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Project Report

On

STUDY AND IMPLEMENTATION OF


WIRELESS ENERGY METER
Submitted to
R.T.M. Nagpur University in partial
fulfillment of the requirements
for the award of

Degree of Bachelor of Engineering

in

Electrical Engineering

Submitted by

Chetan S. Kadu Sachin C. Suke


Mangesh M. Ukey

Under the Guidance of

J. G. Chaudhari

Department of Electrical Engineering


G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering,
Nagpur
2007-2008

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
Success is the manifestation of
perseverance, inspiration and motivation. We,
the projectees, ascribe our success in this
venture to J.G. Chaudhari, project guide. His
endeavor for perfection, indefatigable zeal and
enthusiasm, foresight and innovation
contributed in a big way in the successful
completion of this project within the estimated
time. This work is a reflection of his ideas and
concept and above all his sincere interest.

We are deeply indebted to Dr P.R.Bajaj,


Principal and Dr. V.K. Chandrakar, Head of
Department for their keen interest and
valuable suggestion from time to time lead to
make this project near perfection.

Last but not the least we thank all


supporting staff of the department and our
friends whose timely ideas and inspiration lead
to successful completion of our project

………..Projectees

INDEX
CHAPTE TITLE PAGE
R NO.
NO.
1 INTRODUCTION 1
2 BLOCK DIAGRAM 4
3 MAIN COMPONENT 6
3.1 Electronic Energy Meter 7
3.2 Digital Pulse Generator 11
3.3 Microcontroller (IC 89C2051) 13
3.4 RF Transmitter 18
3.5 Implemented Model For RF 21

Transmitter
3.6 RF Receiver 22
3.7 Implemented Model For RF 25

Receiver
4 WIRELESS ENERGY CONTROL UNIT 26
5 RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION 29
6 POWER SUPPLY REQUIRMENTS 35
7 OTHER COMPONENTS 40
7.1 ATMEL 553 (AT 24C08A) 41
7.2 Voltage Regulator 43
7.3 Crystal Oscillator 44
7.4 Transistor 46
7.5 Resistor 49
7.6 Capacitor 50
7.7 Zener Diode 52
8 ADVANTAGES 54
9 LIMITATIONS 55
10 APPLICATIONS 56
11 CONCLUSION 57
12 FUTURE SCOPE 58
13 REFRENCES 59
14 APPENDIX 61

CHAPTER - 1

INTRODUCTION

Power sector players have made many efforts and spent considerable
money and resources in formulating strategies for improving collection
efficiency, however, these have seldom yielded encouraging results.
Metering is one of the major technical issues impacting the collection
efficiency of power companies. Currently, only a few percent of power
meters installed in India are electronic and rest are electromechanical.

Usually, the meter reading is taken once a month by the field


executives of the distribution company. The human errors involved in
collection of bills and old electronic & electromechanical type of meters
together have resulted in poor metering efficiency, zero metering, faulty
reading, bribing utilities executive to charge less units and tampering of the
meters to clock them reverse.

The demand for electrical energy is ever increasing. Today over 21%
(theft apart!!) of the total electrical energy generated in India is lost in
transmission (4-6%) and distribution (15-18%). The electrical power deficit
in the country is currently about 18%. Clearly, reduction in distribution
losses can reduce this deficit significantly. It is possible to bring down the
distribution losses to a 6-8 % level in India with the help of newer
technological options (including information technology) in the electrical
power distribution sector which will enable better monitoring and control.

…1…

The introduction of electronic energy meter for electrical energy


metering has resulted in various improvements in the operation of utilities
apart from the increase revenue due to better recording of energy
consumption. One such additional benefit is possibility of reading the meter
automatically using meter-reading instruments even without going near the
meter. The main purpose of project work is to design and developed a
tamper proof wireless energy meter, which can implement at big industries
and huge commercial complexes.

