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May 2006

Mind Text

Editor - Thasneem A.

Centre for Public Policy Research

Vaikom Road, Cochin, Kerala - India - 682 301
E-mail :
verified “hundred for hundred !” Yes
mamma” three shouts heard
I was happy. There was a tear
each in my eyes. The youngest,
Janu, came close to me, clambered
on to my lap and said, “Mamma, why
are you crying?” “I will tell you why.”
“Ammu, run to your computer and
send a voice mail to your grandpa.
You know how pleased he will be?”
All left the dining table, rushed to the
computer. “Please stop,” I said.
“Don’t say this all in a hurry. Your
grandpa and grandma will be terribly

My dream Children excited. Don’t you know my dad is a

chronic asthma patient.” “No
LAKSHMI . R. NAIR room, the tension in the theatre the mamma, they will be happy only to
smell of the new–borns. It has all hear this information. “No, I said, he
been wiped off. will struggle for breath hearing the
My h u s h a s n ’ t c o m e . H e surprisingly pleasant news. My
Waiting is boring . It’s always doesn’t have any preference for mother has heart- ailment. She has
so.They should have come by now.
food. He like all kinds of food. But to stand it.”
It’s four O’ clock. Sometimes it is so.
I should cook them. I thought of my parents. They
In the busy hours of the day, the
driver takes more than thirty He’s like that, very slow in are away in the family quarter in
minutes. It doesn’t give me any disposing of his patients. He loves Kothamangalam. They love to live
concern. I am like that . Concern to be with them, talking and talking. there only. We are thousands of
doesn’t affect me. I don’t care for A psychiatrist, to him, shall be so. miles away in this part of the world.
them in turn. I am tired. Yes it’s our He loses himself while counselling My mind spread its wings and
“ Belina”. She creeps into the porch, his patients. flew to the past when my parents
like a cat, the black cat. Before I wished to say “start”, suffered a lot due to me. When I
I set the plates ready. I removed they started attacking hamburger, failed in mathematics, my teachers
the lids of the hotcases. All the three sandwich and meatroll. In my days would whisper to one another in the
like hamburger. Ammu doesn’t like as school girl, our kitchen assistant, Department : “She is the daughter
it much. She likes meat roll better. Letha brought food on to the table. of a Professor. Isn’t she ashamed
Chinnu’s face will bloom before My mother would start feeding me of getting poor marks? Her mother
sandwiches. Janu needs a little egg food with love only after five thirty is a bank officer. But she doesn’t
embedded in it . I didn’t have the in the evening. Food then also was know to solve problems in maths.
afternoon nap after the heavy work different, “dosa,” idli, or “ banana See, other children get better
in the forenoon. All in a flash roast.” Now the time has changed. marks.” These comments would
wriggled in through the narrow Twenty years have elapsed. reach other parents. They used to
entrance of our dining room. They I forgot. They must have tell my parents about this. I had
may have washed their hands. received their answer books. I developed in me an allergy towards
They were at the basin for a should have asked them for their mathematics. The more I came
second, the trinity together. A pull score. I am always curious to know close, the more I would sneeze out
and push to grab the seats on my their score in mathematics, “ Tell of allergic dislike. I was a butt of
left and right. I served on to the me, your marks.” ridicule before all. Only my Principal,
plates. They all beamed a smile. While quaffing the mutton burger, the reverent sister caressed me,
It was a pleasure to cook for my they muttered. I couldn’t make out. fondled me and consoled me. I
kids and my hus. They repeated the sounds finishing could remember, my old days two
The session till noon was a the left over on their lips. I wanted to decades ago with a pinch of salt
burden. The odour of the labour get the reply. It was “full” for all. I only. As I was weak in mathematics,

should give them a treat. I waited for
my hus to come. It’s eight O’ clock.
I should give him a voicemail to
come back quickly. Thinking about
the achievement of my children I
looked at the mirror and laughed
aloud with great pride and
satisfaction – Ha, Ha, Ha
“Lachu wake up,” a loud shout
and water from a bucket falling on
my face awakened me from sound
slumber. My dad looked like a
Virabhadra, God of Destruction, his
eyes wide, rolling and sprouting fire.
My mother behind him like a
Bhadrakali encouraged him in his
reproach. I heard Something like “
my teachers didn’t care for the fact biotechnology too and the working You didn’t do well in the tenth. Will
that I was good in dance and music. of human brain. Last year only I you ever change ? You dream and
Sometimes I cursed my self. developed a computer chip to be dream and laugh in dreams in the
With the loving advice of my implanted in the brain to make one eleventh also.” Alas adieu my dream
teachers and the Principal, I made mathematically strong. See the children !!!!
amends for what was not there in marks. All get “full” in maths. I am
me. I did well in my plus two. I joined happy. This is the time for
medicine to become an M D in enjoyment. I should invite children
Gynaecology. I did research in from neighbouring houses and I

