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Z1LK6123 - INTRODUCTION

TO ELECTRICAL SAFETY &


ELECTRICAL BASICS

Ir. Dr. Rosdiadee Nordin


2

Maxis (2002-2006)

Tutor (2006), Lecturer (2011)


P.Eng. (2011) & SMIEEE (2012), MIET (2014), C.Eng. (??)
BSc. UKM (Electronics & Electrical), Malaysia, 2001
Ph.D. Univ. of Bristol, Wireless Engineering, 2011
Research Area Wireless Communications

Electrical: DC system (rectifier & battery bank) and AC system (generator, power
protection; lightning, DB)
Core Switching: MSC, HLR, VLR, Switch Commander & regional E1 expansion

4G and beyond (LTE-A & ??): MIMO, OFDMA, Carrier Aggregation, Coordinated
Multipoint, Energy Efficient Communications, TV White Space, Emergency
Network
Applied: Wireless Indoor Localization and Wireless Sensor for Sports
Performance Monitoring

Email: adee@eng.ukm.my , telephone: 03-892118402

Planning SPKI 2015/2016


Intro & Electrical basic
Cable, Battery & Personnel Safety
Load protection
Grounding & Bonding
Lightning Protection
Electrostatic hazard
Safety Regulations
Project Presentation, Tutorial &
Summary
Mechanical safety (Prof Chase)

Why Electrical Safety?

Electrical shock kills and injures hundreds of workers each year


Happen because people don't look, don't think or just don't
understand the shocking power of electricity.
Electrical shock can only occur when a part of the body
completes a circuit between a conductor and another conductor
or a grounding source
Death or injury is not caused by the voltage; the damage is
done by the amount of current that flows through the body
Higher the voltage, the greater amount of current

Why Electrical Safety?

Some people have survived shocks of several


thousand volts, while others have been killed
by voltages as low as 12 V
Effects of electrical shock depend mainly on
the total amount of current flow and the path
of the current through the victim's body
To prevent electrical shock (which can cause
several types of injuries), make sure that your
body cannot become part of the electrical
flow and the path of the current
Water reduces resistance and allows
electricity to flow into wet areas, hands, arms,
your body
Electricity and water are a bad mix

What is electricity?

What does it look like?


What does it smell like?
What does it taste like?
Electricity is created by the movement of
tiny particles called electrons
It is the flow of negatively charged
particles called electrons through an
electrically conductive material.
Electrons that are freed from an atom and
travel in a specific direction produce
electric current, also called electricity.

Conductors of Electricity

Objects that are conductors of electricity are made


of material that lets electrons move quickly:
Water
Trees
Metals
People

What is an insulator? Examples? Semiconductor?

Why Are Wires Dangerous?


Electrical wires, cables or lines can carry enough
electricity to power the homes in an entire
neighbourhood.
Usually they are safe. But sometimes things can
damage them. How? Example:

storm
A car accident
A tree limb

Shocking Statistics
The fifth leading cause of accidental death in the
U.S. is electrocution*
Every 24 hours, someone is electrocuted in their
home**
Every 36 hours, someone is electrocuted in the
workplace***

*National Electrical Safety Foundation (NESF)


** U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC)
*** Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

Electrical Accidents -Statistics

25% of all fires occur due to electricity (NFPA)


411 deaths from job related electrical accidents per year
(NIOSH)
Electrocution - the fifth leading cause of death (1982 1990) NIOSH
About 12 deaths due to electrocution NCRB
42 % of total fires occur due to electrical sources (Source OISD)
8% deaths that occur in Indian factories are due to
electricity
Electrocution is a major cause of injury and death in both the
industrial and home environment

Electrical Accidents -Statistics


Most electrocution injuries occur at voltages above
50 Volts AC or 100 Volts DC, however sometimes
the voltage can be much lower.
What is the cost in $$$ ???

Each

year, electrical accidents result in more than $2


billion in property damage to home and industry

But what about the cost in human


terms?

Caused by 24 volt DC battery

Notice where watch band &


screwdriver were in contact with
skin

Caused by kneeling on a
defective 110 volt AC extension cord
Notice the path in & the path out

From: http://www.dosh.gov.my

From: http://www.dosh.gov.my

Personal protection and home

40,000 residential fires annually which are caused by


problems with electrical wiring systems, claiming more than
350 lives
Additionally, electric cords and plugs were involved in about
7,100 fires resulting in 120 deaths or about 32% of all
deaths associated with residential electrical system fires,
occurring each year.
Lamps and light fixtures were involved in about 8,900 fires
and 60 deaths
About 3,600 people are treated for injuries associated with
extension cords.
Switches and outlets are involved in 4,700 fires and deaths

REPORTED ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS IN ONE YEAR


ANALYSIS BY AC SYSTEMS (UK)

Standard systems of supply (a.c.)

