1. Physical Injury – 2. Assault - any unlawful attempt or offer with force or violence to do a corporal hurt to another. 3.
Battery - The unlawful touching the person of another by the aggressor himself, or any other substance put in motion by him. 4. Homicide – the killing of a human being due to the act or omission of another 5. Murder - the killing of a human being by a sane person, with intent, malice aforethought (prior intention to kill the particular victim or anyone who gets in the way) and with no legal excuse or authority. 6. Manslaughter - the unlawful killing of another person without premeditation or socalled "malice aforethought" (an evil intent prior to the killing). It is distinguished from murder (which brings greater penalties) by lack of any prior intention to kill anyone or create a deadly situation. 7. Rape - the crime of sexual intercourse (with actual penetration of a woman's vagina with the man's penis) without consent and accomplished through force, threat of violence or intimidation (such as a threat to harm a woman's child, husband or boyfriend). 8. Indecent Exposure - the crime of displaying one's genitalia to one or more other people in a public place, usually with the apparent intent to shock the unsuspecting viewer and give the expose a sexual charge. 9. Kidnapping - the taking of a person against his/her will (or from the control of a parent or guardian) from one place to another under circumstances in which the person so taken does not have freedom of movement, will, or decision through violence, force, threat or intimidation. 10.Bigamy - the condition of having two wives or two husbands at the same time. 11.Adultery - consensual sexual relations when one of the participants is legally married to another. 12.Prostitution - the profession of performing sexual acts for money. 13.Incest - sexual intercourse between close blood relatives, including brothers and sisters, parents and children, grandparents and grandchildren, or aunts or uncles with nephews or nieces. 14.Libel - to publish in print (including pictures), writing or broadcast through radio, television or film, an untruth about another which will do harm to that person or his/her reputation, by tending to bring the target into ridicule, hatred, scorn or contempt of others.
15.Slander - oral defamation, in which someone tells one or more persons an untruth about another, which untruth will harm the reputation of the person defamed. 16. Mayhem - the criminal act of disabling, disfiguring or cutting off or making useless one of the members (leg, arm, hand, foot, eye) of another either intentionally or in a fight, called maiming. 17. Robbery - 1) the direct taking of property (including money) from a person (victim) through force, threat or intimidation. 18. Burglary - the crime of breaking and entering into a structure for the purpose of committing a crime. 19. Breaking and Entering - 1) the criminal act of entering a residence or other enclosed property through the slightest amount of force (even pushing open a door), without authorization. 20. Larceny - the crime of taking the goods of another person without permission (usually secretly), with the intent of keeping them. 21. Receiving Stolen Property - the crime of possession of goods which one knows or which any reasonable person would realize were stolen. It is generally a felony. Innocent possession is not a crime, but the goods are generally returned to the legal owner. 22. Embezzlement - the crime of stealing the funds or property of an employer, company or government or misappropriating money or assets held in trust. 23. Forgery - 1) the crime of creating a false document, altering a document, or writing a false signature for the illegal benefit of the person making the forgery. 24. Extortion - obtaining money or property by threat to a victim's property or loved ones, intimidation, or false claim of a right (such as pretending to be an IRS agent). 25. Vandalism – 26. Malicious - With bad, and unlawful motives 27. Arson – the felony crime of intentionally burning a house or other building. 28. Vagrancy - moving about without a means to support oneself, without a permanent home, and relying on begging. 29. Garnishment - the entire process of petitioning for and getting a court order directing a person or entity (garnishee) to hold funds they owe to someone who allegedly is in debt to another person, often after a judgment has been rendered.
30. Gag Order - a judge's order prohibiting the attorneys and the parties to a pending lawsuit or criminal prosecution from talking to the media or the public about the case. 31. Frivolous - referring to a legal move in a lawsuit clearly intended merely to harass, delay or embarrass the opposition. 32. Free Enterprise –
33. Fraud - the intentional use of deceit, a trick or some dishonest means to deprive another of his/her/its money, property or a legal right. 34. Franking Privileges –
35. Franchise - . a right granted by the government to a person or corporation, such as a taxi permit, bus route, an airline's use of a public airport, business license or corporate existence.
