of hewn stone and a row
11;l 11m15
of beams of cedarwood.
37 In the fourth year the house a Jehovah
had its foundationi laid, in the lunar month of
Z ~ V 35, and
~ in the eleventh year, in the lunar
month of Bul,a that is, the eighth month, the
house was finishedx, as regards all its details vEtYf:4
d )





See G ~ n e . i s7: 11, fboh0te a.

n all
d Its plnn,y so that he was seven years a t
';'ct $::fj~building
And his awn house Sal'o,mon built in thirteen years," so that he finished all his o m
?ch ~1
' r.:r2:d
rd: 2 : s
2 And he proceeded to build the House of
the Form of Leb'amon" a hundred cubits in
, its length and fifty cubits in its width and thirty
cubits in its height, upon four rows of p i l a d
L ~6:Bl of cM1&1~00d,
ancl there tvem beam& of cedarwood upon the pillars, "And it was paneled in
{lKle:l8 with cedarwoodhbove upon the girders that
ivere upon the forty-five pillars. There were
*1K4&:4 fifteen to 8 ran.. * A
s for f r a m d wwindorvs,- there
~:zt' ~ n : i 6
~ - c ; v6 : ~ were three rows, and thew was an illuminationm
opcnlng opposite an illumination opening in
three tiers, W n d all the entrances and the door'Ex l2:22 posts were squared as regards the lintel,Qnd
~ l s othe forelront of the illumination opening
4l;a opposite an illumination opening in three* tiers.
G And the Porch of Pillas he made fifty
cubits in Its length and thirty cubits in its width,
and another porch was in front of them with
pillars and a canopy in front of them.
I ~ I Kra:rs
7 As for the Porch of the Thronek where he
lutl 9 : i
<:KlPJ:an would do judging," he made the porch of judg9
I i < l 3 ; s ment," and they covered it in with cedarwood
1 ' 0 :
from the Roar to the rafters.Rr
r l K l ti 15
8 As regards the house of his where he was
fimllclm:4 to dwell, at the other courtyarcf,s it was away
1 .*\&.I
from the house belonging to the Porch. It proved
to be like this in workmanship. And there was a
house like this Parch that he proceeded to build
for Phar'aoh's daughter,t whom Sol'o-mon had
I I< I P:H
:t.rl ~ : l r taken.
-"Cv~litlg,"Ry; i4t~p,"
YE;'floor:' 3L


1 KINGS 7 :19-25

9 A11 these were Eof] expensiveu stones ac- U2Ki"l7
cording to measures, hewn, sawed with stonesaws, inside m d outside, and from the foundation up to the coping and outside 89 far BS the
great courtyard.'
And the expensive stones v2ch4:Q
laid as a foundation were great stones, stones of
ten cubits and stones of eight cubits. " And up
above there were expensive stones according to
measures, hewn, and also cedarwood, As for
the great courtyard," round about were three z&qi:&
rowsr of hewn stone and a row of beams of $&?:i23
cedarwood; m d [this] also for the innerx court- ~J:\ :~k:!>
yard of the house"of Jehovah,and for the porchr :J</, I;.:?
2ull :7
of the house.
R r 11.2
13 And King Sol'o.non proceeded to send and * I KI t;:t
EliXE 6-3
fetch I-Ii'ramAout of Tyre. " He was the son of
a widowed rvoman from the tribe of Naph'ta.1i $1:; ?.:
and his father was a TyrJiaanrnanZP worker :,;3;.T3;;$
in copper,' and he was full of the ~visdorn~
nnd cz(71~l : l o
the understandingE and tl,e knowledgec for do* fkL';3"1!?2
ing every sort of work in copper. Accordingly ;;%;:1
he came to King Sol'o.mon and began to do all
his \f*ork.
15 Then he cast the two pillars of clsppr,' '$Qj$:,
eighteen cubits being the height of each pillar, :;.
and a string of trveIve cubits would measure Jrrw:?l
around each of the two pillars,' l u And two capi- '2K1 2"1a
taIs he made to put upon the tops of the pilEars,k '$F,"Ei?
cast in copper. Five cubits was the height of the 17y s3;28
one capital and five cubits ivas the height of the
other capital. "There were nets in network,
twisted ornaments in hai in work,^^ far the cap!- nB;if;zf,j
tals that were upon t h e top of the pillars,'' seven* E;c!;;;y
for the one capital and sevena for the other r z c h 4 : n
capital. "And he \vent m t o make the pomea "i?h~i3ll,"M; ''a net," LX9.




wanatesa and two rows round about upon the

one network to cover the capitals, that were
upon the top af the pillars,b and that mas what
he did for the other capita1.m IWnd the capitals
that were upon the top of the pillars at the porch
were with Iily work,t of four cubits. And the
capitals were upon the two pillars, also up close
beside the rounded projection that was adjoining the network, and there were two hundred
pokegranatesu in rows all around upon each

21 And he proceeded to set up the p i l l ~ y
belonging to the porch" of the temple. So he set.
P.P 3:12
6.3 .up the right-handc pillar and called its name
&Ti Ja'chindz and then set up the left-hand" pillar
md called its name Ro'az.f9 aa And upon the top
the piflws there was lily work. And the work
*;?bpigu of
pillars was gradually completed.
rl-a 45%
he proceeded t o make the molten seam
UEX w i a
EX 38:s i ten cubits from its one brim t o its other brim,
:$$:::$ circular all around, and its height was five
cubits, and it took a line of thirty cubits to circle
all around it.&4: And there were gourd-shapedQ
down below its brim a11 around, en;::; ;$ ornaments1
in a cubrt, endosing the sea all
-5a 1114
.13cj14:3 around; with two rows of t h e gourd-shaped
ornaments cast in its casting. '"It: was standing
three facing north and three
].:re1-10 facing tvesth and three facing south1and three
Hc 4:7
facing east; and the sea was above upon them,
?Ch 4:13

Jcr 59:23
T Z C 3:17
Ca 310
c a 2:g


~ o o o r d i n gto t r o Hebrew ~nnnuerriptq;"pillars!'
ht , b LhPillars,''
Sy ~ u 50
d TT~bron-~ u n ~ l u ~ c ~;."i p~lo, ~i ~ ~ n g m n ~31.t e s ~
a I l l . , "~;outhern" (WIIPD onc faces emljt). d 3t~nni1ir'*Hewill flrinly
~rrlril~lish,'*Or, "northertl" ( a h c n o n p Pnres md). f I J o ~ ~ i b~LIPRIIlg
ir~c',Instrength," nrtd to IIP renrl nl'ler Ihr Tinnle of t h c b u t h ~ pillar
",la'rldal' g Or, "rattlr." 31. h Litt>lnnlly,''tlrc tea" (the Xeditrrr r t r ~ e a r ~1) .Literally,




1 KINGS 7:26-34

1 KINGS 7:35-42

four corners of each cardage; its supports were

and all their hind parts were tawwd the center.' m2Ch4:4
of one piece with the carriage .I3And on 4op of
its thicknm was a handbreadth,' and its *JcP 51:21
the carriage there was la standla a half a cubit
brim was like the w o r h a n s l l i p of the brim 01,
in height, c h 1 3 a r all around, and upon the top
a cup, a lily blossom.^^ Two thousand h a t h m l ~ ~ $ ~ ~ f
a ~ 3 : 2 4 of the carriage its sides and i t s side wdls were
measures were what it would c o n t ~ i n . ~
? n L'IL
r r415j1.1
he engraved
r;IEX :j:~s
s:rr of one pIece with it. 3BJ3~rther,
27 And he went an t o make the ten cnrupon
its side
riageas of capper, four cubits being the length P , 2 ~ / , ~ ~ i ~ 6,$;;f!!i8
accordof each carriage m d four cubits its width ~ n dJor5?:lT
HO 5 14
three cubits its height. '%And
this was the marlcIZe 1.7
+lI<is : ~around.
manship of t h e carriages: they had side w ~ l l s ,
Em 4kl6
F ~ P
41:18 carriages;' they all had one cast," one measure,
R I I the
side walls were bet~veent h crossbars.
'% :1:?'1'4
R e 7:9
Ti . ~ one shape.
~'Anduponthesidervallsthat.tverle b e Z ~ ~ c cthe
n ~~?~<'\\'' o Prl ~1:9
33 And he proceeded to make ten basin+ of
Pr 4:9
crossbars there were lions,- bulls11and cherubs,* i;fk!4i:;25
and over the cr~ssbarsit was like that. Up akrove v;.:;
;'E! >g6copper. Forty bath"measl1res were what: each
and beneath the lions and the buIls there were ;!<I.:?TI-.:In
:;;$h basin would contain. Each basin was four cubits.
2 ~ 4:3
carriage far the
there ryere I . . I ~.\I rs
wreat'hsr in hanging work.'' "And
kEu W.18 There was one basin upon e ~ c h
ten carriages. Sq Then he put five carriages on
four wheelsm3"of copper to e ~ c hcarriape, with -1'r
- 19
T i t 3.5
HCI 6.10 the rig& ride of the house and five on the leftd
axles of copper, and its four cornerpieces were ,J*;;,??,,
n ~ c Q:IO
side af the house," and the sea itself he put to
supports for them. Beneath the basin were the I.:N 10:3fl
acll a:la the right side of the house eastward, toward the
supports, cast with wreaths across each, " And
2Ch 4:ll soUf=h,p
its mouth* from inside t o the supports ~ n upd flc1116:12 12Ch
40 h d Ri'raml gradually made the basinst
ward was I?] cubits," and its mouth was round,
2C114:11 and the shovelseU and the bow1s.Y At length
the workmanship of a stand of one ~ n ad half
LL3i 4:16
J@r5-3:18Hi'rarn finished doing all the work that Re did
cubits, and also upon its mouth there were cawVEX24.6
~ for
SoI'o.mon as respects the house of
inss, And their side rvalls were squared, nat
Ex 39::s
?;U7.15 Jehovah:F ."The two pillarsz and the bowlround, 32 And the four wheels' ~ v e r edown 33e30~1
..11. 25:n
the side waFIs, and the sides of the wheels \rere
:m 3:15 shaped capitals* that were upon the top of the
Jpr 52:TI
two pillars, and the two networks1 to cover the
by the carriage, and the height of each whwl
w n s one and a half cubits, " And the workmanI , I K ~7 17 two round capitals that mere upon, the top of
ship of the wheelso mas like the workmanship
the four hundred pomegran""*P C 25:17
3~3 6 the pillars, "%nd
of a clzarioP wheel. Their sides n i ~ dtheir f ~ l l o e s'1"l"J:ss
two rows of pome5$&?23
~ n dtheir spokes and their hubs, they wcre all
* ''A ~tsnd."Supplied, heonnsa ~ v l d e ~ l t lthis
y word i s ~ n i s ~ ning the
cast, And there were four supports ulmn t h e
Hte h r e ~text, b See wrnr 3R, footnote n. Forty l~athaequal
nt~rnlt 392 galionfi (a.8 , A,). "ll i~iit.''That is, ~ o u t h ,when one
a A Ijnlh egnal~dabout 9.S gall an^ (U.
S. A , ) . Sa ?.OUO h n t h tcrtoi2ed
~ I ~ ~ Veast.
F ;
d L'Pleft."
That is, north, n11e.n 0111%
inwa cmt. a Or, "ansh
uf i w l i l ~
nhnL 10.BVD gnllons. Or, "puncb worli.*" 7'11~nu~~lhrv


nppcnr+ tu Iw n~issiugin t h IwcFonC


J l t k h ~ . ~ ntrst.


1. KINGS 7:4%51

24 0

1 KINGS 8:l-8


granates to each network, t o cover the two

botvl-shaped ccapitals that were upon the two
pillars;" 4 3 and t h e ten carriageso and t h e ten 41xl
basins' upon the carriages, 4 4 and the one sea' ;g\T,{:
and t h e twelve bulls beneath the sea;' laand the -2Ch 4:15
tubs and the shovels and the bowls and all these
utensils,"which Hi'rarn made of polished: copper ",?:$;:
for King Sol'o.mon far the house of Jehovah.
In the districtb5of the Jordanzk it urast h a t
the king cast them in the clay moldRCbetween 1~2Ch4 ~ 1 7
~ u c h w
anand Zar'e-than.'
rJus 3:16
47 And Sol'o.mos left all the utensils fun- I'Cl d.lz
weighed] because of so extraordinarily great a
quantity.8 The weight of t h e copper was not n2Ch 4:18
ascertaineit d g And Sol'o-mon gradually made t:E! ~~i~~
all the utensils that pertained to the house af ,,E, 322s
Jehovah, the altaru of gold and the tablev on v ~ , 3 ~ . j ~ ~
which was the s h o ~ b r e a d of
, ~ gold, and the ;{;,3j;2,:
five t o the right-and
five t o the t;[:j ;i;;
lefti before the innermost room, of pure goold,l
and the blossoms\nd
the lampsr' and the :K;II~;;;;
-pis 3 7 2 3
snuffer^,^ of gold, and the basins and the ex- i!Y!!,ft
tinguishersAand the bowls9nd the cupso and :;i::j/?
the fire holders,' of pure gold, and the sockets
for the doors' of the inner house, that is, t h e I.,y,(Lth44: '2) 2
Most Holy,g and for t h e doors' of the house of c~:;;~(J
the temple,' of gold.
-I,<.16 12
I K l G .'!I
51 Finally all the work that King Solto.mon P>IKI
6 ~3
had to do as regards the house of Jehovah was :,:.$?,:,&
T f r 1; 15
a t its ~ornpletion,~
and Sol'o.mon began to bring ,LCC
. 4.9


the two pillsrs;" I X X ; Lgnponthe bps of the pillnmIn

VgSy; "in fmnb of the pilllir.s," SI. b See Qrnesia 13 : 10, footnote b. = OrI '5n the fomdr;r o f the pound!' E l o w ~ ~ ~ r ,
hy a slight mrrertioa, "at the ford of Adra.mnh+"d Or,
of Presenc~!' lrg, 'Yhe lloares of pmentntiaa."' e Or, '%outb' (wlwn
one faces ~ a s t ) . for, "north" (when one fnma east). Or, "the
Holy of Holiean
a ''Upan


in t h e things sanctified by David his father;=

the silver and the gold and the articlw he put
in the treasures of the house of J e h o ~ a h . ~
A t t h ~ time
Sol'o.rnont proceeded to call
togetheru the olderv men of Israel,* all the
heads of the tribes7 the chieftainsaa of the
fat hers,wf the sans of Israel, t o King Solronon
a t Jerusalem, t o bring up the ark' of the covenant' of Jehovah out of the dty of David," that
Is to say, Zion.' "nd all the men of Israel came
assembling to King Sol'o.mon jn the lunar
month of Eth'amim jn the festival: that is, the
seventh month.* So 811 the older men of Israel
came, and t h e priests began t o carry* the ark.@
"nd they came bringing up the ark of Jehovah md the tentwof meeting' and all the holy
utensils that were in t h e tent, and the priests
and the Levftes3came bringing them up.' And
King Sol'o.mon and with him all the assembly of
Israel, those keeping their appointment with
him, were before the Ark, sacrificingk sheep
and cattle that could not be counted or numbered for mu1tltude.n
6 Then the priests brought in the arkr of the
covenant of Jehovah to its place," t o the innermast room of the house,: the Most Holy,Wto
underneath the wings of the cherubs.t For the
cherubs were spre~dingout their wings over
the place of the Ark, se that the cherubs kept
the Ark and its ~ l escreened
over from above."
But the poles\' proved to be long, so that the
tips of the poles were visible from the Holy in
front of the innermost room, but they were not
visible outside. And there they continue d o m .

Or, "nn'nia," bi.

b Lit@rnlly,"the

Holy o f Eolies," XI.



te this day.^ There was nothing In the Ark but


1 KINGS 8: l L 2 5

well because It proved t o be close to your heart."

'Wnly you yourself will not build t h e house,
but your son ~vhois corning forth from your
loins is the one that will build the house t o m y
name.'" :"And Jehovah proceeded to carry out
10 And it .came about that when t h e priests
his wordb that h e had spoken, that I might rise
came out from the holy place the cloud' itself "Job7:9
up in the place of Dnvid my fatlicr and sit upon
filled the house of
*lchzg5 the throne of Israel,' just as Jehovah had
" h d the prfestsl' j;:K,l$$$l
were unable to stand to do their rninlsterlng' .Jcb12fl:t:! I
spoken, and t h ~ 1t might: build the house t o the
because- of the cloud, for the glory' of Jehovnh' ::<i14t,$
name of JP~OVRII
thp God of LsraeEjn" and that
filled the hause of Jehovah, At that time Sol'. ;:2F;gi
I might locate a place there for t h e Ark where
o.rnon said: "Jehovah himself said he was to
the covenant' of Jetrovah is that he concluded
De Y.9
tent in the thick gloom? I have successfu1ly I : J P .I ::4
pe 3 ~ 2 6 with our forefathers when he was bringing them
*2TCi 23:s
built a house of lofty abode for you," an estab- ?i:o'??s
2<h 6.12 out porn the land of Eg-ypt."
Ex 9 - 3
lished place* for you to dive11 in to time in- r I . " ~ 1 2 ~ ~ ~ ~kEL=
22 And ,F0Ipo.monbecan standing before the
1 ,3
:: 21
aItal.* of Jehovah in front of all the congregajd,$i213
lsa 1 : I 5 tiona of Israel, nnd he now sprend !is palms out
14 Then the king turned his face and begm "''' '
to bless11 all the congregationz of Israel, while 1,2
O t o the heavens,k g d and he went on to say: "0
all the congregationQof Israel were standing up. A
c x i 1.3
Jehovah the God of I s r a ~ l there
, ~ ~ is no Godb"
' ai;:
And he went on to say: "Blessed3is Jehov~l~r'
like your in the hewens above or on the earth
lr I ' Y 132:14
the God of Israel, who spoke by his own moulh
c l K l 2034 beneath, keeping the covenant
nnd the lovingwith Davids m y father and by his own hand h ~ s
~ a r e lvalk~,;t;;
given fulfillment,t saying, 'From the day that X;II
r.E\l~i:ll ing before you wlth all their heartjt you who
f; -3
1srr ?:3
I brought my peaple Israel out from Egypt" I *!j,!:;'ir0
zsn T:T have kept toward your servant David my father
have not chosenv a city out OE all the tribes of tb:!i2t3
that which you promised him, so that you made
r, w.5
Jrr 105
Israel to build a home for my name,' to continue ,!en
>ilcy:18 the promisedlwith your own mouth, and with
:4 1:s
there, but I shall choose David ta come to be ,,;:;~~l~,ig "''7xe
over my people I ~ r a e l . ' ~And it came t o be ,;j;!;;;
as at this day.11 '* And now, O Jehovah the God
'.Kl 1 0 3
close t o the heart of David my father t o build ~ l u 1h7 s
1csa 7:1s of Israel, keep toward your servant David my
L'Ch 6.15
a house to the name of Jehovah the God of Is- %(I!%
father that which you promised him, saying,
"qn 'i.R
rael.' " But Jehovah said to David my father, mO'$.l
'There ndll not be cut off a. man of yours from
v1c1izs:9before me to sit upon the throt~eof Israel,' I
'For the season that it proved to be dose to Lch17:2
your heart t o build a house to my name, you dld
only your sons will take care sf their way by
walking before me just ns YOU l ? ~ vwalked
be."In Ho'mreb," MTT.gSy; 431 Ho'reb, the tshMo of the corennnt:'
LXS. bliterally, "had cut [ n corennnt]," M. aRI, 'o.ld.mirnt
" .\I, q q . ~ n l ' ; LTXTfi, "~c.cle'd.n." b "CFoil." 31, El.o.11inr'; I X X ,
("timw inileflnite"). X, qn.hal'; L.LXFr, '"sc.cle'si.r~~
l ~ y . U ~ O ~ P , . +M.
r itc.oaf. or, tb!oyn~IUTF.~~6 ~ . i t ~ ~ . f i16y011

the two stone tabIetsCz which Moses- had de- %fifi,:g

posited' there in Ho'reb,ez when Jehovah had ~~~~',j?;s
covenantedhzwith the sons of Israel \rrhillethey ,;!;$:&
were coming out from the land of EgyptBh rr:\ 2 : . q






fore me.'^ eo And now, 0 God of Israel,mzlet your ;@J;$

promiseb' that you have promised to your sent- ;;$,;:
ant David my father prove trustworthy, please.
I:; :1911
27 "But miZ1: God truly dwell upon the earth
Look! the
yes, the heaven of the hew- ..:1;12:1
,"Ch &:18
ens,& themselves cannot contain you; how much P~~~ fi(i:l
less, then, this house that 1 have built! "And
you must turn toward the prayer of your s w -$PI :{.:
ant+and to his ~equestfor favor: 0 Jehovah my ,;t.;r,;;
God, t o listen to the entreaty and ta t h e prayer
*y;,1;, ;
with which your servant is praying before you I.U 1s.i
todayjwothat your eyes' may prove t o be
opened" toward this house night and day, to;zt;g?
ward the place of which you said, 'My name err1
l; 1s
will prove t o be there,*k t o listen t o the prayer [$t1;:.2!
with which your servant prays toward this j<:]$,y
p1ace.n BU And you must listen t o the request for n~&'~hfl~liO
favor on the part of your servantr and of your rK~c ~1:2u.a
people Israel with which they pray toward this
place, and may you yourself hear at the place of
your dwelling, in the heavens,a and you must '$$."3$:f$
hear and f o s g i ~ e . ~ t
31 'When a man sins against his fellownman 02Ch R:22
and he actuallplays w cursing upon him t o bring tes
him under liability to the curseU and he actually i;ii!:k3
comes within reach of the curse before your Ip;$.:;il
altaP in this Rouse,V "then may you yourself ",lII;kpg
hear from the heavens and you must act and
e sewants by pronouncing the wicked:
one guilw by putting his wag upon his own Yg;zJT
heady and by pronouncing the righteous9 one
innocents by giving to him according to his own !.E: ',";$
yi- I-: 15
E -a 2111


"13 God of Iwael? &I;

"0Jehorah the Qod of Isra~l?'LTXT7gSyT~


~ eaflQn
r d ~and~ 35

Eebrew mnnmcripb.

fitmaily, '.ivord,"

n ~ 20:17




h'c g::!

* x n 1:11
r I:zr 9:s

CC'h O.24

9 :
h 25


Pt'l It

1 KINGS 8:33-39

33 "When your people Israel are defeated before the enemy," because they kept sinning
against you," and they indeed return to youq
and laud your name* and prayM and make request for favor toward you in this house; si &en
may you yoursex hear from heaven and you
must forgive the sin of your people Israela and
yoti must bring them back" to the ground3 that

gave to their fa1.efathers.n

~1.: I 6,s
; " , " ~ ~ ~ "\\'hen heaven is shut up so that no raina
occurs, because they kept sinning=against you,
.VfM % I :43
I J ( ~311:1.1-1
1 3 and they actually pray toward this place=and
rw ' I H ~ laud your nameu and from their sin they turn
nErc 14.19
back, because you kept afRictjng them,' 38 then
,.,-I, t;.:'6
rl.lnc 2 1 7
,,rrn a.13 may you yourself hear from the heavens and
YOU must forgive t h e sln of your servants, even
of your people Israel, because you teachy them
the good way in which they should walk," and
Ir.W ~w3Pi:R
8 1 ~ In8:l
l you must give rajn' upon your land that you
have given to your people as a hereditary posd
P, OH 9
37 "In case a famine3 should occur in the
in case a pestilence should occur: in case
2s:"t blight, r n i l d e ~ ,locusts,~
cockroaches* should
0 I IiQ
should besiege them
"Jcht. ,#
, In the land of their gatesa-any sort of plague,"
l > q Vl: ! 5
any sort of disease, when any sort of prayer,"
any sort of request for favor? o a r s on the
I +ll:I:lfo part of any man [or] of all your people Israe1,k
Irl'CIh G 29
I,., 42:O
;:II because they know each one the plague of his
I V 1.1 lo
own heart,R and they actually spread out their
r l % n1 15
10:14 p a l m to this house,' $"then may you y o m E
K c !).G
hear from the heavens, your establishd place
of dwelling,# and you must forgivet and actU
47 YOU

., ,:, 1

, ,


Or, "ritka,"


the gates rcprm~ntingthe cities, by

the flgare


I KINGS 8:40--47



and give to each one according t o all his ways,' V,Po:#;

vJer l7:10
because you h o w his hearty (for you yo~~rself
alone well know the heart of all the sons of '2uh t"8:O
mankind) ,aCx 41Vto
t h e end that they may fear''

sensesRIn the land where they have been carried

you all the days that they are alive upon the *izri.:~~
surface of the ground that you gave to our fore- .I :$ 7;f7

,,, :,,

I I $ l :!.:h
;15 1::

41 "And aTss to the foreigner: who is no part

of your people IsraelAand who actually comes &[,: ;;3!
fmm a distant land by reason of your name'
':Cfor they shall hear of y o u great name' and 11.l~r , . : ~
of your strong hand3 and of your stretched-out +fj:
arm), and he actually comes and prays toward $~::~:~~
this house," 4a may you yourself hear from the
heavens, your established place of dwelling, and
you must do according to all that for which the ,";q~::15
foreigner calls t o you, in order that all the peo.;;;;11 ,;
ples of the earth may get ta know your name'
so as to fear you the same as your people Isr~elrf;r; ~ l ;r?
do]<and so as t o know that your name itself has Bj'~q4??
been called upon this house that I have built."
44 "In case your people go out t o battler t$:ji; ;;:if
against their enemy in the way that you send u ~ ~ ~ ~
Zherns and they indeed prayt to Jehovah in the ;!];!J';;::~
diredion of the city that you have chosenu and
the house that 1 have built to your name,' y,ph?;i;;
r,n I
'"then you must hear from the heavens their fi:il:$j?
prayer and their request for favor, and you [: 3:&:
PS 1.13:~
must execute judgment far themy
l'r ?:I <$
46 "hcase they sin against youz (for there f$;;F6
is no man that does not sin?, and you have to
be incensed a t them and abandon them to the 2;
1.~0I s
c21;1 e.2a
enemy and their captors actually carry them off 01re.. 2~
captiveGto the land of We enemy distant or <ft!li:?l
nearby? 47 and they indeed come to their,,:;!;"_I


, ,,,


J1, hn-a.ilnmc; L X V g , "men?'

off captive and they actually returnP and make

request' t o you for favor in t h e land of their
3 . t 1 m.12
captors,' saying, '1% have sinned' and e r a *
* A ( . I:(: J;
wc have nctcd wickedly,'k 4 b and they indeed
1.c lt*i:a
IlI>rl 9..i
,tl.1G ~
,1lI:ls ,return t o you with all their heartn and with aII
their soul in the land of their encmies who carrid them off captive, and they indeed pray to
you in the direction of their land t h a t you gave
to their far~fathers,the city that you have
chosen and the hause that I have built to your
then you must hear from the heavensF
L)R 6 . l ~
RZC'II~ : D P your established place ofdwelling,g their prayer
and their request for favor and you must exe;!': :riAv cute judgment for them,l 3 0 and you must for;31'c":T
3 ~ ~ ~give"
i 7 ~ your peoplo who had s i n n e d ~against jrou
nnd all their tran~gressions'~
with which they
you must make
.7 11a 2.1, I!)
Pq 5:lfl
captors m d
L X I I :2f:D
i:rr 7 2 9 they must pity them* b 1 (for they are your peon . 2.3
I , , lIlb:-16 ple" and your possessjon,b whom you brought
*I 111 1 ,!I
out from Egypt,$from inside the iron frrrnace-),
I., ,
1 9::'fi
"'t h ~ your
eyes may prove to be opened t o the
.~ &
request for favor of your servant and t o the
h.bb1 . 1 1 1 request for favor of your people IsraeI, by lis- 1 - 1 ~.1:1I11
. I : tening t o them in all far which they can to you."
r " h A:.M
" For yott yourself separated them as your pos1
I I.* 18
out of all the peoples of the earth," just
HI:, I ~ ~ : G
.> \L ;! 3 '3
,,, 4 3 r as you have ,spoken by means of Mosesk your
I 3 2 :+
sen-mthwhen you riferebringing our forefathei-s
, :,
out from Egypt, 0 Lord J e h ~ v a h . " ~
54 And it came about that, as soon as Sol'o-




1 KINGS 8:4-4





1.i tr1..111y. o

i ~ ~f ~l l~ ~y

r.nnw n r ~ t ~ ~ r ~to~ i
n p heart," 41.

h'nllnsm?.our w r v n r i t . " 'I'hr. f i r ~ tof ~ I W P P UPVIIFPWCPS of this ex~~rcowinrl.

SPVX r h f ~ t ~ I~:iS~ nlltl
~ h 8:14 for tllp other two. c " h ~ d
, I c ~ l i ~ ~ ~,\I,
~ r l1; ~ . .< J"r r . i , r r 11' 1'r.lra. wilt'. See U e n ~ ~15:
i s 2 , foot no$^< P. f.

1 KINGS 8:55--63



1 KINGS 8 :6 L 9 :3

mon finished praying to Jehovah with all this ;ghl,;&

twenty-two thousand cattle and a hundred and
*2Ch 7:5
twenty thousand sheep,' that the king and all the
prayert' and request for favor, he rose up from gy9gjz
before the altar of Jehovah, from bending down r;:;
,7ig sons of Israel might inaugurate' the house of Jeupon his kneesr with his palms spread out to t h e .2cil s:u
hovah. G4 On that day the king had to sanctify
E Z 6:16
fie u : z 7 the middle of the courtyard that is before t h e
heavens,g G5 and he began to standt and blessUall t%u4&3
house of J e h ~ v a hbecause
there they had t o
the congregationa of Israel with a loud voice, say- :%",$
"IKi 18:38 render up the bwnP sacrifice and the grain offering: Gu'BElessed be Jehovah,' who has given
: : : : ; :a, : '
resting place to his people Israel according to all ,P,s;$;
ing and the fat pieces of the communion offerQZCh4:1
ings, for the copper altar9 that is before Jehovah
t h a t he has prornised.Y There has not failed one ?;yiy4
was too small to contain the burnt sacrifice and
words of all his good promise that he has prom- zci~1-6
isedb by means of Moses his servant.* O%ay ~Heb
r s ,319
zE\$6d3the grain off eringO and the fat pieces of the comJehovah our God prove to be with us just as he ,:ii&?j;*
e$$$~,, munion offerings. " And Sol'o.mon proceeded to
Ps 403
carry on a t that time the festival,' and all Israel
proved to be with our forefathers." May he nei- ,gE:!i45
%Xu34 8
JOS 13:5
with him, a great congregatione from as far as
ther leave us nor forsake us,Aza so as t o incline $!$g;7
J 3.3
our heart0to himself to walk in all his ways*and ;&:i3:f"g
1;:25 Haimath&xdown to the torrent valley of Egypt,'
to keep his c~mrnandments~
and his regulationsx JOS 1:s
seven days,k fourteen days, On the eighth day
and his judicial decisions," which he gave in corn- Isa
Heb 13:5
he sent the people away," and they began to bless
mandm to our forefathers. And may these 31Kl
the king and to go to their homes,c rejoicingr
words of mine with which I have made request ;g;,1$Z3
1 2 : ~ and feeling merry of hearts over all the goodfor favor before Jehovah prove to be neark to dp;e:
De 16:11
Jehovah0 our God by day and night, that he may :;; ;
2Ch 29:38 nesst that Jehovah had performed for David his
h'e 8:lO
servant and for IsraeI his people.
execute judgment for his servant and judgment
eZep 3 14
for his people Israel as it may require dayn by n ~ 1u1 3
t Ex 15:9
And it came about that, as soon as SolPo.mon
1Ch 17:26
day; to the end that all the peoples of the earth r$'i&?&
had finished building the house of Jehovahn
PS 33,5
112Ch i,ll
may knowr that Jehovahe is The [true] G0d.c~$g! i9ji9
and the house of the kingv and every desirable
E C 2:4
There is no other."] And YOUR heartu must sDe
thing of Sol'o.mon that he took delight in rnalr1 K i 18:39
r , y ~8:6
prove to be completev with Jehovah our God by tg;zo
's l K i 2:3
8 : ~ i n g , ~ then JehovahQappeared t o Solro.mon the
walking in his regulations and by keeping his I s a ~ : a
1Ki 11:9 second time the same as he had appeared t o hirn
Isa 45:5
2Ch 1:7
conlmandrnents as at. this day.''
u l K i 11:4
*2K1m:5 in Gib'e.on.2
And Jehovah went on to say to
2ICr 2 9 3
1's 10:17
62 And the king and aI1 Israel with him were l r l h 2s:g
I I H B : Z ~ him: "I have heard your prayer" and your re171
h c 10:31
offering a grand sacrifice before Jeh0vah.x YnCeF1s:13
quest f o r favor with which you requested favor
I M L6:s
P, 37337
hlle 1215
O8 And Sol'o.mon proceeded t o offer the commun- y 2 ~ a
before me.I have sanctifiedn this house that you
ionJ sacrificesz that he had to offer t a Jehovah t -1Ch
- 3:1
:;:,1,6',$1 have built by putting my nameAthere t o time
a 11, qa.71ak'; LXXTg, "ec.cle'si.a," bliterally, "his good word that
See Joshua 13 : 5, footnote h. b L,LT reads : l%efore Jehorah our



he has spoken,'! 31. "The [true] God." 11, ha-El.o.Aiwa', See Deut e r o a o m ~4: 35, footnote d.

clod i n the house that he built, eating and drinking end rejoicing
Iwl'ore Jehovah our Glod." eliterally, "te~its.?'

I KINGS 9:4-9

2 50

indefinite, and my eyes4 and my heart will cer-, PDe
ZC11 G!.111
tainly prove t o be there always." ' And you, if 11'3 1x2:14
you will wdk! before me, just as David' your"...I;?
1151 2:4
father walked, with integrity" of heart and with 21\i ;c:3
uprightnessk by doing according to all that I r lt",l < l,l:.u:1
have commanded youn and you u4ll keep my
r's 75,:72
regulationsr and my judicial decisi~ns,~
" then IcPr;;;
I shall indeed establish the throne of your king-. n tls
> l l c G:s
dom ox-er Israel to t h e indefinite,&just as I i+t II.>,..t.4: 1:1
promised David your father,t saying, 'Not a ~ 1 ' S nt . 1 2
I I< I 2:-I
man of yours will be cut off from [sitting ] u v n ,(",,
1% stTJ:.m
the fhrone of Israel.' "If YOU yourse1ves and
YOUR sons should demitely turn hack from following meu and not keep my c~rnmandrnents
and my statutes f hat I have put before YOU men
and YOU actually go and serve other godsv and
bow down t o them." then I shall certainly cut
Israel o f f from upon the surface of the ground
that I have given t o them,u and the house that
I have sanctified t o my nameo I shall throw
awayC from before mez and Israel \rrill indeed
become a proverbial saying- and a taunt among
all the peoples. And this house itself will become heaps of
Everyone passing by it
will stare in amazementA and will certainly
whistIe and say, 'For what reason did Jehovah
do like that to this land and this house?':" And
they will have to say, 'For the reason that they
left Jehovah their God who had brought their
forefathem out from the land of Egypt' and ,Ch S7.22
they proceeded to take hold of other godse and Jcr 5:10t

bow down ta them and serve them." That is why

Jehovah brought upon them all this cdarnity.' ""
10 And it came Ethout at the end of twenty
years, in which Sol'o.mon built the two houses,
the house of Jehovah* and the house of the
king,br (Hi'rarn" the king of Tyre had himself
assisted Sol'o.monP with timbers of cedar trees
and timbers of juniper trees and with gold as
much as he delighted in,) that at that time King
Sol'o.rnon proceeded to give t o Hi'ram twenty
cities" in the land of GaS'i.le~.~s Accordingly,
Hi'ram went out from Tyre to see the cities that


, O f ;?





Or, ' c ~ v ~Isrnel

forever." Or, "nnd sorshi p t hri~~.!'a "TII row
awny," E,.LTS-gT and 2 Clirauicles 7: 20, " S ~ n dn~r-riy."31. .'I!ccome heaps of 1-uins."
a minor corrt.&on of t i ~ cI ~ P ~ I - PLcrt
u - (a
n p e e with +It. >I, literally, -.hecame 111ontproltiincnt (onts!nr~rIa

i n g ~mr!-pir~ous)."