Fatal

Total

23

484

Normal, low and medium distribution voltages


(200 450 V single-phase and 3-phase)
High-voltage distribution (over 3 kV, but not
exceeding 12 kV nominal)
Main transmission systems
22 kV
33 kV
66 kV
132 kV
275 kV
Nonstandard alternating voltages

13
1
2

68
4
1
1
49

CONDITIONS LEADING UP TO
ACCIDENTS IN ONE YEAR
Cause

Fatal

Total

Failure or lack of earthing

91

Testing

87

Ignorance, negligence, forgetfulness and


inadvertence

24

354

Accidents resulting from fault of persons

18

160

Working on live gear deliberately

108

ANALYSIS OF REPORTED ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS BY


LOCATION IN ONE YEAR

Premises
Electricity supply
Factories
Building operations
Works of engineering construction
Onboard ship in dock
Docks and wharves etc.
Warehouses
Miscellaneous
Total

Fatal

Total

10
19
5
6
1
-

101
485
86
18
10
4
2
6

41

712

ELECTRICAL ACCIDENTS ANALYSED BY


APPARATUS

Portable tools
Heaters and irons
Lamps
Testing sets, including lamps and test leads
Plugs, sockets and adaptors
Cables and flex for portables
Electric hand welding
All other portable apparatus
Rotating electrical machines
Transformers and reactors
Oil Circuit Breakers above 650 V
Oil immersed isolating switches above 650 V
Other switch, fuse and control gear above 650 V
Circuit breakers, not exceeding 650 V
Contactors below 650 V
Switches not exceeding 650 V

Fatal

Total

2
2
2
1
1

19
7
13
22
59
33
15
24
13
7
6
9
9
17
93
76

Electricity and People


A person usually offers a lesser resistance for the
electricity
Human body is about 60% water in adult males
and 55% in adult females (lean muscle, blood,
body fat and bone)
The person forms a completed circuit when touching
the ground
Electricity always tries to travel to ground

Sources of Electrical Hazards

Short circuits are one of many potential electrical hazards


that can cause electrical shock.
Electrostatic hazards due to single or multiple discharges of
static electricity may cause minor shocks.
Arcs and sparks hazards. When the electric arc is a
discharge of static electricity it is called a spark.
lightning hazards. Lightning is static charges from clouds
following the path of least resistance to the earth, involving
very high voltage and current.
Improper wiring
Fire hazards are conditions that favour fire development of
growth.

Biological Effects of Electrical


Hazards

The effects can vary depending on


Source

characteristics (current,
frequency, and voltage).
Body impedance and the currents
pathway through the body.
How environmental conditions affect
the bodys contact resistance.
Duration of the contact.

Electrical Systems

Electrical Systems

Electrical Injuries

There are four main types of electrical injuries:


Electrocution

(death due to electrical shock)


Electrical shock
Burns
Falls

Electric Shock

The electric shock is caused by


a current passing through the
body. The lethality of an
electric shock is dependent on:

Current (the higher the current,


the more likely it is lethal);
Duration (the longer the
duration, the more likely it is
lethal);
Voltage (the higher the
voltage, the more likely it is
lethal);
Pathway (if current flows
through the heart muscle, it is
more likely to be lethal

Diagram showing how electric shock occurs: The severity of electric shock
depends on the current flowing through the body (I) in Ampere, which is
a function of the electromotive force (E) in volts, and the contact
resistance (R) in ohms.

Electric Shock

Electric Shock

Dry skin (resistance around 10,000)


Current = 220V 10,000 = 0.022A

Wet skin (resistance around 500)


Current = 220V 500 = 0.44A

Electrical Burns

Most common shock-related, non-fatal (?) injury


Occurs when you touch electrical wiring or
equipment that is improperly used or maintained
Typically occurs on the hands
Very serious injury that needs immediate
attention

Falls

Electric shock can also cause indirect or


secondary injuries
Workers in elevated locations who
experience a shock can fall, resulting in
serious injury or death

Grounding and Double


Insulation

Hand-held electric tools pose a


potential danger because they make
continuous good contact with the hand
To protect you from shock, burns, and
electrocution, tools must:
Have

a three-wire cord with ground and


be plugged into a grounded receptacle,
or
Be double insulated

Path: The path to ground from circuits,


equipment, and enclosures must be
permanent and continuous

Inadequate Wiring Hazards


A hazard exists when a conductor is too small to
safely carry the current
Example: using a portable tool with an extension cord
that has a wire too small for the tool

The

tool will draw more current than the cord can handle,
causing overheating and a possible fire without tripping the
circuit breaker
The circuit breaker could be the right size for the circuit but
not for the smaller-wire extension cord

Control Inadequate Wiring


Hazards

The wire must be able to handle the current. Its insulation must
be appropriate for the voltage and tough enough for the
environment

Overload Hazards

If too many devices are plugged into a


circuit, the current will heat the wires to a
very high temperature, which may cause
a fire
If the wire insulation melts, arcing may
occur and cause a fire in the area where
the overload exists, even inside a wall

Electrical Protective Devices

Fuses and circuit breakers are overcurrent devices

When there is too much current:


n Fuses melt
n Circuit breakers trip open

Clues that electrical hazards exist

Tripped circuit breakers or blown fuses


Warm tools, wires, cords, connections, or junction boxes
Ground Fault Current Interrupter (GFCI) that shuts off a circuit
Worn or frayed insulation around wire or connection

Use of Flexible Cords

More vulnerable than fixed wiring


Do not use if one of the recognized wiring methods can
be used instead
Flexible cords can be damaged by:
Aging
Door

or window edges
Staples or fastenings
Abrasion from adjacent materials
Activities in the area

Improper use of flexible cords can cause shocks, burns


or fire

Energized Work

EXEMPTION 1
De-energizing introduces additional or increased hazards. Examples
include interruption of life support equipment, deactivation of emergency
alarm systems, shutdown of hazardous location ventilation equipment, or
removal of illumination for an area.