Bin or Bush Rubbish

Is it for Bush you shed your blood ? LAKSHMI . R. NAIR
Is it for Bin you want our head?
Is it for Cresc’nt you love to kill
Is it for Cross you coffins fill.
My Lord, for whom do they bleed ?
Not for us, sons of Lord, indeed.
My lord, for whom they shed their blood ?
Not for us, Sons of Lord, truly blest
Bush lies :” I am the lord of the world.”
Bin Laden lies “ who else is it more than what I am” ?
What I, the humble child of the Lord in this world,
Say: “who else can say that, but our Lord”?
My Allah love us, in war not to miss,
Jehovah loves to offer us, affectionate loving kiss.
Never a “ crusade “ to kill those whom we dislike
No, never a “jihwad”, to use the fatal as we like.
Gather all those rubbish things,
Foolish notions, trivial threats,
Pick all those lethal arms, put them
In to the mouth of bin, wide dust bin and close.
Cast these frightening words, veils of glory
Fond, vain pomp of this world’s mammon
Bombs used to mar fertile Nagasaki,
In to the wide broad breast of bush to fill it over.


Corruption “A Death –Knell”

Democracy has been adored in it. Many of us are no longer proud to be called an Indian. The days of glory, of
throughout the world as the most ideal sacrifice and naturalism are fading.
form of government. In almost all the The cult has a very wide range in the national life of our country. From the
countries of Europe and United States grass root level to the top, corruption is prevalent. The ignorance of the people
it has been functioning successfully in lead to their exploitation. Malpractices and delay in judiciary oblige people to pay
one form or the other. huge amounts to the lawyers and advocates. Law and medicine can no longer
India is one of the largest be called noble professions. They have stooped down to the state of unfair
democratic countries in the world. Our trade business.
system of administration is ideal as it Corruption has become so rampant that due to falling of buildings and
is based on peoples will. But gone are bridges, non realisation of taxes billions and trillions of rupees go on unchecked.
the days when we used to worship our There have been scandals in the eighties and nineties involving chief ministere,
cultural value, which are very distinct Union Ministers and even Prime Minister. The difficulties faced by the people in
and unique. In fact our society and its their dealings with the government apparatus has strengthened the belief that
system are now in the grips of all politicians and public servants are dishonest and corrupt 3.5 crore was
negativeness. Ideal situations are rare recovered from the premises of an ex-union minister in 1997 for which he could
and ideologies are unidentified in our not give any explanation. Even in late 1999 she was free.
modern society. Corruption have rather
Entry in to legislature is considered certified and justifiable ticket to quick
become “shame proof”. Our leaders
money. Bofors and German submarine Pay offs and Bank seam of 1992-93
and powerful bureaucrat have become
may be just a tip of the iceberg. Even the recent hidden camera issue involving
the agents of corruption. The wide
and exposing many MP’s will soon be forgotten only for in to reclect them in the
network of corruption is the result of
future elections. For a particular posting a Delhi police constable is ready to pay
the lack of integrity and morality of our
Rs one lakh a year. From whom does he get such huge fractions and to whom
social beings. Now a days humanism
does he pay this amount. Delhi just reflects the rest of the nation. Shame or
is very weak and worthless. Power and sense of guilt has totally disappeared. Corruption is like a “DEATH – KNELL” for
money oriented politics is so polluted a country like us.
that the new generation has lost faith

Un. [\p-cmPv!