I KTNGS 9:1&18



Snl'o.mon had given him and they were not j u s t

rifiht In his eyes.' IJSa he said: "What sort of
An1 1:9
c l l i l 13:36 cilies Are these that you have given me, my
yJJ':l !I:] 1 b r ~ t h e r ? ' ' ~And
they came to be called the
l l i l 9:2H
11iL 1 0 : l O Land of Ca'bulc down t o this day.
I K l Il1:21
el 1.;l -1:G
14 In the meantime Hi'ram sent to the king
Y l < I 523
C l K l G:37 R hundred and twenty talents of go1d.Y
(.lICI 7:1
? t h 8:l
15 Now thls is the account of those conO?So 6:Y
lliY 11:37 scripted' for forced labor* that King Solfo.rnon
Y K l I?:?rl
*Sik14:13 levied to build the house of Jehovahn and his
2 t ' h xi:lfl
?Ch :%:I9 own housc" and the Moundt1dand the wall' of
h's 1:!:1'1 Jerus~lern~ l n dHa'zorF and Me.gid'doW
and Ge'P.l Ll!lEi
rn.ll>S l!l,,'a
(Phar'aoh the king of E,oypt himself
21<l 12,:2:1 zer,"
*.la4 11.11 had come up and then captured G e k r and
l k1 4:12
l~urnedi t with fire, and the Ca'naan.itesk dwell? I i l 9:27
*Jrrs 10:33 ing In the city he had killed. So he gave it as a
k Joa 16;:XO parting gift ta his daughter," the wife of Solf+
1 1 l I i 13 . 1
~.r~).;lR.3 rnon.) fl And Sol'o-mon went on to build Ge'zer
2l'h h:?r
aJb>.;1Y44 and Lower Beth-ho'ron," l5 and Ba"al.aths and

Or, "nnd wowhi them." b Or, "the ~ f i n circuit."
J,,XX, he; Vg, C;; thrt is, the rcgion later called
ttnl5.lcc. t Or, '-tllc Znnd an Omd aa no thin^." M, mit?o> liternlly, "the A l l [of' earth]." Possibly, the citadel or acropolis o f

<! r~rusal~rn,

I KINGS 9:19-25



1 ICINGS 9:26-10: 7

Ta'rnarat in the wilderness, in the Iand, l a and all t2Ch 8:4

26 And there were shipsAthat King Sol'o.mon
made in E'zi-on-getber,O which is by Eloth,'
the storageUcities that became Sol'o.monls and UEXcll
the shore of the Red Sea in t h e land of
the chariot citiesv and the cities for the horse- VlK14.26
27 AIld Hi'~amkept sending in the ships'
men, and the desirable things of Sol'o.mony that YEC 2:lQ
: : :2x ~?
;: ~ hisl own servants,*
5 : ~
seamen,rn having a knowledge
he had desired t o build in Jerusalem and in
IK122 4B
of the sea, along with the servants of Sol'o-mon.
Leb'aaon and in all t h e land of his dominion.
' O As for all the people remaining over from the
;$;;$A1 r B And they proceded to go to O'phir* and take
zGe 15:n
Amror.ites,z the HitJtites,'* the Per"~.zites,~
the f$%i$$3
from there four hundred and twenty talents of
Ps 45.9
goldk and bring it in to King Sol'o.rnon.
Hi'vitesA and the Jeb%.sites,Qvho were no part ij!j;
k?Ch 8:18
nee 10:28
of the sons of Israel,' "'their
sons who had been :&yh'g";9
Now the queen of She%an was hearing
Ieft over* after them in the land whom t h e sons * ~ g
the reporta about Sol'o.mon in connection
r ~ 9~
3 h
of Israel had been unable to devote to destmcIsa 60:s
name of Jehovahr So she came to testa
hIt 12342
tion," Sol'o.rnon kept Ievying them for slavish
LU 11:3i him with perplexing que~tions.~tFinally she
s J g 14:12
forced labor until this day." 2= And there were
txrt 22~46 arrived at Jerusalem with a very impressive
u7K1 5:9
none of the sons of Israel that Solco.monconstivGe 12:16 train,u camelsv carrying balsam oily and very
tuted slaves,OR for they were the warriors and ;?:&:&
much gold and precious stones," and she came
his servants and his princes and his adjutants
on In t o Sol'o.mon and began to speak to him
rSCh 9:l
and chiefs of his charioteers and of his horseall that happened to be close to her heart."
m a n n" These were the chiefs of the deputies' ;$
in turn, went on t o tell her all her
who were over the work of Sol'o.mon, five hun- r l K l 5 : 1 6
proved t o be no matter conI
dred and fifty, t h e foremen over the people who
cealed from the king that he did not tell her.'
a c h228
were active in the work.3
4 When the queen of She'ba got t o see all the
of Sol'o.monb and the house that he had
24 However, Pharkaoh's daughtert herself tiEj :ii
and the foodc of his tablee and the sitcame up out of the cityu of David to her own lsi",GP
e l ~ r 4 : 2 2 ting of his servants and the table serviced of
house that he had. built for her. It was then that
his waiters and their attire and his drinksx and
he built the M o ~ m d . ~ ~
his burnt sacrifices that he regularly offered up
25 And Sol'o.mon continued threer times in yg;$:'i1,4
at the house of Jehovah, then there proved t o
the year to offer up burnt sacrifices and corn- B
*YPS 5:l
be no mar, spirit@in her.# "0 she said t o the
rnunlon oflerings upon the aItar that he had
king: "True has the word proved to be that I
built for Jehovah," and there was a making of zlCh8:12
* ~ 30:7
heard in my oivn land about your matters and
1Ch 23:13
sacrificial smokec on it," which was before 9Ch
c z K l 1794 about your wisdom!
And I did not put faitho
Jehovah, and he completed the housemu
L K 6:s
in the words until I had come that my own eyes
n'rTadfmor," UmarginSy; "'ra," Vg. b See verse 15, footmight see, and, look! I had not been told the
note d. = "There was a making of sacrificial smoke:' M, The Hebrew
Or, "dishes."
Literally, "men of ships." b Or, "with riddim."
verb here ia ill the infinitive absolute and hence i~ impersonal and
*Literally, '%he standing," N.

indefinite as t o time.

half." You have surpassed in wisdom and pas-


throne of Israe1,y because Jehovah loves IsraeP

t o time indeBnite,Z so that he appointed you as%
;:;; c h 1'7:22
king" to render judicial decisionz and right- 17Ch
*2Ch D:8
J D I~:49

10 Then she gave' the king a hundred and r ~ + , n z ; ~

twenty talents of gold" and a very great deal of ,?gn-i;:3
balsam oil' and precious stones." There never
came any more the like of that balsam oil for -1Mi
Ps 72:lO
quantity such as the queen of She'ba gave to
EY .31):34
King SoYo-rnon.
'Fr 7-15
11 And the ship$ of Hitram that carried gold
from O'phirn also brought from O'phir timbers , ~ ? a , s : ~ s
af almug treesbr in very great amount and pre- gy%24
cious stones," And the king proceeded t o make ;
out of the tirnbers of the almug trees supports
for the house of Jehavaht and for the house of t x h * l i
the king and aIso harp+ and string instru"222
mwtsv for the singers. Timbers of almug trees
like this have not come in nor have they been I T ~ L $ ~
seen down to this day.
2 ~ 1 1 512
13 And Ring Solro.mon himself gave the
queen of Sbe'ba a31 her delight for which she
asked,Y apart from what athe gave her according r"t15:29
to the openhandedness2 of Xing So1'o.mon. After a:zi $2
t h a t she turned about and went t o her o m land,
she together with her servants."
4 'Wen," XVg; ' L ~ i ~ e 5 L,YXS;r;It,
b Perhaps timbers, not o f sandal
~ o o d ,but of Juraipe~ue pkocuiceu, wlrich was abunilnntr also on

-Mount LebJn.non.

14 And the weight of the gold" that came to

SoYo.rnon in one year amounted up to six hunand sixty-six talents of gold,"" '"part
";gAg,jz dred
from t h e men of travel and the profit from the
traders and all t h e kingsAof t h e Arabsdand the
OIsa21:13 governors of the land.
16 And King Sol'o.rnon went on t~ make two
large shields of alloyed gold' (six hun'$Ek?&6
dred shekels'' of gold he proceeded to Iay upon
&2Ch9:15 each large shield) ,"
and three hundred buckl e r s ~of~alloyed gold (three mi'nascT of gold he
x2Ch9:16 proceeded t o lay upon each buckler") ."Then the
king put them in the House of the Forest of
~ Lebra.non.#
W 45:s
Eze 27:6
18 Further, the king made a great ivoryk
Am 6:Q
RelE:la thronen and overlaid it with refined gold.'
ngf:661lo There were six steps to t h e throne, and the
zei2E,5 throne had a round canopy behind it, and there
were armrests on this side and on that side by
~r 26:1
the place of sitting, and two lionsa were standRe 5 : s
tnchs:la ing beside the armrestsnt B o And there were
uNu 2 3 9
xu24:9 twelve lionsu standing there upon the six steps,
v2Ch 9.19
on this side and on that side. No other kingdom
,IKI. 7:2
had any made just like it,'
'Ge 10:4
21 And all t h e drinking vessels of King SOYI K 1 22.48
2ch 2 0 : s o.mon were of gold, and all t h e vessels of the
Ps 48'7
House of the Forest of Leb'a.nonY were of pure
Isa 2 2 6
gold,=There was nothing of silver; it was conIsa23.1
$;!* sidered in the days of Salto.mon as nothing at
all. 2 2 For the king had ships of Tar'shish* on
O1Ch %4

perityo the things heard to which 1 listenednr

; ;$;
"appy3 are your men," happys are these sew- ;gb&;;
ants of yours who are standing before you con- ;
; ;i;i
stantly, listening to your ~ i s d o m "My
Jeho- 11.1 i 11
vah your God come to be blessed," who has ::gig:;
taken delightv in you by putting you upon the ,pSE;X,


1 KINGS 10:1"22


Bin modern lJ. S. A. money 666 gold talents equaled $29,410,500.

fiee E x o d ~ ~38:
s 24, footnote a. b "Six hundred shekeIs!" Vg; "six
hnndred mi'nas," Sy; 'bix hundred? 11. Six hundred gold &ekela
qualed $8,832. See Exodus 38: 24, footnote b. "Buckler ( s ) ! ~
J i n . g e b hi. Smaller than the Hebrew tsba.nabr or ''1ol.g~shieldJJ
d A mi&
of gold equaled $368 light, or $738 h e a ~ A.
. mi'na
rqualed 50 shekels in Palestine.

1 KINGS 10:22-29



1 KINGS 11:l-9

rrs I I : ~
the sea along with the ships of HIfram. Once
And KIng Sd'o.mon himself Toved3many
22Ch 6:32
every three years the ships of Tar'shish would
LDe 1217
foreignc wivesd along with the daughter
N e 1323
come carrying goldCand silver, ivory: and apes A I K I lO:l8
of Phar'aotl,' Mo'ahblZe,~m'mon
.ite," E'domPr 2:16
I bnl3.15
and peacocks.b
ite;' [find] Rit'titek women, from
bJ?b 31.13
~r 7:s
Fr 23.14
23 So King Sol'o-mon was greater in riches* +#,:j:'2?
the nations of ~vhamJeh.ovah had said t o the
IIKI s 1
-FLU 4 : l O
and wisdom' than all the other Lings of the earth. j.;Lfl!y
clrcr 11:21 sons of Israel: "Yor: must not !TO In among them
'pe 2 3 7
'* And all the people of the earths"' were seekjng %,1;:$
and they themselves should not come in among
* n c 3.9
l r c l l ~YOU,
the face of Solto.mon to hear his wisdom that j-;:; ;$;
that they may not turn away vaurt heart
1<2Sa 1 1 3
Godb had put in his heart,mEAnd they were ;;:j~:~s
their .gods."l~
It ~vtmt o them thet Sol'.
bringing each his gift," articles of silvero and C l r ' h 2!r:4
Ezr 9 1 2 o.mon clung' to love them,
And he came to
Ezr 10 2
articles of gold]<m d garmentsCand armorn and ::;:'8.;:
c l c h i 14 have seven Imndred wjvcs, princesses, and three
IGC3 : 3
balsam oil, horses and mules,r as a yearly mathundred concubine^,'^ and his wives gradually
J K 16:4
te-r of course.s
Sol'o.mon kept gathering ;:;T$Gl
turned away his heart.* ,I And it came about in
more chariots and steeds,~and he came to have p;;;;:
the time of Sol'o.monVsgrowing oldt that his
L L i:33
a thousand four hundred chariots and twelve I-;!wives themselves Ilad turned'9arvay his heart to
f.r 2 , K
t l K i K:42
thousand steeds,"t and he kept them stal ioned in 1\41 ~ rfrj;
UDP 74
follow ofher gods,' and his heart did not prove
!f,- i
na 17.17
the chariot cities and close by the Iring in Jertl- #:[.It
(1, ,. I ' J : I T ~
ye13:26 to be complele with Jehovah his God like the
v2Ch 25:9
salemu '%And
the king came t o rnakr? the silver ,!!:!l''!~2.?5
-CII 1 7 3 healit of David his father. ;' And Solto.mon began
in Jerusalem' like the stones," and cednrwood ~ ~ ' $ ' , ! ~ ~ ~
going after Ash'to.rethY the goddess& of the
he made like the sycamore treea that Fire in the
;2p&$'ni.ans and alter MilfcomVlle disgusting
She.phe"ahd for great quantitj7.y 2 Z And there yZch
;1,3 thing of the Am'mon.ites. " And Sol'o-mon bewas the export of the horses that Sol'o.mon hscl
gan to do ivhat was bad in the eyes of Jehovah
cLe 26.30
from Egypt,3 and the company of the king's 'BZK1u:25
xu33:92 and he did not follow Jehovah fully like David
X i 21:3
merchants would themseEvcs take the horse
LYU 2159 his father.'
J R 11:2A
drove for a price. x9 And a chariot customarily
7 It was then that Sol'o.mon proceeded to
came up and was exported from Ewpt for six
a I~jglz-place" to Che'moshAthe disgusting4
hundred silver pieces, and n horse for a hundred
thing of Mo'ab; on the mountain" that ~vasin
Dall:31 front of Jerusalem, nnd to Mo'lwh the disgustm d fifty, and that tvas the way jt was for all
1lt 2::15
R 1 . ing thing of the sons of Arn'rnon.~ $ And that
the kings of the HiYtitesz and the kings of Syria.
p1Ch 1 0 3
.2K123:13 was the way he did for all his foreign wives who
It was by means of themp that they did the
Zer 14:4
>lt 2G:30 were rnaklilg secriflcial smokc find sacrificing
h c 13%
to their gods?
a Liternlly, "And all the earth," but nit11 the pnrtidpla "seeltinp''
9 And Jehovah came to be incenser1 at Sol'o'I0 424
in the plural number. "And all tht? kings a t tho enrtl~:' JJdLK8y,
because his henrt had tumecl away from




31, El.o.lrimp; Vg, De'ita; LLT, ~ ' J c l ~ a r n h .01-,

~~ "hor~er~~en,"
Or, " t h ~lowlands!' * "It was by menna of th~nr,'"31; "It wna by


31, eT,a.kin~',tllr plruml of ~?.o'ttla,10 C X P I ~ ~ m
B ~jesty
nnd ~rc-clleneennd dir~nc~~OITPI'U.J~CI'C npplicd to n feulrle dritj'.



Jehovah the God of Israel,"the one appearing to #gzt3

him trvice.k And respecting this thing he corn-3;:;:;:,
rnanded him not to go after other gods," but he ig:i2
had not kept that which Jehovah had command- 2ch 7:17
ed. Jehovah now said to Sol'o.mon: "For the
reason that this has taken pIace with you and
you have not kept my covenant and my statutes
that I laid in command upon you, I shall without
fail rip the kingdom away from off your and I rLKi12:15
a ~ 17:21
shall certainly give it t o your servant. l a However, in your days I shall not do it,s for the sake ;:Ef ;%=
of David your fat2ler.t Out of the hand0 of your 3*Ki8:8.
son I shall rip it away. l3 Only it will not be all
the kingdom that 1 shall rip away.u One tribe 15%;;t3
I shall give to yonr son, for the sake of David PS ~ : 3 3
m y servantv and f o r t h e sake of Jerusalem vlK112:20
yDe mi1
which I have chosen."Y
14 And Jehovah began t o raise up a resister"
to Sol'o.mon,z namely, Ha'dad the E'dorn.ite of !F$1t:256
t h e offsprbg of the king. He was in E r d o n G"Kl3:g
And it came about when David struck down "2S;tg,14
Erdom,b*when Jo'ab the chief of the army came I C ~i i : l a
up to bury those slain,O that he tried t o strike
down every male in E'domeAlfl (For i t was six ,P,S,%H'&O
months that Jo'ab and all Israel dwelt there un- R%
; $\; 31:17
ti1 he had cut off every male in E'dom,) l7 And "NU
De 20-13
Ha'dad went running away, he and some E'dom- $al;
ite men of the servants of his father with him, &,4:4
t o come into Egypt, while Ha'dad was a young E$'&i?
I S a 22:4
boy,* So they rose up out of Mid'i.anOt and O*NU
came into Pa'ranmand they took men with them
fiom Pa'ran and came into Egypt t o PharJaoh g; i!::i2



ltA rwisister!' M, sla.trarat; Sp, $a-to'na; LXX,'; Srg, "adrerb ''When Dnvid struck dorm E'dorn," by a slight emnndafion
of the Hebrew, to cornpond with ZXXSy. Likrall;~,LLwhen
happened to be with E'dom," M. 0 Literally, 61'little,"M,

1 KINGS 11:19-26

the king of Egypt, who then gave him a house.

Also bread he assigned t o him and land he gave
him. 'O And Ha'dad continued to find favor" in
the eyes of Phar'aoh, so much that he gave him
, ,?
a wife," the sisterz of his own wife, the sister
of Tah'pe.nesk the lady. 20 In time the sister of
Tah'pe-nes bore him Genu'bath his sen and
;'G,;?& Tah'pe.nes got to weann him right inside the
house of Phaldaoh, and'bath continued
at the house of Phar'aoh right among the sons
of Phar'aoh.
21 And Ha'dad himself heard in Egypt that
had lain down with his farefathersr and
2 3 4 that Jo'ab the chief of the army had died.s So
Ha'dad said t o Phar'aoh: "Send me amay,t that
~ s 3a: ~ s I may go to my own land." 2z But Phar'aoh said
2Sa 3:21
to him: "What are you in need of while with me
that here you are seeking to go to your own
uTer2.31 land?"U To this he said: "Nothing, but you
ought t o send me away without fail."
23 A n d God proceeded to raise up t o him any;g;J;l'g other resister,av namely, Re'zon the son of
who had run away from'zer~
gi y4;'a.da,
~ 2 ~ ~ 8 the
. 3 king of Zo'bahZ his lordah" And he kept
LCh 18:s
z l S n l C : 8 collectjng men to his side and came to be chief
of a marauder band, when David killed, thern.~"
~ 1 SO
5 they went to Damascus" and took up dwell1Ki IB:l5
1~1??.3;1 ing in it and began reigning in Damascus. " And
Ac 9 L
he came to be a resistera of Israel all the days
jdKi 5:4
2Ch15:2 of So1'0.rnon,~and that along with the injuly
that Ha'dad did, and he had an abhorrence4 of
. ~ ; ~ ~ Israel
; ~ O while he continued reigning over Syria.
:K,t ::jig 26 A n d there was Jer.o.bofarn+the son of Net-


M, s a . t u ~ ' ; Sy,'saa; Vg, "ndversary." b 'Zord,"

11,, the plural of'w: to denote excellence. a "Thm;' 11,
01;by correoting one Hebrew consonant, "Sy&t.y'

1 KINGS 11:27-33



bat an from Zer'e.dah, a servant

of SolPo.mon: and his mother's name was 2e.m'- *
ah, a widowed woman, He, too, began to lift up
his hand against the king.u7 And this is the "241
reason why he lifted up his hand against the YIKi 9:15
king: Solto.mon himself had built the Maund."" IKI 3 2 4
He had closed up the gapz of the city of David %: $&
his father.' aaNow the man Jer.o.botam was a ,fg: ,l$"
valiant, rnighw man. When Sollo.mon got to "2Kifi5:20
see that the young man was a hard worker,='Pr
he proceeded t o make him overseerA over all 'lKi516
t h e compulsory service of the housebof Joseph, P~g,"~$~,o
it came about at that particular time that & g;6
Jer.o.bofam himself \vent out from Jerusalem
and A.hitjah' the Shi'lo.nitee the prophet got t o +;pi
find hirn on the road and heb was covering him- 4:;;;:;
self with a new garment, and the two of them
were by themselves in the field." Ahi'jah now '2Sfi14:6
took hold of the new garment that was on him
and ripped it into twelve pieces.* 3 1 And he went '*ISa 15:=
on t o say to Jer.o.botam:
"Take for yourself ten pieces, for this is what ''1'g&2;6
Jehovah the God of Israel has said, 'Here I am ; & ~ ~ ~ j Z O
ripping the kingdom out of the hand of Sal'omon, and I shall certainly give you ten -tribes.k S7z:;2&3
s2 A n d the one tribe is what will continue his for
the sake of my servant Davidn and for the sake 2Ch 1 2 2
of Jeru~alern,~
the city that I have chosen out
of all the tribes of Israel. ss The reason why is
that they have left mes and begun te bow down ;!:4'i;Tf3
t o Ash'to.retht the goddessCof the'ni.ans, v,L,c$;::,21
t o Che'mosku the godd of Mo'ab and to MiI'comv zp,?;:


See IRings 9 : 15,footnote d, b Ki3e," NVg; 6i8.hi'jnh,"

L,r;XSg. "Goddess.?' h1, ek.o.kirnl. See verse 6, footnote a. d "God.'!
M,', the plural of el.o'ah, and applied to a pagan deity.
Compare Judges 16 : 23, 24,footnote a,
a BS, mdl.10'.

1 KINGS 11 :34-41

the goda of the sons of Am'mon, and they have

not walked in my ways by doing what is right
in my eyes and my statutes and my judicial
~ 1 K 1 1 1 : 9 decisions like David his father.y 3 4 But I shalI
not take the entire kingdom out of his hand,
because a chieftain" T shall set him for alI the
days of his life, for the sake of David my servant whom I chose, because he kept my comzgE',e:i;i,
D e w
mandments and my statute^.^ And I shall cer1Ki 9.4
i ~ iiiis
tainly take the kingship out of the hand of his
2 h i 13.23
son and give it to you, even ten tribes." sR And
P a 13217
to his son I shall, give one tribe, in order t h a t
my servant may continue having a lamp
always before me in JerusaIemIothe c i t p that
15:4 1: have chosen for myself to put my name there.*
ZKi 8 3 9
PS 13z:i~ S f And you are the one that I shall take and you
Lu 1:89
1s 16 will indeed reign over all t h a t your soul cmvesfi
LDe 12 11
IKI 11:13 and you will certainly become king over Israel,
ig;ii!7 38 And it must occur that, if you obey all that I
shall command you and you do walk in my ways
and actually do what is right in my eyes by
1Ri ll:X
keeping my statutes and my commandments,
just as David my servant did,' then I shall cer+F;fg;T4
lK16:12 tainly prove to be with youE and I will build you
B D t 31:s
~ o 1:s
a lasting house, just as I have buiIt for David,#
*2Sa 7:11
I C li:lti
and I will give you Israel, 3%d I shall humili1 ~ ~ ~ / ~ ate
: : s 'the
6 offspringc of David on account of this,'<
not al~ays.'"~
nE:tu$;1y3 2 only
40 And Sol'o.mon began seeking to put Jer.01.2Ch 16:10 bo'nm to death.' So'am got up and went
Pr 21,30
off to Egypt to Shi'shaks the king of
;;;;;; running
Egypt, and he continued in Egypt until Sol'o~;~mg;5 mon's death.
41 As for the rest of t h e affairs of Sol'o.mon
and alI that he did and his wisdom, are they not
m Srv rPrse 33, footnote d, k Or, "nn'si,lJ 11. a Or, "seed;'

written in the b k 3 of the maim of $olEo.mon?tzgt $2;;
"And the days that So1'o.mon had reifgd in
Jerusalem over alI Israel were forty y ~ a r s ". x~h D m
43 Then Sal'o-monIay down with his Iarefat hersr v
and was buried in the city of Davidy his father, iEt :%
and Re.ho.botarnz his son began to reign In place ,;l:;&l!;,
3:Il :I:YO
of him,"
And'amo proceeded ta go to ;ihl;;,7
She'chem," f o r it was t o She'chem" that :;;.j,p;;%
all Israel came to make him king. And it came f-Gr 1 In:1
about that as soon as Jer.omho'arnbthe son of .I~:Y;E;.T
h'e'bat heard of it while he was yet in Egypt' $? o
(because he had run off on amount of King cf;ii''i\!m
Sol'ol.mon, that'am might d~rlell in 'lKi'LL:'yo
Egypt) ,' then they sent and caF1d him. After
thnt'arn and all the congregation ol
Israel cnmc and began to speak to Re.ho.ho'~rn,
snying:' "'"Yourf a t h e ~ for
, his part, made our .2Ch1as
yolten hard, and, as f o r you, now make Ihc hnrd 3Tafi9:4
service' of your father and his heavy yokc" that $::
11e put upon us Iighter," and we shall serve ~ Q I I , " ~;; ;;;,
5 At this he said to them: "Go arvRy for three
days and return to rneaWFSo the people %vent 11:(-11 111:,1
tlutay, "nd
King Re-ho-b'am began to take """
counsel' with the older men who hnd continued
attending upon Sol'o.mon his father while he I r x : i o






continued alive, saying: "'Ho~v

are you advising
to reply t o this people?"t Accordingly they tach
spoke t o hjm, saying: "If today you would prove
yourself n servant to this peopIe and actually
serve them, then you must answer them1 and uPr
Mr 10148
speak t o them with good words,v and they 1~111~ " , P 1 $ ~
be bound t o become your servants always."~ ?;?,:;::T
8 However, he Ieft the counsels of the older 3 i ~ i ilS:20
men with which they had advised him and he
began t o take counsel with the young men that

1 KINGS 12:9-15

had mtvn up wlth hirn,x who were the ones

* Z C 1~~ : s anending upon him."
And he went on to say

lICl 22:6

to them : "\Y11at i s it t h ~ YOU

are offering jn
counselz that ~ v emay reply to this people who

have spoken to me,saying, 'Make the yoke that

father put upon us lighter'?"" "' In turn
the youna men that hnd grown up with him
spoke t o him,saying: "'This is what you should
:2Sn 17:7 say?t o this people who h ~ v gpoken
ta you, saying, 'Your father, far his part, made our yoke
heavy, but, as for you, make it ljahter upon us,'
this is what you slzould speak t o il~em,'Mylittle
lCh 10:10 finger itself will ceilt~inlybe thicker than m y
father's hips.' And now my Sarber, for his
F;r r ;IS:%
'part, loaded upon YOU tl Ileav y yoke, but I, for
Pr 28%
pr 29;ZS my part, shd1 add to1 l*omyoke," My father, for
lsrr 4;:F
his part, chastisd YOU with whips, but I, for my
PEX ::I3
part, shall chastise YOU with scourges.' "a"
Iss 5.55
Jer*'am and all the people prow 2 ~ ~ 1 1 12
~ . ~And
to Re.hoqbo'arnan the third day,
just as the king hrad spoken, sayhg, "Return to
on the third d ~ y . " " And the king began t o
;1;:S a ?;:S!: l O me
answer t h e people hnrshTyl( and i o leave the
Pr 1rl:lI
rr 15:l counsel of the older rncmjL who had counseled
I!~:IZ h i m r lY
And he {vent on to speak to them accordsaying:
. to the counsel of the yoring
"My father, f 01' his part, mnde Y O ~ yoke
but I, for my part, shall chastise YOU with
:;it5 scourges."t And the Itlng did not listen to the
people, because the turn of affairs took place at
';;;;:::g the instance of J e h w a h , ~In~wder that he might
$;$,, indeed carry out hie ~vardvthat Jehovah had



'.Sm~rges."The Hebrpw ~ o r ddso tnefir1R "scorpio~~~."


spoken by means of A.hitjahy the Shitlo.nite to ~ 1 " 'Il:Jl

Jer.o.boramthe son of Ne'bat.
16 When all Israel got t o see that the king
had not listend to them, then the people replied to the king, saying: "What share do we 1
have in David?" And there is no inheritance in -,T;e,i:,
the son of Jes'se. To your gods,8 0 Israel. Now
see t o your own house, 0 David!"' With that 7EjT;l:,
Israel began to go to their tents,u As for the r$,"jy,,
sons of Israel that were dwelling in the cities of
Judah,'am c o n ~ n u e dto reign over
2Clr l&17
18 Subsequently King'am sent Addor- $$$;!;!;
who was over those conscripted' far forced
labor? but all Israel pelted him with stones,'
so that he died. And King'am himself
managed t o get up into the chariot to flee t o ?L!!,l!j!!l
the Israelites kept up their i: j;$!
revoltk against the house of D ~ v l ddown to this !:?A;[,%

1 KINGS 12:22-28

warja t o Aght against the house of Israel, so

as t o bring the kingship back to Re.ho.boPam

the son of So1'0.rnon.~" Then the word of The
5: h 31.2 [true] God" came to She.mai'ahv the man of
-r h I?:& GOC1,CY saying: '"'Say t o Re.ho.botam the son
y l l C l 13.1
I i i l 1 ; . 1 8 or Sol'o-mon the king sf Judah and to all the
house of Judah and Benjamin and the rest of
the people* " 'This is what Jehovah has said:
~"YOL-must not go up and fight against YOCR
brothers the sons of Israel.' Go back each one
:;;g .to
x t l :.i:li
his house, for I t is at the instance of myself
r r 16:g
11:31 ithat this thing has been brought about.""'"
So they obeyed the word of JehovahAand went
c x - i l I ~ : . I back home according to the word of Jehovah."
25 And'arn proceeded t o build She'them*
In the mountainous regian of E'phra.im3
yElJ ,w;?;4:J7
and t o dwell in it, Then he went forth from
there ~ n dbuilt Pebnu'el."4 And'am
H 17
began t o SRY in his heart:' "Now t h e kingdom
-13x 1.1 1
21i1I T : F I
nrr s R
will return to the house of David." "If this
2t.h 14!;Lil
1,rl 7:M
20 And it came about that as soon as all 1,s- n.lus 4:9
rlrcl ll:3R people continues going up t o render sacrifices in
"('I1 :'Il:20
rael heard that'am had returned they
the ~ Q L I of
S ~ Jehovah in Jerusalem,k then the
,I KI y.20
at once sent and called him t o the assembly'""'ach5:e
heart of this people will be bound t o return to
and made him king over all 1srael.r None be- PlSnlo:?.~
their lord,a Re.ho.ho'arn the king of Judah, and
came s follower of the house of David except
nfio 26:7
they will certainly kill me1=and return to Re.hoP t 28 :?5
a l K l II:I~
bo'am the king of Judah." '5Consequently t h e
the tribe of Judah by itself me
Hn 1l:12
21 When'arn arrived at J e r u ~ a l e r n " ~ ~ ~ ~ . ~ MI.\rlvn
1 5 1 6 king took counselr and made hvo golden calveszs
9 : I
,,I lr129 and said t o the people:" "It is too much for
he immediately called together all the house of
,y:l\t$it;15 YOU to go up to Jerusalem. Here is your God,fa
Judah and the tribe of Benjamin,' a hundred nch14:s
and eighty thousand choice men able-bodied for
n 1,i trrnlly, "doir~g;(111al;ing) wnl-," 31. "''Tlw
[ tmr] Gorl."' 31, kn-


31, n.lta.7im'; literal$, "tents." This is one of the Eightem R l n ~ n .

dations of the Sopherim. The original Hehrcw tpxt is 1 1 1 l ~ ~11)l v l
h a w read ~l.o.Lim' ("gods," or, "God"), hut bp trnnepositirlg tlic
second and third mneonan2s o f the word the Jeftish Soj)h~rilli~ n n r l l a
tbr 3P text rend ' ' t ~ f ~ f s . See
2 Ynrllrwl 30: 1. fofontnot~n, nirdt
2 UI~~olliel+=s
16 : 1(5,fontnofe c. 'b LS& ,qr,'.

I..'l.rr.lrin~': ldX.Yl'~Sy,'LJr.liocnt~."'
O1'Clod." I T , )to-l:'t-o.ltirnr;
lilerr~I!y,"Tile [tnlc] T;ntl." L X I , ko Z'Ite.oft'; Tr. f i ~ ' l r d ; Sy, d . F a ' I t ~ .
SI-I. nt-utcmr~a~lmy
33: I , S'orrtnotc R, d L ' h ~ I . ' 31.
j~latrnlnl' ol.r!firr', to rlcirotc cxccllency or nrnjwv. "To the people."
1,S.Y I t ; 9 0 1111 IKP~('~,"
Sg ; r r ttl~~an,*'
MYg. 1 01; '*Hprenre your
lyrrf~,"31; the ~ 0 1 ' 1 1p ! . o . / ~tm' l l e i ~ ~Sollnsetl
by tllc ~p1.1)'%rougI~t''
In I I I P p l t l ~ i t l~ ~ Z I I I I J > C ~IIowerer,
see Exodu?; 31): 1,4, footnotes n, d.

1 KINGS 12:29-13:2



1 KINGS 13:3-10

ficial smoke UPOH you, and men'^ bones hea will

0 Israel, that brought you up out of the land of
burn upon you.' "1 And he gave a wonderu on
2;"2 C gz
Egypt."~l2U Then be placed the one In Rettl'el,'*+ ",.yE!fi;$
h m that day, saying: ''This J
s the wander of twhich
and the other he put in Dan;;u 'I' And this thing :;;:lt;i\g
l t E x 4.9
the altar is ripped
cnmr to he a cause for sin,%and the people began ~;xI~I;:;;
aoh2:18 apart and the fatty ashes that arc upon it wiI1
t o go before the one as far as Dan.
LC0 1:22
Jc 1$,29
certainly be spilled out."
31 And he began t o make a hause of hfgh .rr ZO:I
4 And It came about that, as soon 8s the king
places* and t o make priestso from the peopIe in ?,<>I<!
the word of the man of Godb that he had
general, who did not happen to be of the sons of ,j,(,
out against the altar in Beth'el, Jer.0L e ' ~ i .n?~And Jer.o.ho'am went on t o rnnlce n
rZCh16:10 bo'am a t once thrust out his hand from off the
2Ch 18.25
festival In the eighth month on t h e Afi~enthd ~ y ;$<%
PS 105b5
of himfMv
of the month, like the festival that RRS in 2;;
Jes 20:2 altar, saying: "You men, ~ r a hold
Am 7:10 Immediately his hand that he hfid thntst out
Judah; that he might make offerings upon the
2 1 ~19:11
against him became dried up and he was not
altar that he had made in Beih"1, $0 sacrifice to :~,t, T I : I . I
Ar z
able to draw it back to hirnse1f.Y I. And the aItar
the calves that he had made, and he put in at- n ~ ! ~ ' ~ ~ ~ < ! ~
itself was ripped apart so that the fatty ashes
tendance a t Ekth'elv the priests of the hIgh $;,;;'I2
spilled out from the altar, accordingto the
1K122 28
places that he had made. ??And he began to
1 ~ 1 2 ; : rvonder
that the man of God') had given by t h e
makr offerings upon the altar that he had made
J e r 2h.17
- E X 8:s
Jehovah.' The king now anstvered and
in B t h ' e l on thc fifteenth d ~ in
y the eighth
S t 1 21 7
rrma said t o the man of God:b AiSoften,p?ease, the
month, in t h e month that he had invcntcd by
Jn,r:a8 : 4 face of Jehovah your God and pray in my hehimself,ah and he proceeded t o meke A f e s l i v ~ lIT;
;& half that my hand may be restored t o me,"+At
for the sons of brae1 and to m ~ k offerings
2 ~ 113:12
) G
:sP51:523this the man of Godh soft~nedthe face of Jehothe altar to make sacrificial smoke.n'
vah and i l ~ eIcing's hand mas restored to him
And here there was a man of God1' that
J a l ~ : 2 1 and it canle to he as n t first.' ' And the king
11Sa7had come' out of Judah by the wordn of
21~15:15 \vent an t o say t o the Inan of God:!' "Do come
2 ~ 3
Jehovah to Beth'el, while Jer..a.ho'amwas standwith me to the house and take sustenance" and
,zc 8::s
PC 5:2
i u l ~by the altark to make ~ c r i f i d a fsnlokc.11 <
' $$I;;;:
let me give you a gIFt.""But the man of Mb
:Then he called out against the altar by t h e I;",';
the king: '"If yougavemehaIf of your
word of Jehovahr and said : ''0
altar, altar, this vrbn 1.1;
house* I would not came wjth you* and e a t
is what Jehovah has said, 'Look! a son horn t o
*\u 16.26 bread br drink water in this plnce. For that is
the house of David, whose name Is J o . ~ l ~ a p2Kiz2:1
13:17 t h e way he commanded me by the word of JeholJq
And he will certainly sacrifice upon you the
vah,' saying, 'You must not eat bread" or drink
priests of the high places that are maklng sacri:%%,%water and you must not return by the way that
you went.' " IrAnd he began t o go by another
urw of
"Rg Idmself." 11, margin, rmde: "in hi^ henri!"
God." Hcrc 31. is71Ebo.kt+nr,without the tl~llnitonrtids Ito ("1'11~"')
LXXVgSy; 9fhe;gF M. *#'The man of Ood!' M, iah
heiortr Kl.o.lrislf Co~npnlrUeuteronan~;s.33 : 1, footnote R. C 1%)
kn-El.o.Rim'. Compare reme 1, footnote b.






1 KINGS 13:20-27

20 And It came about, whlle they were sitting

way, and he did not return by the way by which

he had come to Beth'el.
11 And a certain old prophetk was dwelling
in BeZh'el, and his sons now came in and re- g;$;iz
latedRto IlPm all the work that the marl of Godb
had done that day in Beth'el [and] the ~%~orAs
that he h ~ spoken
to the king, and they went
on relating them to their father." "Then their nlT13:5
father spolre to them: "'WhicI~way, then, did he
go?" So his sons showcd him Ihe may that the
man of Gad19that had come out of Judall had
gone. Hc now said to his sons: "Saddle the
ass for me." Accordingly they saddled the assr ry;$y$1

~4:s at the table, that the word3 of Jehovah came t o

Nu 23:1#

the prophet that had brought him back " and

he began to call out to the msln of Godathat had
come out of Judah, saying: "This is what Jeho'18~8 vah has s ~ i d :'For the reason that you rebelled3
against the order of Jehovah ~ n did
d not kcep
the commandment with tvhich Jehovah your
*%e 10:s
God commanded you," "'but you went back that
hu W.12
r;t~zohk you might eat bread and drink water in the
1Sa 18:la
place about which he spoke to you, "'DO not eat
2% 2 : s
bread or drink water,'"your dead body will not
OlKl ls:a come into the burial place0 of your forefathers,' ''
1KI 1.1:13
Z C 21:20
2 ~ 10~28
23 h d jt came about after his eating bread
for him and he went riding on it.
after his drinking that he at once s ~ d d l e d
14 And he went following the man of M b
for him the ass, that is, for the prophet tv11orn
and got to find him sitting under the big tree.%BIK1lo:d
he had brought back. '%And
he got on his way.
Then he snicl t o him: "Arc you the man of Godh
road and put him
t ~ h ohas come out of Judah?"l to which he said;
to be thrown
"I am." In And h e went on to say to him: "Go
Am :I:19
e ~ d;zt
onto the r o ~ dAnd
. the ass \v&s standing beside it
wit11 me ta the house and eat bread," But he
23a 6.7
2 ~ 1 2 1 2 4 and the lion was standing beside the dead body.
said: "I am not able t o go back with you lor to
'JAnd here there were men passing by, so that
come in with you, and 1. may not eat bread or
they got to see the dead body thrown onto the
drink water with you in this p1ace.u For it Bas uIa;&.-:
road and the lion standing beside the dead body.
heen spoken t o me by the word of Jehovah,' v l x l 2 0 s
they came in and spoke of it in the city
'You must not eat bread or drink n7ater thew, ,xu=:m
in which the old pmphet was dwelling.
You must not go back n ~ a i nby thc w ~ by
y $ ~ ~I ' ~
26 When the prophet that had brought him
which you went.' " "'t
this he said t o him: "I, ,$$,$na
back from the way heard of lt he immediately
too, a m R propheP like you, and an angel,' him- zgf p;;I
said : "'It is the man of Goda that rebe1led against
self spoke to me by the word of Jehovah, saying,
"2sa 12:14 the order of Jehovah," and so Jehovah gave him
'Rave 11im come back wilh you ta your house ~ A F $ ~ I
to the lion, that he might crush him and put hiin
that he may eat bread and drink water.' " (He R O 1s is
*p~ne:labto death, according to the word of Jehovah that
Sohe went back wit11 tiim that
lied to hirn.)z
g:Rf;ii1 he spoke to him."' 27 And he went on to speak
he might eat bread in his house and drink water.' ; ; * ?jigo
$,bji;mto his sons, saying: "'Saddle the ass for me." So
*"And 11Er mais now cnimo in a ~ i dr~lnhil."J,.XTT'KT~S~; "and bin
mL'Theman of God." M, ia?~ha-?3Lo.kim1. Colunare verse 1. h o t FO?3 nnnr rntilP in m d m l n t ~ ( ~ ,If.
" b"Tho rum1 v f God." $1, isls
xu 24:.1


Mt 7 , 2 1

J O I~3 :5i




~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ :

f t r t - b l , n . l /i~rr'.I'nr~lynreP P I - ~ C 1 , footnote l,,

1 KINGS 13:28--34


they saddled it.1~38 Then he got on h h way and

found the dead body of him thrown onto the
rond with the ass and the Iion standing beside
the dead body. The Iion had not eaten' the dead
body, nor had it crushed. the ass." "' And the
prophet proceeded to lift up the dead body of
the man of Goda and ta deposit him upon the
ass and to bring him back. Thus he came into
the city of the old prophet to bewail nnd bury
hiin. Accordingly he deposited his dead body
fn his orirll burial place, and they kept wailing
aver him: "Too bad, my brother?" ' And it
came about after his burying hirn that he went
on to say to his sons: "When 1 die YOU must
bury me in the burial place in which the man
of GodR h burled. Beside his bones deposit my
awn hones.b"
For without Pail the word that
he called out by the word of Jehovah aaainst the
altar that i s in Beth'elt and against all t h e
houses of the high places" that are in thc cities
of Sa.mar'i.av will take place.''
33 After this thing Yer.o.botam did not turn

W 14:E


~ l ~ ; l l ~ { ~



l l < l I?!2!l
l l i l 19:"11
v l l i l 1ti:;'l
zr 11 2; 1.x

back fmm his bad way, but he agajn went malc- !<;''s';'i"
Ing priests of high places from the people in
genera1.y As for anyone delighting in it, he YJA;gj??
irould 811 his hand tvjt h powcr,''Z I say ing1 : 21-1 i3.:+
dr-r 3:s
"And let hirn become lone of thc] priestsc' of .I:,L.:.YI
high places." 54 And in this thin^: there came t o
bc EI cause of sin on the part: of the hotisehold i,;;: :;'ii
of'arn* and an occasion for wlplng them
out and annihilating them off the surface of the i!:i
21<1 J7::O
I'r 13:F



m " T l i ~mnn o f Qod." N, ish Rrr-El.o.hinrt. Canlpn~c!