36. Foreclosure - the system by which a party who has loaned money secured by a mortgage or deed of trust on real property (or has an unpaid judgment), requires sale of the real property to recover the money due, unpaid interest, plus the costs of foreclosure, when the debtor fails to make payment.
37. Finder’s Fee –
38. Fiduciary - from the Latin fiducia, meaning "trust," a person (or a business like a bank or stock brokerage) who has the power and obligation to act for another (often called the beneficiary) under circumstances which require total trust, good faith and honesty.
39.F.I.C.A. – (Federal Insurance Contributions Act) This act mandates that an
employer withhold a set percentage of an employee’s salary each pay period. 40. Felony - 1) a crime sufficiently serious to be punishable by death or a term in state or
federal prison, as distinguished from a misdemeanor which is only punishable by confinement to county or local jail and/or a fine.
41. Federal Reserve System - the central bank of the United States. It was created by Congress to provide the nation with a safer, more flexible, and more stable monetary and financial system. 42. Fair Value - The estimated value of all assets and liabilities of an acquired company used to consolidate the financial statements of both companies. 2. In the futures market, fair value is the equilibrium price for a futures contract. This is equal to the spot price after taking into account compounded interest (and dividends lost because the investor owns the futures contract rather than the physical stocks) over a certain period of time. 43. Fairness Doctrine - The policy of the United States Federal Communications Commission.
an attempt to ensure that all coverage of controversial issues by a broadcast station be balanced and fair.
44. Equal Time Doctrine – (overview) a station which sells or gives one minute to Candidate
“A” must sell or give the same amount of time with the same audience potential to all other candidates for the particular office.
45. Extradition - the surrender by one state or country of a person charged with a crime in another state or country. 46. Ex Post Facto - Latin for "after the fact," which refers to laws adopted after an act is committed making it illegal although it was legal when done, or increasing the penalty for a crime after it is committed. 47. Exonerate –
48. Exile –
49. Executor - the person appointed to administer the estate of a person who has died leaving a will which nominates that person. Unless there is a valid objection, the judge will appoint the person named in the will to be executor.
50. Evasion - an act or instance of violating the tax laws by failing or refusing to pay all or part of one's taxes.
51. Euthanasia - Also called mercy killing. the act of putting to death painlessly or allowing to die, as by withholding extreme medical measures,
a person or animal suffering from an incurable, esp. a painful, disease or condition.
52. Ethics - the rules of conduct recognized in respect to a particular class of human actions or a particular group, culture, etc.
53. Espionage - the crime of spying on the federal government and/or transferring state secrets on behalf of a foreign country.
54. Equity - 1) a venerable group of rights and procedures to provide fairness, unhampered by the narrow strictures of the old common law or other technical requirements of the law.
55. Equal Protection Clause - Portion of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that prohibits discrimination by state government institutions. The clause grants all people "equal protection of the laws," which means that the states must apply the law equally and cannot give preference to one person or class of persons over another.
56. Entrapment - in criminal law, the act of law enforcement officers or government agents inducing or encouraging a person to commit a crime when the potential criminal expresses a desire not to go ahead.
57. Endowment - The creation of a fund, often by gift or bequest from a dead person's estate, for the maintenance of a public institution, particularly a college, university or scholarship.
58. Eminent Domain - the power of a governmental entity (federal, state, county or city government, school district, hospital district or other agencies) to take private real estate for public use, with or without the permission of the owner.
59. Ecology - the branch of sociology concerned with the spacing and interdependence of people and institutions.
60. Easement - the right to use the real property of another for a specific purpose.
61. Earnest Money - money given by a buyer to a seller to bind a contract.
62. D.W.I. - (Driving While Intoxicated)
63. Duress - the use of force, false imprisonment or threats (and possibly psychological torture or "brainwashing") to compel someone to act contrary to his/her wishes or interests.
