You are on page 1of 10

Ipshita Banerjee

Literatur
e Study
Apartment

APARTMENT
An apartment (in American and Canadian English) or a flat (in British English) is
a self-contained housing unit (a type of residential real estate) that occupies only
part of a building. Such a building may be called an apartment building,
apartment complex (in American English), apartment house (in American
English), block of flats, tower block, high-rise or, occasionally mansion block (in
British English), especially if it consists of many apartments for rent. In Scotland
it is called a block of flats or, if it's a traditional sandstone building, a tenement,
which has a pejorative connotation elsewhere. Apartments may be owned by an
owner/occupier, by leasehold tenure or rented by tenants (two types of housing
tenure.

In india
Apartment: a relatively self-contained housing unit in a building which is often
rented out to one person or a family, or two or more people sharing a lease in a
partnership, for their exclusive use. Sometimes called a flat or digs (slang). Some
locales have legal definitions of what constitutes an apartment. In some
locations, "apartment" denotes a building that was built specifically for such
units, whereas "flat" denotes a unit in a building that had been originally built as
a single-family house, but later on subdivided into some multi-unit house type

Detached single-unit housing


Semi-detached dwellings
Attached Single-unit housing
Attached Multi-unit housing
Movable dwellings

Ideal housing density


Housing Density Can be Measured in Different Ways
1. At the lowest level theres net residential density, which is the number of beds spaces
on a housing site.
2. There is gross residential density, which includes the whole area with all the community
facilities in it.
3. There is also development density, which is the density of the whole town or urban
area.
The Units of Measure Therefore Also Differ
1. Bed spaces per hectare, which is a measure of the number of people who might be
living there.
2. They can be measured in housing units, dwellings per hectare, which is a measure of
the number of houses but that doesnt necessarily tell you how many people are going to live
there.
3. In mainland Europe theres a measurement in terms of housing floor space or the
number of square metres of housing on a particular area of land.
The Level of Occupancy Must be Taken into Account for These Measures
While the measures above consider bed spaces, occupants and people living on an area it is
important to realise the actual level of occupancy will vary. For example, there are areas
which are quite high in terms of the number of bed spaces but most are not fully occupied. In
other words there is apparent high density but for low levels of occupation. The opposite
situation can occur, too. For example in some social housing there are many more people
living in an area than it was designed to take.
Housing Stress Occurs When the Occupancy is Too High
Housing density becomes a problem when an area is over-occupied. This stress leads to
problems with maintenance, and there may be decay and social issue

For designing better high density environments


It appears that built environment, both in terms of public space as well as building, if configured in a
correct way can improve the perception of density, while if configured incorrectly may lead to a
negative perception of density. In this regard it is useful to attempt to establish the general conditions
which could support a positive perception of high density while alleviating the effects of high density.
These conditions or requirements are formulated according to the needs identified in the perception
and social behavior of residents of high-density environments. They do not represent predetermined

spatial configurations, but are topics that can be traced by design in order to be translated into spatial
configurations. Pursuing these requirements through design can lead to well balanced future living
environments, to an improvement of housing and environment quality as well as an increase of
residential satisfaction in high density conditions.
The conditions that support a positive perception of high density built environments could be
formulated as:

achieving a fair balance between the need for privacy offered by housing and the need of
interaction and expression in the wider community.

reducing unwanted social interactions, while supporting positive interactions that reinforce a
sense of community.

maintaining satisfactory group sizes at satisfactory residential rates, depending on the


conditions of the project, since contact with too many people in the common areas of
residential buildings will discourage close social interactions and the sense of community.

presenting in the immediate vicinity of residential buildings qualitative outdoor areas,


appropriate for social interaction and group control, that community members can use
frequently.

providing availability and quality in relation to various functions and services. Also,
providing easy and diversified access to those facilities is important, as well as the possibility
of walking to most of the facilities needed for the daily routine.

providing availability and quality of transport, and also diversity for transport, such as bicycle
lanes and good public transport links.

offering visual relationships and accessibility with qualitative green areas and support in
various ways contact with nature. The green public areas in high density settings should be
large, coherent, well-landscaped and well-maintained.

presenting a high-degree of safety and discouraging vandalism through the configuration of


open, public space and also intermediary, semi-public space.

presenting sustainable and ecological features in the design of the housing buildings.

BENEFITS OF LIVING IN AN APARTMENT


Financial
The number one benefit of living in an apartment is the financial aspect of renting. Rent is generally
cheaper than a mortgage. In addition to an overall lower monthly payment, other financial
components such as upkeep and utilities are generally lower because of the smaller space and the
overall responsibility of a landlord/owner versus a tenant.
Maintenance
As discussed in the financial benefits, maintenance expenses are generally lower due to responsibility
generally falling on landlord/owner. Not only is the lack of maintenance worries a financial blessing,
but its also a check off the Things to Do list. When it snows, no need to shovel, when the lawn