EXEMPTION 2
De-energizing is infeasible due to equipment design or operational
limitations. Examples include testing of electrical circuits that can only be
performed with the circuit energized, and work on circuits that form an
integral part of a continuous industrial process in a chemical plant that
would otherwise need to be completely shutdown in order to permit work
on one circuit or piece of equipment.

EXEMPTION 3
Live parts that operate at less than 50V to ground need not be deenergized if there will be no increased exposure to electrical burns or to
explosion due to electric arcs.

Electric Arc

Electric Arc

Category

Cal/cm2

Clothing

1.2

Untreated Cotton

Flame retardant (FR) shirt and FR


pants

Cotton underwear FR shirt and FR


pants

25

Cotton underwear FR shirt, FR pants


and FR coveralls

40

Cotton underwear FR shirt, FR pants


and double layer switching coat and
pants

Double layered
switching hood or
Balaclava for 2*

Hazard Risk Category 1

Hazard Risk Category 2

Hazard Risk Category 3


Hazard Risk Category 4

Competent Persons

Electrical Engineers
Electrical Service Engineers
Electrical Supervisors
Chargeman

Chargeman AO (Low Voltage System without Power Station and Aerial Line)
Chargeman A1 (Low Voltage System without Power Station)
Chargeman A4-2 (Low Voltage System without Aerial Line and Synchronising Generator)
Chargeman A4-1 (Low Voltage System without Synchronising Generator)
Chargeman A4 (Low Voltage System)
Chargeman BO-2 (High Voltage System without High Voltage Power Station, High Voltage
Aerial Line, Low Voltage Synchronising Generator and Low Voltage Aerial Line)
Chargeman BO-1 (High Voltage System without High Voltage Power Station, High Voltage
Aerial Line and Low Voltage Synchronising Generator)
Chargeman BO (High Voltage System without High Voltage Power Station and High
Voltage Overhead Line)
Chargeman B1 (High Voltage System without High Voltage Power Station)
Chargeman B4 (11kV or 33kV)

Competent Persons

Wireman

PW1 Single Phase Wireman


PW2 Single Phase Wireman + Testing Endorsement
PW3 Three Phase Wireman
PW4 Three Phase Wireman + Testing Endorsement
PW5 Three Phase Wireman + Electric Sign Endorsement (Neon Light)
PW6 Three Phase Wireman + Testing Endorsement + Electric Sign Endorsement
(Neon Light)

Cable Jointers

PK1
PK2
PK3
PK4
PK5
PK6

Low Voltage
Until 11kV
Until 33kV
Until 66kV
Until 132kV
No Restriction

Lockout/Tagout
(when servicing equipment)

Shut down the machine or equipment


Completely isolate the machine using the appropriate energy-isolating
devices
Make sure a lockout or tagout device is applied for each energy-isolating
device and only by the authorized employee doing the service or
maintenance
Make sure all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy is relieved,
disconnected or restrained
Notify affected employees

WHAT TO DO IN ELECTRIC SHOCK


SITUATION

First, stop the current flow from the circuit through the victim's body, if
it hasn't already been done.
Often, victims are unable to pull away from the source of current.
If the victim is still in contact with the current, disconnect or deenergize the circuit, if possible.
If this cannot be accomplished, obtain a nonconductive item, such as
dry clothing, dry rope or a dry stick, and remove the victim from the
source of the current.
Then call or send for help.
Next, check to see if the victim's heart or breathing has stopped.
Give the required first aid until professional help arrives.

Recognizing Hazards

Exposed electrical parts


Wires with bad insulation
Electrical systems and tools that are not grounded or double
insulated
Damaged power tools and equipment
Inadequate wiring
Overload circuits

Summary
Hazards

Exposed electrical parts


Wires with bad insulation
Ungrounded electrical systems
and tools
Damaged power tools and
equipment
Inadequate wiring
Overloaded circuits
All hazards are made worse
in wet conditions

Protective Measures

Guarding live parts


Proper grounding
Using GFCIs
Using fuses and circuit
breakers
Proper use of flexible cords
Proper use of PPE
Training

10 COMMON MISTAKES
1. Thinking that it's "only 120 volts" or 208 volts or 480 volts or...
2. Working on energized systems or equipment when it can be deenergized
3. Not wearing PPE
4. Outdated or defective test equipment to troubleshoot
5. Not wearing the right PPE
6. Trusting someone else for your safety
7. Not performing required maintenance of power system equipment.
8. Not carrying your gloves with you
9. Not using a proper documentation system
10. Going to sleep during safety training or SPKI lecture!