Electrical utilities face particular challenges in meeting continuously


changing customer load demands. At least two related reasons exist for these
challenges. First, power demands can fluctuate substantially from day to day
or hour to hour, making it difficult for utilities to ensure that they have
enough capacity to meet demand. These fluctuations in energy demand may
arise from ordinary cyclic energy usage patterns (for example peaking in the
afternoon), or else can result from an unexpected change in the balance
between energy supply and demand, such as where, for example, a power
generator linked to the power grid unexpectedly goes down, large energy
users go on or off line, or a fault occurs somewhere in the distribution
system. A second factor contributing to the challenges faced by power
utilities is the fact that power consumption in local areas tends to grow over
time, gradually placing increasing burdens on electrical utilities to meet the
growing demand. Because the construction of new power plants is very
costly and must comply with a variety of governmental regulations, it is
possible for a local or even large geographic region to find itself without the
power capacity to supply its current or anticipated future demand.

…2…

A major challenge for utility companies is handling peak energy


demands. This is because the energy supplied by power utilities must be
sufficient to meet the energy demand moment by moment, and peak
demands place the greatest strain on the power distribution system. When
energy demand outstrips available supply, disruptive events such as power
blackouts, brownouts or interruptions can occur. Not only can such events
cause substantial inconvenience to large numbers of people and businesses,
but they can also be dangerous or life-threatening—where, for example, the
power supply for hospitals or critical home care medical equipment is
compromised.

Historically, when power utilities serving a locality have been faced


with a severe energy situation caused by high demand, their options have
been extremely limited. Power utilities can, for example, request that
consumers conserve energy, but not all consumers follow such requests and,
in any event, conservation has not tended to provide a complete solution for
energy supply problems. Power utilities can attempt to satisfy peak demands
by purchasing available energy from a third party source connected to the
power grid, but such purchases, particularly at peak demand times, can be
extremely costly as energy suppliers often demand a premium when demand
is high.

…3…

R e la y -1
C o n ta c t

+5V
R e la y
C o n ta c t
P
In E L E C T R O N IC O ut LO A
P ut EN ER G Y M E TER Put D
N
1K H z
S IG N A L
G E N ER A TO R

CHAPTER - 2
R e la y - 1 A n te n n a
D IG IT A L
D IG IT A L
+12 V P U LS E
D IS P L A Y
G EN E R A TO R
T R A N S M IT T E R

BLOCK DIAGRAM A n te n n a

M IC R O - R E C E IV E R
C LEVE R C A R D LA TC H
C O N TR O LLE R

R e la y

P
P O W ER +12 V
In p u t SU P PLY +5 V LC D S IG N A L
230 V U N IT +12 V P A N EL A M P L IF IE R
N
A LA R M

M IC R O TR A G G ER
A LA R M
C O N TR O LLE R C IR C U IT

K E YB O A R D
…4…

2.1 Working:
The supply is given to the input side of analog energy meter and
output connected to the load side. Analog meter is interface with
microcontroller (IC 89C2051). When load is on energy meter consumes
certain amount of energy. The number of unit consumed by the load is
shown by LED and with the help of digital pulse generator this analog signal
from led is fed to the microcontroller. Then this LED signal fed to
transmitter via ATMEL 553 timer IC in the for of digital signal (0, 1).
Crystal oscillator is used to generate the high value of frequency for IC
operation, due to higher value of frequency (24 MHZ) the digital signal fed
to transmitter circuit and transmitter circuit sends this signal via antenna to
the receiver circuit. At receiver circuit the signal is received and fed to the
signal generator with the help of carrier frequencies with suitable value.

After receiving the signal, amplifier amplifies that signal and


converting in to digital form, fed to microcontroller. LED display is directly
connected through microcontroller, it shows the display of unit consumes at
consumer side. This process takes place by electromagnetic wave by the
method of close proximity of electromagnetic propagation of
electromagnetic wave.

If consumer may try to tamper the meter by shorting the relay


contacts, the receiver receives more pulse than the credit, immediately alarm
energizes at receiver side and supply get trip from substation to consumed.
Hence it protects the circuit and protects the energy from theft.