looks a little rugged, its not your concern Ovation will take care of that. The peace of mind
associated with the mental freedom of renting is priceless.
Amenities
Unlike houses, apartment complexes are generally built with specific amenities such as pools, gyms,
convenience stores and laundry facilities directly on the premises or at the least in very close
proximity. Although you could always have these elements built into your home, the financial
obligation is not as rewarding. Apartment living can prove to be a very convenient living
arrangement.
Safety
Although homeowners often invest in some form of home security system or another, apartment
complexes also invest in the overall safety of its residents. The close proximity of neighbors (in
contrast to being the only one in a house at any given moment) and typical apartment complex safety
measures prove that multi-unit dwellings are the safest locations for single women, children, families
and the elderly.
Size
Apartment proportions are, simply put, convenient. A newly graduated college student is generally
looking for a place to call home; a living room, bedroom, bathroom and maybe a kitchen for show.
This space does not have to be large and lavish, it just needs to feel safe and quaint (even for the
guys). This same basic need is apparent in most people, college kids, single women, bachelors and
even friends who chose to live as roommates.
Community
Other great benefits of apartment living are the social implications of the close proximity and
connections one develops during their residency. Although a sense of community exists in both rural
and suburban areas, the close proximity of apartment life enhances the probability of creating life long
connections.
Short-term
Parallel to buying a home, apartment rentals make great short-term options. Deciding to buy a home
is a life long dream but you have to live somewhere while you prepare to make that dream come true.
Whether you are working on credit, saving money or mentally preparing for the responsibility of
owning a home, an apartment is the best interim option.
Savings
The financial benefits discussed here are gateways to our future. While we endure less burden and
responsibility while renting, this is the opportune time to invest into your future. By placing the
money saved into a rainy day account, this can be the beginning of a brighter financial outlook.
Lower Responsibility

So far we have discussed money savings from rent, lack of need to maintain the property and, well,
thats it. The lack of need to maintain property is not only a financial windfall but also a stress
reliever. Homeownership comes with a lot of headaches and issues and deciding to rent will help you
avoid these types of setbacks. Instead of using the rainy day fund to fix the boiler, it can be used for
a much-needed vacation to a tropical island.
Accessibility
One of the best things about an apartment complex is the close proximity of anything you need.
Shopping center locations are typically chosen by the overall demographic of a community. The
greater the chance for possible patrons, the larger the need for the shopping center. This little tidbit of
information is useful. No matter what you need, there is a shopping center nearby to suit you.
No repairs.
One of the obligations of an owner of a building is to keep the structure in good working order. In a
house, thats one of the many duties of the homeowner. But a tenant doesnt have to worry when the
dishwasher breaks or the toilet backs up or the air-conditioning no longer works. Finding someone to
make the repairs and paying for them is the responsibility of the landlord.
Cost.
Because of many of the other advantages of living in an apartment, the cost for rent is usually quite a
bit lower than the monthly mortgage cost for a homeowner.
Location.
The location of a home or apartment is crucial as no one wants to live in a high-crime neighborhood
or an area that is far away from work. Location is also one of the factors that most directly affects the
price of a building. Its easier for an apartment complex to afford a desirable location than for a single
homeowner.
HOUSING SOCIETY OR GROUP HOUSING
A housing society or apartment associations is a situation popular in India with a group of house
owners within a residential complex, usually one consisting of buildings that each have flats. A
housing society's apartments or premises are formed as per relevant laws for smooth functioning of
utilities and other amenities provided to them. The housing society formed must be formally
registered with registrar of co-operatives. In India, each state has its own rules in this regard. Each
building in same premises may have separate housing society or one. Many housing societies form
one federation. Housing societies run on the service charges levied by them on house or flat owners.
Some of the housing societies in Mumbai are cash rich, having millions of rupees in their bank
account.
FACILITIES GIVE IN HOUSING SOCIETY
The complex comprise of open spaces, 24x7 electronic surveillance and security, jogging track, play
area for children and a well equipped club house among others. With 2-tier integrated electronic
security, the residents can communicate live with the visitors at the front gate and at the home door.
The Complex equipped with state of art surveillance cameras enabling residents to feel the comfort of

safety and security. It also provides remote home access to the residents via SMS, phone to turn off
AC,Lights, locking/unlocking front door, etc. The homes are also well-equipped with emergency
panic button with smoke, heat and gas detectors.
Facilities

Video Cameras

Digital Homes

Ample Basement Parking

Generator Backup for Lifts and lobbies

BMC Water Supply

Organic Waster Converter

Sewage Treatment Plant

Rain Water Pits for Harvesting

Boundary Wall with Fencing

Vehicle Free Podium

MSEB Power Station

Fire Fighting System

Amenities

Gym

Billiards

Party Hall

Table Tennis

Yoga Room

Squash Court

Lawn Tennis Court

Children's Play Area

Swimming Pool

Jacuzzi

Basket Ball court

Jogging Track

NEIGHBOURHOOD PLANNING
Neighbourhood planning gives communities direct power to develop a shared
vision for their neighbourhood and shape the development and growth of their
local area. They are able to choose where they want new homes, shops and
offices to be built, have their say on what those new buildings should look like
and what infrastructure should be provided, and grant planning permission for
the new buildings they want to see go ahead. Neighbourhood planning provides
a powerful set of tools for local people to ensure that they get the right types of
development for their community where the ambition of the neighbourhood is
aligned with the strategic needs and priorities of the wider local area.