V P ~ WI, PnotL.LY rcnds: "Deposit me thnt m y I m n w mn!' hr ~i11pmlnlong

with his bones.'' Or, "he mould instnll l l i ~ n . " a ' ' [ O t ~ aof the]

nntr 11.

prir$.st*,"31; "a pried,?'LXITgItSy.


up, please, and you
'ZE? disguiseCyourself that they may not know that
gAz:E you are the wife of Jcr.o.Wam and you must go
to ShilohnoLook! there is where A.hitjah*the
prophet is. He is the one that spoke with reference to me as t o becoming k j n p over this peoe*i11:3i
ple." And you must take in your hand ten
loaves of bread" and sprinlrled cakes and a flask
wKi5:15 of honey and you must come in t o him.*Heit is
that will certainly tell you what is going t o
happen to the boyhl'r
L U 7:3
~ o h 4 : ~ 4 And the wifc of'nrn proceeded t o
d a so. Consequently she rose up and went t o
i8j1 Shi'lohs and came to t h e house of A.hi'jah. Now
::;+!e? A.hi'jahb himself was unable to see, for his eyes
t ~ 2-1
had set because of his agent
Ge 4820
ne 3 4 : ~
5 And Jehovah himsell had said to A.hitjah;
ISa 2 2
S'I no:lo
is the wife of Jcrto8bot~rn
coming t o apEc 1 2 3
ply for a word from you regarding her son, for
he is sick. This way md that is how you should
speak to her. And It wlll occurP that as soon as
she arrives she \tvjIl be making herself unlycognizahle,"'
Am 3 5
6 And it came ahout that as soon as A.hi'jahh
Ac 10:M
heard the sound of her feet she was coming
into the entrance he began to say: "Come in,
Why is it that you are
:,I2;;,3 wife of Jermolbo'm.u
~~~~ zR2Q making yourself unreco~nizableflwhiIe I am
being sent t o you with a severe
say to Jer*o,bo'am, 'This is what Jehovah the
~ l n 4 : 1 9 God of Israel has said: T o r thc reason that I
raised you up out of Ihe middle of your people,


time A.bitjah the son
of Jer.o.Wam fell sickA
said his wife: "Rise

It1"! ":I3

('An ta bmming ki~g?LXIIAVg8g; ('as king," M,

let it, occur."

Literally, "And

M,A.h Gaia'-

I KINGS 1 4 r G 1 5
that I might constitute you a leader over my p m

ple Israel,r @andI went on t o rip* the kingdom

ntvay from the home of David a d give it to
you, ~ n you
d have not become like my servant
David, who kept m y commandmentsc and who
walked after me with all his Ireart by doing onIy
what was right in my eyes,' a but you began t o
act worse t h a n all those who happened to be
prior to you and you went and made for yourself another goda" and molten images to offend
n ~ eand
, ~ it js I whom yau have cast behind your
back,: ]"or that reason here I am bringing
calamity upon the house of'm,"c\nd I
shall certainly cut off from 3er.obo'am anyone
urinatjnp against a wall, a helpless and worthless one in I ~ r a e l , and
~ " 1 shall indeed make n
clcan sweep behind the housc of'arn,
just as one clears away the dungPuntil it is dlsposed of,k "The one dying of Jer.oaba'amk in
lhe city the dogs"il1
eatn and the one dying in
the Aeld the fowls of the heavens will eat,'' because Jehovah himself has spoken it." '
12 "And you yourself, rise up, go to your
house. When your feet come into the city the
child will certainfy die. "'And
all Brae1 w j l l
indeed bewail himq and bury him, because this
onc alone of'am'swill come into n burin1
place, for the reason that something good toward Jehovah the God of Israel has heen found
Sn him in the house of'am.t And Jehovah wil1 certainly raiseup t o himself a king" over
Israel who will cut off the house of'nrn
the said day,; and what if right now T V ' V n d Je--

Or, L u o t hgods.)'
~ r 31, e1.o.kiint a-bh~.r;i~t'.
Cotnpn~*r1 R i n g ~12: 25,
ffiotnot~f. b literally, *%me r e ~ h n i ~ ~anrl
c d u~~uIrt go (OF, nIm11t i a ~ t r a v lI ." # h rhl~-utmanorny3'5 : 31;. fur~tn(ltvn.

1 KINGS 14:16-23


hovah will indeed strlke 1slqaeldown, just as the

reed mays in the water,Y and he will certainly
Am 2 9

u p r o o t ~ I ~ r a e l othisgoodgraund'thathegave
to their forefathers and he will indeed scatter"
OZKl 35 29
2E;I 35:il them beyond the River,n for the reason that they
made their sacredo poles," so crffendjna Jeh0vah.O
12:~ I 6 And he will give Israel up' on account of the
I l K i 1-1 I)
-ps 81 12 sins of'an1 with whjch h e sinned and
1srr 40 24
which he caused I s r ~ e tl o sin."a'
:;;g with
IKI 16:2
At that'~m's
wife rose up and
>Tic 636
~ r t 1 8 : ~went her way and came t o Tir'zah.' As she was
arriving at the threshold of the house, the boy
I ~12:-c
himself died.# In So they burled him, and all
2:a 3sraeP went wailing for him, accorclina to Jehovah's word that he had spoken by means of his
servant A.hi'jahb the prophet.
19 And the rest of the affairs of JerfoIbo'arn,
k2m 12;15 how he tvarredlt and how he reigned, there they
2Ch 133
are written In the bookt1af the affajrs of the
I K I 22.39 days of the kings of Israel, 20 And the days that
1Ch 21~24
Jer.o.boramreigned were twenty-two years, after
ES 6:Y
V l K 1 2:lQ which he lay down with his f o r e f a l l ~ e r sand
, ~ Narlh1 11-43
Job 1~112dabR his son begm to rl~iffn
s l K i 1535
21 AS Sois'aml f he son of Solre.mrmn,
A C I1I~?~: i 34 3he had become king In Judah. Forty-one years
MISCIR16 old'am was ivhen he began to reign,
IKl 1126
, . P ~ ~ S : = and seventeen years he reigned in Jeiusalem,
z2g:jf the city" t h a t Jehovah had chosen out of all
the tribes' of Isr~elt o put his Mmle there.y
2Ch ~ 2 x 3And his mother's name was Na'a-mah the Am''dki35:19 mon it.ess.x"d
Juclal~went on doing what
2Ch 1 2 2
Jcr 3:7
eyes of Jehovah,* so that they
CDC 4:25
P<7 8 : S incites; him to jenlousy marc Than all that their
forefathers had done by their gins with which
;:! they sinned." " And they, too, kept building for

>:t E l 3
* J 23~15 ~


That is, the En.pliralfrs.

h 31,

..l.kf i.irrfl.~r.


themselves high placesb and sacred pillars' and tz:J(I":?

sacred polesa upon every high hillsq and under
every luxuriant tree.* " And even the male, :;g ;;;lo
temple pmstitutea proved to be in the land.' Mf;~;$1;3
n.rclh :LH 4
n 5; 5
They acted according t o all the detmtable things *.Il \rci
of the nations whom Jehovah had driven out
on account of l 3 e sons of Brae]."
25 And it came a b u t in the A f t h year of
King Reho.hEamthat Shi'ahakA the king of
EgypP came up against Jerusalem. *' And he got 3JKi 1a:L.l
t o take the treasures of t h e house of Jehovah
and the treasures of the house of the king, and
everything he took." And he lvent on to take '::;lg$g
all the gold shields t h d Sol'o.mon had made.'
z7 Consequently King Re.ho.bolm made in place I T .><'T..
of them copper shields' and he committed them c"R
to t h e contro1 of the chiefs of the runners,' the
guards of the entrance of the king's house.'( \% $2:ja
a And it would occur that as often as the king l r ~ 1?:16
came t o the house of Jehovah the runners would
carry them, and they rett~rnedthem to the
n X l r 12:11
guard chamber of the r~mners,'"
29 And the rest of t h e dfairs of Re.ho,bo'arn
and all that he did, are they not written in the
book of the affairs of the times of the kingss @2Kls:g
of Judah?' 3 D ~warfare
itself took place he- r:# $i:j
tween Re.hs.boram and 3er.o.h'arn always.' 2Ei; :;j;l
51Fina11yRe.ho.htam lay down with his fore- 1 ~ I:,:&
fathers and was buried with his forefathers in
the city of David.And his mother's name was rlK,
IKI rrr:at
NaPa.mahthe Am'mon.itess.u And'jamb' ,'2Fr$?$3
I v~t
t c hI:?
his son began to reign in place of him.




"The male h p l e p d t n t e ? Bf ; "effeminate men? Vg. b "A.bitjah," in abmt 12 E c b r e ~manuscripts ~ n the

d born her^ cdition o!
the Bebrew Bible o f Jacob ben Chajim (A.D, 16241525); "A.hi
jam," I L


KINGS 15:l-10


And in the ei~hteenthyear of King Jer.0Iso'nmy the son of Ne'bat, A-bi'jarn bezzCh
came kin^ over 3udahax' Three years he reign&
in Jeirzsnlem, and his mother's name was Ma%2('h 13::
11:il cahLthe grandd~ughternof
2 : ~he !vent on walking in all the sins of his fatheP
" 1 34.31
that he did prior l o him," and his heart did not
prove to be complete with Jehovah his God,like
':$i;~,ij the heart of David his f0refather.O ;Folb, on
account af David,' Jehovah his Cod gave him a
X * ~31I.:1' ?
? , s l i L b . v llilmp'Sin Jerusalem by raising his son up after
@<;4> 3 2 2
{;I* .I!( l o
him and keeping Jemsalem In existence,"'
1 4 .T
.: 12 cause David djd what was right in the eyes of
JchovaP~and 11e did not turn aside from any\:$!&' :
that he had commanded him all the days
of his life," only in the matter of U.ritah the
Hit'tite.'~ "nd
warfare itself took place be.Trrh 1
~3 I< t







Re$'amd and Jer.otborarnall the days

;?&,R\; , ' ~ tween
bf hi# l i f ~ . ' ~

m l l i l 1 Z:Fl
2 :

7 As for the rest of the affairs of'jam

and all that he did, are they n o t written in the
1 , ~ ~ / / ; : 3 0 book of the nff~ialmof the days of the kings of
-I '1 1
~ Judah?r
Thew was w~rfnrealso tl- at took place
rAhIl L3:22
~:('111:4::l bet~veen A-t~i'jarn and'arn.~ FinaIIy
A.biljam lay down with his forefathers and they
huricd him In the city of Davidntand Aka" his
~ ~ ~ h ~ $ ,
son began t o reign In place of him.
9 In the twentieth year of Jer=a.b'am the
vzCh1q:2 king of IS PA^^, Arsa reigned as king of JudahmV
l o And forty-one years he reigned in Jerusalem,
l l C n and his grandmother'se name was Mara.cah-"the
--:rli 132



1 \ n l m 51

J,it~rnlly,"dnnglttrr." I[, hath. S ~ SP Chronielm 13:1,2. b"AhF3 C'll~nnirl~~

1 2 :20, 22. a Liternlly, ''making JmsaIern
+ ~ ~ I I I ~ F , ' ';\I. Concpnrc Rxorlue 9: 11;. 6 "Rc.ho.l,o'mt~,"Jll'g.; "'
jnrll( I))," 12 I1rl)rra tnnlruscripts; "A.hi'ja the son of Re.ho.ho4am,j'
Sy. a Litp~nll~.,
- ~ ~ . l r l n t , * nt

I KINGS 15:li-19


granddaughter of'a.lorn.~"l And A'sa 4F;iE;,

proceeded t o do what was right in the eyes af
Jehovah, like David his forefathee lzAccord- *gk
ingIy he had the male temple prostitultesb pass '],K,'i$!
out of the landa and removed a11 the dungy idols" 31m 2l.:zs
that his forefathers had made," l3 As for even A:Et ;i,li&
Ma'a-cah4 his grandmother," he went on to re- %2;$04j&
move her from [being] lady,' because she had *;g
made a horrible idol t o the sacred pole, after +DG 13:s
no 339
\vhich A%a cut down her horrible idol* and 7Ch
burned it* at t h e torrent valley of Kidrron.*
l4 And the high places he did not r e r n o ~ eNever.~
,E ?gs3
theless, A'sa's heart itself p r o v d to be complete ;g;TA
with Jehovah all his days," l3 And he began to
bring in the sanctified things of his father and *aEg;;o
his own sanctified things into the house of Jeho- klKi
"IKI 8;61
vah, silver and gold and artic1es.r
2 c h 15:17
x : ~
16 And warfare itself took place between Arsa xh 11":18
and Bata.shas the king of Israel all their days. gZChf6:l
l r So Ba'a-sha the king of Israel came up against
Judah and began to build Ra'mah,t to allorv no ter;8;;5
one to go out or come in t o A'sa the king of naro:?e
Sudahu At that A'sa took all the silver and
the gold that were left in t h e treasures of the
house of Jehovah and the treasures of the house
of the king7' and put them in the hand of his v2Chle:2
servants, and King A'sa now sent them to Benha'dady the son of Tab.rimrmon the son of y2%;F+1
He'zi-on, the king of Syria, wlho was dwelling in
D a r n ~ s c u ssaying:
"There is a covenant* be- ~g;:i5"i2'5
tween me and you, between my father and your ;:pr;;:g
father. Here I h ~ v sent
you a present of silver
;A, %i2
and gold, Come, do breakD your covenant with $
Bata.sha the king of Israel, that he may with-




See verse 2, footnote b. "The male temple prostitutes," 11; '"the

effeminate luen," Vg. G Literally, "mother," X.

OZKL 15:29
+Ge 14:14
JR 18:29

WSa 20:14
~ J o s11:3

Jos 12.3

draw from me,"" " Accordingly Ben-ha'dad

listened to King A'sa and sent the chiefs of the
military forces that were his against the cities
of Israel and went striking down I'jonbnd Dan'
and Abl-beth-ma'a.cahm and all Chin'ne.reth,*
as f a r as all the land of Naph' a* And it
came about that as soon as Bafa.sha heard of
i t he immediately quit building Ra'mahk and
continued dwelling in Tir'zah." 2 2 And King
A'sa, for his part, summoned all Judahr-there
was none exempt-and they proceeded t o carry
the stones of Ra'mah and the timbers of it, with
which Bata.sha had been building, and King Arsa
began t o build with them Gefbag in Eenjamin,
and Miz'pah.t
23 As for the rest of all the affairs of A'sa
and all his mightiness and all that he did and
the cities that he built, are they not written in
the book of the affairs of the days of the kings
of Judahfu Only a t the time of his growing old
he got diseased in his feetv 24 Finally A'sa lay
down with his forefathemy and was buried with
his forefatl~ersin the city of David his forefather," and Je.hoshra.phat* his son began to
reign in place of him,
25 As for Na'dab' the son of'am, he
became king over Israel in the second year of
Arsa the king of Judah, and he continued to
reign over Israel two years, zB And he kept doing
what was bad in the eyes of Jehovah" and went
on walking in f he way of his fatherQand in his
sin' with which he caused Israel to sin. 27 And
Ba'a.shaQ the son of A-hi'jah of the house of
Is'sa-charDbegan t o conspire" against him, and
Bara.shagot t o strike him down at Gib'be.thon,#
which belonged to the Phi.lisftines,while Na'dab

1 KINGS 15:28-16 :3


and all Israel were besieging Gib'be.thon. So

Bra.&& put hfm to death in the third year of
A'sa the king of Judah and began to reign in
place of hirn.k *OAnd i t came about that as soon kDe
ns he became king he struck d ~ t m
a31 the house
of'am He did not let anyone breathinp
remain of Jer.o.bo7am'suntil he had annihilated
them, according t o Jehovah's word that he had
spoken by means of his servant A.lliljah the
Shi'lo-nite," on account of the sit~sof Jer-o- n;/$$iO
ho'am wlth which he sinnedr and with which ~!K!,;!;;O
he C ~ U Israel
S ~ to sin [and] by his offensive- E l l < ! 1 ' 1 : ~
ness with which he offended Jehovah the God
of Lqrael.8 As for the rest of the affairs of 'IK' 19:22
Na'dab and all that he did, are they not written
in the book of the affairs of the days of the '
kings of Issael?t 3? A n d warfare itself took place L::i\
lxtween A'sa and Ba'a.sha thc king of Israel sll ;; ;;;:!
U ~ C I I~ ~I S
their da;ysau
33 In the third year of AFsn the king of
Judah, Ba'a.sha the son of A.hi'jah became lrlng
over all Israel in Tir'zah for twenty-four years." Y I K 1 lei8
Y 4 Ancl he kept doing what was bad in the eyes
of Jehavah~a d went walking in the way of Y:E;E&
and hjs sin with which he caused -rry I G . M
Z l I \ l 1:q
Israel to sin.'
I I< I 1 : ~ : s
The word of Jehovah now came to Je'hus I,,, I:.I1.1,:fi
t h e son of'niA against Bara0sha,";!
saying: a "Inasmuch as I raised you up out of r;iiFf :'i,7
the dusP that I might constitute you lender over; ; :0
my people I ~ r a e lbut
, ~ you went walking ln the +?;\!;7
way of Jer.o.botam* and so caused my people
Israel to sin by offending me wlth their sins,' +mi
11CL 15:34
a here I am making a clean sweep after BaRa.shaeEs 32:21
and after his house, a d I shall certainly con- :% :i?ia




"An~onehathing!-' Literallyl"every brentb," MLXB,

1 KINGS 16:4--12


stitute his house like the hause of'am

theson of Ke'bat.'' Anyoneof Bata.shadyingin
the city the clogs will eat. and anyone of his dying
in the field the fowJsof the heavem f ~ v i l leat-''*
5 As for the rest of the affairs of Ba%.sha
and what he did and his rnigt~tjness,are they
not written in the boolr of the nfrnirs of the days
of the kings of Israel?l( Finally Bala.sha lay
down with hls forefathem" and mas buried in
1 5 : ~Tir'zahll' and E'lnh his son began t o reign in
r1K1 1437
1 K i 15:21 place of him. ' And also by means of Je'hu the
son of Ha.natni the prophet, Jehovah's word
rExms itsel had come against En'sr.sha and his house,$
both because of all the bladness that he cornt1K'16:m d f t d in the eyes sf Jehovah by offendingt him
rvith the work of his hnncls," that i t might b e
lsa 4J:9
come like the house of Jer.a.Wam, and became
;: he struck h imRdown
8 In the twenty-sixth year ofA'sa the king of
Judah, E'lah the son of BaPahskabecame king
over Israel in Tir'zah for two years. And his
s2K' 9:31 servant Zlrn'rir the chief af half the chariots be"Eii5Z7 gan to conspire" agsllnst him, while he was in
:gi:t Tir'zah drinking' himself drunk at. the house
f.T_;Jls:mofArrza,who was over tlre householdRin Tifmh.
'15% 25:96
2-3 1 3 : s ~ And ZjmFri p~*ocedyled
to come in and strike
? X i 2'.:16
~ r 2 < , : 1 - him do\.nLand put him fodeath in fl~etn~entyJer 51:37
. 2 1 : ~ seventh year of A'SR the kin^ of Judah, and he
rGc 2 4 : ~
r;, 39:-t began t o reign in place of him. l 1 And jt came
about that when he began t o selm, RS soon as
he sat down upon Ills throne, he strucli down all
the house of Bata.sha. I-le did not let anyone of
his remain that urinatesPaaalnst R wall or his
2rcks:s avengers of bloodh or his friends. "Thus Zirn'ri

# l K i 1G:il





." That is, Nn'd~bthe son of drr.n,ho'nm.-1

Or, "hi. pt~ls," 11; '#hi. r~Inti~m;'TkSy.

Engs 15 :25-29.

annihilated the whole house of Ba'a.sha, according to the word of Jehovah* that he had spoken
against Ba'a-sha by means of Je'hu the prophet,"
I S on account of d l the sins of Ba'a.sha and the
sins of E'lah his son with which they sinned and
tvith which they caused Israel t o sin by offending' Jehovah the God of Xsrael with their vain
idols.&' As for t h e rest of the a f f a h of E'lah
and all that he did, are they not written in the
book of the affairs of the days of the kings of

15 In the twenty-seventh war of A'sa the
king of Judah, Zim'si became king for seven
day+ in Tir'zah, wkiIe the people were encamping against Gib'be.thon,' which belonged to the
time the people that were encamped heard i t said: "Zim'ri has conspired
and also struck down the king." So all Ir~rael
made Orn'ri,g the chief of the army, king ovcr
Israel on that day in the campi3 Om'ri and all
Israel with him now went on up from Gib'bethon and began to lay siege' t o Tirkah. l 3 And
it came about that as soon as Zim'ri saw that
the city had been captured he then came into
the dwelling tower of the king's house and
burned the king's house over himself with fire,
so that he died," l9 for the sins of his with which
he had sinned by doing what was bad in the eyes
of Jehovah' by walking in the may of Serabdam and in his sin which he did by causing
Israel ta s h y n g As f o r the rest of the affairs of
Zim'ri and his conspiracy with which he conspired, are they not written in the book aP the
affairs of the days of the kings of Israel?=
a Liternlly,

'Ylrejr ~anities: M.

1 KINGS 16:21-29

21 It was then that the people of Israel began

divide themselves into two parts.*There was
J y u 19.2
part of the people that became followers of
nrt 1 2 2 5
Tfb'nj the son of Gl'nath, to make him king, and
; the other part follotvers of brnki.t 2TFinallythe
people that were follo~vingOm'ri overcame the
people that were following Tjh'ni the son of
Gihath, so that Tjb'ni met death and Oa'ri
began t o reign.
23 In the thirty-first year of A'sa the king of
Juda h, Orn'ri became kin@ over Israel for twelve
years. In Tir'zah he reigned six y e m . '*And
he proceeded t o huy the mountain of Sa-marri.ab
lfKt2b:m from She'mtlr for two talents of silver,k and began to buiId [on] the mo~tntainand call the
name of the city that he built by the name of
''2KlR;m She'rner the n l ~ s t e r cof
~ the mountain, Sat*lI<l 13:32
I I ~is::!
kept doing what was
1 l i l 211: 1
l f i l : j 3 : : $ 7 bad in the eyes of Jehovah and came to do worse
2lil 17:l
be went
17:44 than all who were prior t o himnV'amthesonof
"[Il! Ne'bat' and in hia, sin wlth which he caused
;':,I l#h ;$
:;!j Israel t o sin by offending Jehovah the God of
1c.2 Israel with their vain idols." =? As for the rest
yj ' , I
IN t'i.'?~ of the affairs of Om'ri, what he did and his
mightiness with uPhlchhe acted, are they not

,,,. ,., written in the book of the affairs of the days

of the kings of Israel?' 3 Finally Orn'ri lay down
1:. lg with his forefathers and was buried in Sa-11x1 1 31
1r.4 I(::." rnar' and Khah his son began t o r e i g in
"1lCl 1 I:% place of him,*
tl<b 15 2b
I '
29 A n d A'hab the son of Om'ri himself be.i4.t H 115

k i ~ l ~ .not
" o~llyh~ 1~gnlriplit l ~ r YIO\\*
n l s ~in fmt. COITIIlnrrl 1.4~1'1~1~ .)!I, blq1t~.tll.r~j~a',
;\I; rnrn~hin:! L'R~lonping
to the ?Inn
h l ~ ~ - ' t i ~a~( rlrl
. * 'lLl~l.d'l;31,', ll~eplural of rr.ilafl*,to denote
u p \ t ~ ~ ~ ~ l dv Iir~rnbly,
~ t ~ ~ + ~ "~t ltvir

1 KINGS 16:30--17:1

I KINGS lT:2--12



2 me ward of Jehovah now came to him,*

a "Go away from here and you must
of A'sa the king of Judah, and A'hab the son
your nFayeastlvard and concealk yourself
of Orn'ri continued to reim over Israel In Sn- ~ ~ ; ~ ~ ; j turn
a t the torrent valley of Che'rith that is east ofa
mar"i.aktn7en2y-twoyears. And Nbab the son ;;
the Jordan. ' And it must occur that from the
( * t i 13
of 0rn't.T proceeded to do worst in the eyes of ?>:ET
.b. 17
torrent vaIley you should drink," and the ravens7
Jehovah than aU those who were prior to him."
I shall certainly commrtnd' l o miupply you food
" And it came about that, [as if it were1 the ,'i:!llmi<''
there."s Immediately he went and dld nccordmost triviaIlhthing for him t e walk in the sins
ing to the word of J ~ h o v a h iand so went and
of'arn the son of Ne'bat," then he toolc
took up dwelljng by t.he torrent valley of ChePas wifet Jez'e.belu t h e daughter of E;lhnba'althe I lI,:,c
\ n iS, :l l37
rith that is east ofn the Jordan. " And the ravens
king of the Si.da'ni.ans\' and began to go and r;;i; ;:;;;
themselves were bringing him breado and meat
serve Ea'alao and to bow dorvn to him? ' ? FUY-1 7L-I
in the morning and bread and meat in the evether, he set up an altar to Ba'aHa at the h o u , ~ r ~ O R2 ~ 2
ning, and from t l ~ torrent
valley he kept drinkof Ba'aIa that he built in Sa.rnar'1.a."" dAn"
; U"'1"2"
;KI : s . ~
at t h e end- of some
A ' h ~ bwent on to make the sacred pole,c' and
lmame dry, because
A'hab came to do more t o offend Jehovah then
there had occurred no do~vnpourupon the earth.*
Goc?of Israel than all t h kings
ool i s r ~ e lt h ~ &
t l;l:jp
8 The word of Jehovah now came to him, say11;i +I:M
happened to be prior ta him,s
S l i l Itl:IS
""Rise up, SOto Zar'e*phath,Ywhich belongs
34 In his days Hi'el the Bethrel.itebuilt Je f i = 'I? t( i'!It lT:t(i
and you must clwell there. Look!
choP At the forfeit of A.bifram his first-born p 1 i 110:%1
I shall certajnly commnnd ihcare n woman,"
he laid the foundation of it, and at the forfeit !:irr"I':I:d
a widow, t o supply you food." Accordingly he
of Se'gub his youngest he put up it^; doors, ac- $:?A;,!5
up and wcnt to Znr%.phnth and came into
coi-ding to Jehovah's word that he spoke by :;;$2,L1.
the cnwaace of the city, nnd, look! n woman, a
means of Joshuad" the son of Nun."
R ~ L 11.14
Ii 7
widow, was there gathering up pieces of \vood.
A n d'jahePthe Tish'blte from the En- :d,'if;t
So he cdled to her and said: "'Please, get me a
doh 4:;
habitantsr of GilFc-ad-'procccrled to say .I-?KI
, I , , -33
sip of water En a vessel that I may
2CO XI:!&'
to A'hab: "As Jehovah Ihc God of Israel before ,;&l;;z6
Heb 11:31
When she began to go and get it, he went on
AGe 18:s
whom 1 do standg' is living," there will occur
1K118.4 t o caI1 to her and say: "Please, get me a bit of
41% 14:39
during these years neither dew nor rain, except .k;j.r>i8
1% 20:3 breadAin your hand." L a At this she said: "As
1Sa 25:26
,1116 5 , If
at the order of my word!""
1Sa 26:I.O Jehovah your God Is l E ~ l n g ,I~have no round
. I1t'XJ:G
2538 19:21
cake,b* but a handfulmof flour in the large jar
J c r 4:2
literally, "the Bn'ul." b "fin mrir'i.~.'' Res v ~ ~ * s24,
Jer 5:2
and a little oilqjn the small jar, and here I am
fnotnate b. Or, "the A.shc'mli,*' Irl, d '6Ji~.liosll'~~.n,''
h i : I'i.tlhw",
sblt 15:33 gathering up a Pew pjeces of \vood and f must
Sv: "Jesus,'! L,LY. eEE.i.ia'l~a,3T; nlrnning "Jrburnh (E'n'kti) is
WZKl 4:2
Ilod." L,UVg, "'a~," "r,
hy n p l i ~ l l t corr~rtion,
Litera*, "in front of," that in to my ea& of* b Or, "1 have no
"From Tish'bell." ZXX, '%~n Tlsl~'l~~l~."
~ I V F P "Prnrn
tflr in-

came king over Israel in the thirty-elahth year

,, ,:,

MKL 12322
1Ch li:3
Jer 7:1





Or, "upon rrhom I do atrmd."'

pantv to t m to.!'

* LiteraSl;r, 4rtwo:' 3l!

1 KINGS 17:13-20


go fn and make something for myself and my

son and we shall have to eat it and die.''*
13 Then'jaha sajd to her: "'Do not be
afraid." Go in, do according to your ivord. Only
from what is there make me a small round cake
firstfl and you must bring it out to me, and for
yourself and your son you can make something
afternard. " For this is what Jehovah the God

1 KINGS 17:21-18:s
with whom I am temporarily residing that you
must bring Injury by puttfng her son to death?"
And he proceeded t o stretch himself upon the
child "" three times and call to Jehovah and say:
"0 Jehovah my God, please, cause the soul of
this child t o come back within hfm."O " FinalIy
JeI~avahlistened to E-li9ah1svoice,' and the soul
of the chHd came back within him, so that'he
came to life.' z 3'jah now took the child and
brought him down from the roof chamber into
the house and gave Izlm to his mother and'fall then said: "See, your son Is
that t h e woman said t o E.Ti'jah : "Now, indeed,
I do know that you are a man of Godn"and that
Jehovah" s~osdin your mouth i s t n ~ e . " ~ ~
And It ~ o tot be many days,n and Jehovah's own word came to E.litjah in the
third year, saying: "Go,show yourself to A'hab,
as I am determined to giveCrain upon the surface of the ground."r Accordingly E.1i'jah went
to show hinzself to A'hab, while the famine was
severe in Sa.rnar'i.a.r
3 Meantime, A'hab called'ah,d who
was over the household.' (NowOababdi'ahdhimself had proved t o be one greatly fearing Jehovah,ll ' Hence it came about that when Jez'e-belv
cut off Jchovah's prophetsr'ahd proceeded to take a hundred prophets and keep them
hid by fifties in a cave, and he supplied them
bread and \vater.z) And A'hab went on to say
to'ah:" "Go through the land to all the
springs of water and t o all t h e torrent valleys,
Perhaps we may find green grass,' that we may

G e 21:18




1 : ~


of Israel has said,"The large jar of flour Itself

will not get exhaustd and the small jar of oil
itself will not fail until the day of Jehovah's

giving a donmporrr upon the surface of the

ground.' "S So she went and did according to
.21i!:9 1'jah7sa word and she continued to eat, she I T ~ + I : A ,
together with him and her household, for days,! t;$hl$;y
Is The large jar of flour itself did not get ex- ~r 1 : : ~
hausted and the small jar of oil itself did not
fail," according t o Jehovah's word that he had u:;&!fi
spoken by means of'jah.8
17 And it came about after these things that
the son of the woman, the mistress of the house,
fell sick, and his sickness came to be so severe
~ K4 2I0
that there was no breath' left in him,^ At this VAtn
she said t o'jah:&"What do I have t0 do with yssn 1fi:EC)
you,br 0 man of god?^ You have come t o me t o
bring my errora to mind and to put my son to ?A:!f;::,
de~th."" IgBut he said to her:" "Give me your fiz:',::;:
son." Then he took him from her bosom and
carried him up to t h e roof chamber, where he _A[. n m
,1 xu I;5.]I
xtas dwelling, and laid him upon his own coucl~.
20 And he began calling t o Jehovah and saying: $,$ ifw
'Q Jehovah my God,' is it also upon the widow




Ebi.firrltzf,,31, Fee srrsc 1, footnote e. LitcralI;a, 'TJtnllnt ( i tbare]

to u ~ e
snd t o you I"
See Joshtan 4'2 : 24, footnotr 1). * "'hfnn a! God.'"

JI, islc'. See Dwt~ronomj. 33: 1, fwtrlotc n.

E:.Iifjfih sflid t o the rronlnn," IA+xy.

".A Itinn of God." 31, i.4 El.o.kinaP. See 1 Kings 13: 1,footnote b.
rm'rlb. Lrlcrnlly, '*trath!' Or, "anti let me give rain: X
@ ''kzr,SL; lucani~rg"Servant of 1-nh(u)!'
b ,\Il



1 KINGS 18:&15


jah mid: "& Jehovah of armiesAbefore whom

I do standa is living,+today I shall show myself
IKL 22:14
Hab 3.17
21i1 3:l.L f~ him.''
" So they divided bet~veenthemselves the land Cg;:!ig
Irn e 3 : ~
through which t o pass. A'hab himself went
16 Accerdlngly O,ba.dYahbent off to meet
nlone by one way and Obbabdi'ahnhi~nselfwent
A'hab and told him and so A'hab went to meet
q e r 14:3
nlonc by finsther may?
E.liljah. And it came about that, as soon as
ClKl 11:29
Aphab saw E.litjah, A'hab immccliatcly said to
7 As'aha continued an tlle may,bwhy, .2K11:8
+Jos 7:25
him: "Is this you, t h e bringer of trouble upon
thme was E.rj'jah to meet him. At once he rec- 3It
Jrr W:.l
Israel?"' TOthis he said: "1 have not brought
ognized him' and fell upon his face" and said:
trouble upun Israel? but you and thc house of
"Is this you, m y lord:' E.liJjnh?" %At
this he i ~ ~ , ~ ~ ,%,. ,Ir;hJO
YOLIP father have, because YOU men have left
is I. Ga, say t o ysttr
snid t o him: '"I
' :,;?:2:;l3
Q-!cb ~3
the commandments of Jehovaha"nd you went
'Here Is'jah.' " But he said : "What sinlc ~ I K1 I7 : ~
following the Ba'alsaonlU
And now send, collect
have I committed that you should be putting
L'ur 1 s : ~ together all Israel t o me at Mount Car'melk
your servant into the hand of A ' h ~ bto put me
l > r11 19
311i1 ifi.31 ~ n also
d the four hundred and fifty prophets of
to death?" "As Jehovah your God is living,' ;gagi
and the four hundrd prophets of k e
21ri 2
there is not a nation or kingdom where my lord :K,i %
.It r S I i i 1X
sacred pole,cr who are cat ing a t the table of
has not sent to look far you." After they had 8 ~ ; : ; ; ~
said, 'He js not [here],' he made the kingdom
rLhI 1.~13 Jcz'e.be1."~ ?"And A'hab procediled t o send
l!*"!Qrnong all the sons of Israel ~ n dcollect the
and the nation swear that they coulcl nat find
?I< l J ,4 11
prophets together a t Mottnt Car'rnel.1
y0u.t And now you are saying, Go, say to t+Ef;;;$
2Iil f ) 22
21 Then"ah approached all the peoplee
your l ~ r d , ~ ' H eis
r eE.ljfjrth," ' And i t is hound PS 3 1 : ~ ~
and said: "How long ~ v i l lYOU be IImping upon
2.' o
to occur that, when I myself go Sso1t.11you, then
l ! l ) p d 35
If Jehovnh is T h e
the spiritI1of Jehovah itself will C R I T ~you away U&K; ;2,1,
* x i 17.41 two different opinions?a14t
~ 1 1
but. i f nn'al is,
to where I shaIl not born, and I shall have come gz ;;3%
PUO 1 n . n
r.c F l i
go ToIlo~vinghim.'' And the people did not say
to tell A'hab and he will not find you, a d he :.It 4::
V I U ? l
a word in anstver t o hirn.r And E-li'jah went
.I ,,# ;.I ,;a
will be bound to kill
as your servant him- VAC
I S A2 1 6
on t o say t o the people: "I myself hnve been left
self h ~ feared
Jehovah from his youth.s l:'Has ~2,;; $7:
not my lord been told w b ~ It did when Sezre.bel Ps 73:17
9,-;,r2.1,91 as a prophet of Jehovah,= I alone, while the
t l ~ l ~ prophets
~ ~ : ~ Q
of Ba'al are four llundred and fifty
k1lIed the prophets of Jehovalr, lrow I kept some
men." 2 S Now let them give us two young bulls,
of the prophets of Jehovah hid, a hundred men e(3e2tr:J
and let them choose for themselves one young
by fifties in a cave," and kept supplying them I K I ~ X : ~

preserve the horses and mules alive and may

~ S
not have [any morel of the ~ R S cut

olsn 1 9 : ~




Ijread and water?" l4 And now you are saying, +Ps
=I 2034
'Go, say to your
"Here Is E.liJjah."' And *$:$!i$
he will be bound t o kiIP me."n I u However, EN-


Rrr! v m e 3, footnote d , b "Lord," M, findaajtina', in the plural

nlunber of a.d6n', to denote excollrnce n r m n , j ~ ~ t y .

Or, "apon whom I do atiund"

See verse 3, footnote d. Or,X'of

thn A.sbe?mh."
Or, "two crutches.'" L~.viron i t r Vet~riaTe'eartaqn~nti I,ihro~-HoehEer-Hanmgartner) "Thr [trnr] God!'
ho-Rl.a.kdar', with the definite articla Ira (&The") preceding the title
RE.o.hittst. Thirr doile far emphasi8 in contr~ntwith the h l a e god


1 KINGS 18:24-29


bull and cut it in pieces and pu.t it upon the wood,

but they should not put fire to it. And I myself
shall dress the ather young bull and I must place
it upon the woad, but I shall not put fire ta it.
"'And you must call upon the name of YOUR
godRand I,for m y part, shall call upon the name
of Jehovah, and it must occur that The [true]
Codb that m v e r s by fire; is The [true God."CC
To this all .the people ms\~~er&
and said: "The JK
I~:IIt :?I:=
2 c h 7:1
thing is good.""
4 > f ! 399
25'jah now said to the prophets of Ba'al :a
"Choose for yourselves one young bull and dress
I t first, became YOU are the majority, and call
upon the name of om god,a but YOU must not 1:Ira
MI 6:7
put fire t o it."l aGAcc~rdingly
they took the 'p: :;?:?,