…5…

CHAPTER - 3

MAIN COMPONENTS

 Electronic Energy Meter

 Digital Pulse Generator

 Microcontroller (IC 89C2051)

 RF Transmitter

 RF Receiver
…6…

3.1 ELECTRONIC ENERGYMETER:


3.1.1 INTRODUCTION:

Power Measurement today introduced the next step in affordable


energy management. The wireless energy meter with a low installed cost,
exceptional scalability, and accuracy verified to national sub-billing
standards.

…7…

The meter offers an affordable energy monitoring solution for large


commercial properties, including office buildings and retail malls. This is
the addition to the Power Measurement line of wireless metering products.
The meters form a wireless network that automatically reports energy
consumption on each tenant space for individual and aggregate billing
purposes. Property managers can then use this information to help manage
accounts, conserve energy, and recover energy costs.

With no conduit or wires to run, installation is simple and


inexpensive. Each tenant is equipped with a wireless energy meter to record
usage, and an Wireless Gateway is installed nearby to receive radio signals
(from up to 100 meters). The gateway then converts the energy data into
industry or an enterprise energy management software program such as
Power Measurement's. Building managers can monitor energy usage as
real-time or logged data for anywhere in the network. To extend the reach of
wireless meters across longer distances, an optional ION Wireless Repeater
unit is also available in AC or solar-powered configurations.

An electronic energy meter refers to a type of advanced meter that


identifies consumption in more detail than a conventional meter and
optionally communicates that information via some network that to the local
utility for the monitoring and billing purpose.

ENERGY- drives the world- the masculine, the feminine and the
neuter all in all. Though energy can be of different forms like electrical.
Which are interring convertible using the technologies in hand.

…8…

METER – measure the amount of something exhausted and here it


measure the amount of energy consume. for using electricity need to pay the
electricity department.

Electronic energy meter is equipped with the wireless module. After


desired time the no. of unit will be transmitted to main super computer data
base. Thus, no need of personal visiting the place and noting down the
reading which will pass on to operator. Not only is this but the concept of
energy theft detection and thus it controlling the main source of inspiration
for us to work on this.

Electronic energy meter to measure electricity usage have so many


advantages over their electromechanically counter parts. Including accuracy,
flexibility and tampering detection that their adoption is spreading rapidly.

With this networking capability the meter can be installed numerous


of point in power distribution network not just at consumer premises to
monitor and optimized functioning the entire system.

The electronic energy meter has a power full capability to detect


tampering. The meter is ideally suitable for energy metering in the domestic
application and for auditing and a load management in industrial application.
…9…

3.1.2 ADVANTAGES:
 Electronic energy meter are quite compact as compared to analog
meter.

 Electronic energy meter require very less power consumption as


compared to analog device.

 Electronic meter are less affected by environmental change in


conditions and magnetic field as against analog meter.

 Electronic meter give quite good dynamic response much better than
electro mechanical type instrument for fluctuating loading condition.

 Electronic meter have less aging problem, as these are static device
and do not contain any rotary part.
…10…

3.2 DIGITAL PULSE GENERATOR:

Simple pulse generators usually allow control of the pulse repetition


rate (frequency), pulse width, delay with respect to an internal or external
trigger and the high- and low-voltage levels of the pulses. More-
sophisticated pulse generators may allow control over the rise time and fall
time of the pulses. Pulse generators may use digital techniques, analog
techniques, or a combination of both techniques to form the output pulses.
For example, the pulse repetition rate and duration may be digitally
controlled but the pulse amplitude and rise and fall times may be determined
by analog circuitry in the output stage of the pulse generator. With correct
adjustment, pulse generators can also produce a 50% duty cycle square
wave. Pulse generators are generally single-channel providing one
frequency, delay, width and output. Pulse generators are available for
generating output pulses having widths ranging from minutes down to under
1 picoseconds. In general, generators for pulses with widths over a few
microseconds employ digital counters for timing these pulses, while widths
between approximately 1 nanosecond and several microseconds are typically
generated by analog techniques such as RC (resistor-capacitor) networks or
switched delay lines. Pulse generators capable of generating pulses with
widths under approximately 100 picoseconds are often termed "microwave
pulsers", and typically generate these ultra-short pulses using Step recovery
diode (SRD) or Nonlinear Transmission Line (NLTL) methods. Step
Recovery Diode pulse generators are inexpensive but typically require
several volts.