64. Due Diligence - such diligence as a reasonable person under the same circumstances would use : use of reasonable but not necessarily exhaustive efforts called also reasonable diligence
65. Docket - 1) n. the cases on a court calendar. 2) n. brief notes, usually written by the court clerk, stating what action was taken that day in court. 3) v. to write down the name of a case to be put on calendar or make notes on action in court.
66. Disturbance - an outbreak of disorder; a breach of public peace.
67. Destitute - Lacking resources or the means of subsistence; completely impoverished.
68. Deposition - the taking and recording of testimony of a witness under oath before a court reporter in a place away from the courtroom before trial.
69. De Facto - Latin for "in fact." Often used in place of "actual" to show that the court will treat as a fact authority being exercised or an entity acting as if it had authority, even though the legal requirements have not been met.
70. De Jure - Latin for "lawful," as distinguished from de facto (actual).
71. Deficit - a shortage, less than is due, or in the case of a business or government budget, more expenditures than income. Unbalanced budgets with a planned year-end deficit are prohibited at every level of government except the federal.
72. Deed - the written document which transfers title (ownership) or an interest in real property to another person.
73. Creditor - a person or entity to whom a debt is owed.
74. Creed - A system of belief, principles, or opinions.
75. Council - a body of persons specially designated or selected to act in an advisory, administrative, or legislative capacity.
76. Counsel - a lawyer, attorney, attorney-at-law, counsellor, counsellor-at-law, solicitor, barrister, advocate or proctor (a lawyer in admiralty court), licensed to practice law. In the United States they all mean the same thing. 2) v. to give legal advice. 3) v. in some jurisdictions, to urge someone to commit a crime, which in itself is a crime.
77. Corporal Punishment - physical punishment, as flogging, inflicted on the body of one convicted of a crime: formerly included the death penalty, sentencing to a term of years, etc.
78. Coroner - a county official with the responsibility to determine the cause of death of anyone who dies violently (by attack or accident), suddenly, or suspiciously.
79. Copyright - the exclusive right of the author or creator of a literary or artistic property (such as a book, movie or musical composition) to print, copy, sell, license, distribute, transform to another medium, translate, record or perform or otherwise use (or not use) and to give it to another by will.
80. Patent - an exclusive right to the benefits of an invention or improvement granted by the U.S. Patent Office, for a specific period of time, on the basis that it is novel (not previously known or described in a publication), "non-obvious" (a form which anyone in the field of expertise could identify), and useful. a) "utility patent" which includes a process, a machine (mechanism with moving parts), manufactured products, and compounds or mixtures (such as chemical formulas); b) "design patent" which is a new, original and ornamental design for a manufactured article; and c) "plant patent" which is a new variety of a cultivated asexually reproduced plant.
81. Common Law - the traditional unwritten law of England, based on custom and usage, which began to develop over a thousand years before the founding of the United States.
82. Collateral - property pledged to secure a loan or debt, usually funds or personal property as distinguished from real property (but technically collateral can include real estate). 2) adj. referring to something that is going on at the same time parallel to the main issue in a lawsuit or controversy which may affect the outcome of the case, such as adoption of a new federal regulation or a criminal trial of one of the parties.
83. Conspiracy - when people work together by agreement to commit an illegal act.
84. Contempt of Court - there are essentially two types of contempt: a) being rude, disrespectful to the judge or other attorneys or causing a disturbance in the courtroom, particularly after being warned by the judge; b) willful failure to obey an order of the court. This latter can include failure to pay child support or alimony.
85. Concurrent Power - a power that is held simultaneously by more than one entity;
86. Collusion - where two persons (or business entities through their officers or other employees) enter into a deceitful agreement, usually secret, to defraud and/or gain an unfair advantage over a third party, competitors, consumers or those with whom they are negotiating.