young bull that he gave them and they dressed i;r;
it and they kept calling upon the name of Ba'alfl J,;;;:;if)
from morning till noon, saying: "0Ea'al,O an- isn
111th2: I8
swer us!"$ But there was no voice and there was
no one answering.+ And they kept limping 1Ir7rr~:):x
" If1 J(i.10
around tlie altarc that they had
z 7 And ;?,V r y 1 3
it came about a t noon that Ehllrjahbegan t o
mock them" and say: "Call at the top of your ;:f,hP15::z9
voice,B for he is a gad,&" for he must be con- 1:,cL$$d7
cerned with a matter and he has excrements ,plt;j
and has t o go t o the privy.lE Or maybe he is ;;I ;!;;:
asleep and aught to wake up!'""-'And they be- Jbn . I I I . : ~ R
gan calling at the top of their voice and cuttingn 'f;:: ::;'?'
themselves according to their custom with dagQ,
gers and 114thlances until they mused Mooclc ::icl J1zlB
te flow out upon them. '"nd
it came about that,

the plurnl nf et.oralt and nppIying te tlwil-

false god Ba'nl. 3 "'The [tme] tbil.'' 31. Ira-E1.n.Binr'. f ( * l l ~ r v @ ~ljy

thc irlatire clause "that an+\vets by titr." O0'T!rc [true] 1;od."
;\I, Ira-El.o.lri>~",
absolnte, in the pretiirate. Src verse 11, I'floti~ntr?
d *.Ra'al.'' X. kab-Bnr'nl; litcrrrllp, "'tl~rBri'nl." e Litcinnlly, "Clall
ujth a grent roicc? Y.

1 KINGS 18:3047


soon as noon was p ~ s tand they continued

behaving' as prophets' until the going up of the
grain offering,there mas no voice and there was
no one answering and there was no paying of


d E:!

n tten tion

r t G 4:s
vJTCl 1%14


30 Pit length E.1l'jah said ta all the people:

>:.:ur.;,i ,"Approach me." So all the people approached
$:',::',$, him. Then he pmcwled to mend t h e altar of
El;'ziii 'Jehovah that was torn down.' " So E-li'jah took
~7 >: 7 .16 lwelve stoncs, acceding to the number of the
T;/P .;
3-..'H tribe5 of the sons of Jamb, to whom Jehovah's
word had corne,y saying: "Israel is what your
name will become,""" A n d he went on t o build
=I.\ 2 25
the stones into an altar* in the name of Jeho, ,
I. i.: :;I 1
7:17 vah3 and t o make a trench, of about the area
sowed \trjth two seaha measures of seed," all
,;,',I; ';:
around [he altar. "After that he put the pieces
IJr 1-:Y
of wood" in order and cut t h e young bull in
1 J P !!7:ci
pieces ~ n placed
it upon t h e pieces of wood.
Lo 1 .'I
He now snit\: "FILLfour large jars with water
nnd pour0 it upon the burnt offering and upon
pieces of tvood." 3* Then he said: "Do it
*EKPS:&I t l l ~
again," So they did it again. But he said: '"o
I t R third time." So they did it a third time.
water went all around the altar, and
3 ~ 5 3 the trench also he filled with water.
2 2 'I
36 And it came about at the t h e ' that the
l ( " I L"':18
fl grain offering goes up that E-Ef'jah the prophet
Yt ?-':A2
began to approach and say: "0Jehovah, the
Y '1,' l8 God of Abraham,"saacO
and Israel," today let
i t be known that you are God in Israel" and I
am your servant and it is by YQUr word that I
:* have done all these things." 2 7 h m - e r me, 0
. l ( ~ l l11:.12
c_!il Lr; Jehovah," msrver me, that this people may



t ! : :p


, _,

A ~ r n l ~ nbnul 11.2 tlunrts

/r.8, A,).

h o w that you, Jehovah,k are The [true] Goda k,; yj!ll

md you yourself have turned their heart back. "n ;;;zg
38 At t h a t the firer of Jehovah came falling
and went eating3 up the burntQoffering and the gizf
pieces of wood and t h e stones and the dust, ~ n dni;!s;;f
the water that was in the trench it Lfcked up:
$"Wen a11 the people saw it, they immediately r;cb n w
fell upon their f acest and said: 'Tehhoah Es The & :%?
[true] Godlb Jehovah is The [true] W ! " h , f ~ t ~ ~ : f 2 I
Then E.Li8jahsaid to them: "Seize the proph- t J p
ets of Ba'al?cDo not let a single one of them
escape!" At once they seized them and'jah
brought them down t o t h e torrent valley of
Ki'shonm and slaughtered them there.v
U Js
41 E-li'jah now said to A'hab: "Ge up, eat and ' '"'
drink, for there is the somd of the turmoil of
a downpour,"y
A'hab proceeded t o go up y A c m : l d
to eat and drink. As for E.liljah, he went up t o
the top of Car'rnel and began crouching to the
earthz and keeping his face put between his ',0,e,2,4!:2
knees.' Then he said to his attendant: "Go up, E,":l?&a
please. Look in the direction 02: the sea." So he *$:;c?i13
went up and looked and then said: "There js r c a I ~ I . ;
nothing at all.'' And he went on to say, "Go
back,'"fforseven times." 44 And i t came about at
the seventh time that he got to say: "Look! L L 18:7
there is a small cloud like a man's palm ascendS:T
ing out of the sea."* He IBOIV said: "Go up, say AJob
RC 4:lo
to A'hab, 'Hitch up!O And go down that the @ " l c l : l J
downpour may not: detain you!' "' And it *AC
came about in the meantime that the heavens
themselves darkened up with clouds and



mL'Rnow that p u are Jehe~ahGod'' LXX. Here "The

God" is ka-Ek.o.him' in &
~he.m<LXLX. 'The [bun] Qod."
M, htc-ELo.lrim'. See verse 24, footnote c. 'Bn'al)' M, hub-Bn"crl;
literally, <'the Ba'al."

1 KINGS 18:46-19:7


I"&",\$% wlndh@and
#Jar rs.18


k - X l :#:IS
I * ~ L8 I1
I:,.,, 1 :3

a neat downwur began to occur.'

And A'h~bkept riding and made his way to
Jezrre.el." * U n d the very hand of Jehovah
provecl: ta be upon Edi'jah,k so that he girded
UP his loinsn and went runnfng ahead of A'hab

all the way to Jez're.el.r

Then A'hab" told Jez'e.belt dl that E.Ii'jah had done and all a b u t how he had

J,,lr :U- 3
rl:'r- :' 17

all the propl~etswith a sword.. a At that

;y;lf ;j:$ killed'
Je;rre.hel sent a messenger t o E-li'jah, saying:

:'<II r i r 25 17
: : ~ ~

"SOmay the godst3?

dov and 50 may they add to
jf &tthis time tomorrow I shall not make
:i.T4 your soul lilce the soul of each one of them!"z
' And 11e becnmc afraid.= Consequently he rose
la1il1?1.2$ up and began t o go for his sould' and came to
1'1" 27 1
13 Beter-she'baIoo which belongs to Judaha4 Then
Ilc left his attendant behind there. 'And he him1 I
lSfi 27:1
tcj<i 20:2o self went into the wjlderness a day'so journey
i';:'," $! and at length came and S R ~down under a cer$;l\;pl rz;:il i $ l d t ~ i nbroom treea0And he began ta ask that his
soul" might die and t o say; "It is enough! Now,
0 Jehovr~h,take my soul away,' for I am no
i 1"11
J r r C ~ I ~ I Qhettc? than my forefathers."
,Inn 1 , l
5 Finally he lay down and fell asleep under
the broomKtree. Bul; look! now an angel* was
"I r> t> 3):d ,
3 1 ; Itouching him, Then he sajd t o him: "Rise up,
I " l.':10
eat." IbIVhen he Iootred, why, there at his head
j:::i*j 4:
17:12 was a round cakcl; upon heated stones and a
cRnteenh of water. And he began to eat and
[ r 33.16
-ti:ri 'clrlnk, after which he lay down again.
IlKr lC31
ullCI 1H:40


:.rj:lo ft,y

4 i y t



u n f ~ i i ~ d31,
. 7 *rn8(tcrlrh; L-KX.pvrrt'rnn; Vg, t-rn'lus. Co~npnre&a1 ; 2, i~wjllint* (1, nnul C : P H P L ~ 6 : ll f ~mtuotet), h "Tl~epiTs."
51, rl.o.lri?rrP, ncron~pnnirtl1 , ~thcb rrrt) "tln" in the p t ~ ~ nmhiber;
" - h d he became
I , S S . hn flrr!.n..' ("l-io!l") ; TJT, r7i'i ("gads").
11 l r~iid,"LLSST'gS;r nntt mauy T1rI)rrw lunuuscril~te
; "And he get





r ~ , "17,




the angel of Jehovaho came back a second time

and touched him and said: "Rise up, eat, for
the journey Is tm great for you,"' So he rose ;E;$$?;i3
up and ate and drank, and he kept going in the jJ;jIy
power of that nourishment for forty days8 and ,!;;;!$,,
forty nights' as far as the mountain of
& l h +:lo
tl:\ 3.1
h;\ 3!1:18
9 There he now entered into a cave," that Uhlal
he might spend the night there, and, look! there f ~ ? ~ , ' ~ ? : ~
was Jehovah's word for him and it went an to Vb:j:$Gi:
say to him: "What is your business here, E.11'y&; :,;3,
jah?"v l a To this he said: "I have absolsMy
tolerated no rivalry? against JehovahGthe God
of armies,O for the sons of Israel have left your ;,:fi;;;m
~ o v e n a n t your
, ~ altars they have torn down' W;~j:I ~;;I,;I ~ I : ~
and your prophets they have killed with the
sword,u so that I only am leftd and they begin
lookjng for my soul to take it away."$ "13ut ;:l;;,;
it said: "Go out, and you must stand on the
mountain before Jehovah."' And, look! Jehovah * ~ $ ; ; y "
was passing by+' and a great and strong windh' e;#j
t ~ ,1o::o
was rending mountains and breaking crags be- :!:$!i:
fore Jehovah." (Jehovah was not in the wind.)" ,% $,:
And after the wind there was a q ~ a k i n g(Jeha.~ &
vah was not in the quaking.) l 2 And af'ter the
quaking there was a fire." (Jehovah was not in
the fire.) And after ;the f i e there was a calm, :
I-, 50.3
law voice."' '"nd
it came abmtt that as swn
as E-lf'jah heard it he immediately wrapped his Ic/,:;gl:kf5
face in his garments and went out and stood at K; &?,
the entrance of the caw, and, Imk! there was
a voice for him and it proceeded to say to him : ,'G'





a4'God," N, ha-ELo.hinzp; Iitmltp, "The [true] God," Comparo

Exodus 3 :1. "Wind"
r~r'akk; L-LT, pneti'm; Vg, upi'ri4 z(8.
Compare Genesis 1:2,footnote a. =LSXA reads: "~oicv,rind Jchasah vas there?


1 KINGS 19 : 14-21

"What is your business here,'jah?"t Ta

this he s ~ i d :"I have absolutely tolerated no
rivnfry a g ~ i n s tJehovah the God of armies, far
Israel have left your covenant,ll your
llavc torn down and your prophets
1.0 1 4
JM 2r.9
they have killed with the sword, so that I only
llub 5 9
am left and they begin Eaaking for my soul ta
\'lKI 1910 take It fiway,""
15 Jebm7nhnow said to him: "Go, return on
>$jg,y;5 your way to the wilderness of Darnascus,y and
you must come in and anointz HazSa.el' as king
,sn :,.3
over Syrja. And Je'llu' the grandsonn of Nirn'1
$hiAyou ~110uldanoint as king over Israel, and
*s,i;i h.q
.1CI 9:14 E . l i ' s h ~ ' >the
~ son of Sha'pbat from A%el,,,,,
mne.horlah' you should anoint as prophet in place
( ? I id::,7
l~ : ' 3 of Y Q U . ~L 1 And it must occur that the one escap.J *7:::
ing from Haz'a.ells sword' Je'hu will put to
I?<! ,,:I2
: r i ~ : . i n death, and the one esc~ping
from Je'hu's sword*
. ~ 1 i n:12
: 8 1 i l o:1.1 E~li'sha"wi13, put to IbAnd I: have let
2121 ro:a
I:,: seven thousand remain in Israel,rhall the knees
*"<I o.O.I t h ~ have
not bent down to Ba'alr and every
t n o ~ ~ that
t h has not kjssed him."#
19 Accordingly he went from there and found
, l/;;Lz;$L
the R O of
~ Sha'phnt while he was plow\;:;i1P
ing wlth twelve spans before him and he with
the twelfth,' Sa E-li'jah crossed over t o him and
I I :
threw his ofllcial garmentu upon him. '"At that
,I, i . 1 1
SP 70 he left the bulls and went running after E.lirjahV
YI<b 2:q
rind said: "Let me, please, kiss my fa*er and
3 \ T L .I.-o
nzy mother.."Then X wit1 go following you." At:
j I .!I 9 ti1
this he said to him : "Go, return, for what have I
done to you?'q1 Co he returnzd from following
him arrd t1.1cntook a span of the bulls and sacrir24r@24:22
ficed themz and with the implements of the bulls
t l m lo:9





a 1 ,ill>riblly, dsmn,"11. b M ~ n n i n g"God

mti,(,'; VE, E./I',Y~MY,

is enli-a.ntion.'' LX-I,


1 KINGS 20 :1 G 1 4

he boiled thefr flesh and then gave it t o the people and they proceeded to eat.' AfXer that he *Lu 5:a9
rose up and went following E-ll'jah and began
UEX =:la
to niinisterc) to him.
Nu 27:18
Asa for Ben-hatdadAthe king of Syria, iEi::j43
he conected all his military forces to- zE;;i;;,
gether and also thirty-two kings with him4 and $giB;?~
horses' and chariotse and he proceeded to go Jer49:27
up and lay siege"to Sa.mar'S.affand fight against o$?&$
it. Then he sent messengersk to A%ab the J,$w1:7
king of Israel at the city. And he went on + $ ~ ~ ~ : : f
t o say to him: "This is what Ben-ha'dad has ,pgg
said, 'Your silver and your gold are mine and
&; ; ;*Le%:=
your wives and your sons, the best looking, are
De 28:52
mha' 'fn To this the king of TSFR~?~
answered *2Ki
and mid: '%ccording to your word, my lord the Gg
g"; ; ;
king* yours 'S am with all that belongs t o me."t
5 Later the messengem came back and said: n.p;;;$
'This is what Ben-ha'dad has said, 'I sent to rgg:g
you, saying: 'Your silver and your gold and J 15.11
& 13:s
your wives and your sons you will give me. But l=L
about this time tomorrow I shall send my servants to you and they must carefully search your
houseB and the houses of your servants, and
f t must occur that everything desirable' to your t G e 27.15
eyes they will put in their hand and they must FJ*;

v ~ K 19:29




take it away." ' "

7 At that the king of Israel called all the oIder
men of the landU andt said: "Take note, please,
and see that it is calamity that this one is seek-

La 1 : ~

sons and my silver and my gold and I did not

for he sent t o me for my wives and my

hold them back from him." a Then all the older

men and all the pmple said lo him: "Do not
obey, and you should not consent,'' * So he said
*This is chapter 21 in L a .



t o the messengers of Ben-ha'dad: "Say to my

lord the king, 'All that you sent to your servant
at first I shall do, but this thing I am not able to
do,' " With that the messengersmwent off and
brought word back to him.
10 Ekn-ha'dad now sent t o hlm and said: "Fa

it,= if the dust of Sa.mar'i.a will be sufficient

for hmdfuls for all the people that follow me!"'
In turn the king of Israel answered and said:
:;:gig I1"You
men, speak [to him], 'Donot let m e girding on boast about himself like one unfasten17:44 ing.' "= l aAnd it came about that as soon as he
Pr n:1
heard this word, while he himself and t h e kings
were drinking" in the booths, he immediakly
said t o his servants: "Get set!" And they began
LU 2 1 : ~ t o get set against the city.
13 And, Iook! a certain prophet approached
~ K i 6 : 9 A'hab the king of Israel4 and then said: "This
is what Jehovahb has said,"'Have you seen all
@Ex 14E;Y m u this great crowd? Here I am giving it into your
~ ~ 37:zo
hand today, and you -1 certainly know that I
01sa42:8 am Jehovah,' "bo@
l4 Then
A'hab said: "By
whom?" t o which he said: "This is what JehoOZK124:f2 vahb has aaid, 'By the young men of the princess


Literally, "that

are at m q feet!" X. bMJehovah," M ; Kytsi.a,q,

LXX-*B; literally, "Jehovah:' dquilajs Cheek version. In palimpsesk
fragments of the b o o b of Kings aomrdi~~g
to the Cheek trandation
of the second centmy by the Jew~shproselyte hquila, found in the
synagogue genixah a t Cairo, Egypt, hut now in tho T~ylor-Schechter
Collection nt Camhidge (Englarld) Unirersity E l ~ r a ~ the
y , tr-tmgra~nmatouof the divine nmnc oceurs here mitten in ancient Hebrew characters in the midst of the && text, p r o ~ i n gthat the
divine name did appear in the ancient Oreek versions o f thc Hebrew
Ber*iptures. On this Dr. C. Taylor, iu his prrface t o Flag-ntel-its of
llro Books of hliwg~acco~diagto the trallslatiow of Aqrtila by F . C.
Ui~rEdtt (Caml~ridgeU&r,~ersity Press, 1S9Y ),
: [See boitoiln of
t1c.r t


1 KINGS 20:1%19


of the jurisdictional districts.' " Finally he said:

"Who will open the battle engagement?" to
which he said: "You!"
15 And he proceeded to take the count of the
young men of the princes of the jurhdictional
districts, and they came to be two hundred and
thirty-two,"and after them he took the count of "f&y\66
all the people, aU the sons of Israel, seven thou- 2 C h 14:n
sand. " And they began to go out at noon whilej
Ben -haOdadrvas drinking himself dntn km In the F g 6 ; g
booths, he together with the lcin~s,the thirty-two g;
kings that were helping him." When the young
menr of the princes of the jurisdictional dis-'nlKl20:14
tricts came out first, Ben-hatIda at once sent out
and they came telling him, saying: "There are
men that have come out from Sa.rnar8i.a."l8At
that he said: "Whether I t is for peace that they
hnve come out, YOU should seize them dive, or
whether it is for battle that they h ~ v come
out, r
g :j:12
a1ive YOU shouId seize
And these were i%:47;;3
the ones that came out from the city, t h e young p r 1 s : ~
men of the princes of the jurisdictfanal districts Pr
Lu 1421

and the military forces that were behind them.

And they began t o strike down each one his
man,a and the Syrianst took t o fljghtu and Israel
went in pursuit of them, but Ben-ha'dad the
king of Syria got to escapev upon a horse together with the horsemen. But the king of

$9,~"o&;z t i ; 5
2SR h.',



Israel went out and kept strikjn~down t h e

homes and the chariots, and h ~ struck
. .
the Syrians with a great s1aughtcr.s



22 Later the prophetQpproaclld the king of

Israel and said to him: "Go, strengthen yourSJf: 3 ':H
d note and see what you are going
r4 i:?~: l f k take
1 ,a f 1.20 to do, for a t the return of the yeara the king
l % nL7:~2
of Syria is coming up ageinst you."'
23 As for the servants of the king of Syria,
*: CII :>:a
they said to him: "'TheirGod is a Gdd of momT'r 2:' 3
PT 2*).18 t ~ i n s . ~That
is why they proved stronger than
C 2 5 n ?,
we were, So, on the other hand, let us fight
3 ? I I :W:IO
against them on the level land [and see] wheth!$',i$:"1% er we shall not prove stronger than they are.
do this thing: Remove the kings5 ezch
1\11 4 2 : ~
R(r 1 21
his place and put in governors instead
Clfil?1 1
le of them.' " As for you, you should number a
'li<b 22.31
military force far yourself equal to the military
force that fell from your side, with horse for
horse and chariot for chariot, and let us Aght
against them on the level land [and see] whefhQFs10:a er we shall not prove stronger than they are.""
Accordingly he listened t o their volcc and did






from bottom o) prerimra pagr] L'Questioning the
attktetUi?nt o f Origen nnd St Jerome tbnt tn tho Old T~stamentin

Grcek the Name it139 T~SI s o n ~ e t i ~ t ~writkn

in archaic Hebmw
cl~ui.ncters,Gc~enimin hia G~ac71icltic
drr brLrilieclren Sprache wptd
Grl~rrSF (1816) gave persdh~iveI'ebROllR f ~ wf liinkillg that Origen,
'eilt mittdmlisaiger Sprachke~merund wol~lnor11 ~chlcclitcrei~
Pal$og~~n]>ll,'nnd aftef him 'dcr gelehrterc Ifiaroiigmus' niistook pipi
in Oiurek capitnls for letters o f tlre Gnuimitnn nlphnbet; hut a Cairo
now shem the Tetragrsinarrtlot~ twittcn ns they had said.
t 18
. s r ~ s u l tfit onre i n t e r e ~ t i nil11d
~ not ttnirullortant that a aord
f roa the lnonth of h o such tritncsqe~,allich lnrbed rerificatian,
fibonld a t length have heen estah2ishcd. C. Tnylor, Combridge, 15th
111 ronfim~tionof this sea our Foreword to the h*ew World
of tks Christdnw Gren7: B r ~ Curee,
page 12, para~ r n p h1, snd p g e 15, foot not^ b. Bee 1 &age 1:17, Lotnote a.
C'ou~pnro1 Kings 22: 0, footnote a.


m:m just t h a t way.

26 And it came about a t the return of the
-11' ??I? year&that Ben-ha'dad proceded to muster the
I ' I' "":"'
Syrians' and to go up to A'pheku for battle
I..ll 9 12
Israel. a7 As for the sotls of Israel, they
lrAt u ~ ra o t ~ ~ rofn the yea," that is to ray, "next apt4ng." b Or,
VPYHU 2H, Iloutnote h.
"l'llcir bwd~nre gads of mountains," Bat

I ru ?6:5
:,ICI~ s:3

1 KINGS 20 :33--39

were mustered and suppliedk and began t o go kfp$!ll
out to meet them, and the sons of b r a d went
into camp in front of them Ifke two tiny flocks
of goats, whiIe the Syrians, for their part, Riled
lU Then t h e man of God"' approact~cd
and said to the king of Israel, yes, he went on %jt!;;:s,
t o gay: "This is what Jehovah has said, 'For p::r,y?;;y
the reason that the Syrians have said, "Jehovah 1x1:-t:ls
is a Godh of mountains and he is not s. Godh)of "'l'm:m
p l ~ i n s , "I shall have to giv@all this great ,E,no:a;
crowd into your hands and YOU men wlll cer- F&3$?27
.Talk U.16
tainly know that I am Jehovah.' ' I t
rc %:lo
29 And they continued encamped for swen
days, these in front of thaae.u And it came sbout ,4y6;;::'1:0
an the seventh day that the engagement in bat- rd.r 7.5
tle begm and the sons of Israel went striking!:!,'1.;"
down the Syrians, a hundred tl~ousandmen on E$*,?h14
foot tn one d~1y.vaP And those t h a t were left ';2L;:;:B
went fleeing to A'phek,y ta the city, and the wall v;?;
came falling down upon twenty-aev!venthousand 5::;; :A;*
men that were 1eft.e As for Ben-ha'dnd, he fled" 4,yi3;;$
n %jars
and finally came into the city into the inner- h*IhChF
4s: I 1

my soul live.' " To thls he said: TI^ he sWl dive?

He is my brother.'" So the menk themselves
tmk it as an omen and they quickly t w k it as a
decision of his awn accord and went an to say:
"Ben-ha'dad is your brother."'" At that he said:
"Come, fetch him." Then Benmha'dad went out
to him, and he a t once hncl him get up into the
chariotwonL4 [Ben-ha'dad] now sald t o him:
"The citiesr that my father took from your
father I sl~allreturn, and street9 you will assign t o yourself in Dsrna~lcusthe same as my
father assigned in Sa.rnarrE.a.""And as for me,
in a covenant" T shall send you w a y . ' ' With that
he concEudcd a covenantn with him and sent
a certain man of the sonst of the
said to 111s friend by the wardu of
'Strike me, please."" Rut the man re-

ovah,r here you ehrc going away

d a lion wlll certainly strike you
down.'' After that he went away from b i d e
lion= got to Rnd him and strike

moste room.
A111 :I: I I
31 So his servanw said to him: "Here, now, ?!I%:!;'

we have heard that the fdngs of the house of

Israel are kings of loving-kinciness,VPlease,let


u s carry sackclotR3 upon our loins* and ropes1?;;;
upon our heads and let us go out to the king of a;$;f:s
Israel. Perhaps he will preserve your soul <;,.s; :$
five,"^ " Accordingly they girded ~salccloth fi'i'; .?j'?&
alsout their loins, with ropes upon their heads, y(:L2?j/
and came in to the king of Isrnel and said: w":5m1:1''
"Your servant" Ben-hardad 11as said, 'Please, let ;lfie 2 : l l
' l:(r i l , I !3.:!4


$'Man of fled.'", ish ha-El.a.hi~~s',See I)eutt.ronorny 33 : 4, footnote



God4'' XI Ei.o.7ris'; the pIurnl th Ii'l,o'ah, to (l+bl~ota

cxcclln~caor rnajdy,

38 Then the prophet went and stood still for


at as the

khg WBB passing by he

m'LSonsof the propheta!' The Rt4st time thia =pression o e e m .

b "Striking and wounding." The Hebrew verbs here a r e in the inflaitive ahsolute, and henoe are irnpcrmaal and iodeflaite rta to
time. Con~pareE x o d u ~20 : 8, foothate 1.

cried out to the king and proceeded t o say:' Yf,Q;"Zi,

"Your servant himself went out into the thick z s n 14.4
of the battle and, look! a man was leaving the
litie and he came brin,&g a man to me and then
s:tid, 'Guard this man. If he should in any way
hc mhsing, then your soul" will have to take C;ZK1k27
Ihc place of his soul: or eIse a taIent of silvern OE;it;:$
gau will weigh out." ig And it came nbout t h ~ t :$21
ns your servant was active here and there, why,
11e himself was gone." At this the king of Israel
snld to him: "Thus your oun judgment le. You i'4 4 k 7
yourself have decided."" Upan that he hurriedly removed t h e bandage fPom over his eyes and 42
the Icing of Israel got ta recognize him, that he i;;h2i5;:
was from the pi-ophets."f2 He now said to him :
"Thk is what Jehovah has said, 'Forl l l e reason rl.<;l 15:9
thnt you have let go out of your hand the man ' ; \ ~ / $ $ ~ ~
clcvo2cd to me for destr~ction,~"
your soul must i2$;
lrh<c the place of his soul]<and your people the ?j;;tg
place of his people.' "n At that the king of r;;fbf;:;h
I ~ ~ . n cwent
on his way toward hls house SRCT
nr~ddejected= and came to Sa.rn~r'l.a,
.JK 0.33
I hn 29: l
And it came about after these things that ;z!;:ls
there was a vineyard' that happened t o ;;;:\1;;:28
belong t o Na'both the Jez're.el.jte, which was in 1.1P Yrb ,21J T
Jezrre.eP,e beside the palace of A%ab t h e king .ra.r?~:17
of Sa.ma9i.a. ? So A'hab spoke t o Na'both, say- :!,'$
ing: "Do givet me your vineyard," that i t may l'i.1 G[:I4
serve as a gardencv of vegetablesy to me,for jt ::2:,2:{7,
is close by my house, and l e t me give- you in ~,*,;:4,727
place of it a vineyard better than it. [Or] If $:;,;:qO
jt is good in your eyesz I will give you money
as the price of this," But Na'botl~said to A'habr



the iwrd that Na'both the JexFre.ePen t o him, when he said: ''I shall not
give you the hereditary possession of my forefathess,'TThen he lay down upon his couch and
kept his face turned, and he rlid not eat bread.'
5 Finally Jez'ebbelmhis wife came In t o him
and spoke to him: "Why is it that your spirit
is sad' and you are not eating bread?" At that
he spoke to her: "Because I proceeded 20 speak
to Xa'both the Jez're.eI-ite~ n say
d to him, 'Do
give me your vineyard lor money. Or, if you
prefer, let me give you another vineyard in
said, 'I shall not give yurt
t you that now exercise the kingael?k Rise up, e a t bread and let
merry, Z; myself shall give you
Na'both the Jezleael.ite."n U c -



"A t ~ l ~ on ft siher." Its weight wns 115 I ~ R

. nnil equaled
81,'?14,40 (r.
R. A,) in April, 19.72. Fee F,soclas 38 : 24, footnote 11.
LiternU~;"tl~elunn rn7 derot~dthi~~g."

"It is unthinkable' on my part, from Jehovah's

me to give the hereditary' pos-


in tile letters, saying: "Proclaim11 a fast

have Na'taotb sft at the head of the people.v
make two men,y good-for-nothing" felsit in front of him and Iet them bear
s against him,' shying: 'You have cursedh


uGood-for-nothing fellows," Litey,ally, "HOHI 011 Betli.~I(or,~ o i q h Irbssness)," 11. $ Literally, "blefinetl, AE. 13111 unr~ilcuplietl~iubicall;y
"cursed" out of ~ c s p c c t ,hecnuhc, < j r > r l n11t1 t h r h king n r e the ones
~wwrd. This ia one o i t11c IaIigl~kv~>
of the deffi~h
S1113E1vrin1.See &!~esis 19 : 12, f onlfirrt~n .

I KINGS 21:11-18



1 KINGS 23 ;19-26

God and the king!'" And bring him out and stone
ehe is h t h e vineyard of Na'both,
i$p whereT hhee ~has
~t 26~65
him that he may die."*
gone down t o take possession of
Ac 23:5
11 So the men of his city, the older men and * ~ ! $ ~ ~ yGe
z r ; a ~ : 9 it. Is And you must speak to him, saying, 'This
H a b 2:9
the nobIes that were dwelling in his city, did
ZEX 2 1 ~ 2 3 is what Jehovah has said: "Have you murdered
just as Jez'e-be1 had sent to them, just as it was
g,"g:lland also taken possession?"'y And you must
written in the letters that she had sent to themc oE
speak to him, saying, 'This is what Jehovah has
;i;:S *Job
They proclaimed a fast1 and had Na'both sit lF;e2;:!4
said: "In the placp where the dogsBlicked up
at the head of the people. l3 Then two of the
,K, ,:,,'the blood of Na'both the dogs will lick up your
men, good-for-nothing fellows," came in and sat
g;? blood,' even yours." ' "*
down in front of him and the good-for-nothing
20 And A'hab proceeded t o say to E.lirjah:
; 22:8; *'Wave
men began to bear witness against him, that is,
you found me, 0 enemy" of mine?"" to
2Ch 18:17
Na'bath, in front of the people, saying: "Na'Am s:ro which he said: "I have found you. 'For the
Mr 12.12
both has cursedh God and the king!"' After that +lKtZl:lo
AIKI 16,30 yeasun that y o u have sold yourself to do what is
they brought him out t o the outskirts of the
igf bad in the eyes of Jehovah: here I am bringcity and stoned him with stones, so that he
O&~~~?;10ing calamity upon you,O and I shall certainly
+2K18:8 make a clean sweep after you+ and cut off from
died." "They now sent t o Jez'e-bel, saying: ' j ! $ ~ ~ ~ ~
2I<i 10,7
"Na'both has been stoned so that he is dead."" zs$3:$$
anyone urinatinf against a wa1P and the
f ; ~ ; ~ ; : : ~A'hab
z ~1 i0 : i ~helpless* and worthless onea" in Israel. ? ? And
15 And it came about that, as soon as Jez'e- i g j fi2&
2K1 10:N
#mi l4:lO I shall certainly constitute your house like the
be1 heard that Narboth had been stoned so Ec5:S
that he died, Sez'e-be1 immediately said to
h o w of'amn the son of Ne'bat and like
2Ki m:%
A'kab: "Rise up, take possession of the vine:I
,2gi:";f$the house of Ba'a.shar the son of A.hirjah, for
the offense with which you have offended and
yard of Na'both the Jez're.el.ite," which he re- u$$\:37
then eaead Israel to sin.'a And also as refused to give you for r n ~ n e y , ~for
k Na'both is pJ$l$;J
1 ~ I$:ZB
gards Jezre.belJehovah has spoken, saying, 'The
no longer dive, but dead." ]%And
it came about
t2K1 9.10
z i
very dogs will eat up Jezle.bel in t h e plot of land
that, as soon as A'hab heard that N a ' h t h was
Ps 7 2 6
" A n y one of Athab's dying in the
dead,' A%ab at once rose up to go down t o the-!&$:;
,,IK~14:Ll of Je~'re.d.~
vineyard of NaJboth the Jez're.el.ite, to take g;g:13
:f!::;icity the dogs will eat up and anyone dying in
RO 1:3z
the field the fowls of the heavens will eat
possession of it,a
ZFe 2:15
25 Without exception no one has proved to be
17 And Jehovah's3 wordt came to E.liljahu g;cEg;:l9
y:,K: ;
;::2F like
A%ab,y who sold himself to do what was
the TishJbite, saying: " "Rise up, go down t o ,'2"1~~2!;62;
18:4 bad in the eyes of JehovahJZwhom Jez'e.bel"
meet A'halo the king of Israel, who is in Sa.marrIKi 19:2
And he went on t o act very
pr 2214 his wife egged
Wood-for-nothing fellows." Literally. "som of {or, ~ o r t h detestablp by going after the dungy idols? the
A'l. But wed euphenlrstlcally foz
Iessness) ," X, J ~ ~ C ~ n l"blessed,"'
:i78 same as all that the Arnror-itesdhad done, whom
''cursed" ant of iberpect, bemuse God and the Hiu:, are the one5
cursed. This is one of the Eight~enEmendations of the JPTF~G~ r
a Literally, "and one restrained end one let go (or, abandoned) ," M.



Gophei-im. See Genesis 1 S : 22, footnote a,


Deuteronomy 32 : 36, footnote a.

1 KINGS 21227-22 :6


Jehovah drove out on account of the sons of

ace IS:IB
Ilr 12:!31
27 And it came about that as soon as A%ab
head these words he proceeded to rip his
clothes apart and to put S R C I ~ C I O ~ ~ 'upon his 'F:n3:iyf
flesh," and he went on a fast and kept s i t t l n ~ "1"
jn s~ckclothand walking despondently ,""Rd
Jehovah's word came to E-Ii'jah the Tish'hitc,
saying: 2o "Rave you seen how A'hab has humbled himself on my a ~ c o u n t ?For
~ the reason *$;#$
that he has humbled himself because of rnc, I
shall not bring the calamity In his ovn d ~ y s .g
In the days of his son I shall bring the calamity
*EX m!~
lpon his house.""
21CI n:*a
And for three years they continued ;$Kt
21-c b I(E:U
dwelling without war between Syria and
Israel. 2 A n d it came about in the third year,
that JchoshJa.phatk t h e king of J u d ~ l h pl'0-'k2fi1&!4
ceeded t o go down to the king of Isracl, T h e n 2C'h ~ : 3
the king sf Israel said t o his servants: "Do sou
redly lmow that Ra'moth-gil%.adn belongs t o ; ; ,4
us? Yet we are hesitating t o take it out of the ;E;$g
hand of the king of Syria." %d he went on


Jehovaha wlI1 give it Into the king's hand,')

7 But Je.hoshra.phatsaid: "Is there not hem
a prophet of Jehovah still? Then let us inquire
j.21f13:11 through him.'" * At that the king of IsraeI said
ZCh 18:6
to Je.hosh'a.phat: ''There is still one man
L - I K ~ ~ B * fhro~tghu~homt o inquire of Jehovah,%but I
lI<1 19:lO
*1!i121:20 myself certainIy hate him,' far he does not
2 C h =:I6
rJs ~ 2 1prophesy good things concernfng me but badDHe b 11.37

t o the fight at Rakmoth-gil'"FA t thjs Jehosh'a.phat said to the kina of Ismcl: "I am

t h e same as you. My people are the same as your

peoplenSMy horses are t h e same as your horses.'":;
5 However, Je.hosh'a.phat went on t o say t o
the king of Israel: "hquire,t pkase, first of all ty;g;%sl
for the word of Jehovah." So t h e king of Israel
collected the prophets together," &bout four Ip:$l
hundred men, and said to them: ''Shall I go ~ ~ l l ~ l l H : 1 e
against Ra'moth-gil'e-ad in war, or shall I re- '';F$i',i!T
frain?" And they began t o say: "Go
and ;!3;',%!+

Mi.caitahb the son of Im'lah," However, Je.hoshta.phat said: "Do not let the king s ~ ay thing
MCh 18:7 like that,"b
9 Accordingly the king of Israel called a
court off)ciaIphandsaid: "'Do bring
P !
the son of Imrlah qujckly.'" ""Now
'2Ch 16.8
the king of Israel and fe.hosh'a-phat the king of
%Es5:1 Judah were sitting each one on his throne,"
'EF 8:8
clothed in garments,' in the threshing floor a t
the entrance of the gate of Sa.marri.a, and d l
ezc~ls:llthe prophets were acting as prophetsu before
them.# Then Zed,'ah the son of Che.nat@;,hg::&
&e 133 a.nak made for himself horns of iron1<and said;
1c Jsr 27:2
Jer ZF~:IO "This is what Jehovah has said," 'With these
Jer 2E:2
23:17 you will push the Syrians mtjl you exterminate
J e r 29:21
other prophets were
~ them.'
3 l'"And
6~ l the
1"2Ch18:10prophesying the snme RT that, saying : ' G o up
s J e r 2 m to Ra'rnoth-gil'e-ad and prove successf~l,~
Jehovah 1r.ill certainly give it into the king's
t26h 1Rll hmd-tbt
13 And the messenger that had gone to call
Mi.cairahb spoke to him, saying: "Look, now!
"Jehovah," in ngrcen~entwith tll0 Oreek v r r ~ i o no ~f A q n i l ~ gym,