…11…

NLTL-based pulse generators generally have lower jitter, but are more
complex to manufacture, and are not suited for integration in low-cost
monolithic ICs. A new class of microwave pulse generation architecture, the
RACE (Rapid Automatic Cascade Exchange) pulse generation circuit, is
implemented using low-cost monolithic IC technology and can produce
pulses as short as 1picoseconds, and with a repetition rates exceeding 30
billion pulses per second. These pulsars are typically used in military
communications applications, and low-power microwave transceiver ICs.

Pulse generators are generally voltage sources, with true current pulse
generators being available only from a few suppliers.

These pulses can then be injected into a device under test and used as
a stimulus or clock signal or analyzed as they progress through the device,
confirming the proper operation of the device or pinpointing a fault in the
device. Pulse generators are also used to drive devices such as switches,
lasers and optical components, modulators, intensifiers as well as resistive
loads. The output of a pulse generator may also be used as the modulation
signal for a signal generator.
…12…

3.3 MICROCONTROLLER (IC 89C2051):

(Pin Diagram for Microcontroller)

3.3.1 DESCRIPTION:
The AT89C2051 is a low-voltage, high-performance CMOS 8-bit
microcomputer with 2K bytes of Flash programmable and erasable read-only
memory (PEROM). The device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density
nonvolatile memory technology and is compatible with the industry-standard
MCS-51 instruction set.

….13…

By combining a versatile 8-bit CPU with Flash on a monolithic chip,


the Atmel AT89C2051 is a powerful microcomputer which provides a
highly-flexible and cost-effective solution to many embedded control
applications.

The AT89C2051 provides the following standard features: 2K bytes of


Flash, 128 bytes of RAM, 15 I/O lines, two 16-bit timer/counters, a five
vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial port, a precision
analog comparator, on-chip oscillator and clock circuitry. In addition, the
AT89C2051 is designed with static logic for operation down to zero
frequency and supports two software selectable power saving modes. The
Idle Mode stops the CPU while allowing the RAM, timer/counters, serial
port and interrupt system to continue functioning. The power-down mode
saves the RAM contents but freezes the oscillator disabling all other chip
functions until the next hardware reset. A microcontroller is a integrated
circuit with a following key features.

 Central processing unit- ranging from small and simple 8-bit


processors to sophisticated 32-or 64-bit processors.

 Input/output interfaces such as serial ports.


 Peripherals such as timers and watchdog circuit.

 RAM for data storage.

 ROM, EEPROM or Flash memory for program storage.

 Clock generator – often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal,


resonator or RC Circuit.

…14…

Most industrial equipments is controller through mechanical or


electrical devices called controllers. These devices helpful for turn on or turn
off various processes and thus they regulate the control of particular
mechanism.

3.3.2 SELECTION OF MICROCONTROLLER:

 Speed of operation.

 No. of I/O ports required.

 Availability of Assembler, Simulator, Compiler, etc.

 On chip serial communication.

 On chip program memory and data memory.

3.3.3 PIN DESCRIPTION:

VCC (Pin 20) Supply voltage.

GND (Pin 10) Ground.


Port 1 (Pin 12-19)

The Port 1 is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. Port pins P1.2 to P1.7
provide internal pull-ups. P1.0 and P1.1 require external pull-ups. P1.0 and
P1.1 also serve as the positive input (AIN0) and the negative input (AIN1),
respectively, of the on-chip precision analog comparator. The Port 1 out-put
buffers can sink 20 mA and can drive LED displays directly. When 1s are
written to Port 1 pins, they can be used as inputs. When pins P1.2 to P1.7 are
used as inputs and are externally pulled low, they will source current (IIL)
because of the internal pull-ups.