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I£n- c m- j v{Sob _‘- ß - f psS
Aÿn-cX ]n∂o-Sn-tßmfw tIcf
cmjv{So-b-Øns‚ hyXy-kvX-X-bm-
Wv. ap∂-Wn-Iƒ amdn amdn `cn-°p-
tºmgpw ap∂Wn _‘-߃ inYn-
e-am-°-s∏-Sp-Itbm A\yw \n∂p
tIcfw ho≠p- s amcp sXc- ØmWv tIc-f-kw-ÿm\w cq]o-Ir- t]mhp- I tbm sNbv X n- ´ p≠v . ]e-
s™- S p- ∏ ns\ A`n- a p- J o- I - c n- ° p- X-am-Ip-∂-Xv. hf-sc-°mew ap≥]p- t∏mgpw `c- W - Ø n¬ ]¶m- f n- b m-
hm≥ t]mhp- I - b m- W v . F∂m¬ hpI F∂-Xn¬ Ihn™v bmsXmcp
Xs∂ ae- b m- f - \ m- S n- s ‚ {]mXn-
CØ- h - W sØ amdnb cmjv { Sob Xc-Øn-ep≈ hnI-k\ k¶-ev]hpw
\n[yw ]pdw-cm-Py-߃ Adn-™n-cp-
kml-N-cy-ß-fnepw ap≥s]-∂-tØ- ]e cmjv{Sob I£n-Iƒ°pap≠m-
∂p. Imem- I m- e - ß - f m- b n, ChnsS
°mfpw tIc- f - Ø ns‚ hnI- k \ bn-cp-∂n-√. {Ita-W, tIc-f-Øns‚
h∂p-t]m-bn-´p≈ hntZ-io-b¿ tIc-
km≤y- X - I sf A[n- I - c n- ® p- s Im- hnI- k \ k¶ev]w amdn amdn
f- Ø ns‚ khn- t i- j - k m- l - N - c y-
≠p≈ ]T-\-ßfpw N¿®-Ifpw \S- hcp∂ cmjv { Sob i‡n- I - f psS
߃ apX-se-Sp-Øp-sIm≠v A\p-
°p- ∂ p- s h- ∂ p- ≈ - X p- X s∂ tIc- f k¶p-NnX at\m-`m-h-Øn¬ \n∂pw
Zn\w a‰p {]tZ-i-ß-fn-te°pw Xß-

Ce-£≥ 2006
P\X B{K-ln-°p-∂-sX-¥m-
sW∂v hni-Z-am-°p-∂p-≠v. I£n-
cm-jv{Sob t`Z-at\y CØcw
kwhm-Z-߃ \S-°p-tºmgpw
]ecpw ad- ∂ p- t ]m- I p∂ AYhm
Xnc- k v ° - c n- ° - s ∏- S p∂ Nne- b n\w
hnj- b - ß ƒ \Ωƒ°n- S - b n- e p- ≠ v .
Ahsb ASn-ÿm-\-am°n Fgp-X-
fpsS ta¬t°mbva Du´n-bp-d-∏n-°p-
I- b m- b n- c p- ∂ p. F∂n- c p- ∂ mepw
hym]mc _‘-ß-tf-°mƒ, anj-\-
dn-am-cp-w hy‡n-K-X-amb kmwkvIm-

cn- I - s \- S p- \ m- b - I - X z- h p- a mWv tIc-

fsØ Hcp-]-s£, Ipd™ Ime-
b-f-hp-sIm-≠p≈ Hcp \thm-∞m-
hntam- N \ kacw t]mse,
kmaq-ln-I, cmjv{Sob kmwkvIm-
cnI cwK-ß-fn¬ sh√p-hnfn
Db¿Ønb Hcp kmaq-lnI
cmjv{Sob ka-chpw tIc-f-Øn¬
]n∂oSv D≠m- b n- ´ n- √ . hntam- N \
ka- c - t Øm- S p- I qSn Xs∂, tIc- f -
s∏-´n-´p-≈-XmWv Cu teJ\w. \-Øn\v hgn-Øm-c-bm-b-Xv. Ønse kmaqly aWv U - e - Ø n¬
hyXykvX cmjv{Sob kml- kmwkvIm-cn-I, kmaq-lnI aWvU- kmaq-Zm-bnI cmjv{Sob i‡n-Iƒ
N- c y- ß fpw kmaq- l nI Imem- h - e- ß - f n¬ {]Xn- ^ - e n® Cu am‰w `c- W - Ø n- \ p- t h≠n AUvP- Ã p-
ÿbpw \ne- \ n- ∂ n- c p∂ ka- b - cmjv { Sob apt∂- ‰ - Ø n\pw hgn- sa‚p- I ƒ°pw tImw{]- s sa-   p-