CIK1 m i 2



f o say to Je-hosh'a-phat: 'Will you go wit11 me

1 KINGS 22:7-I3

inncht~sant1 Theodotion ; T nttd 20 I T ~ b t o ~mnau~rriptu

; "A.rlo.tmyp
Itlie Lord],') 11;Do'rni,rrire,, TTg;h'g's'i.o~,
Jftrrf7jcr, Rg. (Colar n r e I Kings 20: 13, footllol,~L.) Thin is nue o f tile 131 places
11-here the J e i s h Sopherila nllored l"lto.trrrL' iri tllc 1l~lircmt e x t to
wnd .A.rJo.nuy'. S c c C4encrig IF; : 3, fool note n. b ;Micbd'irh tt, M;
1111vatililg" T h o k like Tnll(u) l"

he said: '1 shall

and 1 shall certainly become a decepf ~ ~ tive
~ ~ spirit
l B in the mouth of all hls pr~phets.'~
So he said: 'You will fool him and, 13rhat is more,
i n you will came off the wlnnm.16 Go out and do
that way.'^ an And now here Jehovah has put a
r2Ch 1R21
deceptive spirit into t h e mouth oP nZ1 these
prophets of yours,^ but Jehavnh himwlf has
De 2:m spoken calamity concerning you.'jx
ZCh 2 - 5 3
24 Zed.e.kitah the son of Che-na'anah now
and struck Mi-cai'ah upon the cheek*
which way did the spirit of
?ch15:22 Jehovah pass along from me to speak with
~ C I1
, 6 : ~yo^?''^ zJ At that IMi.caifaahsaid: "Look! you are
3Ir 1 4 f 5
seeing [which w a y ] on that dayd when you wilI
A, 23:2
the innermost4 room t o hide yourself."'
mountains, like sheepathat have no shepherd."O: $:\$?
the king of Israel said: "Take Mi.cai'ah
And he went on to say: "Jehovah is not a mas- OJ;"
and turn him back t o A'mon the chief of the
'B2m*'25city and to Jotash the Iting's son,' ?'And you
tcrb t o these. Let them go back each one t o his ;*:: ;;;;
MI 0 : : ~
house in peace."'
must say, 'This L what t h e Icing has said: "PUT
18 Then t h e king of Israel said t o Je.hoshta- *2l'h
this fellow in prisonQnd f ~ e dhim with a rePr 1n:a
phat: "Did I not say t o you, 'He will prophesy
duced allowance of breadu and a reduced allow??13;32
1 3 2 ~IS:=
concerning me, not good things, but bad1?"@ mh18:1'
ance of water until I come in peace," ' ."')< W PQn
19 And he went on to say: "Therefore hear .m ,:.,
that Mi.cai'ah said: "If you return at all in
the word of Jehovah:' I certainly see Jehovah ' ~ ~ ~ ~ : l , peace, Jehovah has not spoken withame."n And
18:Zf h e added: "I-Iear, all You peoples."r
sitting upon his k n e * a n d all thearmy of the ;;y7'??
heavens standing by him, to his right and to his $ ~ ; : f , ~
29 And the king of Israel md Je.hosh'a.phat
lefLk " And Jehovah proceeded to sny: 'Who I-'$10i:m
k2ng of J u d ~ hpmceedc~lto go up t o RdmathAeen18:28
will faol A'hab, hat he may go up and fall nt Ink aR +6 .t2a 36The kin^ of Israel now mid t o JeRatmoth-giltenad?'And this one began t o s ~ y
hosh'a.phat : "'There ~villbr n rlIsmd.slng and ensom.ething like this, while that one was saying ~ t : ~ ~ I~ ~ , ,
teringh into the battle [for rnc I , but you, for
something like that.D Finally a splrttmrcame $;61$,;
~ ~ ~ b ~1r2n: Flu, TIIF IFF PI mill be a
out and stood before Jehovah and said: '1 my-1;,:
Or, "spoken by." C o ~ t i p on~' m
~lisguisingand eiltesiog,"31. TIIF Il rlhr19w \'FI'~IU hcl'c nre nnd~rstood
self shall faol him.' At that Jehovah ~ a f dto him :
In I)P in the infirlitive n ) ~ ~ o l ! Rl tI ~I ~~~ I F I I I ~1F1 1 ' ~i i l l l ~ ~ ~ u ~and
l l n lintlcfinite na to time. "Tnke nrnrnr nnt3 P I I ~ P ~ ,Tr;
''1 sl~nllcampletelg
Literally, "one month," M. Or, Tord." M, aodo.trim',tho plural
the words of the prophets are unanlrnoudyBof
g a d to the king. LRt your wad, please, k o m e
like the word of one of them, and you must
speak W."Y
l4 But Mi-cai'ah said : "As J e h u
~x h la:*
vah is living'v what Jehovah will say to me, Y * K l ~ ~ l ~
that is what I shall speak."y la Then he came in y$hT%$
to the king, and the king proceeded to say to f~~2;::;
him: "Mi.cairah,shall we go to Ra'rnoth-gil'e-ad J6 W, P :>lma
In war, or shall we refrain?" At once h e snid 2c0 7:d
to hlm: "Go up and prove s~ecessful,~
and Jeho- &!gf.$.jT
vah will certainly give it into the Iring's hand."' .;j(;,:j;,
t that the king said t o him; "For how many
times am I putting you under oathQ that you ql;i~;rlx:s.~
should not speak to me anything but truth I11
the name of
l 7 So he said: "I cer- A2ch
tainly see all the Israelites scattered on the


' B y what meansl'a a T o thfs

go forth





cl.d6>1',to denote majesty or exeellen@e.

vlrvrr rn~w?fand enkl-," LSX TS y.

1 KINGS 2 2 ; 3 1 4 8


your part, put on your garments.'"

the king ofkraeldisguisedUhimself and entered Tqy,yf
into the battle.' As for the king of Syria, he ; it;&
had comanded the thirty-twar chiefs of the h;!2%
. J ~ . T~ s . - . t
chariots that were his, saying: "You must vl'(:h

fight," neither with the small' nor ihe great, y l r \ ~YI,:~

but with the king of Israel alone,"I And It: &PI,):!?;
came about that, as soon as the chiefs of the " \ $ ~ : I ~ I , ~ ~
chariots saw Je.hoshta.phat,they, for their part, ,jf;< g;:,
said t o themselves: "Surely it is thc king of
I ~ r a c l , "So
~ they turned aside against him t o "2Chlg:sl
fight, and Je.hosh'a.phat began to cl-y for aid, 'F:g;$'
And i t came about that, as soon as the chiefs F; ?&,I::
of the chariots saw that it w a s not the king of
Israel, they immediately came back from fob
ech 1 8 : ~
lowing him.'
34 And there was a man that bent the bow in
his innocence3 and he got t o strike"the kjng of ;;%
Israel between t h e appendages md the coat" of~;f~
mail, so that he said to his charioteer; "Turn t i l m 9:e
IrSUh 18:s
your hand around and take me out from the
camp, because I have been badly wounded."" ni$,"lz,35
Y%d the battle kept rising in intensity on that
day, and the king himseIf had t o be kept in a
standing position in the chariot facing the r l ~ t ~ Q ~
Syrians, and gradually he died" in the evenlng'
and the blood of the wound kept pouring out
upon the interior of the war chariot.^ wJAndm2C1'18!S1
the ringing csya began t o pass through the camp
about the setting of the-sun, saying: "Everyone
t o his cityt and everyone to his Innd!"u " Thus tq:jlifj:!
the Icing died, When he was broughtqto Sanmar'- t;!$72,
La, then they buried the king in Sa.msri.a.
"And they began t o wash o f f the war chariot



Or, ,possihlg, ('And the herald."

cnnre, JZSF; " t h q came," L-U".

"He was hror~&"

1 KINGS 22 :39--47


A~ccodingly trK122:10



;blz,P Iby the poal of S~.mar'inm d the dogsv went

Ed$$; ,licking up his blood (and the pmstitcrtes them; $ 7 selves bathed there), according to Jehovah's
had swken.s



of the affairs2 of A'hab
and the house*of ivory" that


he built and all the cilies that hc built, are they

not tvritteiz in the boolc of the affairs of the days
~ 2 27.15
; : 6
~ m & . d of the kings of Israel?
Ancl A'hab got to lie
ADe 31.18
253 ; : i ~ down with his forefathers," and A.ha.zi'ahah
l l i i 2:lO
Ira 14.31 son began to reign In place of him.
t21<l 1:2
41 AS for Jebhoshrabphnt'the son of Aka, he
+lFk:!O, had become kin^ over Judah in the fourth year
of A'hah the king of Brael. 4 3 Je.hosh'a.phat was
3it 1.5
4:17 thirty-five years old w11en he began to reign and
2x1 S:16
X I ; ; ~ li:n for twenty-five yenrs he reigned in Jeiusalern;"
lhl 10.2
x i 3510 and his mother's* nRme WRSA.zu%ah the daugh* T h 1;:3
ter of Shil'hi. 4 9 And he kept walking in all the
I L I K 15:s
way of A'SRhis f~ther."He did not turn aside
from it," by doing what was right in the eyes
of Sehovah,1' Only the high places1'themselves
lr:i 15:1-1 did not disappear." The people were still sacri21iI 12.3
144 ficing and rnalcing sncriflcial smoke on the high
21ir 16:D places. " And Je.hoshPa.phatkept peaceful relal'Ch 1317
39.2 tions with the kina of Israel." " As far the rest
the affaiizs of Je.hoshha.phatand the mightit!:<j
l a l i : 2 9 ness with which Ile acted and how he warred,
1135 19:12
-I 1424 are they not written in the boolcl o f the affairs
nv 1 : : ~ of the days of t h e kings of Judah? *a And the
1Co 6:9
rest of the male temple prostitwtesll that had
, G , Y B . ~ S been left over in the dnys oP A'SR his father he
cleared out S ~ o mthe land,
47 AS regards a king, there was none in
, 3:9
a deputy mas king.y
I-'.- 1i~s.9
;t.ltJvrz.idk~,Sf; mcnning "ITnlr (a) hns trrkcn hold?'
~lisnppear," N;"he did not re~norr?L.LYt'gEy.


48 Je.hoshFa.phat, for his part, made Tar'.

shishs &ips to go to B'phir for gold, md they
did not go,' because the ships were m w k e d at
E'zi.on-ge'ber." " It was then that A.ha.ziraht l ~ e
son of A'hab said to Je.hoshta.phat: "Let my
servants go with your s e i ~ a n t sin the ships,"
stnd Je.hosh'aqhat did not consent.
50 Finally Je.hosh'a.phat" lay down with hjs
forpfathersQand was buried with his forefathers
En the city* of David his forefather, and
ram4 his son began to reign in place of him.
51 As for A.ha.zitah1the son of A'hab, he became king aver Israel in Sa.mar'l,a in the seven1
teenth year of Je.hoshfa.phatthe king of Judah,
and he continued to reign wer Israel for two'
years. " And he kept doing what was badmin
Jehawh's eyes and rvenl walking in the way of
his rath~rkand in the way of his mother and in
the way of Jera-bo'amn the son of Ne%at,who
had caused Israel t o sin.' h 9 And he continued
serving 13a'alnand bowing down t o him and kept
oflendingt Jehovah the God of Lsrael according
t o all that hls father had d0ne.u



or, scoorfing to the Gmek Sepkmght,


-CC 1933'1


Nu 2J:17

QSa 8 3

began revoltuagainst Israel

after the death of A'habP


2 Then A.ha-zitahfell down

in his rmf chamber that was in Sa-rnar'i.a
t1Ki l:16 and g o t sick. So he sent messengers and said to
ML 10:25 them : "Go, inquire of Rar~l~ze'bubao
the god"' of
ut3 2 2 4
Ek'rsn' whether I shall revive from this slckEi
1 ~I!:
ness."' As for the angel of Jehovah,' he spoke
lsa 5 : 1 2 to E-ll'jahc tlre Tish'bite:
go up to
6lSa 510
LK!14:s meet the messengers 01' the Ling of Sn.mnr'i.a
"Kl E B
-1crls 22 and say t o them, 'Is it became there is no Godrn
*Sp 13 5
alT in Israel4 that YOU we going to inqujre of
,, ,,:, at
Ba'al-ze'buba the god', of Ekrron?t So thcrefore this is what Jehovah has said: "As regards
~ . l r c i l s : ~the couch upon which you have gone up, you
tively die." ' "U With 1hnt'jczhcwent off,
2 :
Jon 1 : s
LIT 3.22
5 When the messengers came back t o him he
11Gc" 17
xu ? C : G
I T 11:19 have come back?" " So tl~ey
said t~ him: "There
I<c R+13
~ s s-11
was a man that calm up t o meet us and he psoceedcd to say to us, 'Go, return to the king who
sent YOU and YOU must speak t~ him: "This is
2t;i 3:s
1.s w.8




a Npa11in~iWrvnnb

LOP^) of ? ~ P R , ' ' C ~ l n p ~ rkei n t t l ~ ~ w

12 : 24,
footnote 13. B "CIOII." JI, el.o.hi~r~
, tha p111rul of rl.o't{lt, tn dcnnte
fizccllence nurl rlicin~pnwrs, nnd IIPTP ppplied to nn'nl-~c'llnh.
Cbn~pfireJuqlzcar 16 :23, footnote n. El,r.ivlfi', 11;', L.LY;
EF.i'.rrs, T-g, Cotr~llnra1 Kings 17 : 1, foot note e.

2 KINGS 1:7-12



what Jehovah has said, 'Is it because there is no!

God at all in Israel that you are sending to In-;
quire of Ba'al-zerbuba the g o d h of Ek'ron? I
Therefom, as regads the much upon which you
have gone up, you will not come clown off it, because you will positively die.' '' ' " v
spoke to them: "What was the
t h e man that came up to meet




g b1:s
J e r 5:3

spoke these words to YOU?'" So they snid l o , a f ~ 20:2

him: "A man possessing a hair garment," ~I!!I
st Peathcr belt girded about his Ioinrj."~ Irnn~ediately he said: "It was E . l i ~ a 1 1the
~ Tlsh'l~ita."\;y;;;+~~
9 And he prcceeded to send to him a
fifty u3th his fifty." When he went up to him, ~'iki
there he was sitting upon the top of the rno::n- I :F:bi,':r
11 3
tnin." He now spoke t o him: "Man of God,rFt ! ~ e7.JIL
1f<l I H . 4 2
king himseIf has spo!ren, 'Do come down. , ,, I 3.w
But EJj'jahg answered and spoke t o t h e chief $2;I"27
of the fifty: "Well, if I am a man of God,]' Ict jl:(i:
Are' come down from t h e heavens and eat up 'i;
you and your fifty." And Are came descendii~g;:j 3);8:
from the heavens and went eating up him and !rcZj 1.':28
CUR 3 2 2
Ilks fifty.&
11 So he sent again to him another chiefc of
Afty with his fifty." In turn he ans~verdand '2$n1$i1
spoke to him: "Man of God,? this is what t h e ,
king has said, Qo come down quickly.' "" But'*lSn
PT m22:18
12'jahd answered and spoke t o them: "If I am lhn
a man of God.' let fireC come down from the1 :?K~":W

ai6Bn'nl-zo.'lb~~b,'*See verse 2! foatt~oten. ~ " ' O c ~ d , ")7r~VBI.HO 3,

footl~ate11, C Litern1l)-, <"Arnan nn 01vnci3 (btcn'el) o f l i i ~ i t - , " RI,
d Fee verse 3, footnote c, e "Chief," 31, srtr; Tg, p ~ i t ~ ' { ~ t ~ if aL, <a, l I n ~ ~
of God," M, is71 Fta-El.o.7iimt; literally, "mon ol' Tlu~rind." Scbc
Dcnterononry 33 : 1,footnote n. E'l.i,ic~'krt, 31. pro 1 Kiiigs 17 : 1,
f'ocrttlofe e. "'>Ian of God.'' 31, iab EF.o.hii~r'; ~r-lthoattlu dcflnite
nrticlc ko ['.The") before the title El,o.lrim'.

aEx 11 s
Ku 12:ll

2 KINGS 1~13--17

heavens and eat up you and your fifty." And

firek of God came descending from the heavens
and went eating up him and his fiftyen
13 And he went on to send again a third chief
of fifty and his Afty.' Rut the third chief of fifty
went up and came and bent doi~rnupon his knees
in front of E.1itjah*and Degnn to jmplares favor

of him and s p e k~ to him : "Man of G ~ d ,please

let my soulti and the soul of tl~esefifty servants
of yours be precious* in your eyes, Here fire
came down from the hewens and went eating
P S ~ Z : Iu
~ p ~
the two former chiefs of fifty and their
y2Kt 1:10
:ml:rr fifties, but now let my soul be precious in your


i eyes.OZ

Ps 116:15

Pr 5:26

h ~ t16:%
Ac 20 2 1

*GE 13:l

Ps 213

lsa 51:U




Xu 26:65


15 At that the angel of Jehovah0 spoke t o

Eli'j&:a "60down with him. Do not be afraid
because of him."' So he rose and went do119
with him to the king, lU
Then he spoke to him:
"This is what Jehovah has said, 'For t h e reason
that you have sent messengersn to inquire of
Baral-ze%ub4the god^ of Ek'ron,O is it because
there is no Gad at all In Israel of whose word to
inquire? Therefore as regards the couch upon
which you have gone up, you will not come down
off it, because you will positive!y die.' "* '"And
he gradually died, according to the word of
Jehovah that E.lj'jahn had spoken, and 3e-borramdo began t o rejgn in place of him, in the second year of Je.hotrasn the son of Je.hashra.phat
the king of Judah, because he had not come to
have a son,

'El.k.h'hzr, M ; thns th-angh the! red of the! nccount t o 2 R i n g s

10 :17, and a t 2 Vhr~oniclc*~
21 : 12, b "Man o f God," 31, isla Lrit~~l.o.kinet;
literally, "mnn of The Qod!'
3ce Deutcro~~otny
33: 1,
I'notnote a. a
>II pl,o.Jzin~'~&P Y ~ 3,Cfnothbte h, "Je.ho'rrlnl," 31; "Je.botralu his b r o t l ~ ~ r ~ X L Z , T ; L R f lodlrlon.
~ ~ I f ~ t ~TgS,r.



18 As for the rest of AA.ha.zirah's'

things that 'Wl
he did, EWE they not written in the baoku of the L:Ef z;g

2 KINGS 2:7-14

But he said: '% AsJehovah

js Jivingf
as your soul fs 1iving,k 1 will not leave you.""
affal~sof the days of the kings of Israel?
SO both of them went on. And there were fifty
menr of the sons OF the prophets~that went and
And It c m e about that when Jehovah was
2Ki 4:M
n2K12:2 kept standing In view at a distance; but, as for
t o take E.liPjahbin a windstorm up to the l ~ ~ ~ ~ " : 1
11cavens'~E.litjah and t o go filch
r:Ei :iI:ii:3 both of them, they stood by the Jordan, 'Then
r ~ G 6:24
7-li'jah took his omcia1 garments and mapped
from Gil'gaLbs zAnd'j~h began t o say to FJl;::;q
up and struck the watersQand gradually they
EJi'sha: a "Sit here,' please, because Jehova11 t;;~pr;;,;~
; : &m 3e;;:;: 4 itwere
divjded this wng ~ n that
way, so that
hrmself has sent me clear to Beth'el."o Rut E.11'-ozli~n i r s
Mt 11:8
~ E X I ~ : both
dry gr0und.c
shn said: "As Jehovah is Iivingo and as your nljlb
t 1 L U 1:15
Jos 3:16
9 And it came about that as soon as they had
PS 111:5
soul is l i ~ l n gI, ~will not leave you."r SO they j':P,z;$g
gone across E.ll"jaht1 himself said to'sha :
went down to Beth'eI.e a Then the sons' of the ~ ~ ~ ; ' ~ $ j U*g,"bl:il&
h I t 173
propheiFo that were at Beth'el came out to ;fp:;;,
V I C ~m:19 "Ask what 1 should do far you M o r e I am taken
Edi'sha and said to him: "Do you really know Sii
$:& from you."" To this E-li'shasaid: "Please, that
9 h u X : m two parfsy in your spjrft"2 may came to me."'
that today Jehovaho is taking your master4 67"r L~ 4;:Yl
l lh G
De 2?:17
lo At t h a t he said : 'Tou have askedo a dWicult
flmm headship over you?" At this 1;le said: "I, 2Sn ''I"
Lu 19'1
. l r ~ hD.W
I : ~ thing. If you see m e when taken from you, it
too, well know i t B e silent."
sr:c 2 ~ 1 9
Ac 8.17
1 ICt 12:20
will happen to you that way: but if [you do]
*IKI 3:9
4 E-li'jah now said to him: "E.lisha, dt here, *IS,,
not, it will not happen.''
please, because Jehovah himself has sent me to !ji:i
aim 2:iz
11 And it came about that as they were walkJer'"~
But he said: "As Jehovah is livingA,4';;Yi.2,
AC 1 : ~
along, speaking aa they walked, why, look!
~ n as
d your soul is living, I will not leave you." &;,I:;;,,
!%: :&
a fiery war-chariotQpand tlery horses, and they
So they came on to Jer'i*cho. Then the sons of
proceeded to mnlce a separation between them
the prophetsc that were at Jer?.cho ~pproaclied
H e b l : 1 4 both and'jah went ascending in the windE.1Ysha and said to him: "Do you really know
+Eze 1:4
A11 the while E.litsha
thht today Jehovah is taking your mnsteld from
ec;e 5 : ~Storrnl to the heavens.*
hcadshfp over you?"* At this he said: "& too,
He> u
3 was seeing it and he was crying out: "My famai s:n ther,= my father: the war chariot"
\vcII know it.' Be silent."'
2 1~8:10
~ 1
h any
6 E.liPjahnow said to him: "Sit here, plealse,
13:14 rnoredkConseqtiently he took hold of his o m
because Jehovah himself has sent me to the
kLu W:54
dothes and ripped them into two pieces." After
AC 1:9
n a I:U
1 I I ~ n ~ l i n "God
is salwtion.'' L,YX', B.llaacliae'; Vg, E n ! i ' ~ p ~ s ,
1:20 that he picked up the ofilcial garmentr of'k L~Cifl'gnl,'J
Not Gilfgpll do\m in f l ~ c b Jnrtlnll v n l l ~ yilenla dn~*'i.rho,
jah that had fallen off him and he went back and
hut tlv> Giltgal not far away fronl Brtl~'r1nnd do113~ I'ranl \r.Ilirl~
sit4 stood by fAe shore of t h e Jordan, Then he
they rotilrl go to Betb'el, as etnted in \-erne 2. Rtw 2 T i i n g ~4: AS,
adlSon*o f the prophets:' See 1 K n m 2 0 : 35, L'nntl~otcn. * O r j
a "Sons of the prophets." Bee 1 Klagn 20: 95, fuotnate a,
lllorcl."+JI,, the p1ma3 of a.rf,ifirt,to ~lryioteCXPPTIP~PP or
"war chariots." M, recb'sb; poseiblg i n s colleative senae, as also

308 1s

?sa 1 ~
%-Sa 14:s
kl5a 1:25


in v m 11.

2 KINGS 2:15-21



2 KINGS 2 :22-3


rgZiF435 causing of miscarriages result from it.' "'" And

took the officials garment of E.litjah that had 32Xl2:8
Re22:17 t h e water continues healed down to this day,
rGc t2.8
fallen off him and began t o strike the waters'
according to E,li'sha1sword that he spoke.
and say: "Where is Jelrovah" the God of E.IiL
-4m 3:14
23 And he proceeded to go up from there to
jah, even He?"u And he kept striking the wa- Ufz3l,:,
tJob 19:B
As he was going up on the may, there
ters, and gradually they were divided this way Pps,X&
;gj;; were small
boyst that came out horn the city
xsn 1:4
v z x i z:9
and that way, so that E.1itsha went across.'
11Go 21:9
and began to derideu him and that kept saying
Z C %:I6
15 When the sons of the prophets that were
at JerFi.chogot to see it from in front, they beIsa 2a:2z to h i m ,, "Go up,' you baldhead! Go up, you
Z f FinaIIy he turned behind him and
gan to say: "The spirity of E-li'jah has settled yNU
N Ua7:m
called down eviP upon them in
down upon EJi'sha." Accordingly they came t o T;f:2
c i ~ 16:2
the name of Jeh0vah.O Then two she-bearsz
meet him and bowed downz to him t o the earth.
came out from the woods and went tearing to
And they went on to say t o him: 'Here, now,
there are with your servants fifty men, valiant ZJOS 4:14
5Z12i2Fpieces forty-hvo children3 of their number,*
z s And he kept going from there t o Mount Carppersons. Let them go, please, and look for your 2 K i 4;37
YE 957
2K11:10 rne1,O and from there he returned t o Sa-mar'i-a.
master.a I t may be that the spirit" of Jehovah *g;; $?;i2
3sr 2826
A C 5:9
has lifted him up and then thrown him upon one g;:
AS for Je,ho'samA the son of A'hab, he beAc 13:ll
of the mountains or in one of the valleys." But a c 8:39
came king over Israel in Sa-ma9i.a in the
he said : "You must not send them.'"%d
eighteenth year of Je.hosh'a.phat the king of
kept urging3 him until he was embarrassed, so ~ ~ ~ 8 Q 2 2
HQ13:s Yudah, and he continued to reign for twelve
*Be 3235
that he said: "Send."" They now sent fifty men flSa 18~23
1 . 3 : ~years, And he kept on doing what was bad in
1Kl 20:36
and they kept looking for three days and they
Jehovah's eyes,O only not like his father' or like
N n 1.2
did not find 11irn.~Is When they returned to him Ogt;;;:3
his mother, but he removed the sacred pillar3
he was dwelIing in JerFi.cho.lThen he said to l:gTi;Fg
of Ba'al that his father had madenoW n l y he
them: "Did I not say t o uov, 'Donot go'?"
to the sins of Jer.oaboram9theson of Net,!:; 1:$&~ 3 1stuck
19 In time the men of t h e city said to E.litbat,
which he caused Lsrael to sin.* He did
sha: "Here, now, t h e situation of the city is +Nu12,11
from them.
good, just as my masterc+ is seeing, but the :zi:iia
alKi ~ : 1 6 4 AS regards Me'sha the king of Mo'ab, he
watere is bad and the land is causing rnkcar:&:& ::fb$';'
became a sheep raiserk and he paidn t o the king
riages.""?OAt that he said: "Fetch me a small xE$$y
rlzsa 8:2
of Israel a hundred thousand lambsr and a hunrIsd 16:1
new bowl and put salt* in it." So they fetched
dred thousand unshorn male sheep." And i t
it for him. Then he went on out: to the source g$gn
s z r ~ i ~ : l came about that as soon as A'hab d i d s the king
of the water and threw salt in it1<and said: ATr 9:5b
tach 21:lQ of Mo'ab began t o revoltt against t h e king of
"This is what Jehovah has said, I
Ido make this 2'??, 2%'
,,lSnn:s Israel. Consequently King Je.ho'ram went out
water l~ealthful.~
No more will death or any f i $ ~ ~ ~ s
IFij :;'i";, on that day from Sa.mar'i.a and musteredu a11
a Or>rrlord."&I,a.cle.ndtn'. See verse 3, footnate d. b Or, "wind+" 31,


sw'ahk j ZXX, p~teu'liaa; Vg, ~pi'ri.21ts. Or, "illy lord." 31,'.

Or, "the wool of a hundred tboasand male sheep."

Israel. 7 He went furfher and now sent to Jehoshta.phat the king of Judah, saying: T h e
king of Mo'ab himself has revolted against me.
Will you go with me t o Mo'ab in war?Ov To this vVC122:4
he sald: "I shall go. I am the same as you are;
my people- are t h e same as your peop1e;y my J1m5:25
~ a c 18:3
horses are the same as your horses.'" H d he
went on to say: "By which particular way shall
up?" So he said: "By the way of the zNu 21:4
Ma1 1:4
wilderness of F d ~ r n . " ~
9 And the kingG of Israel and the king of 02Cha7:g
Juclah and the king of E'dorn" p r p r d e d t o go, ?ig:,11"4'
ancl they kept going their way around for swen &",i&?$
days, and there proved t o be no water'' for the ;
N u a:14
camp and for the domesticGanimals that were <Job

fallowing their steps. 1At length the king of

Israel said: "How unfortunate that Jehovah
hns cal~edthese three kings to give them into
the I3anrl of Mo'ab?"" I' At; t h ~ Je.hosl~'a.phat~
Isn 8:21
said: "Is there iiot here a prophet of Jehovah?+ C I K22:7
Then let us inquire of Jehovah through him."m;$:A*+"
So one of the servants of the king of I s r ~ e lan- "FZ::!
s\reted and said: "There is'shsn the
son of Sha'phar, nrbo poulwl out water u p the ~ G 1S:4
Ilnnds of E.1i'jal-i."" "'en
Je.boshta.phat said:
"Tl~oword of Jehovah exists with Ilirn."" Ac5111R:31
corclingly the king of Israel and Je.hoshta.phat 1~11ci
and t ? ~ lring
of E'dom went down to Ili~n.~ 1'2Ki":2j
Isa 49.23
13 And E.litsha proceded t o sny to the king
of Ismel: "What do I have to do with yo~?a"$;iz
Go" to the prophekt of yotlr father and to the S$~;G;$
prophets oaf your mother.'"~ut the king of Israel tly<i 1 ~ 1 9
said t o him: "No," for Jehovah has called these %%%
tllree Icings t o give them illto the hand of hZo'w " ~ , " ~ ~ m
n Lilrmlly, "JVhnt [is there] to me nntl to youC" 8 e J~o ~ l l u n22 : 2.4.





y :::::

f r r 1 13
f l : ~ r , t ~

' I S A 10 5
l c 4 h25.1

G l K k lN:4&

I . ; ? ~I..(




2 KINGS 3: 14-21

ab," "To this'sha mid: "As Jehovah of

armies before whom I do standa Is I i ~ l n g if, ~it
were not that it is the face of Je.hoshPa.phat
the k9ng of Judah for which I. am having consideration,y I would not look at you or see you.';
now YOU men fetch me a string-instrument player.'" And it occurred that, as soan as
the string-instrument player played, the hand'
of Jehovah came to be upon him. '" And he went
on to say: "This is what Jehovah has said, U t

there be a makingb of this torrent valley full of

dltches,GA"for this is what Jehovah has said:
"You men will not see a whd nnd YOU will not
see a downpour, yet that torrent valley will be
fllled with water0 and YOU men will certainly
[from it],' YOU md YOUR Ilvestack and
C I K I :6:31
YOUR dometic animals." ' I d And this will indeed
Jr~r2 17
*1y!,?n 2~ be a trjvial thing in the eyes of Jehovahmm d he
* h U XI 17
will certainly give Mo'ab into YOUR hand."" And
. J 6:16
YOU must strike down every fortified city" and
every choice city, and every good t r e e you
should fellk and d l the springs :sf water YOU
should stop up and every mod tract of land
should mar with stones."
I1E* aa:s 20 And it m e about in the morning," at
y;u& the time of the going up of the grain afferingrr
na 9:21 that there water was coming fom the direction
of E'dorn, and the land came to be filled with
flEg$flthe water.#
21 As regards all the Mo'abJtes, they heard
that the khgs had come up to flght against
them. Consequently they called together as
Or, "npon whom I do attend." b"Let there be R making," Tha


IJ~hrmverb hero is in the infinitive abuolute, and hence is imp~raonnlnl~rl, i1tdeA11ite r s to tinie, Compnro Exadua 20 : 8, foott1c11o1. "Pn11 of ditches.'' Lrterally, "ditchsu, ditrhee," M.

2 KINGS 3:22-27


many as were girding on a beltt and upward t19i20:n

and they began standing at the boundary.
When they got up early in the morning, the
sun itself flashed upon the water so that the
Motab.ites from the opposite side saw the water

red like blood.o aSAndthey began t o say: "This 02K'a1:16

is blood!" The kings have unquestionably been ,u" 6:ig
put t o the sword and they went striking one anJ 5:a
other down. So now, to the spoil,^ 0 Mo'ab!" yExf5:Q
ee When they came into the camp of Israel, the 2 e h z ~ : a
Israelites immediately rose up and began striking the Mopab.ites down so that they took to
flight because of them." Hence they came into ziosgi$
Morab.a striking the Mo'ab.ites dorm as they lfh5:3
came.b e5And the cities they went throwing
down* and, as for every good tract of land, they *J
z ga 8:2
would pitch each one his stone and actnally fill Isa37:26
it, and every spring of water they would stop
upu and every good tree they would fell,* until u ~ ; ~ ~ f ~
they left only the stones of Kir-har'e.sethb re- t,D,e,Eio
maining in it, and the slingers began going ";,"Pg,g
JW 4 8 : s
around it and striking it do~vn.
26 When the king of Mo'ab saw that the battle had proved too strong for him, he at once
took with him seven hundred men drawing
sword to break through t o the king of E'dom,'
but they were not able to. z T Finally he took his
first-bornQson who was going t o reign in place eON^~ ~IO:M
e : 2
of him and offeredGhim up as a burnt sacrifice
upon the wall. And there came to be great in- ;g;;g
dignation against Israel, so that they pulled p;7"~;7
away from against him and returned to their E,, I G : ~



Eze 20:26
x1Sa 14:46

. ..

Literally, "it," If,b"Hence they came into IIo'ab, striking

the^ came." This rendering is I)y au eluendntion of the Hebrew
test in agreement wit11 L X X .

Now there was a certain woman of the wives

of the sons* of the prophetso that cried out
1 ~ to
3'sha, saying: "Your servant,O my husis dead, and you yousself well know that
;g2&1:2 band,@
himself had continually fearedk
Jehovah, and the creditor" himself has come to
qc 25-39
15j12 t a k e both my children for his slaves." %Atthis
E.lilsha said to her: "What shall I do for you?'
; ; Tell me; what do you have in the house?"To
this she said: "Your maidservantc has nothing;
s M t 15:34
~ u h 6 . 8 at all in the house but a spouted jar of oil."t
t l K i 17:12
Then he said: "Go, ask for vessels for yourePs31:11 self from outside, from all your neighbors:
1E,S;;:i4empty vessels. Do not hold yourself to a few.U
And you must go and close the door behind
your~elfvand your sons, and you must pour out
into all these vessels, and the full ones you
should set aside." Upon that she went away
j711<i17:15 f ram him,$'
When she closed the door behind herself and
her sons, they were bringing the vesselsa near
hxr 6:41 to her and she was doing the pouring out.% And
Mr 8 3
doh 2.8
it came about that as soon as the vessels were
Joh 6:11
full she went on to say to her son: "Do bring
Mt x:37
c,Ch 2:10 still another vessel near to me."* But he said to
;1"' :$!T4 her: "There is no other vessel."' At that the oil0
,J,O,t;$f stoppedno So she came in and told the man of
God,b and he now said: "Go, sell the oiI and pay
0 1 ~ ?:9
off your debts,* and you [and] your sons should
IT11 4:12
liveCoff what is
PSO 5:2
+Jos 19,18
8 And it came about one day that E.li1sha
IS^ 2 2 4
A: 3= went passing along to Shu'nem,' where there
kb2z was a prominent* woman,and she proceeded to

2K1 2:s
2 6:l ~

~essela?'Literally, itthem," It. '%Tan of God." M, ksh haEl.o.him'; literally, "man of The God." See Deuteronomy 33 :1,
footnote a,
a "The

2 KINGS 4 :l a 2 7

constrain' him

t o eat bread. And It came about

that as often as he w o l d pass by he ~vouldturn
adde there to eat bread. "At
length she said t o


her husband:* "'Here, now, I welt know that it

is a holy man of God" that is passing by us
constantly. loplease, let us make a IitrIe roof rlJq 3:211
chamber" on the wall and put there for him a 1I i l l7:lD
couch and a tablec and a chair and a l m p ~ t a n d CYUII
~ sz:ln
and it must occur that whenever he comes I n l o
rMt lb:4P
us he can turn aside there."'
11 And it came about one day t h a t as usunl Ilo
Ilch 13:?
he came in there and hrrned aside t o t l ~ eroof' R J K 351)
chamber and sat down there,
he said lo
Ge.ha'zit his attendant:" "Call this Shu'nam- t2K1
zry s::*
mite' ~voman."At that he called
t l l l \ I tti:43
m k h t stand before him. la Then h e said 2 0 him: 1At.f i i 1:!:5
"Pluase, say to her, 'Here you have anxlor~slyu.Irr.;
1Sn :'!I:.\
cal.ed for us with all this anxious care7 What is .t'hTt 2ll:,!O
L k l O:,I
thcre t o be done for you?"Is there anything to Stri
7 1r.h (>:In
speak to the king* or to the chicP of the nrmy x>bl<l
Tor you?' '' To this she said: "'In among my own '2l<t
people I am dwelling."" lAAnd Ile went on t o W!)<IS n 2:.v
L !t!,
sny : "What, then, is there to be done for her?" A!7..I<
:11 1:4
6e.ha'zi now said: "For a fact, a son she does Llii
I !ril, ld:5
not havebarrd her husband is old." I m r n d i - t z ;c 1 5 2
ately he said: "Call her." So he cdId i ~ c rand t;v
.r17 I:{!?
she kept standing at the entmnc~, Then h e 1.u 1:7
said: ''At this appointed3 time next year') you
will be embracing a son."' But she said: "No,
my master, 0 man of G~d!~"o not tell Iies in
connection with your maidservant.""
17 However, the woman became pregnant"

fir, is71 El.a.him'; nithout tlre dpfltlitr nrticlo I ~ r s

("Tllr") hcfore the title Ebn.kivr'. b "At thia nppointrd till>@
yenr,"Compnre (S~nesjs18: 1 0 , footnote c, a c'Jlnn of Qnrl!' 31,
id, An-Bl.o.kinr'. See vmse 7,footnotr 2.,
a."Wnn of Qod."


and gave Wrth to a son at this appointed t h e

the next year, just as'sha had spoken to
"saq;&her.' And the child kept on $rowing up, and
itl came
one day thnt he went out as usual
ileb 1::~ to his father with the 1eapcmk
And he kept
IcRu 2:4
t ~ d o h l 4 : l saying t o his father: "My hcnd, oh my head!"n
At last he sald to the ~ttcnclnnt:''Carry 11im to
'IS" 4g49'f5 his mother." 1,
Acmrdingly hc carried him and
ISA 6623
Ln 7 ~ 1 2 brought him t o his molhcr. And he kept sitting
upon her knees until noon, and gradually he
diedb3 Then she went up and laid Ilirn upon
Jon ?4:6 the couch of the man of Godni and closed the
'-2:n door upon him and {vent out." She now called
-1i1 1-9
t k i i i7:ig her husband and said : "Do send me, please, one