BENEFITS
Neighbourhood planning provides the opportunity for communities to set out a positive vision for
how they want their community to develop over the next ten, fifteen, twenty years in ways that meet
identified local need and make sense for local people. They can put in place planning policies that will
help deliver that vision or grant planning permission for the development they want to see.
Empowering local people
This is the big one. The whole purpose of Neighbourhood Planning, and the point of the localism
agenda, is to give neighbourhoods more of a say about developments in their area. The government
wants local people to take a proactive role in shaping the future of the areas in which they live,
finding creative and imaginative ways to overcome the pressures that development can create for
conservation, local services and amenities.
The plans can be created by town and parish councils. Where these dont exist, a Neighbourhood
Forum (which must consist of 21 people who live, work or are elected councillors locally) can be
created to steer a plan. The plans will be subject to a public consultation process, examined
independently and then put to a local referendum.
Community benefits
Importantly, neighbourhood planning could help local communities to deliver real, tangible, benefits
for their area, such as:

getting better bus routes

creating a community green space or orchard

designing affordable housing for the area

running a local enterprise or even a local service, such as the recycling collection.

There is an element of striking a balance with this, but by having a proactive discussion with
potential developers before plans are drawn up, for example, to provide an area of land on site to
allow the community to develop a building it requires, such as a doctors surgery or community
centre. And by working with the local planning authority, a neighbourhood forum could even ring
fence some monies from the Community Infrastructure Levy or the New Homes Bonus to help deliver
these community projects.
Development by design
By setting out how a local neighbourhood will meet its housing needs and develop adequate local
facilities and infrastructure over the next ten years, a neighbourhood plan can provide an important
level of certainty for both developers and local residents. Knowing how your community is going to
develop is beneficial for everyone; it enables local services to be planned and delivered efficiently to
minimise the impact of a growing population.
This is where the government hopes that neighbourhood plans can deliver real
change to the planning system. By taking this proactive approach it is hoped that
a more positive approach to development can be fostered, reducing the hostility
that often exists between developers, local residents and even elected
councillors.

SEWAGE TREATMENT

Sewage treatment plant (STP) plays a vital role in the process of removing the contaminants from
sewage to produce liquid and solid (sludge) suitable for discharge to the environment or for reuse. We
know that 75 per cent of the worlds fresh water resources are contaminated and the remaining is
fast disappearing. Waste water is produced from toilets, baths, showers, kitchens, sinks, and so forth
that are disposed off via sewers.
Stages in Sewage Treatment Plant
Pre-treatment: Pre-treatment removes materials that can be easily collected from the raw wastewater
before they damage or clog the pumps and skimmers of primary treatment clarifiers. The influent
sewage water is strained to remove all large objects carried in the sewage stream. This is most

commonly done with an automated mechanically raked bar screen in modern plants serving large
populations, whilst in smaller or less modern plants a manually cleaned screen may be used.
Primary treatment: Conventional sewage treatment may involve three stages, called primary,
secondary and tertiary treatment. Primary treatment consists of temporarily holding the sewage in a
quiescent basin where heavy solids can settle to the bottom while oil, grease and lighter solids float on
the surface. The settled and floating materials are removed and the remaining liquid may be
discharged or subjected to secondary treatment.
Secondary treatment: Secondary treatment is typically performed by indigenous, water-borne microorganisms in a managed habitat. Secondary treatment may require a separation process to remove the
micro-organisms from the treated water prior to discharge or tertiary treatment. Secondary treatment
removes dissolved and suspended biological matter.
Tertiary treatment: Tertiary treatment is effected by sand filters, mechanical filtration or by passing
the effluent through a constructed wetland such as a reed bed or grass plot. Tertiary treatment is
sometimes defined as anything more than primary and secondary treatment.
Treated water is sometimes disinfected chemically or physically (for example by lagoons and micro
filtration) prior to discharge into a stream, river, bay, lagoon or wetland, or it can be used for the
irrigation of a golf course, green way or park. If it is sufficiently clean, it can also be used for
groundwater recharge or agricultural purposes.

Sludge Treatment
Sludge produced by sewage treatment is organic in nature and contains useful amounts of plant
nutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and essential trace elements. The first objective should be to
utilize the sludge as a fertilizer or soil conditioner on agricultural land. Sludge is treated using a
variety of digestion techniques, the purpose of which is to reduce the amount of organic matter and
the number of disease-causing microorganisms present in the solids. The most common treatment
options include anaerobic digestion, aerobic digestion, and composting.
Anaerobic digestion generates biogas with a high proportion of methane that may be used to both
heat the tank and run engines or microturbines for other on-site processes. In large treatment plants
sufficient energy can be generated in this way to produce more electricity than the machines require.
Anaerobic digestion is a bacterial process that is carried out in the absence of oxygen.
Aerobic digestion is a bacterial process occurring in the presence of oxygen. Under aerobic
conditions, bacteria rapidly consume organic matter and convert it into carbon dioxide. Once there is a
lack of organic matter, bacteria die and are used as food by other bacteria.