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Objectives

¾ In this lesson, we will study basic arithmetic operations in various

number systems with a particular stress on the binary system.

Approach

¾ Arithmetic in the Binary number system (addition, subtraction and

multiplication).

¾ Arithmetic in other number systems

Binary Addition

0+0=0

1+0=1

0+1=1

2 is not an allowed

1+1=2 digit in binary

t

1 + 1 = (10)2

1

Example

Show the result of adding:

(27)10 + (43) 10

Carry 1

1st Number 2 7

2nd Number 4 3 +

Result 7 0

Position i+1 i

weight r(i+1) w= r i

Digit 1 D1

Digit 2 D2 +

Result DCarry DSum

Position 1 i=0

weight w= 101 =10 w= 100 =1

Digit 1 5

Digit 2 7 +

Result 1 2

1x10 2x1

¾ Likewise, in case of the binary system, if the weight of the sum bit

is 2i, then the weight of the carry bit is 2i+1.

2

¾ Thus, adding 1 + 1 in the binary system results in a Sum bit of 0 and

a carry bit of 1.

¾ The shown table summarizes the Sum and Carry results for binary

addition

Carry Sum

Weight 21 20

0+0 0 0

0+1 0 1

1+0 0 1

1+1 1 0

≡1x21 ≡ 0x20

≡ +2

Example Carries

5 4 3 2 1 0

+ 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 0 1

1 0 0 1 1 1 +

1 0 1 0 1 0 0

Result of Binary

Addition (SUM)

3

Binary Subtraction

1-0=1

1-1=0

0-0=0

0-1=?

Position 1 0

weight 10 1

1st Number 7 5

2nd Number 8 -

Result ? ?

Position 1 0

weight 10 1

1st Number 6 7 5 15

2nd Number 8 -

Result 6 7

0 - 1 = 1 Borrow 1

¾ In general, the result of subtracting two digits each of weight w is

two digits. One is the “Difference” digit and the other is the

“Borrow” digit.

4

¾ The difference digit has the same weight w as the operand digits.

¾ The borrow digit is considered negative and has the weight of the

next higher digit (wr).

Borrow Difference

0-0 0 0

1-1 0 0

1-0 0 1

0-1 1 1

≡ 1x(-21) ≡ +1x20

≡ -1

Q. What is 1 – 1 – 1 = ?

A. The answer is 1 borrow 1.

Explanation: We perform the operation in 2 steps:

• 1–1=0

• We then subtract 1 from the above result, i.e. 0 – 1 which is 1

borrow 1.

_______________________________________

Q. What is 0 – 1 – 1 = ?

A. The answer is 0 borrow 1.

5

Explanation: We perform the operation in 2 steps:

• 0 - 1= 1 borrow 1

• We then subtract 1 from the above result, which yields 0

borrow 1.

_______________________________________

Subtraction Example

Col #

Borrows

5 4 3 2 1 0

- 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 0 0

1 0 0 1 1 1 -

Result of Binary

0 0 0 1 0 1

Subtraction (Difference)

Multiplicand 1 0 1 1

Multiplier 1 0 1 x

1 0 1 1

0 0 0 0 +

1 0 1 1 +

1 1 0 1 1 1

6

Arith. With Bases Other Than 10

(2)5 + (3)5 = (5)10

= (?)5

= (10)5

Addition Table

+ 0 1 2 3 4

=5= 0x50 + 1x51

0 0

1 1 2 =6= 1x50 + 1x51

2 2 3 4

3 3 4 10 11

=8= 3x50 + 1x51

4 4 10 11 12 13

Multiplication Table

* 0 1 2 3 4

=6= 1x50 + 1x51

0 0

1 0 1 =9= 4x50 + 1x51

2 0 2 4

3 0 3 11 14

=16= 1x50 + 3x51

4 0 4 13 22 31

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