Iƒ°pw Xøm-sd-SpØp Ign-™n- \n∂pw AI-∂p-t]m-b-Xm-Wv. hn¬°p- ∂ - X n\v Kh¨sa‚ n\v
cp-∂p. hnZym-`ym-k-_n-√ns‚ 11-˛mw Irjn `qan In´n-b-h-cm-h-s´, Bip- Bcv A[n-Imcw sImSpØp
A\p-tOZw* CXp-hsc ]m m-°m- ]- { Xn- I fpw hnZym- ` ymk ÿm]- \ - F∂XmWv. tIc-f-Ønse {][m\
\m-hm-Ø-Xp-Xs∂ {]Xy£ DZm-l- ßfpw I®- h S ÿm]- \ - ß fpw `uXn-Ihpw `uan-I-hp-amb t{kmX-
c- W w. sshcp- ≤ y- ß ƒ \nd- ™ p- XpS-ßp-∂-Xn-\mWv hy{KX ImWn-  p-I-fmb h\w, a’yw, \mWy-hn-
\n∂ ka- c - ] - c n- ] m- S n- I ƒ F°m- ®-Xv. C{]-Imcw Db¿∂p-h∂ CS- f- I ƒ, IpSn- s h- ≈ w XpS- ß n- b h-
eØpw tIc-f-Ønse `c-W-ap-∂-Wn- Øcw kº-∂-h¿§-°m¿ bnse√mw Ah-bn¬ G¿s∏-Sp-∂-
Iƒ kzoI- c n®p t]m∂n- ´ p- ≠ v. cmjv{Sob I£n-I-fpsS {]tXyI h¿°v F{X- t Ømfw DS- a - ÿ m- h -
kzImcy hnZym- ` ymk cwKsØ, Xmev]cy kwc-£-I-cmbnØo¿∂- Imiw ssIap-Xe - m-bn-´p≠v F∂p-≈-
\mw F∂pw kwc- £ n- ® - n ´p- ≠ v . XmWv cmjv { So- b - c w- K Øv tIcfw XmWv ImX-emb {]iv\w. shdpw
tIcf kwÿm\w cq]o- I r- X - a m- t\cn´ G‰hpw henb Zpc-¥w. {]Xy-£-k-a-c-߃°p D]-cn-bmbn
bXp apX¬ C∂p-hsc Fgp-]Xp ASpØIme-Ømbn ssIh- i m- h - I miw AXmXv {]tZ-
iX-am-\-tØmfw hnZym-`ymk Db¿∂p-tI´ ]cn-ÿnXn hmZhpw i- ß - f nse P\- ß ƒ°v Xncn- ® p-
ÿm]-\-߃ kzImcy amt\- \yq\-]£ {]oW-\-hp-sa√mw sIm- S p- Ø p- s Im- ≠ p- a m{Xta hnI-
Pv s a‚ns‚ ssIh- i - a m- W p- ≈ - X v . ^yqU¬ hyhÿnXn h®p k\ k¶-ev]Ø - n¬ Xncn-®d- n-tb≠
tIc- f - Ø n¬ Db¿∂p- \ n- e v ° p∂ ]pe¿Øp-∂ ta¬∏-d™ CS-Øcw aqeyh¿≤\hns\∏‰n t_m[hXv°-
Db¿∂ km£- c Xm \nc- ° ns‚ kº- ∂ - h ¿§- ° m- c psS krjvSn- cWw \S-°p-I-bp-≈q. k_vkn-Un-
apJy-Im-c-Whpw as‰m-∂-√. hnNn- bmbn A[x-]-Xn-®n-cn-°p-∂p, Ifpw B\p- I q- e y- ß - f pw, ^e- { ]-
{X-sa∂p ]d-b-s´, a‰p kwÿm-\- AYhm Ah-cpsS Xmev]-cy-Øn\v Z-ambn GXp-hn-[-Øn¬ A¿l-cm-
ß- f n¬ \n∂pw hyXy- k v X - a m- b n, A\p-kr-X-ambn hf-s®m-Sn-°-s∏-´n- b-h¿°v FØn-®p-sIm-Sp-t°-≠-Xm-
e£-߃ hmßn \nb-a-\-߃ \S- cn- ° p- ∂ p. At∏mgpw ad- ∂ p- t ]m- sW∂p ]p\¿hn- N - n ¥\w sNtø-
Øp-hm≥ amt\-Pvsa‚p-Isf A\p- Ip∂ Hcp hkvXp, t•m_-sse-tk- Ww.
h-Zn-°p-tºmƒØs∂ A≤ym-]-I- j≥ tIc-f-Øn¬ Bcw-`n-®Xv 1991- BZy-Imew apX¬°p-Xs∂
cpsS iºfw Kh- s ◊‚ v \ev I n- ˛\p tij-a√ F∂-XmWv. {]tXy- k¿∆okv skIv S - d n- e mWv tIc- f -
t∏m-cp∂p. a‰p tPmen km≤y-X-Iƒ In- ® pw, Fgp- ] - X p- I - f psS a≤y- Øns‚ hf¿® IqSp-X-embn tcJ-

