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Lesson Objectives:

In addition to AND, OR, and NOT gates, other logic gates like NAND and NOR are

also used in the design of digital circuits.

The small circle (bubble) at the output of the graphic symbol of a NOT gate is

formally called a negation indicator and designates the logical complement.

1. Universal gates - NAND and NOR.

2. How to implement NOT, AND, and OR gate using NAND gates only.

3. How to implement NOT, AND, and OR gate using NOR gates only.

4. Equivalent gates.

5. Two-level digital circuit implementations using universal gates only.

6. Two-level digital circuit implementations using other gates.

NAND Gate:

The NAND gate represents the complement of the AND operation. Its name is an

abbreviation of NOT AND.

The graphic symbol for the NAND gate consists of an AND symbol with a bubble on

the output, denoting that a complement operation is performed on the output of the

AND gate.

The truth table and the graphic symbol of NAND gate is shown in the figure.

The truth table clearly shows that the NAND operation is the complement of the

AND.

NOR Gate:

The NOR gate represents the complement of the OR operation. Its name is an

abbreviation of NOT OR.

The graphic symbol for the NOR gate consists of an OR symbol with a bubble on the

output, denoting that a complement operation is performed on the output of the OR

gate.

The truth table and the graphic symbol of NOR gate is shown in the figure.

The truth table clearly shows that the NOR operation is the complement of the OR.

Universal Gates:

A universal gate is a gate which can implement any Boolean function without need to

use any other gate type.

In practice, this is advantageous since NAND and NOR gates are economical and

easier to fabricate and are the basic gates used in all IC digital logic families.

inverter not the other way around!!

not the other way around!!

To prove that any Boolean function can be implemented using only NAND gates, we

will show that the AND, OR, and NOT operations can be performed using only these

gates.

Implementing an Inverter Using only NAND Gate

The figure shows two ways in which a NAND gate can be used as an inverter (NOT

gate).

1. All NAND input pins connect to the input signal A gives an output A’.

2. One NAND input pin is connected to the input signal A while all other input pins

are connected to logic 1. The output will be A’.

An AND gate can be replaced by NAND gates as shown in the figure (The AND is

replaced by a NAND gate with its output complemented by a NAND gate inverter).

An OR gate can be replaced by NAND gates as shown in the figure (The OR gate is

replaced by a NAND gate with all its inputs complemented by NAND gate inverters).

Thus, the NAND gate is a universal gate since it can implement the AND, OR

and NOT functions.

To prove that any Boolean function can be implemented using only NOR gates, we

will show that the AND, OR, and NOT operations can be performed using only these

gates.

The figure shows two ways in which a NOR gate can be used as an inverter (NOT

gate).

1. All NOR input pins connect to the input signal A gives an output A’.

2. One NOR input pin is connected to the input signal A while all other input pins are

connected to logic 0. The output will be A’.

An OR gate can be replaced by NOR gates as shown in the figure (The OR is

replaced by a NOR gate with its output complemented by a NOR gate inverter)

An AND gate can be replaced by NOR gates as shown in the figure (The AND gate is

replaced by a NOR gate with all its inputs complemented by NOR gate inverters)

Thus, the NOR gate is a universal gate since it can implement the AND, OR and

NOT functions.

Equivalent Gates:

The shown figure summarizes important cases of gate equivalence. Note that bubbles

indicate a complement operation (inverter).

An AND gate is equivalent to an inverted-input NOR gate.

Two NOT gates in series are same as a buffer because they cancel each other as A’’ =

A.

Two-Level Implementations:

We have seen before that Boolean functions in either SOP or POS forms can be

implemented using 2-Level implementations.

For SOP forms AND gates will be in the first level and a single OR gate will be in the

second level.

For POS forms OR gates will be in the first level and a single AND gate will be in the

second level.

Note that using inverters to complement input variables is not counted as a level.

We will show that SOP forms can be implemented using only NAND gates, while

POS forms can be implemented using only NOR gates.

F = XZ + Y’Z + X’YZ

Being an SOP expression, it is implemented in 2-levels as shown in the figure.

Introducing two successive inverters at the inputs of the OR gate results in the shown

equivalent implementation. Since two successive inverters on the same line will not

have an overall effect on the logic as it is shown before.

(see animation in authorware version)

By associating one of the inverters with the output of the first level AND gate and the

other with the input of the OR gate, it is clear that this implementation is reducible to

2-level implementation where both levels are NAND gates as shown in Figure.

F = (X+Z) (Y’+Z) (X’+Y+Z)

Being a POS expression, it is implemented in 2-levels as shown in the figure.

Introducing two successive inverters at the inputs of the AND gate results in the

shown equivalent implementation. Since two successive inverters on the same line

will not have an overall effect on the logic as it is shown before.

(see animation in authorware version)

By associating one of the inverters with the output of the first level OR gates and the

other with the input of the AND gate, it is clear that this implementation is reducible

to 2-level implementation where both levels are NOR gates as shown in Figure.

There are some other types of 2-level combinational circuits which are

• NAND-AND

• AND-NOR,

• NOR-OR,

• OR-NAND

AND-NOR functions:

Example 3: Implement the following function

F = XZ + Y Z + X YZ or

F = XZ + Y Z + XYZ

By complementing the output we can get F, or by using NAND-AND circuit as

shown in the figure.

AND circuit as shown in the figure. (see animation in authorware version)

OR-NAND functions:

Example 4: Implement the following function

F = ( X + Z ).(Y + Z ).( X + Y + Z ) or

F = ( X + Z )(Y + Z )( X + Y + Z )

By complementing the output we can get F, or by using NOR-OR circuit as shown in

the figure.

circuit as shown in the figure. (see animation in authorware version)

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