!of the attendants and one or the she-asses, and
/let me run as far as the mnn of God"" and revJ0hn:3 t u r n . ' ' ~ =jBut he said: "Why are you going to
Ac 9 : 3
him today? It is not a new moonr nor a sab-1m23:31 bath.'Ic However, she said: "It is all right."
) N U la.lo
SO she saddled up the she-assz and said to her
Iaa 1:13 attendant: "Drive and go ahead,' Do not hold
X E Y4 2 0
l s a 2 5 : ~back
for my sake from riding unless I shall have
'ISa 25.19

said so to you.'"
23 And she procded ta go and come to the
man of Godmat Mount' Car'mel.' And it came
1"118:Qa about that, as soon as the man of t 3 d a saw her
1 s ~~ : 2out ahead, he jrnrnecliately said to Ge.hafai his
FA $yg attendant:&" h k ! the Shuham.mite' woman
over there. ?* Now run; please, to meet her and
'%PC 2:4
say to her, 'Is it all right with you?" Is it all
sight with your husband? Is it all right with
the child?' " To this he said: "It is all right.""
27 When she came to the n ~ a nof God& ~ t the
mountain she a t once took hold of him by his
feet." At this Ge.ha'zi ca~nenear t o push her
"hf:~nof God." Tir, i l r Im-El.o+Bim'. See vrl-se 7,footarot~S.


2 KINGS 4 :28-35
but the man of Godan sald :

khit 15:23

nZKl 2:15

alone,r for her SOUPis bitters within "Let

her and %$I22423
Jehovah himself has concealed' it from me and $;
p r 14:m
not toId me." 2k She now said: "Did I aslc for a tGe
son through my lord? Did I n a t say, 'You must
u2KL 4:15
not lead me to a false hope'??'""
29 Immediately he said to G e . h a ' ~ i :"Gird
LKt 1%46
up your loinsy and take my staffx in your hand 2Ki 9:1
and go. In case you encounter anyone, you must z E 4:17
not greet him,' and in case nnyone should greet 'LU10:4
you, you must not answer hjm. And you must nEx'l:lEl
place my staff upon the face of the boy."n $"At
this the motherz of the boy said: "As Jehovah OXh 15:1"
is l i v i n e and as your soul is living,O I will not
leave you.'"erefore
he got up and went with *$
her." a%d Ge-hatzi himself pkqsed dong be- 2x1 2:J
fore them and then put the staff upon the hoy's
face, but there \\-asno voice nor paying of attenlion.' Sa he went hack to meet him ~ n dtold 'Fri?ii6
Woh 14:12
him, saying: "The boy did not wake up."=
&I: 5:39
32 At last E-Ei'sha came into the house and "I1 I1:l1
there the boy was deadi3 being laid upon his
couch.' $"Then he came in and closed the door f;c.&?;
behind them bothu and began to pray to Jebo- * ~ : t6:6
v ~ h . 1"~Finally he went up and lay down upon
the chjld'" and put his own mouth upon his
mouth and his own eyes upon his eyes and his :I,;
own palms upon his palms and kept bent over n$k;$J21
him, and gradually the child's flesh grew warm. AC 20:lo
3b Then he hegan walking again in the house,
once this way and once that way, after which
he \vent up and bent over him. And the boy
began t o sneezec as many as seven times, after



"Mnn o f God.'' 31, kslr ha-Ebo.lrin~',Ree verw 7 hotnote b, Or,

"aftrr hcr." TVLcrc we ~ ~ o u Ray,
l d G h t o ~ e t~l ~y irtrt hcr,t~
the EIehrews

mid, "l~ehindher;-op,

"after her."

Or, h o ~ i n k , ' J



which the boy opened his eyes.' a " H

~ called
Ge.haPzi and said : "Call this Shu'nm.rnitea

wornan." So he called her and she c m e in to

Then he said: "Lift up your sen."t 37 And
, ~ ~ u , . uhim.
d at his feet
.?A?,' lg she proceeded t o come in ~ n fall
.I 011 3 1.44

, T;m: ?3

nnd bow down to him t o the earth," ~ f t e which

38 And E.lflsha himself returned to G i l ' ~ l , ~
i i :.IT
7.16 m
1 these nfasfamine." in thc land. As the sonsz
2l<i 2 1
of t h e prophets were sitting before I~im'he in
:I-. b 1
ll:13 time said to his attendant:= "Put the large
cooking pot on and boll stew for the sons of
Y , ~21,:sa
, ~ ~ ~
the prophets.""
Accordingly R certain one
to pick rnalbws and he got
1 . ~ 1"2
8-r357-:17 to find a wildG vine- and wtient picking wild
'"-I<l i 12
gourds from it, his garment full, and then came
. ' ~ ; T6 97
1-11 !I 13
and sliced them into the stewpot, far they were
*I,,, a,.:
JI.r .' 2 1
Later they poured
35:13 not acquainted with them.
it out for the men to eat. And it came about
thnt, as soon as they ate from lhc stew, they
tl~emselvescried out and began saying: "There
is death* in the pot, 0 man of God."L4l' And they
were not able to eat. "' So he mid; "FETCI-I,
'Eu1v25 flour." After he threw i t into the pot' he went
x i 2.q
J ~ ~ l l ~ . on
r ~ to say: "Pour out far the people that they
'Ac 26:s
mfiY eat.'%d nothing jnjczrious" pmved to be
in the pot,
42 And there was a m a n that came from BafaI~ h ,he
~ came bringing to the man of
II.ET 23.18
Q:4 s h ~ l ' i ~ s h and
.v 11':35 Godh bread of the first' ripe fruits,n twenty barrr)c H:b
i . ley'.loaves, and new grain in his brend bag. Then
pi,.n!lh~ ,he said: "'Give it to the people that they may
I : I ~ 1 i.17 eaf.''s49Ho~vever,l~is-rvaiters~id:
IDutthis hefore a hundred rncn?+'iTo this he said:
a " i 4 i t'gnl.'~Ape 2 Kings 2 :1, footnote b, "SInn of Oorl," M, is?&
krr.R/.o.kitr~';Lee verse 7 , lootnote b.

"Give it to the people that they may eat, for this

is what Jehovah has said, 'There will be an eating
and a havingof leftovers.' "au 4 4 A t that he put it

V ~ 4U

before them and they began to eat and they had

leftovers according t o the word of JehovakT',"GI &

Now a certain,Y the chief of the
army of the king of Syria, had become a %?$!is
great=man before his Iordbn and held in esteem,C mlch zl:3
because it was by him that Jehovah had given * ~ ~ 1 3 : 2
salvationd to Syria, and the man himself had ?&',2:jA0
proved t o be a valiant, mighty man, though a gF!,T$,,
leper.e0* a And the Syrians, for their part, had ~ ' ~ 1 h 2 2 1
gone out as marauder bandsn and they got t o ;&;I;T
take captive from the land of Israel a little girl," APS 1 2 3 2
and she came to be before's wife? wCh 8:11
In time she said to her mistress: ''If only my
lord were before the prophet4that is in Sa.mar8- i1;Y
i.a! In that case he would recover him from his
leprosy."' SubsequentIy someone came and re- +EiE?s
ported t o his lord,b saying: "It was like this and Lq Inr2
that that the @I spoke that is from the land
of Israel."
5 Then the king of Syria said: "Go, come,
and let me send a letter to the king of Israel."
So he proceeded to go and take in his hande ten
talents" of siIver and six thousand pieces of ;;~;y;:%
gold* and ten outfits of c1othing.k "And he came kGe 4522
bringing t h e letter" to the king of Israel, say- $g$154;i2
jng: "And now at the same time that this letter n

YLU 9:17

a"There will he an eating and a having of leftovers?' The Hebrew

verbs hare are in the infinitire absolute, and hence art! impcrsonn1
and inddnite as to time. Compnre 2 Kings 3 : 16, footnote h. b Or,
"master?' 31, n.rZo.lan'm', the plural of a-ddn'? to denote excellence or
greatness. C "Held in estem.'j Literally, "hfted up of face." d Or,
"reacue; delive~ance.~'e Or, "stluck with skin disease." Today
medically called a Hansenotic, becauae of being striaken with
"Hansen's disease!)


comes to you, here I do send t o you Na'a.manr

my servant, that you may recover him from his

leprosy,'' And it came about that as soon as
the king of Israel read the letter he immedisGe 37:29
ately rippedg his clothes apart and said: "Am
Xu X4:B
Jer 36:24 I Godjat t o put to death and to preserve alive?u
A I t 26.65
Ac14:~*1 For this person is sending to me t o recover a
tGe 302
ne 3 2 3 9 man from his leprosy, for just TAKE: note, please,
?H o 6:1& and see how he is seeking a quarrel with me."v
~ 2 . I5 O~ : ~ 8 And it came about that, a soon as'sha
1 ~11.54
2 0 3 the man of Godb heard that the king of Israel
ma3:31 had rippedy his clothes apart, he at once sent
to the king, saying: "Why did you rip your
clothes apart? Let him come, please, t o me that
Z I K I I ~ :he
~ ~ may know that there exists a prophet in
So Na'a-man came with his horses and
his war0 chariots* and stood at the entrance of
2"' "32
Tsa 6 0 3 4 the house of E.Lirsha. lo However,'sha sent
;lit 1526
a messenger t o him," saying: "Going there,c
L?Ki 221
must bathe" seven timeso in the Jordan that
zJ O~I $:w;- ,i~ : ~ you
your flesh may come back to you;' and be
:2Kr13:19 clean." l1 At this grew indignaht?
:Le 14.7
x u 19:4 and began t o go away"and say: "Here I had said
*Ex 4:7
[ t o myself],* 'To me he will come out all the
Joh6.66 way and will certainly stand and call upon the
"Pr 3:"l
I= 55:8 name of Jehovah his God and move his hand ta
J O 4:48
and fro over the place and actually give the
leper recovery.' l a Are not the Amba'nahdkand
the~ Phar'par,
of Damascus,' betker
"$7,3ji5 than all the watersn of Israel? Can I not bathe

" "God."

31, ~l.o.hina'. ''Rfan of God?' Jf, ikh ha-E2.o-him'; liter~llly,"man o f Thc God.'' See Denteronomp 33 : 1, footnote a. = Or,
"Let there be a going." The Hebrew verb here Is in the inhitive
rtbsolute, aud hence i s indefinite as to time and is Impersonal, Bee
2 IIings 4 :,43, footnote a. d "A.ha'nahlf 3USIXVg; "'nah,'$

2 KINGS 5 :13--18


in them and certainly be dean?" WIth that he

turned and went away in a rage.r
E.2 7 : 9
13 His serYrrntsa now approached and spoke

to him and said: " M y father,' had it been a

great thing that the prophet himself had spoken ;jE\ 2;;
ta you, would you not do it?'' How much more, ,;:;::;:
then, since he said t o you, 'Bathev and be V I ~ E51::
clean'?" IS At that he went down and begun to kjj,'i;L;s
plunge intoa the Jordan seven times according ,zrci 5 : 1 0
to the word of the man of God," after which
his flesh2 came back like the flesh of a little clut
boyx and he kcarne clean."
! JLO~~$27
~I 3 . 1 : n
15 'Then he went back to the man of God,b' &yLi;;':&
he with all his camp, and came and stood before Ajtl,i,!:i7
him and said: "Here, now, I certainly know that ?;o:;;
there is no G o d c anywhere in the earff~bbutin 1 ? y l i i lg:ls
I s r ~ e l . 'And
~ now accept, please, a blessing gift' I ~ & ~ l i , ~ ~ ; : "
from your servant." 11'Howwer, he SAM: "$s 1 *;% f?;:~
Jehovah before whom I do stando ig livlnp, I ;; i;i;s
will not accept it.""" And he began t o urge him a r , ~ ~.l:.s
t o ~lcceptit, but he kept refusing, Finally Lk1;;k'
Na'a-man said: "If not, please, let there be given .f:;'
to your servant some ground," the loadQ of R "u lJ.15
pair of mules, because your sewant will no more
render up a burnt offering or a sacrifice to any
other gods3 but to Jehovah.* In this thing may I .ITEI 1916
Jehovah forgivec your servant: When my lord ' x i ~ : 4
comes into the house of RimJmon t e bow down
there and he is supporting himself upon my
hand and I have to bow down" a t the house of 'ip1:$!,
Rim"mon, when 1 bow down at the house of srt117:35
Rim'rnon may Jehovah, please, forgive your
a Or, ''divrd inta," or, "dipped hilnself in," This Hebrpm vcrh ia


also nscd for baptizing. ">In11 of God," M, idr lit/-Kl.o.lrdtn', As

in versa 8, "God." 31, El.o.bim', the pFn~.nlof El~i'rrb, to denote
cxeetlcnce and diline powers. d Or, "upon mlruru 3 nttend.'"

At this he said to
n ~ ~ ~ : : ~ s e rinv this
a n trespectAwnlP
Jtr sL.:m him r "Go in peace."'
he went away
rlSa 29::

frorn him for a good stretch of the land.

1 20 Then G.ha'zim the attendant of E.ligsha
2Ki F.4
~ g h d ~ xthe
a man of Godntsaid : "Here my masterb3has
a03 14:s
spared Nara.rnanu this Syrlnn by not accepting
1Sa 2 2 7
from his hand what Ile brought, As Jehovah is
2Ki 1:9
Lu 4:27
living,V f: will run after him and take something
2% 12:5 from him."',' a1 And Ge4ha1ziwent chasing after
Na'a-man. When Naratrnan saw someone running after him, he at once got down from his
chariot' t o meet himz and then said: "Is all
J o s 6 : l g well?"' 22 TO this 1,
said: "All is well. My
15a 6:s
~9 10:s
me," saying, 'Look!
P s 1:19
z u I::W
just now there have come to me f\-voyoung men
1T1 G:lQ
from the mountainous regjon of E1phra.lmfrom
ZLU 7:6
- 4 8~4:as
the s o n s h f the prophets. Do give them, please,
a talent of silverc and two outfits of dothing.'
*=$a539 2 S At Ihat said: "Go an, take two
J e r 9:3
doh s:-14
talents." And he kept urging" him and Anally
2 ~ a:3
bound up two talents of silver in 4x0bags, with
*2KI 5::
s2Ki 2.17 two outfits of clothing, and gave them t o two
of his attendants, ttmt tllcy might carry them
before him,
24 When he came to O'pheld he immediateIy
took them from their hand and dcpositd them
7:n in the house' and sent the men away, So off they
went. '"nd
he himseyf came in and then stood
w12K-'2:3by his master,"" E.lilsha now said t o him:
''$$il$t, "Where [did you come] from, Ge.haki?"'" But
he said: "Your servant did not go anyvhere at

B?XI 4 7 2



''Alan of God." 11,i,sh 11n-Kl.n~lini';n9 ill VFrW 8,b or, "my lord,"
?IJ". Pee 1 'Iiinpil30 : 3R,f o o t t ~ o t on. "0"phel.l' In F4a.m~'i.n, "O'phd," nlcuning "llulgc, sw~lliag,projectinn or wninen~e.'~
* Or, "lord." 31,>tr, tlic. phrrnl of a.rldn', to denote excellence
or greatness.

2 KINGS 5:2-:8

At that he said to him: "Did not my " * ~ 5 : 2

s 6 3 : ~ ~
heart itself go along just as the man turned rPs~ 140:11
[to get down] off his chariot to meet you?' Is!pr 12:19
it a time t o accept silver or to accept clothing or f;,":;,
olive groves or vineyards or sheepo or cattle or <:&C,hl,"i$
menservants or maid~ervants?~
" So the leprosyt 2;&
of will stick to you and your offspring ti% ?
to time indefinite."au Immediately he went out 1~t223
from before him, a leper white as sn0w.v
173 G:IQ
And the sons7 of the prophetso began to say
2Sa 329
t o E-li'sha: "Look! now, the placez where VEX
we are dwelling before you is too cramped* for ~T~?;;O
us. * Let us go, please, as far as the Jordan and >-isa
2x1 2:3
take from the-re each one a beam and make for 2 ~ 1 4 ~ 1

ourselveso there a place in which to d1vell.j' SOAEf

he said: "Go." And a certain one went on t o 2k&9i4T
say: "Come on: please, and go with your serv- AzK15 : s
ants."+ At that he said: "I myself shall go." 6Jg4:8
Accordingly he \vent with them and they finally came to the Jordan and began t o cut down
the trees?' And it came about that a certain gt:,8z0
one was felling his beam and the axheadh@
itself ez:,E!$
fell into the water. And he began to cry out and x;,a,i%a
say: "Mas, my master,"or it was borrowed!'"
O Then the man of Godc said: "Where did it 2Ki 4:7
fall.?"So he showed him the place. Immediately k~
x 15:28
he cut off a piece of wood" and threw it there n$g;j;2;
and made the axheadb fl0at.n He now said: E;:;2;
"'Lift it up for yourself."r At once he thrust his Ig$
LU 7:15
hand out and took it.
Ac 9:41
8 And 8 e king of Syria,%
for his part, became a ~202
involved in war against Israel. Accordingly he 1KI
took counsel with his servant^,^ saying: "At tLXCi20;a3
pr 21:30
a ('To time inddhite," 01; 'Yorerer."
Literally, "the iron: N.
"Man of God." M, b h ha-ELo.hP'na'. See Deuteronomy 33 : 1,footnote a.

2 KINGS 6:9-17


such and such a place YOU will encamp with

me."& T h e n the man of Godbu sent t o the king
of Israel, saying: "Guard yourself against passing
v l ~ ~ $ ~by; this
~ ~ place,' because there is where the
Pr3'32 Syrians are coming down."^ lo So the king of
yAm 3:7
Israel sent to the place that the man of Godb
zF;$T2 had said t o him." And he warned* him, and he
kept away from there, not once or twice.
11 Consequently the heart of the king of
Syria became enraged over this mattert3and he

Ug; fi

called his servants and said to them: "Will YOU

not fell me who from those who belong to us is
; $ for the king of Israel?'jn " Then one of his serv'
ET42 ants said: "None, my Iord the king, but it is
CPs139:2'sbao the prophet who is in Israel that tells+
Ec l0:20
the king of Israel the things that you speak in
~So he said: "YOUmen
Jer&:26 your inner b e d r o ~ m . "la
k l s ax:i7
24:2 go and see where he is, that I may send and take
Ei&Z7him."* Later the report was made to him, say3oh 26:55
18:3 mg: "There he is in Dorthan."# l+Immediately
he sent horses and war chariots and a heavy
2~13:11 military force thwe,k and they proceeded to
2Ki 5%
ac 13:s come by night and close in upon the city.
rZCh 20:12
~t 8 9 5
15 When the ministern of the man of Godb
t 2 s n 14.13
22:31 rose early to get up, and went out, why, there a
zggi: military force was surrounding the city with
horses and war chariots. At once his attendant
; ; said to him: "Alas, my masterIr What shalI ~ v c
ps%:18 do?" lWut he said: "Do not be afraid,3afar
RQ 8,31
there are more who are with us than those who
And Ealitshabegan t o prayu
~ 281:15
~ 1 are with them."e
Jbs 5:i7
vFs 119:18 and say: "0 Jehovah, open his eyes,v please,
that he may see." Immediately Jehovah opened
AlSa 2 2 8
42Ki 5:3


"At such and such a place YOU will encamp ~ S t m

he." By a CQITeCtion in the obscure for111of the Hebrew verb. "Jlan of Uod." X,
i s A ha-El.o.hin&'. SPO D F U ~ ~ ? ~ O33
: 1,
U Eowtilote

2 KINGS 6 :1&24

2 KINGS 6 :2=2


the attendant's eyes, so that he saw, and, look!

the mountainous region was full of horses and
~PS23 2:11
:~ 1
war chariots of fire all around E.1i'sha.y
18 When they began to come down to him, g;:?:;',
E.lirsha went on to pray to Jehovah and say: 2;!j;
"Please, strike this nation&with bIindness."~So ML26:53
he struck them with blindness according to the zgg:$!i
word of Edi'sha. Ig'sha now said to them: FAz&
"This is not the way and this is not the city." *tU":16
Follow me and let me conduct YOU to the man
YOU look for." However, he conducted them to
20 And it came about that as soon as they
arrived at Sa.rnar'i-a'sha then said: "0
Jehovah, open the eyes of these that they may
seewDImmediately Jehovah opened their eyes = L u 2 4 : ~
and they got to see,* and here they were in the "Jg 21140
middle of Salmar'i.a. " The king of Israel now
sajd to'sha as soon as he saw them: ''Shall 1 s n 2 ~ a
I strike [them] down, shall I strike [them] b: :i59
down,cmy father?"o' ?%ut he said: "You must ?2"g;252'4
not strike [them] d o n n e Are those whom you $$:
have taken captive3 with your sword and w i t h ;::):?
your bow the ones that you are striking d ~ w n ? ~ ~ ; ; ~ ; ;
Set bread and water before them that they may
eat and drinku and go to their lord.'Ib Accord- ' ~ L ~ ~ ~ '
ingly he spread a great feast for them and they R0 12:"0
began to eat and drink, after which he sent
them away and they went to their lord." And k1SaH:16
2ch z8:15
not once did the marauding bandsn of the S y r - ,i;fs%
2Ki 2 4 2
ians come again into the land of Israel.
24 And it came about afterward that Benha'dad the king of Syria proceeded to collect
all his camp together and t o go up and besiege
a Or, '(these Gentiles (heathen) ,l' bULord.') 31,', the plural


of a . d 6 ~ ' ,to dcnote excellcnce or mtijcst~.

Sa.rnar'i.a.r " In time a great famine2 arose in

Sa.marri-a,"and, look! they were besieging it uns ~ e a s : z s ti1 an ass's headt got to be worth eighty silver
1Ki 18:2
2 ~ .i 14
pieces and the fourth of a caba measure of
Jer 14:lS
t n e 4-14 dove's dungu was worth five silver pieces. 2%d
r'Ea'4:15 it came about as the king of Israel was passing
along upon the wall t h a t a certain woman cried
out to him, saying: "Do save, 0 my lord the
J-2% 14~4 king!"v 27 TO this he said: "If Jehovah does not
Isa 10:3
LU 1R:3
)-Ps60:11 save you, with what means shall I save you,y
either from the threshing floor or from the wine
Ps 118:8
P S I Q G : ~ or oil press?" 2a And the king went on to say
J~~ 2%
lT:5 t o her: "What is the matter with you?"" So
she said: "This very woman said to me, 'Give
$fsa~ 22:1
l ~ j your
; ~ son that we may eat him today, and m y
own son we shall eat tomorrorv.'* " Accordingly
;&?;:;:De 2 ~ 5 3 we boiled' my son" and ate him," Then I said
to her on the next day, 'Give your son that we
Tsa 9:X
1sa49:15 may eat him.' But she hid her son."
=c 5 2 0
L u I B : ~ ~ 30 And it came about that as soon as t h e
L U 2329
cLa 4:lo
LDe z
m%!i king heard the woman's words he immediately
bGe 31:~s ripped3 his clothes apart, and as he was passing
1K1 2 : 2 7
along upon the wall the people got to see and,
2Ki 5 7
2K1 1 9 3
okt sackcloth was underneath upon his flesh.
" ' A n d he went on to say: "So may God" do to
7;2g:p7' me and so may he add to it+ if the head of'sha the son of Sha'phat continues standing
ElK1 13:17 upOn him today !"*
1K1 ?9:2
32 And E-li'sha was sitting in his own house
the older men were sitting with him," when
he sent a man from before him. Before the messenger could come in t o him, he himself said to
the older men: "Have YOU seen how this son of
a A cab equaled four logs or one sixth o f w, seah or one third o f rr
l h or about two qunrts (U.A. d.).b ('Gcrd." M, EZ.o.himT; LXX,

rDe 2 8 5 2
1~ 2 0 : 1

h a Z'lte.os';

Vg, De'zas.

2 KINGS 6:33--?:4


camp of the Syrians. If they preserve us alive,

a murdererk has sent to take off my head?' See y,K:t$!,
we shall live, hut if they put us to death, then
t o it: as soon as the messenger comes, close the ,;:\ ;g:;u
wc s h ~ l Ihave to die.'jk Wccordingly they rose
dour and YOU must press him hack with the
up in t h e evening darkness to entei. the camp of
door. Is there not the soundn of the feet of his I.(;c .I
the Syrians, m d they got to come as far as the
lord=hehind him?" 3"VhiIe he was yet speaking ,?,;I:!~:I
outskirts of the camp of the Syrians and, look!
with them, here was the messengerb coming $iT!tj:il
do~tmto him, and [the klnglr proceeded to say : "<
fik-g:? nobody was therc.1'
Were this is the calamity from Jeh0vah.r Why F; i7,:?;t I
6 And Jehovahn himself had caused the camp
Iun ..17
slrould 1 wait any longer for Jehovah?""
of the Syrians to hear the sound of war chariots,
I t l l h I' 3
I2tl lc. 1
~ ? S I I ~ : Z the
sound of horses, the sound of a great'sha now said: "Hear, you men, the -ti,.
so that they said to one another:
word: of Jeh0vah.f This is what Jehovah ;I ;: ~ ~ : : I ' ~ T n
"L00k! the king of Tsrnel has hired against us
'.; 14
has said, 'TomorrowDabout this time a s e ~ h ' " ~ ~ ~ ' ; ~ ~ IRe
the kings of the Hit'titwb and t h e kings of
measure of fine flour lviIl be worth a shekel and tl1,;IJ*
.\ S * L ~ : I
e . ( ' f l I.:!
Egypt to come against us!"t "mrnediately they
twf-o seah measures of barley worth a shekel in {g,;1:;:(I
I >:1 34-b.:)
ti 1'. 4s 5
up and went fleeing in the evening darknessu
~I .
the gateway of Sa.rnar'i.a.'" Y * At that the acl- '"I 1.q 4 ""
1 9 &:i2
leavlng their tents and their horsesV and
jutant upon !VIIOS~ hand the king was supportL'C 3 : 1
asses-the camp just as it was--and they
ingv himself answered the man of God"" and $:I>,F;:,'R
I,, Y I I , ~
kept fleeing for their ~ o u l . ~ y
said: "If Jehovah were making floodgates in the\ : ; :;?
,\TI1 :':I5
8 When these lepers came as far as the outheavens,* could this thing take place?" To this ":a: ;;;I :+?:I?
I'C 8:3
he said: "Here you are seeing it with your own ~ , . v , ; G J
skirts of the camp, they then entered into one
tent and began to eat and drink and carry from
eyes,= but from it you will not eat."A
P N it':23
24-'it 25':20
tflere silver and gold and clothes and go off and
3 And there were four men, lepers,t that hap. arR~cO s327
them away, After that they returned m d
pened t o be at the entrance of the gate,+ and
~ ~ a s 7 : 2 1entered lnto another tent and carried things
they began to say t h e one to the other: "Why 2I.r. la$e
"R 5:: 1
from there and went off and stuck them away.'
me we sitting here' until rve have died?m ' If y); :,*:,
a i l :?:Is
9 Final1y they began t o say t h e one to the
we had said, 'letus enter the city,'when t h e .,Frlh::f
I , , 1 1
other: "It iq not right what we a r e doing: This
f arnine is in the city, t11m w e rvould have t o c..rrr
die there.' And if we do sit here, then we shall 'Lu 1517
, 1.15 day is a day of good news!"If we are hesitating
cJ"h I:,'fl and we actually wait until the morningT Ught,
have t o die." So now come and let us invade the *29n 1 4 9 4
thcn mill m7ill certninly catch up with us."So now
21:l(i come and let us enter and make report at the
""Lard." fir.'; ss in wrae 31. b a r , posdhlp, "tl~c! killg."



TIIPR C ~ Wmllrginf11
reading s h t s thnk

r lpttpr (rrlrpi) rrmntnkcnl?- inserted illtb the TOYT~ to m & ( ~it r ~ n d"ruesengcth'*jtl.lrnd
of "king."' "The king.'' Literdlr, "he," 31. But kmto r r i w 2 nf
the tt~rtchapter, d A srnh eqnnled nbollt U.9 qanrtw IT. S. h . ) .
e ''Jlnn of God!' M, Im-El.n.laitn'; Iitc~dly,"~unno f Tho Cictd.''
See Ileutcronam~33: 1, footnote a.

tho originnl rrading. This is one of the 134 plnees
x h ~ r rthe Jmrish S o p l l ~ r i nnltercd
I'*ba.~anlt' in the H e b m text
to rrnrt R.dn.~~ny' ( " t l ~ c I ~ r r l " ~8w
. Ge~nesis 15: 3, footnote a.
I X S , iiJt~liocnIt (ICy'r.i.os) " ; Ilk, "Jcl~ovnh (DormiAnrss)
" ; Sy,
".rdlcrvnfl (Jfrrrr.rjn)
Or, "life."


2 KINGS 7 :ID-I7



king's house.'' lo
So they came and called to the
gatekeepers0 of the city and reported to them,
saying: "We came into the camp of the Syrians
and, look! there was nobody there nor sound of
but only the horses tied and t h e asses
tied and the tents just as they were.'" At once
the gatekeepers called out and they reported t o
the Iring's houseminside.
12 Immediately the king rose up by nighP
and said to his servants:" "Let me tell YOU,
please, what the Syrians have done to us.' They
well know that we are hungry,lc and so they
went out from the camp to hide themselves in
the field,n saying, 'They will come out: from the nJos
Jos 8:12
city and we shall catch them alive and into the Jg
J g 20:3T
city we shall enter.' " la Then one of his servants answered and said: ('Let them take, please,
five of the remaining horses that have remained
i T:4
in the city.' Look! they are the same as all t h e m
Jer 14:18
multitude of Israel that have remained in it.
Loolr! they are the same as all the multitude of
Israel that have perished. And let us send out
and see." l4 Accordingly they took two chariots
with horses and the king sent them out after the
camp of the Syrians, saying: "Go and see." At
that they went following them as far as the
Jordan, and, look! all the way was full of cloth. sEs f :7
Isa 2 2 2 4
ing and utensilss that the Syrians had thrown tJob
away a s they were hurrying away.t Then the Isa
Isa 10:3
messengers returned and reported t o the king. Isa
Mt 1G:Z
16 And the people proceeded to go out and ul Sa 1E53
plunderu the camp of the Syrians, and so a seah 2Ch
ZC1> 20:25
measure of fine flour came to be worth a shekel Job
Ps 65:12
and two seah measures of barley worth a shekel, Isa 3 : 4
vNu 23:19
according to the wordv of Jehovah. 17And the Isa 40%
king himself had appointed the adjutant7 upon yIsa
2 U 7:2

2 KINGS 7:J&-8:4

whose hand he was supportingZ himself t o have

charge of the gateway, and the people kept
'$Efg!$ trampling* him in the gatervay, so that he died,
just as the man of Goda had spoken,= when he
spoke at the time that the king came down to
l8Thus it came about just as t h e man of
Pr 13,13
Isa 5 35 Goda had spoken to the king, saying: "Two seah
c;1"$i2' measures of barIey worth a shekel and a seah
measure of fine flour worth a shekel it will come
to be tomorrow at this time in the gateway of
Sa.marPi.a"* lB
But the adjutant ansu7eredthe
man of Goda and said: "Even if Jehovah were
making floodgates in the heavens, could it take
place according to this word?" To this he said:
"E-Iere you are seeing i t with your own eyes, but
from it you wiU not eat.'" 20 Thus it happened
+l;';hyil& to him like that,+ when the people kept trampling him in the gateway, so that he died.
And E.litshahimself had spoken t o the wornan whose son he had revived,O saying: "Rise
E:,K,$' i3:4
iijy up and go, you with your I~ousehold,and resideo
temporarily wherever you can reside temporar*$;gi
g ily,"for Jehovah has called for a famiie* and,
zsa z l : ~ besides, it must c o r n e h p o n the land for seven
1x1 17:l
SOthe woman got up and did accordPS 105.16 y e a ~ s . "a ~
L~ 2 121
~ 1 1 ing t o the word of the man of GodR and she
, ~ took up ternkEy;;&went, she with her h o u ~ e h o l dand
$?;lQorary residence in the land of t h e Phimlisrtines~
for seven years.
3 And it came about at the end of seven years
2Ri 4:13
the woman proceeded t a return from the
Ps 8 2 2
Jer 22:16 land of the PhLlis'tines and go forth t o cry out
t$&ifg to the kings for her house and for her field,
~ ~ ~ ~Now
; f the
0 king was speaking t o Ge.haFzit the
"Man of God." If,i ~ha-El-o.himP;
6ta7a11yl $'man of The God?
See Deuteronomy 53: 1,footnote a. Or, "it has eome!'


2 KINGS 8:5--11


attendant of the man of God,&saying; "Do re?;Ge 4 ~ , z man of God&gave way t o weeping.QY l B At this
Haz'a.el said: "Why is my lord weeping?'To
late t o me,u please, all the great things that uE;&lg
: 4 1this he said: "Because I well know what injurys'sha has done."v And it came about that as vigf $2'0"
221<i 10:32
?T<i 12:17 YOU will do to the sons of Israel. Their fortified
he was relating to the king how he had revived ~ 2;[;4;
places you will consign t o the fire and their
the dead one,y why, here the woman whose son 2 ~ 1 5 1 1 4
2IC1 G:fi
choice men you will kilI with the sword, and
he had revived was crying out t o the king for 2K17:1
"2K' 15:16 their sucklings you will dash to pieces" and their
her house and for her field." At once Ge'ha'zi zfi:i$i5
said: "My lord' the king, this is the woman and y,>;~g;,l
rFA\3;\6 pregnant women you will rip up."5 IWpon that
L L 6:12
Haz'a-el said: "What is your servant, [who is
this is her son whom'sha revived." At that $1"
LICL 6:26
AlSEk 1 7 4 3 I , , , ,
that he could do this great
the king asked the woman and she went on t o
2% 9%
said: "Jehovah has shown
relate t o him the story." Then the king gave her "2Ki 4:32
:Jer 17.9
Jit,26:35 me yon as king over Syria."'
a court of%cial,"saying: "Return all that be$::3:,;, '
c l I C ~19:15
JIic 2.1
longs t o her and all t h e products of the field
14 After that he went fom'sha and came
from the day of her leaving the land until now.''0 P,De:?:3
to his own lord,h who then said t o him:" "What
did EJi'sha say to you?'* To this he said: "He
7 And E.liesha proceeded t o come t o Damas- $fa;!;
x:la said t o me, 'You w
ill positively revive.' "" l5 And
as,' and Ben-ha'dada t h e king of Syria was sick. +,FE:i;:5
i t came about on the next day that he proceeded
Accordingly t h e report was made to him, say- ;&i?;N
to take a coverletC and dipd it in water and
k g : "The man of Godax has come as f a r as m:$;gj;8
spread it out over his face,* so that he died.k
here." At that the king said to Haz'a.el:* "Take 2 ~ sli*
a giftk in your hand0 and go and meet the man : ~ $ ~ ~ ~ , : , 9
,3217i!,,And Hazta.eln began t o reign in place of him.
of Godm and you must inquiren of Jehovah $$;$:,
16 And in the fifth year of Je.ho'rame the son
6 0
through him, saying, 'Shall I revive from this #"IE:~;;~
of A'hab the king of Israel, while Je.hoshra.phat
sickness?' " ' So Haz'a.elr went to meet him andl klsn 9:;
was king of Judah, Je.ho'mml' the son of 3er;$ O: ; :f
2Chzl:3 hosh'a.phat the king of Judah became king.
took a gift in his hand, even every sort of good \:\; ?i3
thing of Damascus, the load of forty camels,* $
l 7 Thirty-two years old he happened t o be when
and came and stood before him and said: "Your ;fi J;$
21:s he became king and for eight years he reigned
l l K i 2252
s o q S Ben-ha'dad, the king of Syria,has sent me r l I < ~1 ~ 5
in Jerusalern.~Is And he went walking in the
to you, saying, 'Shall I revive from this sick- Si%?i!
way of the kings of I ~ r a e l just
, ~ as those of the
ness?""O Then E-li'sha said to him: "Go, say 2i'"34'4
house of A'hab had done," for it was A'hab's
2 2 : ~
to him, 'Yaw willbt positively revive, and Jeho- tmi
;:Kk;& daughter that became his wife,v and he kept
uGe 43:39
vah has shown meu that you will positively Jer%:21
/doing what was bad in Jehovah's eyes. I9And
die.' "Y l1 And he kept a fixed look and kept it ,"G"d2:i2"
"Mon of God.'' M, iaB; as in verse 2. blZorcl." IT,
set t o t h e point of embarrassment. Then the EFj
the plural of n.d6n, t o denote exeellel~ceor m q j e s t ~ *. Or,

"Ifan of God." hIj + A'; as in verse 2. b "Say to him,

T o n will,'>' XmarglnLXXTgSy and 18 Ecbrew manusct?pts;
'[Say, 'Yon will not: " h1,

"netted cloth." d This Hehrev word is also nsed f o r haptrzing. Cornpare % Kings 5 : 14,footnote a. e Literally, *'Jotram,'> 11. But com1wrc 2 ICings 1.: 1 7 ; 3 : 1.

2 KINGS 8 2-27



Jehovah did not want t o bring Judah3 t o rujn Em21:5

2 5 1:13
for the sake of David his servant,y just as he had 3'1x1
promised him to give him a lamp' for his sonsa

Lu 1:BD
20 In his days E'dorn' revolted from under ;:*; i; if;