Ce-£≥ 2006
hfsc Ipd- ® p- a m- { X- a p≈ tIc- f -
Øn¬ `qcn- ] - £ - I p- S pw- _ - ß fpw
A≤ym-]-I-hr-Ønsb Ffp∏Øn¬
t\Sn-sb-Sp-°m-hp∂ Hcp PohnXam¿§-
ambn Xnc-s™-Sp-°p- I bpw {]Xy-
£-Øn¬ Itºm-f-Øn¬ ISpØ
a’- c - a p- ≠ m- I p- t ºmƒ kw`- h n-
t°≠ KpW- \ n- e - h mc h¿≤- \ hv
tØmsS tIc-f-Øn\p kΩm-\n-®Xv
A_- ≤ - P - S n- e - a mb Hcp hnI- k \
kwkv-°m-c-Øns‚ ]pIadbmWv.
XßfpsS A[nImci‡n, GXm\pw
Nne¿°p-am{Xw kzm[o\w sNep-Øm-
hp∂ coXn-bn-ep≈ Hcp cmjv{So-
b, kwkv°m-c-Øn\v B°w Iq´p-
s∏- S pØn t]m∂n- ´ p- ≈ - X v . \ap-
°p≈ {]Xy£ ta∑ hn\n-tbm-Kn-
°p-hm\pw D]-tbm-K-s∏-Sp-Øm\pw
\mw Imem-Im-e-ß-fnembn ]cm-P-
b-s∏-´p. ae-bm-fn-Iƒ a‰p {]tZ-i-
ß-fn¬ Ah-cpsS ipjvIm-¥n°pw
I¿Ω-k-∂≤-Xbv°pw ]pIƒs]-‰-
I- b m- b ncp∂p. hntZ- i - a - e - b m- f n- I - h-cm-Wv. F∂m¬ Xß-fpsS P∑-\m-
\S- ° msX t]mhpIbpw amt\- fpsS \nt£-]-߃t]mepw ´n¬ Ah¿ Ae-k-cmbn hne-bn-cp-
Pvsa‚p-Iƒ IpØ-I-I-fmbn amdp- bYm¿∞-Øn¬ kwi-b-Øn- Ø-s∏-Sp-∂p. AXp-t]mse Xs∂,
I- b p- a mWv sNbvX- X v. ChnsS, s‚bpw Adn- h n- √ m- b v a - b p- t Sbpw ]pdw-\m-Sp-I-fn-tebv°v hnhn-[-ß-
tPmen km≤y-X-Iƒ hfsc Ipd- BsI-Øp-I-bmbn \jvS-s∏-´p-t]m- fmb Imc-W-ß-fmepw Bh-iy-ß-
bp-tºmƒ \mw sImSp-t°-≠n-h-∂n- hp- I - b m- W p- ≠ m- b Xv . fmepw Ah¿°v IpSn- t b- d p- h m≥
cn-°p∂ hne-sb-bmWv kqNn-∏n-®- {]bm-k-hp-an-√. Cßs\ ]pd-tØ-
Xv . P\- I o- b - m kq{XWw, hntI-
{µo- I - c - W - Ø ns‚ ^e- { ]- Z - a mb s°m- g p- I p∂ ]WsØ ]nSn- ® p-
ta¬∏- d ™ hnZym- ` ym- k - Bi-b-amWv apt∂m´ph®-Xv. \n¿Øm≥ Chn- s S- X s∂ kwcw- ` -
cwKw Hcp DZm- l - c Ww am{Xw. F∂m¬ h¿K-k-a-c-Øns‚ shfn- ߃ Bcw-`n-°p-tºmƒ, A√m-Ø-
Im¿jn- I - c w- K Øpw hyh- k mb ®-Øn¬ Bibw hnI-e-am-Ip-I-bm- ]£w ]cmXnIsfm- ∂ p- a n- √ mØ
cwKØpw D≠mb Xf¿®- t bbpw Wp-≠m-b-Xv. AtX ka-bw, P\-]- Hcp icm-icn ae-bmfn kwi-b-Zr-
hni-I-e-\-am-t°-≠-Xm-Wv. tIc-fw- ¶m-fnØw hnI-k-\-Øns‚ Imcy- jvSn-tbm-sS, Ahsb t\m°n-°m-
t]m-se-bp≈ hfsc Ipd™ `qhn- Øn¬ F{X- t Øm- f - a mhmw F∂- Wp- ∂ - s X- ¥ p- s Im- ≠ m- W v ? "Cµp-
kvXr- X n- b p≈ Hcp {]tZ- i Øv Xn\v Hcp Xpd∂ N¿®bv°v CXp teJ'bnse am[- h ≥ ae- b m- f n-
Im¿jnI ]cn-jv°-c-W-߃ \S-∏n- hgn-sbm-cp-°n. C∂v, \mw πm®n-a-S- bpsS kzmX-{¥ym-`n-hm-Rv—-bpsS
em-°n-b-t∏mƒ Nn¥n-°msX t]mb- bn¬ kacw \S-°p-tºmƒ tNmZn- {]Xo- I - a m- W v . F∂m¬, AXns\
Xn- e p≈ sshI- e y- ß ƒ {]I- S - a m- °p- h m≥ ad- ∂ p- t ]m- I p∂ Hcp Dƒs°m- ≈ p- h m≥ ad- ∂ p- t ]m- b -
bXv Irjn `qan, Irjn- ° m- c n¬ Imcyw Ahn-SpsØ sh≈w XmWv ae- b m- f n- ° p- ] - ‰ nb henb
*11˛mw A\p-tOZw amt\-Pvsa‚ v kv°qfp-I-fnse A≤ym-]I \nb-a\w ]n.-F-kv.-kn.°p hnS-W-sa∂p \njv°¿jn-°p-∂p.
sNb¿am≥, sk‚¿ t^m¿ ]ªnIv t]mfnkn dnk¿®v, sIm®n