87. Coercion - force or the power to use force in gaining compliance, as by a government or police force.
88. Clemency - the power of a President in federal criminal cases, and the Governor in state convictions, to pardon a person convicted of a crime, commute the sentence (shorten it, often to time already served) or reduce it from death to another lesser sentence.
89. Boycott - rganized refusal to purchase products or patronize a store to damage the producer or merchant monetarily, to influence its policy, and/or to attract attention to a social cause.
90. Blasphemy - A contemptuous or profane act, utterance, or writing concerning God or a sacred entity.
91. Bigot - a person who is utterly intolerant of any differing creed, belief, or opinion.
92. Alien - a person who is not a citizen of the country.
93. Indictment - a charge of a felony (serious crime) voted by a Grand Jury based upon a proposed charge, witnesses' testimony and other evidence presented by the public prosecutor (District Attorney).
94. Cabinet - A body of persons appointed by a head of state or a prime minister to head the executive departments of the government and to act as official advisers.
95. Misdemeanor - a lesser crime punishable by a fine and/or county jail time for up to one year.
96. Direct Tax - a tax exacted directly from the persons who will bear the burden of it (without reimbursement to them at the expense of others), as a poll tax, a general property tax, or an income tax.
97. Gag Rule –
98. Judicial Review - the power of a court to adjudicate the constitutionality of the laws of a government or the acts of a government official. 99. Common Law Marriage - a marriage without a civil or ecclesiastical ceremony, generally resulting from an agreement to marry followed by the couple's living together as husband and wife.
100.Redress of Grievances –
101.Dissenting Opinion - an opinion filed by a judge who disagrees with the majority decision of a case 102.Tenant - a person who occupies real property owned by another based upon an agreement between the person and the landlord/owner, almost always for rental payments. 103.Ordain - To order by virtue of superior authority 104.General Election - a regularly scheduled local, state, or national election in which voters elect officeholders.
105.Arbitration - a mini-trial, which may be for a lawsuit ready to go to trial, held in an attempt to avoid a court trial and conducted by a person or a panel of people who are not judges. 106.Bill - 1) what is commonly called a "check" by which the signer requires the bank to pay a third party a sum of money. This is a holdover from the days when a person would draw up a "bill of exchange." 2) a statement of what is owed. 3) any paper money. 4) a legislative proposal for enactment of a law. It is called a bill until it is passed and signed, at which time it is a law (statute) and is no longer referred to as a bill. 5) an old-fashioned term for various filed documents in lawsuits or criminal prosecutions, which is falling into disuse. 107.Corruption of the Blood - The corruption of blood would forbid the accuser’s family from inheriting his property. 108.Executive - a person or group of persons having administrative or supervisory authority in an organization. 109.Integrate - To give or cause to give members of all races, religions, and ethnic groups an equal opportunity to belong to, be employed by, be customers of, or vote in (an organization, place of business, city, state, etc. 110.Oath - 1) a swearing to tell the truth, the whole truth and nothing but the truth, which would subject the oath-taker to a prosecution for the crime of perjury if he/she knowingly lies in a statement either orally in a trial or deposition or in writing. 111.Arraignment - the hearing in which a person charged with a crime is arraigned in his or her first appearance before a judge. 112.Landlord - a person who owns real property and rents or leases it to another, called a "tenant." 113.Juvenile Delinquent - a person who is under age (usually below 18), who is found to have committed a crime in states which have declared by law that a minor lacks responsibility and thus may not be sentenced as an adult. 114.Double jeopardy - placing someone on trial a second time for an offense for which he/she has been previously acquitted, even when new incriminating evidence has been unearthed. 115.Grand Jury - jury in each county or federal court district which serves for a term of a year and is usually selected from a list of nominees offered by the judges in the county or district. 116.Appropriation - an act of a legislature authorizing money to be paid from the treasury for a specified use.
117.Shield Law - Statutes enacted in some states which declare that communications between news reporters and informants are confidential and privileged and thus cannot be testified to in court. 118.Common Law - the traditional unwritten law of England, based on custom and usage, which began to develop over a thousand years before the founding of the United States.