the hand of Judah and then made a kinga rejgn
over them. " Consequently Je.ho'ramc passed r$G!: Yl:i7
= 47
over t o Za'ir, also all the chariots wlth him.
And it came about that he himself rose up by
night and got t o strike down the E'darn.ites that
were surrounding him and the chiefs of 'the
chariots, and t h e people went fleeing to their
tents. 2 2 But E'dorn kept up its revolt from un21:s
der the hand of Judah down t o this day." It uras
then that Libpnahd: began to revolt a t that time.' '$8
23 And the rest of the affnirs of 3e.ho'ramc
and d l that he did, are they not written in the ;t >!i:
book* of t h e affairs of the days of the king5 of I; ;;:1;,
~h 2i:'iz
Judah? Finally 3e-ho'ramc lay down with his 6.1KI
forefathers" and was buried with his forefathers 1~ r rI I ,1s
in the city of David," And'ahpUhia son .>Cll
;;$21 241
began t o reign in place of him.
% l t l l l 3 11
25 In the twelfth year of Je8ha'ramcthe son :;<k$t;g
of A%ab t h e king of Israel, A.haazitahPthe son hP'<:;;jl
h 2.9
oP Je.harram t h e king of Judah became king.1~n-I
t?KI 1. 1
Twenty-two years old A.ha.zi'ahq'was when he / i i r 11.13
began t o reign and for one year he reigned in ,fji:
Jerusalem." And his mother's name was Ath.8- :.>A
li'ahfr the granddaughterc- of Om'ri" the king Clc'lla.27
of Israel. 21 And he went walking in the way of
the house of A'habbnd kept doing what was
a lrGive him a lamp atld to hie sang," LXXATRT nnd fibout 00 IIebre~vttlt~un~cripts
2nd 2 Chroniclee 21: 7, Jditnhnlly, "fill the d ~ p . ' '



Litcrnlly, i ' J ~ ' r ~ u ~ 31.

, " Cotapnre v P a e 10, fnotnota 0, i'Lihrr~nlr."
A priest citr; see Joshzw 21 : 33, +A.kkrr:.inrlra, AE. Conipnro
1 l i i n g x 22 : 40, footnote a. 1 '8.tJrrr biu'lrll, RI ; prohn)>lymcnuing
(~Ynb(u) is ~sntkrt." literally, "dnughter:' JI,


2 KINGS 8:28--9:6

bad in Jehov&'s eyes: lfke the house of A'hab,

for he was a relative of the house of A%ab by

rnarriage.11 ?q Accordingly he tve~ltwith Je.ho'rama the son of A'hab to the warv against Ha$V ~ K I
22:4 a.eF the king of Syria at Ra'moth-gil'," but
Z C 18:3
the Syrians struck down Je.ho'rarnna So Jey l K i 19:17
2Ki9:15 ho'rama* the king returned t o get healed at
e:gi:l:8 Jezfre~elufrom the wounds that the Syrians got
,!Ei i?;;to inflict upon him at Ra'mah" when he fought
~ j " s l j i l 8 Haz'a.el the king of Syria. As for A.ha.zi'ahcA
1% 29.1
2sa 4.4
the son of Je.hoFramthe king af Judah, he went
mil B : I ~
1 C h 2 : 6 down to see Je.ha'ram0 the son of A'hab in JezP41Ki22:34 revel,for he was sickab
And E.Hpshathe prophet, for his part, called
one of the sons' of the prophets and then
2Ki 20:35
said t o him: ''Gird up your loinsp and take this
2x1 4.29
Jer 1:17 flaskd* of oil in your hand and ga t o Rapmoth*Isa i o : ~ gil'e-ad.' When you hnve come i
n there, see
*lKl22:3 1
arrrs.28 Je'hulcthesonaf Je.hoshk.phat thesonofNim'klICi 1937
shi there, and you must come in ~ n make
get up from the mldst of his. brothers and bring
? the Innermost r0orn.n And you must
~ E 29:i
take the flasks of ail and pour It out upon his
headp and say, This is what Jehovah has said:
?,;$:;: 1snl.j:: "(I do anointC you as king" over IsraeE." ' And
yournust open the door and fleeand noturait."t
I5n. 16,;2
F., n . 7
4 And the attendant, the prophet's attendant,
got on his way to Ra'rnoth-gil'e-ad. a When he
came in, why, there the chi& of the military
force were seated. He now safd: "There is a
uJg3:19 word I have for you,i"
clzjef," At this Je'hu
said: "For which one of all of us?" Then he
said: 'Tor you, 0 chief.'' So he got up and
a*', M; as et verse 101. ~'I3~n'nrnh,"Af, A ~hnrtenedform for
Rn'moth-giPe.nd. .4.blrnt.iirflru, .\I.
Untnpnre 1 h n g s 22 :40, footIIO~C
a. Or, d'jriglat.'' Of rera~uirsnrs.
2ch m3
Ec 2 2 6

2Co 6:14



came into the house^ and he proceeded t o pour ;If;%;:

the oil out upon his head and say t o him: "This 1~
2Ch 19.16
is what Jehovah the God of Israel has said, '1 :s2;;L,
do anoint you as kingr over Jehovah's people,"
that is, over Israel. And you must strike down




2 KINGS 9: 1%19

Se%uy the son of Je.hoshFa.phatthe son of N h F shiz proceeded to consp3rem against Je.h~'rarn.~
And Je.horramr hln~selfhad happened to be
2 K l 15:3 keeping guard at Ra',' he with all



:IKi 22.3 Is~ael,because of Haz'a.elA the king of Syria.

2Ki P.28
the house of A'hab your lordo and I must
Later Je.ho'ramE the Icing returned t o get
3KI Pi?
avenge' the bloodb of my servants the prophets ,,g>iJbi;
21ri a:i5 healed a t Jezfre.el' from the wounds that the
and the bloodb of all the servants of Jelrovnh ;:;+;;I)
ljki:,'li?&Syrians got t o inflict upon him when he fought
a t the hand of Je~'e.bel.~
And the whale house ~ I :':4,.,2
Hazta.el the 1dng of Syria."
of A'hah must perisha and I must cut off Pmm i!i<i,ij30
Je'hu now said: "If YOUR soul
do not
A'habA anyone urinatingP against a wall and. n l j i l it.,-t
let anyone go out in escape from the city to go
any helpless and worthless onec in Israel.' " And ij;! $j iiz
and make report In Jw're.el." laAnd Je'hu be*?Kt 8 . L
I must constitute the house of A%ab like the " ~ ~ ~ : J , ? $ ~
~ B:za
gan to ride and go to Jez're.el, for Je.hoJrarna
"Gh 1 2 6
house of'amathe son of Ne'bat and like ,;'$$?,
13:M was lying there' and'ehcmthe king d
the house of Ba'a.shanthe son of A.hi'jah. l o And s;~;b;;;l
r,e z1:6
15-24 Judah himself had gone down to see Je.hoPram."
it will be Jez'e-be1 that the dogs will eat in the i i i r : . i 21
' V n d the watchmank was standing upon the
tract of land at Jez're-el and there will be no 'f;'::; in
tower9 in Jez're.el,n and he got to see the heavii",i;$&
one bwylng her."' With that he opened the
ing mass of Je%uls [men] as he was coming,
BJa 8!18
door and went fleeing.'
and he at once said: "There is a heaving mass
11 As for Je'hu, he went out to the servants
[of men] that I am aeelng.'VAt that Je.ho'ramR
said: "Take a c~vnlrymanand send him t o meet
of his lordla and they began to say t o him: "Is
them and let him say, '1s It peace?' "r Accordeverything a11 right?k Why did this crazyll man IcaKI
H J C29x6
come in to you?" But he said t o them: "YOU ~ITOF)::
ingly a rider on a h o s e went to meet him and
t 3.3
yourselves well h o w the man and his sort of J In M
rlSalk4 said: "This is what the king has said, 'Is it
talk."' "'But they said: "It is false!" Tell us,
peace?"' But Je'hu sttid; "What do you have
f ~213
to do with 'geace'?dn Get araund to my rear?"
please." Then he said: "It was lilcc this and like r's-"'!'''D
Zer IS:J
that that he talked to me, saying, 'This is what
And the watchrnant went ~m to report, sayJehovah has said: "1 do anoint you as king over
158 2
::11 ing: "The messenger came as far as to them,
Israel."' "a la At this they hurriedly took each ;f:'&!
he has not returned," SO he sent out a
one his garrnentt and put it under him upon the ,$,l:&o
second rider on a home, who, when he came to
bare steps and they began to blow the trumpetLt
them, pmceeded to say r "Thfs is what the king
has said, $15 It peace?' ' I r But Je'het said : "What
and say: "Je'hu has become king!"Y l4 And ;$,:'?%
Po.ram: M: aa at 2 Rings 8 : 18, b Liternllp, "If there is POUR
~ ' Z n r d , ' W ,$', the plural of a.ddn', tu denoto sx~~Dcncc
~;oul:l M. e A.hJanr.inrkrr, h1, Comprti-0 1 I i i n ~ n22 : 40, footnote a.
or mnjesty, b l i t e r d l ~ ,l%bloods!' C Liternlly, "ane tcslrninrtl nnd
d Liter~llp,' V h n t [in thcre] l o you and to pencet" See Josha
ono let go (or, aha~doned).'~
See Deuterbtlblny 32: 311, footnote n,
L"1: 24, footnote b.
d llte~*ally,
"Falsehood I"



2 KINGS 9 :20-26



2 KINGS 9:27-35

utterance of Jehovah.' So now, lift him up;

do you have to do with $eace'Ta8 Get around to spz2$ji2
Jer 165
him into the tract of land according to
my rear!"
Hu 3:17
vfKi 21:19 the word of Jehovah.+
20 And the watchmant went on to report, i:;g:F
27' And A.ha.zi'ah2 the king of Judah himself
saying: ''He came as far as to them, but he has
2Kj 16:26
saw it and took to flight by the way of the garnot returned, and the driving is like the driving u l R i 19.16
c2K1 21:18 deno house.' (Latera Je'hu went in pussuit of
of Je'huu the grandsonb of Nim'shi,~far it is
'1x1 21:2
him and said: "Him also! STRIKE him down!"
with madness that he drives."~ At that Je.ho'WOS17:11
~ g 1 . 2 ~SO they struck him downb while in the chariot
ram said: "Hitch up!"" So his war chariot* was :";'1',?;i3
LJg 1:27
hitched up and Je.hoJram the king of Israel and l;$gz5
J 5
: ~ on the way up to Gur, which is by Ib'le.arnnnAnd
A.ha.zitahc1 the king of Judah went out, each in $
I Z he continued his flight to Me.gid'doA and got to
21<i23:m die there, " "Then his servants carried him in
his o ~ w a r chariot ." A s they continued on out
;$; ;&
13:20 a chariot to Jerusalem and they burieda him in
to meet Je'hu they got t o find him in the tract 119 21:18
ILLa l : ~
of land of Na'both" the Jez're-el-ite.
62KI 9:17
E;i: his tomb0 with his forefathers in the city of
+Ika 48:22
22 And it came about that as soon as Je.ho'- Is, 5s:s
-2K1 8.74 David.' 2p And it was in the eleventh year of
Je.ho'ramc' the son of Afhab that A.ha.zifah
ram saw Je'hu he immediately said: "Is it Je'16:"
R O 3:17
2Ch 2i:ia
had become king over Judah,)@
peace: J e ' h ~ ? ~But
' ~ he said: "What peace' ~ : , C , ~ ~ ; ~ ~ E2Kf
x2KI 9:15
WKI 19:~
could there be as long as there are the fornica- ;gf :;
30 At length Je'hu came to Jez're.eljXand
kJcr 4.30
z~~ : ?
tions of Jez'e.bele your mother and her many IP,:!K2;20
Ezs 2 3 ~ 0Jezre.bel*herself heard of it. And she proceeded
sorceries?"" A"2t
once Je.holram made a turn
h a 32.1:17
: ~to paint1<her eyes with black paint and do her
with his hands, that he might flee, and said t o
head up beautifullyn and to look down through
A.ha.zirah:c "There is treachery," A.ha.zi'ahrH i;:::
the window." IAnd Je'hu himself came in by
ICh :2:18 the gate. She now said: "Did it go all right with
2f And Je'hu himself filled his hand with a b o e
; :$
Ps 118.6
Ps 124:2 Zirn'rir the killer of his lord?"d s2 At that he
and proceeded to shoot Je.hofram between the EC
Ps 50.21
t G e 3;:36
arms, so that the arrow came out at his heart? ;&; %;;
~ s ~ s : lraised
his face toward the window and said:
1Ki 2 2 3
r2x.i 9:21
and he collapsed in his war chari0t.k " He now s1K1
s with me? Who?"s Immediately t w o or
said to B i d ' k a r q i s adjutant:" "Lift him up; J er 23.33
three court officialst looked down at him. a 3
Y2Ri 7:20 he said: "Let her drop!"u Then they let her drop
throw him into the tract of the field of Na'both c?c"h'l's.lz
Isa 25:10
the Jez're.el.ite,r far remember:" I and you were i$E :!%
and some of her blood spattered upon the wall
h1lC 7.10
Ma1 4:3
riding teams behind A'hab his father a d Jeho- L2:;$l!
and upon the horses, and he went trarnplingv
vah himself lifted up this pronouncementa Uv2;f;;451Ki
ES 3 : ~ upon her. 3 4 After that he came on in and ate
C P s IX9:21
against him; eo ' "Certainly the bloodt of Na'- g;; ;;if5
21K121:25 and drankr and then said: "You men, please,
both and the blood of his sonsU I saw yester- r G e 9 : 5
Tnl6;i5 take care of this accursed3z one and bury her,
day," is the utterance of Jehovah, "and I shall kE"1f::z
for she is t h e daughter of a king."q5 When they
certainly repayv you in this tract of land," is the $$+ii:,




L'Latcr.'' See 2 Chronicles 22: '7-9. "'So they struck him down."
111serteEE in agreement with VgSg, and f o r sense. To.rnm', 31.
d "Lord.', &
. ~,
o + H ~ as
~ I in
~ ' ;verse 7 .

See verse 18, footnote d. b Literally, "son."


U;"Ben-dek'pe (Bar-d'qar)," ST.

d.hJ!az.a'a'bu, 11.

2 KINGS 9: 36-10:5


bury her, they did not find anythlng of

her but the skuU and the feet and the palms of
the hands." nE When they returned and told him, O E b , F 3
he went on to say: '"lt is the word of Jehovah R;;g
that he spoke by mean9 of his servant E.liffaha
went t o

the Tish'bite, saying: 'Ln t h e tract of land of ?[<I1.1.2s

Jez%e.el the dogs will eat the flesh of Jezk.kl.( o l l c i 21:23
" And the dead body of Jez'e,bel will certainly
become as manuret upon the face of the Acld in +?,&!j: ,lO
the tract of land of Jezfre.el, that they may not J c J8:4
say, "This is Jezfe.bel." ' "
Now A'hab had seventym sonsr in Samar'i.8' Therefore Jerhu wrote letters j;;;;$4
and sent them t a Sa-marEi.ato the princes* of w;>,'\;r?
Jez%e.el,the older menk and the caretakers. of arIc11<1ri;E lrr;
A'hab,h saying: ? ''NOW,then, at the very time lr< i : ~ : L I
that this lettern cGmes t o YOU there arc with
you the sons of YOL% lord= and there are with
I-ou the war chariotsr and the horses and a f orij- r2Kl8:la
Aed cityn and t h e arm0r.t a And YOU must sce rt##j$3
which is the best and most upright of the s o ~ ~ s
of YOUR lordc and put him upon the throne of
his fathermuThen fight for t h e house of YOUR u . j ~ a \ ~ A $ ~
~ S 2:9
lTil 1 . 5
4 And they b e m e very greatly afraid and
began to say: " m k !two kings,' themselves did iJ<a:\
1& %
not stand before him, and haw shnll we our- y : ~11~2 1i ~
selves stmd?"" Consequently the one who was :d:.j,'"
over the house and the one who was over the LuL4.31
city and the older men and the caretakers' sent *2Kllo:l
t o Je'hu, saying: "We are your servants: nnd
everything that you say to us we shnll do, We 11<12U:~J




.El.d,ic~'hr~,hl. See 1 king^ 17:1, footnote c, b Or, 'Ylie tru~lteea

of h'hob," Jr; "the caretakers of the - o m of A'hnb," T X X ' L ~ ~ n r f l f n l ~
*deiloll, a "Lord." M, a.h.n~sn',ha p l u ~ ~of
l n.dBn', ia denote cscrll~nceor mnjes@.


2 m G S 10:6-12

shall not make anyone king. What is goad in

your own eyes do.'"
6 At that he wrote them a second letter! saying: "If~~ubeIangtorne~and
it Ismy voicethat
YOU Ere obeying, take the heads of the men t h a t
g-5 are sans' of YOUR lordnand come to me tomorrow
De 5:9
Now the sons of the
Jas 7.2.4 at this t h e at Je~'rec1.''~
Isa 1!:21 king, seventy men, were with the djstinguished
Re 2:LO
EZKI 9:30
men of the city t h ~ were
bringing them up,
'And it came about that as soon BS the letter
came t o them they went taking the sons of the
king and slaughtering [them I , seventy men,"
2 ~ i11:1
after which they put their heads In baskets" and
PCh 21:4
= ~14:s
sent them to l ~ i mat Jezrre.el. Then the messen~~~~$ger:~eameinandtoldhim,saying:"Theyha
brought the heads" of the sons of the king..."'
he said: "PUT them in two heaps at the entrance
of the gate until rn~rnlng,"~
"And it came about
.IS. 12:s in the morning that he proceeded t o go out. Then
1 people: "You are
tE:$g he stood still and said t o ~ 1 the
, ~ ~ I myself conspiredt against my
ifiiT;i6r i g h t e ~ u sHere
ZICl F:,N lordu m
d I got to kill
but who struck down
VHO 1.4
nothing of Jehoy1Sa 329
1Sa 15:s vah's rrrord will fall [u~~fulRlled]
to the earthy
Ps m:11
that Jehovah h m spoken against the house of
?%;$% A'hablz and Jehovah Ilimseli has done what he
spoke by means 00 his servant'jab.'"c*
"Momover, Je'hu went on t o strike down all
PC13:20 who were left over of the house of A'hab in
r-1ICI 3319
IKI18.m Jezrre.el and all his distinguished menDand his
l K i 22:6
2 1 ~ 12321) acquaintances and his priests;' rintil he had let
dJos 1030
lK1 14:10 no survivor of his remafn,O
12 And he proceeded to rise and come in,
h:',g;f; then get on his way t o Sabrnarti,a.The binding
M,'; na in vene 2. b Or, 4'innoc~nt!' 0 EI.LhPAu,


3i. See 1 Eiings 17:1, footmate c.

2 KINGS 10:13-18


house of the shepherds was on the .rvaymsI8 And

JPhu himself encountered the brothers at A.hazj'ahh- the king of Judah. When he said t o them, +a,R,tEg
' ho are YOU?" then they said: "We are the ;
brothers of A.ha.zitah,band we are on our way
dotv11 to ask if all is well wIthc the sons of the
kingmand the sons of the lady,'" l4 Immedi~tely9E!
he said: "SEIZEthem alive!'" So they s e i z d ugi!;g;;
them alive and slaughtered them at the cistern



one be missing, because I have a great

sacrifice for
Anyone that Is missing will
for Je'hu, 'he acted slyly,#
Y ~ ; ~ i ~ h o t
I for the purpose sf destroying the worshipers
of B~'al,=
20 And Je'hu went on to say: "Sandffy a
assemblykfor Ba'al.''a Accordingly they
proclaimed it. After that Je'hu sent through
Jot?3,11 all Israel," so that all the worshipers of Ba'ala
r~ 16;32 cnmr in.r And not a single one was left aver that
did not come in. And they kept comlng in to the
house of Ba'al," and the house of Ba'ala came to
nJe16:n be full from end to 'We now said to the
one who was over the wardrobe: "Brina out garmt2a:12
ments' for all the worshipers of B~'al."a So he
braught the aftire out for them. Then Je%u
entered with 3e.hon'a.dabu the son of Re'chab
J W ":"
into the house of Ba'aL' He now said to the
worshipers of Ba'al: a "Search carefully and see
that there rnag be here with YOU' none of t h e
lvorshipers of Jehovah, but only the worshipers
of Ba1&l.''8Y24 Finally they came in to render up
m 2 : r : 3 3 sacrifices and burnt obel.ings, and Je'hu himself stationed eightyc men outside at his disposal
1)e In:>L
and went an to say: "As for the man that
escapes from the men whom I am bringing into
' l C J ryAID
P a m hands, the one's soulBwill go for the other" s0u1."~
b ~ 1n:l.l
~ c single
?I<! 111:11


Or, "Betb-ekted of the Shepherds umnaon tho rny." A.RAn:.iaChtr,

If, a L~t~lnlly,
''on am trey d o n fox t h e w~11'nw?farn'
BI. Or,
"ci~t~rrrof Bdh-ek'ed." "Je.hon'n+dnhTn3E ; Illrwnma "Jehov~h
i s l i h ~ r n l(or, has impeiletl) ." Crln~parc3 S n i n n ~ lI3 : 3, footnote a.
f lbThe?.," 11 ; ''Ire,"
L,YX*Sy. g'k rr, 11; RR in r p r w 10. h Literfilly, ''serr~d,"'31. IHab-BaP'al,11; literally, "tho Ra'nl." Cortlpare
K t ~ n i b ~ r22
a : 41,footnote a.

82K1 10.L1

of the binding house," forty-two men, and he

did not let a single one of them remain.k
zch 22:s
I5 As he n7asgoing along from there he got
t o encounter Je.hon'a.daben the son of Retchabr nj:f,3,t9
[coming] to meet him. When 11e blessed4 him, ;&$h",;Ez
he accordingly said t o him: "Is your heart up- g;;;;,
sight with me,just as my own heart Is with your
heart?"' T o this Je-hon'a.dabp said: "It is."'Ut1Ch12"7
J O ~~
~ 1 5
"'If it is, do give me your hand." So he g w e him ~ ~ 12:cls h
his handv At that he made him get up into the vgff$
charjot with h i r n . ~
Is Then he sflid: "Do go long
with me and look upon my toleration of no nc s:sr
rivdryz toward Jehovah."%nd theyr kept him zKu
co 11:2
'a0 10:2
riding with Ilim in his war charioi. ::Finally he
came to Sa.mar'i.a. Now he went strjking down
all who were Jeft over of A'habk in Sa.mnrri.a
until he had annihilated t h e m n accol*cllng t o $FIE:::
Jehovah's word that he had spoken to E.ll'jah.aA QL;xL~;'I
18 Further, Je'hu collected all the people OlKi
1Ki 18:19
together and said to them: "A'hab, on the one , I -\I. 1 ~ : 2 2
hand, worshiped11 Ea'ali a 1ittIe.O J e h , on the AE;iyjM


other hand, will worship him a great deal, I* So

call 821 the prophets' of Ba'al,47 all his worF

f3 shipers* and all his priests' t o me. Do not Iet a


I H u h - B P n l , Y; liter all^, Yhe Ba'al?' Cotnpare Yurnh~r~

footnoto n, Li ternIIy, 'pfuU,mouth to mouth," h1. P o ~ ~ i bmeaning
~tantling80 close to one another. m'tEigl~ty,"A I L S S V g ; "three
htintlre~land right;rJ1'Sy; "three thousarld,'%XXLa8aralan ~ ~ l t l o
I ~ l i e ~ l o n e ct~dex,
~ ~ ~ l amargln.

l ~

2 KINGS I0 : 25-33



2 KINGS 10:3 4 1 1 :4

Jordan toward the rising of the Bun, all the land

of GjlteBad:: the Gad'i tesa and the Reu'ben,iteso
.Jna Id:$ land the Ma+nas'sites,+
from A.roter;" which is by
:Nti 3%:33I
r l s n IC::!
wen Gilkad and
*]>I> 3:lJ
r Jns 13:9 ,BaPshan.*
L J v %13.12
the adjutantsqbegan t o strike them dotm with!,; :; i
34 h d the rest of the affairs of Je'hu and all
the edge of the sword and t o t h m them out, 3t;:;:,
that he did and at1 his mightiness, are they not
md they kept going as far as the innermost Y ] < ~ ( F : ~ J
written in the bookm of the affairs of the days
room" of the house of Ba'al." 2'Then they :E;*fi21
of t h e kings of Israel? 3TFinally Je%u lay down
hrougM aut the sacred pillarsbcof the 11ouse of I J S ~1 . 1 : ~
with his iorefathers,k and they buried him in
Ba'aI and burned each one.c*f 7 Further, they $!' R:'i:
Sa.mar'i.a, and Je.ho'a.hazn his son began to
pulled down the sawed pillar af Ba8al'and pulled t; :" :'gm
reign in plnce of him. '%And
the days that Je'hu
down the h o w ' of Ba'al and they kept it set
had reigned over Israel were twentysight years
aside for priviesP down to this day.
ZIii' :':t:~
in S~.mar'i.a.
28 Thus Je%u annihilated Ba'al out of Israel. ;,?1;!;2
As reg~rdsAthIadirahr the mother of
2u It was only the sins of Jer.o.b~'arn'~
t h e sen of I ),:2:!i
A . h a . z i ' ~ h ,she
~ ~ saw that her son had
ltllrl IS:&?
Ne'bat, with which he caused Israel to sin," that ,,IW I.I:IG
died.[ So she rose up and destroyed all the offJe'hu did not turn aside from following, [that .$,~'&'~~'
spring of the kingdorn.~E However, Je.hosh'e.bav
is,] the golden calves' of which one was in j:",':",:'"
the daughter of King Jeah~'ram,by
the sister of
Beth'el and one in Dan.Os Consequently Jeha- ;;;if %
Aha-zi'ah,n took Je.ho'ashc2the son of A.ha.ziPah
vah said to de'hu: "For the reason that you
and stole him from among the sons of the king
have acted well in doing what is right in my
that were t o be put t o death, even him and his
eyes,t [and] according ta all that was in my ,,F;~$$:Z;
nutsing woman, into the inner bedroom, and
heart you have done to the house of Afhab,t1 Ir;i st::;
theya kept him concealed* because of Ath.asons themselves to the fourth generation will sit Vzj21
li'ah,@and he was not put to death. %d he confor you upon the throne of Israel."v And Jethu
t i n u d with her at the house of Jehovah in hidhimself did not take care t o walk in t h e lawc3;;;O);$
1 jng for six years, while'ah was reigning
of Jehovah the God of Israel with a11 his hearty 1:, ~(,):iz
over the land."
IT1 2:12
He did not turn aside from the sins of ~er.0.b~'-I:!I'r
war u : ~ 4 And In the seventh year Je.hol'adan sent
t ;sf3 H 1H
am with which he camedl Israel to sin.=
z11<1 1 . ' a
and then tmlt the chiefs oaf hundreds of the
I K l k.\.M
32 h those days Jehovah started to CUt off Ilib I i:3F
Ca'rI.an3 bodyguard and of the runhers' and
Israel piece by piece, and Haz'a.elW
kept striking *iii L'y[L'
brought them to himseIf at the house of Jeho:;ij
-them in all the territoe of Israel, fmm the s ~ c ' l lE2
t la

25 And it came about that as soon as he AnIshed rendering up the burnto offering Je'hu
immediately said to the runners and the adjutants: "Come in, strike them down! Do not
let a single- one go out."" And the runners and

CP% BD:?
FUc 3:12





LiternIly, "the eit;~,'' 31. b "Sacred pillars:' hf; "satred pilEnr?

L,'LYTgS7 ; possibly khe "stlcred pale" or "Pc.she'rah'' he in^ ltli-n ut .
e LiternIly, "it" (feminine), 31 thnt is, each snrred pole inditir2unlly,

35, Po.mmt, 3f ; Iit~rfilly, t'Jo'mm!" E t e d p ,

'Ldn'nsl~," 31; hnt see Trme 21, footnotr d. a'cThq+,'rY;rr&e:r
LXX\-gRy, 'R.dhn!.ih'J~n,31; mmning, possibly, "Pah(n) is esni t ~ t 1 . I ~
a ..l.klr n.-.intAtr,


vahOand concluded a covenante with them and g:zg::F
made them swearx at the house of Jehovah, %
: $;a
after which he showed them the son of the king. i$;l&a
5And he went on to command them, saying: "Gea0:25
"This is the thing that YOU will do: One third IKI
N e 5:u
of YOU are coming in on the sabbath" and keep427
ing strict watchk over the king's house;n %and nlK1
k l C h 7:1
one third will be at t h e gate' of the Foundationa r i c h 26:13
and one third will be at the gate behind the runners; and you must keep strict watch over the
house by t w n s . 'And there are f x o divisions
among YOU that are all going out on the sabbath,
and they must keep strict watch over the houses siFA Fi::,
of Jehovah in behalf of the king. And YOU must
encircle the king a11 around, each one with his
weapons in his hand,and anyone entering withi n the rows will be put to death. And continue
with the king when he goes out and when he
comes in."
9 And the chiefs of hundredsu proceeded to do
according to all that Je.hoita.da the priest had
commanded: So they took each one his men
that were coming in on the sabbath,v together v Z m B : g
with those that were going out on the sabbath,
and then came in to Se.hoifa.dathe priest. The ylsa
2Sa 8:7
priest now gave the chiefs of hundreds the$
spears and the circular shields that had be- gg; ;19
longed t o King David, which were in the house .1sa s : ~
of Jeh0vah.Y And the runner# kept standing :% ?$ig
each one with his weapons in his hand, from the ;$! iy!y
right sideh of the house* clear to the left sidec L:E!, gE
of the house, by the altarDand by the house,"
{iFoundation," according to 2 C h n i c l e s 23 : 5. Iiiternlly, dLXiir,''
Literally, "the right ~lioulder,"M. That is, the south side, when
one faces enst. E t e r a l l ~ '(the
left shoulder," N,That is, the north
side, mhen one faces east.

2 KINGS 11:12-18

all around near t h e king. l2 Then he brought t h e

son of the king outv and put upon him the dia'ZSa 1:1 dem* and the Testimonp and they madea him
2Sa 121.30
king" and anointedb him." And they began to
EX z5,at
their hands1<and say: "Let the king live?""
FS 1 8 : ~
13 When Ath.a.litah heard the sotwd of the
PS 78.5
people rumling, she at once came to the people
Ica s:l6
at the house of Jehovah.' Id Then she saw, and
there the king was standing by the pillarg ac:,Kt:;%
cording t o the custom and the chiefs and t h e
2c11 %:a1 trumpetsct by the king and all the people of the
rYu 10.2
ich 5/12 land rejoicingu and blowing t h e t r u r n p ~ t sIm.~
h1K1 1.40
mediately Ath.aali'ahvripped her clothing apart
I C 1k40
Pr 29:?
and began crying: "Conspiracy! Conspiracy!"Y
l:iF l5 But Je.hoi'a.da the priest commanded the
; ~ $933
~ : ~chiefs
; ~ ~ of hundreds,= t h e appointed ones of the
force, and said to them: "Take her out
zZKl h : 4
2ch 23:9 from inside the rows and, as for anyone coming
after her, let there be an execution of deathd
with the sword!"" For the priest had said: "Do
not let her be put t o death in the house of Jeho+?i&il
la Sa they laid their hands upon hero and
~ e r 3 1 :vah.""
by the way of the horse entry' of the
ZlEf ;it2
and she got put to death there."
E x ~ 2 3 17 Then Je.hoi'a.da concluded the covenant0#
Le 24:17
between Jehovah and the kingk and the people,
ISA B 11
that they should prove thernseIves the people
? ~ J o s ~ ~ of
: E Jehovah, and also between the king and the
After that aU the people of the land
'';;,";gas people." lB
house of Ba'alr and pulled dorm his


"And they made," 3LVgSy ; <'and (he) made," L S X , " h d

(they) anointed," >IT
; anointed:' L X X . " Etraight
trumpets; nat the sha'pknr trumpet, which was curved like an
anilnal's horn; a cornet. See Nunhers 10: 3. "'Let there be an esecution of death." The Hebrew ~rerbhere is in the infinitive absolute and hence is il~ipersonaland indefinite as to time. Cornparo
2 d n g s 4 : 43, footnote a,

2 KINGS 11:I U 1 2 :4


altars," and his imagesDthey broke up thorough- ~ ~ C , h l ~ ~ V~ E

ly,t and Mat'tan the priest of Ba'al they killedg&

;F;'LI IN 13 s
before the altarsu
And the priest proceeded t o put overseersa
over the house of Jehovah. I @ Flirther, he took
the chiefs of hundreds and he Catri.any body- yI=AK I1~ :: l ~s
guard and t h e runnersz and aU the people of the
land, that they might bring the king down from ;f:;;;$
the house of Jehovah, and they came gradually
by the may of the %ate'of the runners to the i:g f?;Ej g
king's house, and he began to sit upon the ;: ;$,
throneo of the kings. '"And all the people of the :;: ;;!
land continued t o rejoicePAand the city, for its ;l;'';{f:l
p a k had no disturbance, and Ath.a.lj'ahh her- ~i 2i::tl
self they had put to death with the sword at the
62rh 2 3 : ~
21 Seven years old Je-hdashd' was when he
a2i 11
began to reign."
I11 the seventh year of JP%U,"Je.ho'ashaY*i%\ffi
became king and for forty years he ,2,2;;:2
reigned in Jerusalem. And his mother's nome JCII:I:XI
was Zib5ah from Be'er-she%a, And Je,ha'ashd k 2 ~ 14:5
continued doing what was right in Jehovah's :?,],;9:
eyes all the days of his that Je.hai'a.da the ;:l;$$:
priest instructed him." a It was onIy the high" "lc'll 1t;:3g
places t h a t did not disappear.n The people were ",1,K,I;?:i"
still sacrificing and making sacrificial smoke on p: i;2i
t h e high places.
~ Z Cm
4 And Je.hofashe proceed& to say to the ,$,:\'%:;$
priests:" "MI the money2 for the holy offerings ':'::,'
that is brought to the home of Jehovahfu the .$ki:i!j

money at which each one Is assessed,aPthe

for the souls according to individuaI valT,!:
yI,r 27
x:?12 u ~ f l o n
fill~ the
~ money that it comes up on the
3:s heart of each one t o bring to the house of Jeha!:Y : l - ~ . ~ ,
i . : :.;.22
vah," Iet the priests take for themselves, each
1Ch 9 . 3
1y.11;,l:lf one from his own acquaintance,' and let them,
T.)r 1 11
for their paiwt,repair the cmckd of the housen
2 I;B
K/!'Y !O
any crack is found.">
,.,, \":
I,u 21.1
came almut that by We twenty-third
*sa I S 3
I < .'s
year of King Je.ho'ashb t h e priests* had not yet
::KA :
:5 repnlred the cmcks of the house.' 'So King 5>:1.1 Je-ho'ashb called Je-hai'a.daa *the priest and the
-1 Slb 2'1
prjests and said t o them:' 'Why is i t that you
II 5
arc not lmepalrIngthe cracks of the house? Now,
then, do noi: tnkc any more money from YOUR
r . ~ i l l 4l
2.1: 1.
acquaintances, but for the cracks of the house
y l : V ~nhould
give it." %At that the priests agreed
not to tnke any more money from t h e people
and not t o repair the cracks of the house.
9 Je.hai'a.d~the priest now took a chestck and
a hole tn its lid and put It beside the altar
right RS a person comes into the house
*l<l ~ 3 . 4
and there the priestqr the door1C:h 13:1$
1(q111p,:2.~keepersIclRput all the money that was bein;:
J', H: 10
hroi~ght into the house of Jehovah. lo And it
Jcr X.24
came nhout that ws soon as they saw that them
isn ;lrr:lS
I H : ~ was a g r e ~ tdeal of money in t h e ch&
:.);I 17:s
:$I1 2"4
come up md they would bind it up'' and dunk
I,.G~I5 ?:!
the money that was being found at the house of
\:-c?I:t.11 Jeh0vnh.v IIAnd they gave the money that had
.r-2, 2 ;
;,:,, ,.;: been counted off over to the hands of doersr of

mLiteraIlg, "or~rsighk;charges," Id; the abstract bcinp put for

the concrete. 'd.thaLi#'hn, 31; as in vcrae 2, Cl~aptcr11 in the
Hebrex text ends here. 31, Yla.atrkt; caning L ' J ~ h o v a his
strang," or, "Jehovah bas ktowed." LiWaIi;c; "silces,'"




X ~ : X ~



Literally, "the mone of e r ~ bone pmsing by," If. b TrJio.ush$M;

i n vrme 1. 6 A.ri;n 7, 31; ns at Exodus 2:: 10, footnote e. Gterrtlly, "li~r.l>ern
of the threshold," hi, Or, "chief priest" G t ~ r d l ~ ,
''grcnt ( c g t ) pri~gt,"11.

2 KINGS 12: 12-8


the work that were appointed at the house of
Jehovah. In turn they paid it out to the workers
in wood and to the builders that were working
at the house of Jehovah, l2 and to the masonsZ " m 3 : 7
and to the hewers of stone,"nd to buy timbers %2i2;i7
and hewn stones for repairing the cracks of the
house of Jehovah and for all that was expended
upon the house to repair it,
13 Only as respects the house of Jehovahf 02Ch24:14
there were not made basins' of silver, extinguish- 11KI
em,*bowlst4trurnpets,a+any sort of gold" article
and a r t i d e of silver" from the money that was !&thl;;;2
being brought to the house of Jehovah, " for it &$h$;z
was t o the doers of the work that they would give n r 1:11
it and with it they repaired the house of Jeho- *Nu
czr 1:10
vah." And they would not call for an account- LFgg:l/l
inglCwith the men into whose hand they would nZCh34:10
give the money to give to the doers of the work,"
because it was with faithfulnessr that they were Ek2$$5
working. lC As for the mmey for guilt' offer- "PS68:21
NU 5:s
ings# and the money for sin offering^,^ it was sLe5:15
not being brought to the house of Jehovah. It t227":"7:9
HO 4:a
continued to become the priests'."
uNu 18:8
17 Then it was that Hazta.elv the king of v;E;91;5
Syria proceeded to go up and fight against
Gathy and capture it, after which Raz'a-el set ,Iyi;;4
S, 2 7 : ~
his face2 t o go up against Jerusalem,' l a At that :Fig:%
Je.ho'ashb the king of Judah took all the holy ,$$,h4"$::3'5
offerings3 that Je.hoshta-phat and Je,hotram ,g2h9;2;23
and A.ha.zi'ahc his forefathers, the kings of
Jndah, had sanctified and his own holy offerings and all the goId to be found in the treasures of the house of Jehcvah and the house;