kPn ]utemkv
DS-ense Xobpw Xobnse
Ipfncpw A\p-`-hn-®n√
]pXnb Xpf-f¬ ]m´p-Ifpw
]gb K epw Fs∂ ckn-∏n-®n√
\nd-ap-ff aZyhpw \mS≥ Nmcm-bhpw
Fs∂- a-Ø-\m-°p-∂n√
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Jagdish Bhagwati, In Defense of Globalization, Oxford University Press: New York, 2004, 303 pp.
John Rapley, Globalization and Inequality: Neoliberalism’s Downward Spiral, Lynne Rienner: London,
2004, 192 pp.
Sheila L.Croucher, Globalization and Belonging : The Politics of Identity in a Changing World,
Rowman and Littlefield Publishers: New York, 2004, 228 pp.

A picture of young Muslim women While Sheila Croucher and John

Rapley try to grapple with a number
Rapley takes up a global political
economy perspective on
wearing the headscarf even while of such challenges, by exploring the globalization and adapts the regimes
holding burning candles and the relationship between the cultural, theory from International Relations
American flag, at a memorial the political and the economic to demonstrate how the patterns of
meeting held post-9/11, is printed domains of social life in the context material inequality and political
on the front cover of Sheila of globalization, Jagdish Bhagwati instability resulting from neoliberal
L.Croucher’s book. This could well focuses solely on the economic globalization create tensions
be seen as a leitmotif of today’s dimension to launch his defence of between homogenization and
globalized world, revealing the globalization. The differences differentiation and between the
complex and seemingly paradoxical between these three books in terms global and the local. Croucher
dynamics of what Gayatri of the main areas of focus and the analyses globalization from a
Chakravorty Spivak refers to as central categories of analysis stem constructivist theoretical rooting and
‘ruptured globalization’ (Spivak, from the divergent theoretical therefore, her main concern is to
2004:77). It has come to be vantage points of the authors. To explore the dialectics between
accepted in academic discourses use Anthony McGrew’s typology of globalization and the politics of
today that ‘globalization’ is a the different positions on belonging as it works out in the
contested term. There is also an globalization, Bhagwati’s orientation different realms of identity like
increasing awareness of the as a neoliberal economist is towards citizenship, nationalism, ethnicity
multidimensionality of the the globalist end of the spectrum and gender. Having laid out the
processes of globalization as well (McGrew,2003). While Rapley and theoretical points of departure of
as their consequences. All this Croucher share the each of the three authors, I will now
makes the task of analyzing transformationalist faith in the move on to a critical analysis of their
contemporary globalization more multicausality and open-ended central arguments, while also trying
challenging, yet more intellectually nature of processes of globalization, to envisage how they would respond
stimulating. their approaches are divergent. to each other.

