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and

Digital Systems

Objectives

In this lesson, some basic concepts regarding information processing and

representation are clarified. These include:

1. “Analog” versus “Digital” parameters and systems.

2. Digitization of “Analog” signals.

3. Digital representation of information.

4. Effect of noise on the reliability and choice of digital system

representation.

Digital versus Analog

• We live in an “Analog” world.

• For example, earth’s movement around the sun is continuous or “Analog”.

• In an “Analog” system, parameters have a continuous range of values Æ

the function has no discontinuity points

• The word “Digital”, however, means just the opposite.

• In Other words, digital parameters don’t have a “Continuous” range.

• As an example, the day of the month is a parameter that may only assume

one value out of a set of limited discrete values {1, 2, 3, …., 31}.

• Thus, the day of the month is a parameter may not assume a value of 2.5

and so on with no intermediate values!!!

To Summarize:

• Analog Systems deal with Continuous Range of values.

• A. Digital systems are easier to design since dealing with a limited set of

values is significantly simpler.

• Since the world around us is analog, and processing of digital parameters

signals) into a digital form in order to allow for efficient transmission and

processing of these parameters (or signals)

• To convert an Analog signal into a digital one, some loss of accuracy is

inevitable since digital systems can only represent a finite discrete set of

values.

• The process of conversion is known as Digitization or Quantization.

version of analog signals.

• Digital-to-analog-converters (DAC) are used to regenerate analog signals

• A typical system consists of an ADC to convert analog signals into digital

form which is then transformed back to analog form through a DAC.

where both the input and output signals are digital signals.

Digitization Example

• As an example, consider digitizing the shown voltage signal assuming that

the digitized version allowed set of discrete voltages is {V1, V2, V3, V4}.

• Analog signal values are mapped to the closest allowed discrete voltage ∈

The Resulting Digitized Waveform

Information Representation

How Do Computers Represent Values (e.g. V1, V2, V3, V4) ?

1. Using Electrical Voltages (Semiconductor Processor, or Memory)

2. Using Magnetism (Hard Disks, Floppies, etc.)

3. Using Optical Means (Laser Disks, e.g. CD’s)

• Each signal represents a digit in some Number System

• If the Decimal Number System is used, each signal should be capable

of representing one of 10 possible digits ( 0-to-9)

• If the Binary Number System is used, each signal should be capable of

representing only one of 2 possible digits ( 0 or 1).

• Digital computers, typically use low power supply voltages to power

internal signals, e.g. 5 volts, 3.3 volts, 2.5 volts, etc.

• The voltage level of a signal may be anywhere between the 0 voltage

level (Ground) and the power supply voltage level (5 volts, 3.3 volts,

2.5 volts, etc.)

• Thus, for a power supply voltage of 5 volts, internal voltage signals

may have any voltage value between 0 and 5 volts.

• Using a decimal number system would mean that each signal should

be capable of representing 10 possible digits ( 0-to-9).

• With 5 volt range signals, the 10 digits of the decimal system are

represented with each digit having a range of only 0.5 a volt

• If, however, a binary number system is used only 2 digits {0, 1} need

to be represented by a signal, allowing much higher Voltage range of

5 volts between the 2 binary digits.

The Noise Factor

• Typically, lots of noise signals exist in most environments.

• Noise may cause the voltage level of a signal (which represents some

digit value) to be changed (either higher or lower) which leads to

misinterpretation of the value this signal represents.

misinterpretation of the signal information.

• Q. Which is more reliable for data transmission; binary signals or

decimal signals ?

• A. Binary Signals are more reliable.

• Q. Why?

• A. The Larger the gap between voltage levels, the more reliable the

system is. Thus, a signal representing a binary digit will be

transmitted more reliably compared to a signal which represents a

decimal digit.

• For example, with 0.25 volts noise level using a decimal system at 5

volts power supply is totally unreliable

Conclusions

• Information can be represented either in an analog form or in a digital

form.

• Due to noise, it is more reliable to transmit information in a digital

form rather than an analog one.

• Processing of digitally represented information is much more reliable,

flexible and powerful.

• Today’s powerful computers use digital techniques and circuitry.

• Because of its high reliability and simplicity, the binary representation

of information is most commonly used.

• The coming lessons in this chapter will discuss how numbers are

represented and manipulated in digital system.

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