2ch 16:2
of the king and sentAthem to HazPa.elthe king of { A%KLIS:I~
a Strdght tmrupets, ns at Kumbera 10: 2. Teho.nsk', RZ; as at
verse 1. A.hkrrr.iu'hu, hI.


2 KINGS 12:19-13:5

Syria. So he withdrew from against JerusaIem.

19 As for the rest of the affairs of Je.ho'asha
all that he did, are they not written in the
booko of the affairs of the days of the kings of
+2xi14:5 Judah? 2o However, his servants* rose up and
s2Ch 24:25
2ch 25:27 leagued together in a conspiracp and struck
x1K19 15
2 ~ l r & : 2 4 Je.ho'asha dovv a t t h e house" of the Mound,b*
42Sa 5:9
[on the way] that goes down to Sil'la. And
;$g Jo'za.carCk the son of Shim'eath and Je.hoz'a2&'3,2%,
badk the son of Sho'mer, his servants, were the
n2Ch $4127 ones that struck him down, so that he died.
1.2kl 11:2
21ii XI:^
Accordingly they buried him with his foreZICI 11:21
e2K18:26 fathers in the city of David, and Am.a.zi'ahn
t2:U 1035
his SOIT began to reign in place of him.
)'IKj 1?:28
I n the twenty-third year of Je.ho'ashar
lEi1 13.33
z l K l 14:16
the son of A.ha.zi'ahda the king of Judah,
*Le %:I7
Je.ho'a.hazZ the son of Je'huu became king over
~e 4.94
i 5 Israel in Sa.mar'i.a for seventeen years. And
he continued t o do what mas bad in Jehovah's
$ ;
eyesv and went waIking in pursuit of the sin of
t;gj:~47'am~-the son of Ne'bat, with which h e
2x1i?:i7 ,caused Israel to sin.= He did not turn aside from
A2Ki 1324
NU 21:7
it. a And Jehovah's anger' became hot against
$i!k610 Israel, so that he gave them into the hand of
Haz'a.e13 the king of Syria and into the hand of
Ben-ha'dadA the son of Haz'ael all their days.
2 4 In time Je.hola.haz softenedb the face of
PsM:15 Jehovah, so that Jehovah listened to him, f o r
CPr 3836
W K ~14:zs he had seen the oppressiona upon Israel,' ke* JP 3:9
cause t h e king of Syria had oppressed themea
J~ 3 2 5
K e 9:?7
1 3 a 1 9 : ~ Consequently Jehovah gave Israel a savior,"
so that they came out from under the hend of
Literally, "Jo'ash," 31. But see 2 Kings 12 : 1,2, 4, B, T , 1 8 . b "Tile



Mound!' N, Kik.lo7, "Jo'," Ca and a number of other Hebrew manuscripts ; 2 Chroniclee 24; 26 reads ('Za3bad," ('Joa'a.bad,"
N, A,hhas.ia hzo, JI.

Syria and the sons of IsraeI continued to dwell *gB1,947

in their homes" as formerly.' " (Only they did k2zIg;?
not depart from the sin of the house of Jer.0- n;;z;&
bo'am, with which he caused Israel to sin.k In r ~ e . 7 : ~
it he walked;" and even the sacred poleb itself 1x1
2 ~
stood in Sa.mar'i.a.)r ? For he had not left to gg
Je.ho'a.haz any people but fifty horsemenGand wc'l 8:"
ten chariots and ten thousand men on foot,s
because t h e kingt of Syria had deskoyed them, :?$$:%
t h a t he might make them like the dustu at +zi37;7
t2Ki S:IZ
2Ki 10.32
8 As for the rest of the affairs of Je.hora.haz U P T 18:;32
and all that he did and his mightiness, are they ,"$,"$:
not written in the booky of the affairs of the
days of the kings of Israel? FinalIy Je.ho'a.haz
lay down with his forefathers, and they buried
him in Sa.marri.a,z and Je.hofashc* his son be- zg:
* z ~14~8
gan to reign in place of him.
10 In the thirty-seventh year of Je.hdashc
the king of Judah, Je.hdashd' the son of Je.hoJ- D2KLr4:1
ahaz became h g over Israel. in Xa.rnar'i.a for
sixteen years. llAnd he continued t o do what
was bad in Jehovah's eyes! Me did not depart ~ ~ 1 ~ ~ ;
fyom all the sin of Jer.o+bofamthe son of Ne'bat,
rvith which he caused Israel to s i n b In it he



12 As for the rest of the affairs of Je-ho'ashc
and all that he did and his mightinesse [and]
how he fought against h . a - z i ' a h the king of 2ma5:17
Judah, are they not written in the book" of the "$g,K,$g
affairs of the days of the kings of Israel? lS Finally Je.horashc lay down with his forefathers,' *!gzg
and Jer.o.bofamekhimself sat upon his throne. :&i&i4"&

a Literall$, "tents,* M. b Or, '%heA.shefmh." Literally, "Jo'asb,"

31; as in verse 1. d Yeho.raslzr,BI. *Meaning Jer.o.ho'am 11.

In t ~ ~Je.horasha
was buried in Sa.marri.awith


the kings of Israel."

14 As regards E.Iirsha,rhe had taken sicks
2Ki ;:I
2 ~ 1 9 : 1 with the sickness with which he was to die.t So
B G 48:l
2rci 20:1 Je.hofash&the king of Israel came down t o him
Joh 11:3
P), 2.26 and began to weep over his face and say: "My
father,u my father: the war charioth of Israel
m d his horsemen!"Y "' nd"sha proceeded to
AC 2:29
Ac13 36 say to him: ''Take a bow and arrows." So he took
Heb 11~13
to himself a bow and arrows. Is And he went on
1c04:15 to say to the king of Israel: "Put your hand to
2Jq 4
v Z K 1 2 : ~ the bow,""Accordingly he put his hand to it, aftyGe 49:24
,K, 4:34 er which E.lirshalaid his handsy upon the hands
, ~ ; ~ $ i of
~ the king, l7 Then he said: "Open the window to
east.'' So he opened it.=Finally'sha said:
EPS 22:~s "Shoot!" So he shot. He now said: "Jehovah's"
arrow of salvation,' even the arrow of salvation
against Syria! And you will certainly strike
down Syria at A'pheko t o the finishing point."
I8 And he went on to say: "Take t h e arrows."
At that he took [them]. Then he said to the
AEm4:1 king of Israel: "Strike on the earth."" So h e
sstmck three times and st0pped.O la And the man
grew indignanto at him;@hence he said:
fmF;,uI;!lfo6 : l s 02,"ItGodd*
was meant t o strike five or six times!e In
that case you would certainly be striking down
x2Ki 13:25
~ C I 2,4 2 6 Syria t o the finishing point, but now it is three
times that you will strike down Syria.""
k2Ki S;Z
26 After that E.litsha died and they buriedm
And there were marauding bands" of the
~ ' & ~ him.*
2% Mo'ab.itesn that regularly came into the land at


2x1 5:s


.Literally, "Jofash,'j IS; a s in verse 1. 8eo 2 Kin@ 2 : 12,footnote b. c Literally, "Wnke your hand ride upon the bow," 31.a W a n
of Gad.)' 31, iah ha-EGo.him'; literally '{man of The God?' See Deu.teranorny 33: 1, footnote a. "If you had struck f i ~ eor six times;'
L X X ; "If you had struck five or six or seven times," Vg.

2 KINGS 13 :21-14: 4


the coming in of the year. And it came about

that as they were burying a man, why, here
they saw the marauding band. At once they
threw the man into E.lirsha's burial place and
went off. When the man touchedr the bones of riy$jp
Eli'sha he immediately came to life" and stood af&$F9
doh 5 : ~
upon his feet.t
Joh 11:4
22 As for Haz'a.elu the king of Syria, he opm;~;
pressed Israel all the days of 3e.ho'a.haz. 25 How- iPS
ever, Jehovah showed them favory and had
mercy3 upon them and turnedy to them for the
sake of his covenant with Abraham,a Isaac' $$
and Jacob," and he did not want t o bring them gags
t o ruinAand he did not cast them away from Jcr 12:15
La 3:32
before his face until n0w.O 2 4 Finally Naz'a-el the YE,
the king of Syria died and Ben-ha'dad his son "g: i$i+6
began to reign in place of him. 2 5 And Je.hoJash g2,2::
t h e son of Je-ho'a-haz proceeded to take back *,%;?:"I3
again from the hand of Ben-ha'dad the son of Ak; "96;;~
Haz'a-el the cities that he had taken from the rs lr)4:8
hand of Je.hota.haz his father in war, Three OMic
Z K ,1718
times Jebhokashastruck him down and he got t o $t\?4iy
m 2 ~ 11319
recover the cities of IsraeLe
In the second year of Je.ho'ashaXthe son "2KL13:10
of Je+ho'a.hmb the king of Israel, Amhazi'ahc" t h e son of Je.ho'asha the king of Judah "ICh
became king, Twenty-five years old he happened to be when he began t o reign and for

1r2Ki 15:4


ing "Tah (u) is mighty!'

the high p1aces.U And it came about that as

soon as the kingdom had become firm in his
hand he began to strike downv his servants that
Y $ $ ~ ~ $ ~ Ohad struck dawn the king his fatheray And t h e
~ h l s : 1 3sons of the strikers he did not put to death,O
according to what is written in the book af
law that Jehovah' gave in command,'.
saying, "Fathers should not be put to death for
sons, and sons themselves should not be put to
*De 24.18
deathfor fathers, but for his own sin should
each one be put to death."" He himself struck
o z ~ 8.20
GE2,h,2jii1down the E'dom.itesn in the Valley of Salt: ten
thornand men, and got t o seize $e'la4 in the
cIsa 42:11 war, and its name came to be called 3ok'thehela'
ob 3
down to this day.
*Jos 1338
e?ch 25:17
8 Then it was that Am-a.zifahsent messen'2Sa 2:14
Pr I ~ : P O gers* t o Je.ho'ash the son of Je.hota.haz the son
Pr 1724
pr 1 s . ~ of Je'hu the king of Israel, saying: "Do come.
Pr 25:8
#lKi 4:33 Let us look each other in the face."" "At
E~e2"?9 the king of Judah, saying: "The thorny weed
n2Ch 25.18
12~114:7 itself that was in Lebra.non sent t o the cedar"
PJob 5.22
8De 8 14
that was in Lebra.non, saying, 'Do give your
2Ch 26:16
2Ch 3 2 2 5 daughter to my son as a wife.''< However, a wild
$i2$ii beasta of the field that was in LebPa.nonpassed
g2$i by and trampled the thorny weed down." l o You
J"s4m6 have unmistakably struck down EJdom,r and
~tEx 8:9 1
R~ 133
your heart has lifted you ups8Enjoy your honort
u2Ch 35:X
Pr s:a
and dwell in your own house. Why, then, should
Pr 15:18
Pr 26:17 YOU engage in strifeu under unfavorable condi$$h'&31'9 t i o n s ~and have t o fall, you and Judah with
~ you?"^
~ l1 And
~ Am-a-zi'ahb
~ did not
~ listene
2Ri 15:35
vGe 9.6



twenty-nine years he reigned in Jerusalem. A n d ~

his mother's name was'dinl' of Jerusalern. And he continued t o do what was upright m;;~::;~
i n Jehovah's eyes," only not like David his fore- a2Ch 24:2
2Ch 24:17
father.r According t o all that Je-ho'asha his zc
TI Z5:15
father had done, he did.s It was only the high f:; ?G7
A-mas.iathzc, M; meana Literally, "Jotash," M. b Jo.a.hkazr, X .

that did not di~appear.~

The people were
ti$tEii4 places
still sacrificing and making sacrificial smoke on


This name gircn t o Se'ln i s o f doubtful meaning. hA.mam.iu'hzs, M ;

rts in

verse 1.

2 KINGS 14:%28

So Je.hofash the W i g of Israel came up and
they proceeded to look each other in the Pace,' he *2ch m21
and Am.a.zi'aha the king of Jrtdah, at Beth-she'mesh,' which belongs to Judah. And Judah mOSm10
Jor N : ~ R
came to k defeated before Israel,*so that they
took t o flight, each one to his tent.@IS And it was
the king of Judah the son of Je.ho" -:isni:ir~
35'1 1H.17
ash the son of A.ha.zi'ahb that Je.ho'~sh the !I;L
king of Israel captured* at Beth-she'mesh, ~ f t e '$$:,g~i:.~
which they came to Jerusalem and he made a ''2::
the wallC of Jerusalem at the gate
of E'phra.irno" clear to the corner gate," four 2tCh
,, ,1,2:9,3
hundred cubits. "And he took all the gold find ;
silver and all the artides t o be found a t the
:; .r:
house of Jehovahk and in the treasures of the k:~.lcl
I~ouscof the kingn and the hostagcsf and then k r l :?:IS
n l K I 1'1.2G
returned to Sa-mar'i-a.
2 l i l 21:13
15 As for the rest of the aRain of Je-ho'ash,
what he did and his mightiness Find how he
Iotrght against the klng of Judnh,
are they not written in the bookr of the a f f n h ' if$ ij:;
of the days of the kings of Israel? l a F l n ~ l l y
Je.ho'ash lay down with his forefathersR and
was buried in with the kings of Is- ,$[t ;!;?
rael, and Jer-o-bo'mdu his son began to reign *1;~;~;!i7:13
l i l l l !,l
In place of him.
17 And Anz.a.zi'ahav the son of Je.hofasha the \<??i
king oi Judah continued to live after the death
of Je.hoPashr.the son of Je.hora.hazthe king of ':?$: $$:$!
Israel for fifteen years."3"'
for tbe rest of the ':!if !$?$
affairs of Am.a.zi'ah,& are they not written in ;;it y$:D
the book' of the affairs of t l ~ edays of the kings ;; zf;j(o
of JudahPDID
At length they leagued against him c2~:11>5::6


A;mn:.iaV~lt, M; as in verse I. b A.khnz.da'btt, 31, a Litarollg, "find

the mnrr of the pledges," M, a'aru 11. * Literally, "Jo'agh,"


in a conspiracyha t Jerusalem and he went fleeing to La'chi~h,~

hut they sent In pursuit of hirn
to La'chish and put him to death there.' 30
they carried him upon horse!? ~ n he
d was buried
in Jerusalem with his forefathers in the city of
David.' Then all thc pcoplc of Jtldah took'ah,'l he at the tlmc bring siixtccn years
old, and they maden him king jn place of his
father Am.amzi'ah,nt' He himself built E'lathq
and got t o restore it to Juclah after the king
lay dotm ivith his forefathers.
23 In the fifteenth year of Arnoa+zi'aha
the son
of Je.hopashz'the klng of Juclalz, Jer.o.b'amt
the son of Je.ho'ssh"tl~e king of Israel became
king in Sa.mar'1.a for forty-one years.u 2d And
~ K1I5 : ~
,he continued to do what was; bad in Jehovah's
(eyes. He did not depart from all the sins of
rlKL12:2F Jermo.bofam
the son of Ne'hnt, with which he
$t:Eigo caused Israel to sin.v '3 He it ~ V B Sthat restored
the boundarf of IsccleE from as far as Ha'mathy
t o the sea of the Arka.bah,zaccording to
Eze -17:16
6 : ~
t h e word of Jehovah the God of Israel who spoke
zGe 14 3
De 3:17
by means of hfs servant Jo'nah' the mn of
*Jon 1:L
?.It 12.39 A-mit'taf, the prophet that mns from Gath-he'W a s 19:13
'"For Jehovah had seen the very bitter
of Tsrael." There was neither any
:gJz9,Ri9,I ~ ; ~
nor any worthless one,c nor was
Fs 1
for I s r a ~ l . ~And Jehovah had
1Kr21:21 promised not to blot* out the name of Israel
n, 9 3 4 from under the hc~vens."Consequently he
" ~ ~ saved"
~ ~ $tbem
i ~by ~the hand of Jer.o.ha'am the son
% T25 of Je-ho'a~h.~
28 ASfor the rest of the affairs of Jer.o.botam
T It 3:4
A-rnoz.fa'ist4, M,

Literally, 'iJ~'nah," M. 0 Liternlly, "neither any(or, nbandoned)," X. Compare

one restrained nor nnyonr! I

d go
Deuteronomy 32 :36, foot note a,

and all that he did and his mightiness: how he *g:j,4;;:

fought and how he restored Damascusk and ~2K113.12
P K 11:?1
Ha'rnaths to Judahr in Israel, are they not writ-. ;&\%B$
ten in the book of the affairs of t h e days of the r2Sa s:6
kings of IsraeI? e0 Finally Jer.o.botamlay down
with his forefathers, with the kings of Israel,
and Zech.a.ri'ahs his son began to reign in place s2K"5:8
of him,
In the twenty-seventh year of'am
the king of Israel Az.a.riPaht the son of t5FAg:":
Am.a,zi'ahu the king of Judah became king, uZK11k17
a Sixteen yeass old he happened to be when he
began t o reign, and for fifty-two years he reigned
in Jerusalem. And his mother's name was Je.coli'aha of Jerusa1em.v And he continued to do v2ch2s:3
what was upright in Jehovah's eyesy according y2Ki 12:z
to all that h.a-zi'ahb his father had done.2 * It
was only that the high pIaces did not disappear," "2;
The people were still sacrificing and making sac;;;;2
rificial smoke on the high places." Finally Jeho- 7 ~;223;3 :
vah plagued the king" and he continued to be a
leperv until the day of his death and he kept ~ c h 2 6 . 1 9
dwelling in his house exempt from duties,' while ,%:$:?'
Jo'tham the king's sons was over the house, +;!\$;$
judging' the people of the land. % for the rest g," g421i4
of the affairs of Az.a.ri'ahc and all that he did, ,2,EA'2;6":2:,,
are they not written in the bookn of the affairs ,,Z$tig5"
of the days of the kings of Judah? At length,
Az.a.ri'ah lay down with his forefathers, and ,7&:2,:,
they buried him with his forefathers in the city iEf i:::"
of David,k and Jo'tharn his son began to reign- $gh'&!$
kIsa 6:l
in place of him.n
n X h 28:23





Ypc3~o2.ia'hu,3T ; meaning " Y R ~ ( uhas

) been able." b A.mrr.?.ia'Lts,
M. C ' d . r a ~ ~ i a ' kfir;
u , ~neaning"Yah(u) has helped," C ~ l l e dUz-d'ah
at verse 13 and n t 2 Chronicles 26 : 1-23; Isaiah 6 : 1 ; Zechariah 14:5.

1 14:n
8 In the thirty-eighthyear of Az.a.rifahar the
king of Judah, Zech.a.ri'ahbs the son of Jer.0bo'am became king over Israel in Sa.mar'i.a for
six months. And he went on doing what was
bad in Jehovah's eyes, just as his forefathers
had d0ne.t He did not depart from the sins of
12:28'amU the son of Ne'bat, with which he
1Kl 13.33
2 ~ 13111
caused Israel to sin.' lo Then Shal'lum the son of
vGo 20.0
EX m 2 1 Ja'besh conspiredy against him and struck?;him
1Sa 2 2 4
at B"e.amc* and put him to death and be1KI 14:16 do~vn
in place of hirn,O l1 As for the rest
i&5\:i:9 of the reign
of Zech.a.rirah, there they are
JE ~ 2 7 written in the bookAof the affairs of the days of
2K! 927
cml ~ s : 2 8 the kings of Israel. l 2 That was Jehovah's wordb
1K1 16.10
a91 9 4 4 that he had spoken t o Je'hu,' saying: "Sonsm
'22; themselves t o the fourth generation will sit for
t"pf;ih,9?; YOU upon the throne3 of Israel," And it came t o
FzB;l:;g be that way."
+2Ki ID:~O
13 As for Shal'lum the son of Ja'besh, he bce2Ki 13.1
2Ri 13:io came king in the thirty-ninth year of Uz.zi'ahd*
21<1 13:13
a m 14:29 the king of Judah and he continued to reign
"Nu 23:19 f OP w full lunar month@in Sa.rnar'i.a,k
*'~~12~:"~n'a.hern" the son of GaVi came up from
klK116:15 Tir'zahr and came to Sa.marri.aand struck down
Ps 5533
Shal'Iumfi the son of Ja'besh in Sa.mar'i.a and
~ J2O~Sleka
put him t o death, and he began to reign in place
1K1 14:17
for the rest of the affairs of Sha1'IK~
15:21 of him. s"l
,"2Bi:Ei;o lum and his conspiracyt with which he conspired, there they are written in the bookn of
1 K i 2 2 : a the affairs of the days of the kings of IsraeI.

4 'd.;'hu, 3l; irienning I-'ah(u)

has helped!) Cnlled Uz.S'ah ~i
Terse 13 nnd nt 2 Chronicles 2 6 : 1-23; Isainh G : 1; Zechariah 14:5 ,
b Z e c h n r . i d h ~31
, ; nleaning 4iYah( u ) has remelnbwed." c ''Ib',v
L X X t a g a r d l a n edition) b'publi~ly,''Vg; "before [in Ar.a.rna'ic]
people:) 31. d 'Gz.zi.iak , RI ; meening "31y strength is Tah." Cnlled
Az.a.ri'& in rerse 1. See verse 8, footnote a. LitaralIy, "a, lunar
month of days," M.

2 KINGS 15:25-41

2 KINGS 15 :16-24

It was then that MenPa.hern proceeded to

strike down Tiph'sahv and a11 that was in it vlKwa
and i t s territory out from Tir'zah, because It did
not open up,' and he went striking it down. All
?In8 8:a
its pregnanp women he ripped u p 7
v2KI R:l2
17 In the thirty-ninthe year of Az.~.rl'ahbthe Inn 13:G
king of Judah, Menta.hem the son of Ga'dl became king over Israel for ten years in Sa,rn~r'-*; ;/;;;,

x:Ei gIz sins of'am"the son aP Ne'bat, wIth which

he caused Israel to sin.' "n Then Pe%ahTthe son

=:a of'ahnhis adjuhnY conspiredo against

1% ::24

him and struck him down In Sa.rnar'i.a in the

dwelling tower of t h e king's house' with Ar'gob
and A.riFeh,and with him there were fifty men
of t h e sons of Gil'r-ad," So he put him t o death
and began t o reim in place of hlm. = U s for the
2Ki10:W rest of the affairs of P e k . ~ ~ h j ' ~
~ hn dd l that he
* Z C h 285
La, " And he continued to do what was bad in nl1 rcl
rsa 7:1
booke of the
1 ~1
1~ 1 3
l l s n 7:4
i II
Jehovah" eyes.' He did not depnrt fi80mall the ; j ~I:[:
rsa 7:8
affairs of the days of the kings of Israel.
k2Kl 13:2
sins of Jer.0-bo'arn" the son of Ne'bat, with 'jiz$!yl
27 In the fifty-second year of Az.a.ri'ahc the
:KI s1228
which he caused Israel to sin,? all his days. ~ ~ ; . ~ n~11ii13:33
king of Judah, Po'knh' the son of Rem.adi'aha*
Z > l i l 1I:'T
2x1 13.1:
PdAthe king of As.syr'' came Into the land. Llc 'h 5 SG
became king over Israel in Snmar'ia for twenty
r c c m:9
Consequently Men'ahem gavee Pul n thousand -;;;f;)i!,
E Y 31:2t
I S ~ ? : ~ - Iyears. ' U n d he continued to do what was bad
talents of si1wr.k that his hands might prove to e;i;; ;dl
,'2$!1;;+6 in Jehovah's eye.4~ He did not depart from
be with him to strengthen the klngdom In hja ,!$I
the sins of'amn the son of Ne%at, with
awn hand.' mSoMenra.hcrnb r o u ~ h tforth the 21iiIr:m
~ ~ ~ $ tvhjch
~ : 2 0 he caused Israel t o sln,r Po In the days of
silver at the expense of Israel, a t t h c expens@'of iiE
the king of Israel, Tig'lath-pil-e'sera the
E;A :sg
all the valiant, mighty3 men,! to give t o Zhe king A!nf;j
Asayr'i.a CRme in and proceeded t o take
of As.syr'i.a fifty silver shekels for each man, ' 2 ) i l 14:5
I'jont and A'bel-beth-m~l'a~c~l~~~
find J a b ~ ~ ~ r a
At that the king of As.sys'1.a turned bnck, ~ n Vd{, I C ~ ~23:35
I ~ U
and Gal'.
he did not stay there in the 1and.n 21 As for the I 2Sn
rest of the affairs of hlen'a.hemr and all t h ~ he
t ~ , , Ib s
:t:hsU,:, 18:4 i.lee,dOall the land of N~tph',~"
and t o carry
did, are they not written In the book0 OF t h e " $ > ~ ~ ~ $ ,Uh3jt; them into exile in As.syr'l.~.~
" Finally Ho.she'a
edos x 7
affairs of the days of the kings of Israel? ;i:i i;'j:!
Finally Mvlen"a-lzem Iay down with his fore- 2 x 1 l1):3l
Pe'kah the son of Rem.a.lirahnand struck him3
fathers,! and Pek.a.Mrahuhis son began to reign 1$2?;4:ig
F,"&:gand put him to death, and he began to reign in
21<i 1 0 . 1
in place of him.
rlZK1 15:16
E; $& place of him In the twentieth yew of Jo'tham"
23 In the fiftieth year of Azuahrl'ahh
the king
the son of Uz.zi'~h," " As for the rest of the
Ho 103
of Judah, Pek.a-hitahthe son of Men'a.hern beaffairs of Pe'k~hand all that he did, there they
came liing over Israel in Sa.rnar%~for t w o v : ~ : ~ ~ ~ i ~ l
4 RB9~tul.iu'h~1
nrlorned," b L i t e r n l l ~"sons
years. " And he continued to do what was bad ~ ~ ~
~ ites,"
, bf' * hns
nf Gilfe.nd
a 'A.;.mr.inhF,
cfillctl U x . ~ i ' n hin rerbae13. See
in Jehovah's eyes7 He did not depart from t h e ~ ~ / $ ~ ~ : : &verse 8, footnote a, dhf, hrrpdnmli'ialr; L.W, Gn.tE.laiFa; Vg, Grrli.lrsePa. See Joshua 20: 7, footnote d. a "Gz.ziFnh." Called Az.a.ritah








~''Becnusethv did not open np (the ate) to him," LXXTgSy.

b 'd.zar.aaA', 11; called Cz.ifalr ih verse 13. See remu 8, footnote a.



in verse 1.



fireu according to the detestablev things of the

are written in the booV of the affairs of the %P1i;:!
2Ki 17:17 nations whom Jehovah drove au t because of the
,L~I2 f ; ~
days of the kings of Israel.
>It 19
- c h m3 sons of Israel. 'And he kept sacrificing and maki r :n
32 I n the second year of Pe'kah the son of n.;,i<l
"Ch 33.6
*:\I l%l
ESslcen h g sacrificial smoke on the high placesr and
Rem.a.lltaha the king of Israel, Jopthamk the I 3 IZ
JEP 7.31
3535 upon the hills= and under every luxuriant bee,'
son of Uz.zi'ahblk the king of Judah became king. g:fi$:$
~ 5
2 It~ was
fthen that Re'zinrl the king of Syria
Twenty-flve years old he happened t o be when :1)I<I-h~15:3
he began to reign, and far sixteen years he ,;$:;;$;;tl
;gi %:2, and Pe'kah" the sen of Remlalli'ahnthe king of
Israel proceeded to come up against Jerusalem
reigned in Jerusalem. And his mother's name
; ; ; ; ;<; : ,
was Je-ru'sha the daughter of Za'dok.1' And ;j$
i;?;;g?i in war and laid siege against A'haz, but they
were not able to fight." At that time Re'zin
he continued t o do what was right in Jehovah's : , ~ Y I:?.?:iz
Isa 5-.5
E2Ki i5:n the king of Syria restored E'lath' to E'dom,"
eyes.* According to a13 that UznzfPahr'
hfs father $' { 4.f::'
Lr'&h?::6 after which he cleared out the Jews from E'lath,
had done, he did.t ""I was only that the hiyh ,!?.h1;:'fl7
and the Efdom.itcs, for their part, entered E'lath
places did not d i ~ p p e a rThe
. ~ people ivcre st ill Iiiiy:liijl
anand kept drvelling there down to this day. 50
sacrificing and making sacrificial smoke on the
A'haz sent messengers to Tig'lat h-pil.e'se9 the
high place^.^ He I t was that bujl t the upper gate ?I-.\
c2Xi 17:~ king of As,syr'i.a,:saying: "I am your servanr
of the house of Jeh0vaR.y as As for t h e rest of
*Ps 13G:3
.'-"I ' 1 1U.32
Jer 1 7 5 and your son. Come up and save" me out of the
the nff&irsof Jo'tham," what he did, are they j.:t :!;:;39
k2Kl 12.18
1i:18 palm of the king of Syria and out of the palm
not written in the book' of the affairs of the l'?:$' 2:;:
of the king of Israel, who are rising up against
days of the kings of Judah?O " In tltose d a y 9 .j;<)?,(;:$
;$y:24 me." 8 Accordingly A'haz took the silver and
Jehovah started t o sendb against J u d ~ bRe'zln' &i;hTi;ia
the gold that was to be found at the house of
the king of Syria and Pe'kahE the son of Rem- a~;t;,;:;a
i1 d m 1:s Jehovahlr
and in the treasures of the king's'ah.naHFinallyJo'tham lay down with his *jp;:$g
GZCh 19:7
t I = 22.6
sent the king of &.syr'i-a a bribe.O
forefathers' and was buried with his foref~thers1 ~ 1 1 . 1 , .+13
Am 9:7
ursa ;.:I
At .that the king of As.syr'i,a listened to him
in the city of David his forefather," and A'hazk ;':'::);
and the king of As.syr'i,a \vent up to Damascusr
his son began to reign in place of him.
l i ltcl 1:1
csapt~t.edIt" and led its [people] into exile
> l t 1:9
fn the seventeenth year of Pe'kah the son r:!? XI
at Ki-r,c and Re'zinu he put to death.
of Rem-a-li'ah,"A'hazn the son of Jo'tham ":;;/ ;:\'
10 Then Ring A%azv went to meet n d a t h the king of Judah became king. :Twenty years :1
: :?$ ;
king of Assyr'i-a a t hmasms and
*gg& he got tothe
old A'haz mas when he began to reign,r and for
the altar that was in Damascus.
sixteen years he reigned in Jerusalem, and he did 5;::; ;!;
PS ICB:~~ SO King A'haz sent U.ritjah the priest thc denot do what was right in the eyes of Jehovah his~;;t
28:18 signC0of the altar and Its pattcrn' ns respects
God like David his f ~ r e f a t h e r ."nd
he went I K I 1G:73
a11 its ~~~orkrnanship.'And U.ri'jahUthe priest
walking in the way of the kings of Israel,t ~ n d!jEj
to build the altar," According to a11
even his arm son he made pass through the :&,ymj$
b "E'dnnl" ahould c15dcntly be rend hare insteed of
a R%mal.ia'ku, ?6, m in 2 Emga 15 : 25. b 'U.z.hia'Au, M, Compnre
"SJTia (d.ra?n?)r" Or, "liktncsa."
verse 13, foornoie d






2 KINGS 16:12-18


that King A'haz had sent from Damascus was

the way that U.ri'jah i3e priest made it pending
the time that King A t h a came from Damascus.'VI1en the king came from Damascus the king
got t o see the altar and the king began to go
near to the altar' and make offerings upon it.'
And he continued to make his burnt offering'
and his grain offering smoke" and to pour out
his drink3 offeringk and to sprinkle the blood of
" -

the comunionn offerings that were his upon

the altar. " And the copper altarr that \%?asbefore Jehovah he now brought near from in front
of the house, from between his altar and the
houses of Jehovah, and put it at the north side
of his altar. Is And King A'haz went on to cornmand him, even U-ri'jaht the priest, saying:
"Upon the great altar make the burnt offering
of the morning smokegualso the grain offering
of the evening3 and the burnt offering of the v t o 1 2 2
kjngv and his grain offering and the burnt offer- 25~1lim17
r<l 3:
ing of all the people of the land and their grain 1XI<I
?( :I1 7,-1.
offering and their drink offerings; and all the x C ' h:oral
blood of burnt offering and all the blood of a 1,:dP . \ G A
sacrifice you should sprinkle upon it. As for the
copper altar, it will become something for me
to take under consideration,"r IR
And U.ri'jahz
the priest \vent doing according to all that King
A'haz had commanded.'
17 Furthemore, King A'haz cutz the side
wall9 of the carriages5 in pieces and removed
from off them the basins,"and the sea7+he took
down off the copper bulls' that were underneath it and then put it upon a stone pavement. 15 And the covered structure of the sahbath* that they had built in the house and t h e
king?, outer en&wayk he shifted from the house I


2 RINGS 16 :19-17:7

of Jehovah because of the king of As.syrtiz.

19 As far the rest cif the affairs of A%az,
?#~~,2%what he dld, are they not written in the boo@
of the days of the kings of Judah?
"<'tl 3 : 2 G of the ~ffairs

Finally A'haz lay down with his forefatherst

and W R S buried with his forefathers in the city
of David,. and'ahRthis sun began to
>,I,rr.,,II,,lI reign in place of him.
In the twelfth year of A'haz the king of
M1c 1.1
Judah, Ho.she'au the son of E'Eah became
ll2Ki l?!m
ir:ln king in Sa.mar'i.av over Israel for nine years.
2ril 3 2
And he continued to do what was bad in Jehovah% eyes, only not as the kings of Israel that
x?KI lk:9
was against
l1:1 1 14 happened to he prior t o hin1.y "It
;:; / i i ~ up and I-Io.sheFacame t o be his servant
- ~ r ~ ~ o lcame
1\11 I.%
rsn m:n
, of As.syrli.a got to And conspiracyAin Ho.shera's
;j:l ::jy4 case, in t h a t he had sent messengers t o So the
L - l l king of Egyptt and did not bring the tribute up
21il 2 l:M
37:117 to the king of As.3yr'i.a yearly as due.* Hence
'2l<IlH:21 3
):. the king of Asbsyrti.a
shut him up and kept him
1\11 31:l
I,:IC l i : 1 5 bound In prison."
.zrci IM:I*I
crw 2 s : ~
5 And the king' of As.syx'i.a proceeded t o
21Ci 1 5 : f
came up against all the land and to come up to Saz t 711
1'3 14.1:s
mnrli.n and lay siege against it for three years?
";: :;j," '' In the ninth year of Ho.shera,the king of As1 ~ ~ l1q 10
~ 1 syr'l.n2 captured Sa.mar'i.alt and then led Israel
I f < >13 16
nr.~b nfi xt into exlletl jn As.syr9.a and kept them dwelling
I M 4.??
2h.lii in Ha'lahr and in Ha%or at the river Gokans
I f i l i.15
and in The cities of the M4es.t
r7t:hi 2
7 AnditcameabouthecausethesonsofIsrael
had sinnedu against Jehovah' their God, who
1 1 ~,,,
~ J.{
1 1 17
brought them up out of the land of Egypt from

r l l i l 11 :i1


A I A 12:.s
:(f ), 25 y:
r,lrh ln:,
ir 31 :I 13





. 1 . 3 3

fir ; ulemning "Pnh(u) has utrengt?wned.l'

2 KINGS 17:%15

under the hand of Phar'aoh the king of Egypt,'

and they began to fe& other gods; Randthe)
kept walking in t h e statutes3 of the nations
whom Jehovah had driven out because of the
sons of Israel,y and [in t h e statutes of 3 tire kings
of Israel that they had made; and the sons of
Israel went searching into the things that were
not right toward Jehovah their God-nd kepi
building themsehes high places" in all their
cities, from the towern of the watchmen clear t c
thc fortified city; lUanclthey kept setting u~
for thernselves sacred pillars" and sacred pales'
upon every high ha-and undw every 1u.wriant
tree;" l%d there on all the high places they
continued t o make sacrificial' smoke the same
as the nations whom Jehovah had taken into
exile because of them and thcy kept doing bad
things to offend" Jehovah. And they cantinuad
l o scrve* dungy idols,"'= concerning ivhich Jehovah had said to them: "You must not do this
thing";" '%and Jehovah kept rwrningl' Israel*
and Judaht by means of all his prophcis't [and]
evefy seer," saying: "Turn back from Yavn bad
rvaysr and keep my cornrnandrnents,~my stntutes,' according t o all t h e laws that I cornmnnded YOUR forefathers' and t h a t I have sent t o
YOU by means of my servants the prophets";"
and thcy did not listen but kept hardening
thcir necksvike the necks of their forefathers
that had not exercised faithmin Jehovah their
God;' " and they continued rejecting his regwlations and his covenant' that he had co~~ctluded
with thejr forefathers and his reminders" ~ v i l h
n-hEch he had warned them," and they 11.eni
lollo\tting vain idolse ;and became vain!{ them-

* Or, "worship." b Or, d'testit~loni~s,"

2 KINGS 17:16-23


selves, even in imitation of the nations that

all commanded
around them,
Jeholoem 1 vah had
not to dowhom
like them;.

PS 3 2 3

i iIK
s ni 44:9
12~28I IG

and they kept leaving all t h e commandrnenrsr

C:14i: t,$& of Jehovah their Cod and proceeded to make for

;,5:g themselves molten statuestB two caIves,'~ and
rvc r : ~ s

to make a sacred polcJil nnd they began to bow

Jer 8:rlrgG:sl down ta all the w m y ol' thc hcnvensv and to
Ikl 22 53
they contlnuctl t0 make
2RL 1(1,21 SeTVea Ba'a1;Y IT~ n d
,t;'&i8 their sons and their daughters pass through the
firex and t o practice divjnationl ~ n to
d look for
omensPn1and they kept selling' themselves to
do what tvas bad En the eyers of Jehovah, to
6 z e Xl:31
I De IE:IO offend him; l 3 Jchovah therefore got very inJ> IC1 ~
: 1 2 censedCagainst Israel, so that he removed them
m2Ki 21:6
33:6 from his sight.' Ife did not let any remain but
+the tribe
~ of Judah
~ alone,4
itself dld not keep the cornt,nKci9;,S:,
mmdrnents of Jehovah their God," hut they
Jer 15.1 went walking in the a t ~ t u t e sof Israel that they
t l K i ll:32
IIU 12:20 had made. 5Consequently Jel~ovahrejected all
the seedhJ3
of Israelq.and kept amisting them and
giving them into the hand of pillagers, until he
*lKt 12:% had cast them away on his own account."l
kGe 2 ~ 9 he sipped Israel o f ffrom the house of David and
Ei a::??
1 ~ 2.17
they promcd~dto make'nm the son of
l K i 14116
~ < > t1,8.11 Ye'bat king, and Jer.o.ho'amn proceeded to part
nIIC6 1 2 2 8
l K l 13:83 Israel from following Jehovah and he caused
$2;$3sthem t o sin with n great sin.* And the sons of
,E[A5.j?Israel went walk in^ in all the sin of'arn
that he had done." They did not depart from it,
2111 1?;:23
until Jehovah removed Israel from his sight,r
@II<113 2
lrri 1 i : l s just as he had spoken by incans of all his servI10 1.4
A m 5.27 ants the prophets." So Isracl went off its o \ ~