Bhagwati takes a reductionist view liberalized world economy. In fact, creates opportunities for the
of globalization by assuming that he Rapley’s overall argument is that the transnational political mobilization of
can defend globalization by neoliberal political regime is women, she presents evidence to
defending economic globalization inherently unstable because of the show that global restructuring has
alone. Even his understanding of internal contradiction between a reinforced existing gender
economic globalization appears to successful accumulation regime and inequalities. Feminist scholars
be quite limited, because his focus a dysfunctional distributive regime. make a strong argument that
is almost entirely on free trade and This gives rise to symptoms of globalization has led not to the
investment, to the exclusion of fragmentation in the social, political ‘feminization of labour’ i.e. the
production and consumption and cultural spheres. He introduces increase in the number of women in
patterns that are profoundly affected the concept of relative deprivation to the workforce; rather, it has resulted
by globalization. By further substantiate his thesis. The in the ‘feminization of poverty’.2
anthropomorphizing globalization size of the pie is increasing, but so
Sheila Croucher’s treatment of
and claiming that it has a ‘human is the relative gap between the global
identity and belonging in a
face’, Bhagwati appears to be rich and the global poor. Whereas
globalized world is a refreshingly new
attributing too much agency to absolute poverty or immiseration is
way of theorizing globalization. Her
globalization. Throughout the book, on the decline globally, there is a
main attempt is to examine how the
his main argument is that rise in the subjective element of
complex process of globalization
globalization is a benign force that marginalization and this has a
affect four dimensions of belonging
promotes the causes of poverty destabilizing impact on the political
-citizenship, nationhood, ethnicity
reduction, gender equality, labour regimes by paving the way for
and gender – and how it in turn gets
protection, abolition of child labour fundamentalist and separatist
affected by these forces. Her
and so on. Croucher and Rapley movements. Rapley argues that
methodological sophistication is
caution us against such broad, identities are asserted when
evident from the way she presents
sweeping generalizations. Croucher challenged or when communities
countervailing arguments about the
makes a pertinent point that face rejection and fundamentalist
periodization and normative
“globalization is not a behemoth with movements provide a sense of
dimensions of globalization as well
a universal, all-encompassing power belonging and a psychological
as the role of the state, and then
to dictate social realities at homeland to sections of people who
proceeds to argue her own point.
will”(p.147)) and that it is mediated feel relatively deprived. Interestingly,
She brings out the main contours of
by the local, national and regional Rapley makes extensive use of two
the debate between the primordialist
contexts in which it plays out. instances from the Indian context to
and constructivist views on identity
Though Rapley himself focuses on illustrate this point, namely, the rise
and concludes that an approach of
what he calls the neoliberal chapter of the conservative Shiv Sena in the
constructed primordiality (the
in the long history of globalization, metropolitan city of Mumbai and the
construction of an identity that
he criticizes the tendency of emergence of Hindutva politics.
claims primordial roots for itself) that
scholars like Bhagwati to conflate Croucher also agrees that economic
factors in both the passions as well
economic globalization with globalization creates both winners
as the politics of a continuous
neoliberalism and remarks that and losers, which in turn
process of identity formation and
globalization is only the description exacerbates group conflict.1
reconfiguration, is most conducive
of a condition, not an independent
Bhagwati’s eagerness to gloss over for examining identity in the
variable by itself.
the asymmetries of globalization contemporary globalized world.
Bhagwati also argues that often robs his work of analytical Croucher also responds to scholars
globalization in the specific form of depth. For instance, he claims that like Benjamin Barber, who have a
free trade reduces poverty rather than the impact of globalization has been rigid conception of hard ethnic and
aggravating it, as trade enhances extremely beneficial to women, by
cultural identity and an apocalyptic
growth and growth reduces poverty. exposing them to the liberating ideas
He rather grandiosely calls this the of the West, by breaking down picture of globalization as an
‘Bhagwati hypothesis’ and gender prejudices and providing inevitable clash of “Jihad’s centrifugal
prescribes that growth needs to be them a more liberal economic and whirlwind against McWorld’s
the principal strategy for raising the social environment. In sharp centripetal black hole” (Barber,
incomes and consumption and living contrast, Sheila Croucher has a very 1992:54). She holds that the
standards of the poor. Thus, better insightful section in her book, where identities of citizenship, nationality
distribution of the economic pie to she attempts to bring out the
and ethnicity, though extremely
the poor can be achieved only by gendered nature of globalization. She
strong once they take roots, are yet
increasing the size of the pie through argues that processes of
growth. Rapley considers this to be globalization are rooted in gender malleable, fluid and contingent upon
a typical neoliberal argument that ideologies and they perpetuate the context.
treats accumulation as primary and gender stereotypes, rather than Croucher is implicitly suggesting that
assumes that distribution will take mitigating them. Even while certain central categories like
care of itself in a fully globalized and accepting that globalization also citizenship, nationality and ethnicity

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have to be reconfigured to grapple of postmodern politics in international relations can be best described as
with the multidimensional processes an “unbundling of territoriality” (Ruggie,1993:171). The terrain in which
of globalization. It is as part of this rearticulation of international political space is taking place today is not
continuing theoretical enterprise to necessarily a territorially bound nation state. Rapley demonstrates how
renegotiate existing categories that new political movements of the Far Right in Western Europe and Islamic
she introduces the concepts of fundamentalism are new political spaces that challenge the authority of
belonging, constructed primordiality the state. He sees these new forms of postmodern politics as both material
and the ‘perpetual imagining’ of reactions to the failure of the distributive aspect of neoliberal political regimes
national and citizenship identities and cultural responses to the crisis of identity that marginalized groups
(Croucher, 2003). However, she does experience. Croucher focuses exclusively on that dimension of postmodern
not go much further beyond politics which finds expression in new ways of belonging like dual citizenship,
suggesting these categories and European Union membership and indigenous movements like that of the
fails to apply them rigorously to her Zapatistas in Mexico. However, neither Rapley nor Croucher sees this as a
own empirical case studies. The serious challenge to the continuity of nation-states or a move towards a
problem with Croucher’s scheme is borderless world. On the contrary, Rapley argues that in the long-term,
that she packs in too many postmodern political movements can survive only if they can expand their
dimensions of identity, with the result resource bases, which in turn requires some form of economic integration
and state structure. Croucher makes a similar argument from the cultural
that none of them get the detailed
perspective that modern identities like nationality and citizenship have a
exposition that they deserve.
powerful hold on people’s imaginations, even while postmodern identities
One recurring theme in all the three are emerging. She illustrates this using the examples of the increase in
books is that of ‘postmodern politics’. patriotism and anti-immigration attitudes in the U.S. post-9/11 and the ‘Us
While Bhagwati, expectedly, is versus Them’ dichotomy working against immigrants in post-Apartheid
dismissive of both postmodernism South Africa. Rather than challenging the nation-state, globalization provides
and postcolonialism and blames it with enhanced capabilities for constructing, imagining and maintaining
them for creating a sense of nihilism nations.
and hopelessness among anti- Bhagwati, Rapley and Croucher have in their own ways contributed to the
globalization activists, Croucher and large and ever-growing corpus of globalization theory.A parallel reading of
Rapley try to bring out the essence these three discussions of globalization has thrown new light on the sheer
of the debate on whether politics is scope and range of the contemporary debates on globalization. To use a
moving towards a postmodern phase slightly modified version of Ulrich Beck’s argument, what the intricacies of
in the context of globalization. As globalization today point toward is the critical need to ‘reinvent the
John G.Ruggie suggests, the notion international’ (Beck,1997).

Adam, Barbara(2002), “The gendered time politics of Globalisation: Of Shadowlands and Elusive justice”, Feminist
Review, No.70, pp.3-29.
Barber, Benjamin(1992), “Jihad vs. McWorld”, Atlantic Monthly, pp.53-65.
Beck, Ulrich(1997), The Reinvention of Politics, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Croucher, Sheila L.(2003), “Perpetual Imagining: Nationhood in a Global Era” International Studies Review, Vol.5, pp. 124.
Ghosh, Jayathi(2002), “Globalization, export-oriented employment for women and social policy : A case study of India”,
Social Scientist, 30(12), pp.17-60.
Higgot, Richard(2000), “Contested globalization: the changing context and normative challenges”, Review of International
Studies, Vol. 26,pp. 131–153
Kapstein, Ethan(2000), “Winners and Losers in the Global Economy”, International Organization, 54(2), pp. 359–84.
McGrew,Anthony G.(2003), “The Globalisation Debate: Putting the advanced capitalist state in its place” in Roland
Robertson and Kathleen White(eds.) Globalization: Critical Concepts in Sociology, Routledge: London.
Ruggie,John Gerard(1993), “Territoriality and Beyond: Problematizing Modernity in International Relations”, International
Organization, 47(1), pp. 139–74.
Sassen, Saskia(2000), “Women’s Burden : Counter-geographies of Globalisation and Feminisation of Survival”, Journal
of International Affairs,53(2),pp.503-24.
Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty(2004), “Globalicities : Terror and its Consequences”, CR: The Centennial Review, 4(1),
Zalewski, Marysia(1996), “All these theories yet the bodies keep piling up: theory, theorists, theorizing” in Steve Smith, Ken
Booth and Marysia Zalewski(eds.) International theory: Positivism and Beyond, Cambridge University Press.

Similar arguments against the neoliberalist perspective on the distributive aspect of globalization have been made by
scholars like Ethan Kapstein (Kapstein, 2000) and Richard Higgott (Higgot, 2000).
For a detailed exposition of this theme, see Adam(2002), Ghosh(1994) and Sassen(2000).

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