…15…

Port 3 (Pin 2,3,6,7,8,9,11)

Port 3 pins P3.0 to P3.5, P3.7 are seven bi-directional I/O pins with
internal pull-ups. P3.6 is hard-wired as an input to the output of the on-chip
comparator and is not accessible as a gen-eral-purpose I/O pin. The Port 3
output buffers can sink 20 mA. When 1s are written to Port 3 pins they are
pulled high by the internal pull-ups and can be used as inputs. As inputs,
Port 3 pins that are externally being pulled low will source current (IIL)
because of the pull-ups.

RST (Pin 1)
Reset input. All I/O pins are reset to 1s as soon as RST goes high. Holding
the RST pin high for two machine cycles while the oscillator is running
resets the device. Each machine cycle takes 12 oscillator or clock cycles.

XTAL1 (Pin 5)

Input to the inverting oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock
operating circuit.

XTAL2 (Pin 4)

Output from the inverting oscillator amplifier.

…16…

3.3.4 OSCILLATOR CHARACTERISTICS:

The XTAL1 and XTAL2 are the input and output, respectively, of an
inverting amplifier which can be configured for use as an on-chip oscillator,
as shown in Figure 5-1. Either a quartz crystal or ceramic resonator may be
used. To drive the device from an external clock source, XTAL2 should be
left unconnected while XTAL1 is driven as shown in Figure 5-2. There are
no requirements on the duty cycle of the external clock signal, since the
input to the internal clocking circuitry is through a divide-by-two flip-flop,
but minimum and maximum voltage high and low time specifications must
be observed.
Fig.1 Oscillator Connections Fig.2 External Clock Drive Configuration

…17…

3.4 RF TRANSMITTER:
3.4.1 Working:

The RF Transmitter is ideal for remote control


application where low cost and longer range is required. The
transmitter operates from 1.5v – 12v supply, making it ideal
for low powered application. The transmitter employs saw
tooth architecture, ensuring accurate frequency control for
best range performance. Output power ND Harmonic
emissions are easy to control. Due to low cost make it
suitable for high volume application.

…18…
3.4.2 FEATURE:

 Low Cost

 On - Off keying/frequency shift keying data format.

 Up to 9.6 kbps data rate & Smaller in size.

3.4.3 SIMPLEST RF TRANSMITTER:

This is probably a simplest radio transmitter that you will find


anywhere. It is total of five parts and can be constructed in very small space.
It is great for science fair projects or other science related projects where
short range transmission is useful. It runs on 1.5-3 volts with small hearing
aid batteries. A thermister can be inserted in series with R1 to have varying
output frequency dependent on input. The frequency can also be changed by
changing the value of C1. L1 is 20-30 turns of thin magnet wire closed
around a 1/8 to 1/4 diameter non-conductive form. The coil is tapped 1/3of
the way from one end and tap connect to the emitter of Q1.experiment with
all the values in the circuit. Nothing is critical, but performance can be
varied considerably.
…19…
3.4.4 Transmitter:
 Crystal-locked PLL, FM modulated at up to 64 kb/s
 Operation from 2.2V to 16V @ 7.5mA
 Built-in regulator for improved stability and supply noise rejection
 1mW nominal RF output
 Enable facility

3.5 IMPLEMENTED RF TRANSMITTER


CIRCUIT:
…20…

3.6 RF RECEIVER:

3.6.1 OPERATION:
RF Receiver allows users to easily receive serial data, robot control,
or other information wirelessly. When paired with the matched RF
TRANSMITTER, reliable wireless communication is as effortless as
sending serial data. The power-down (PDN) pin may be used to place the
module into a low power state (active low), or left floating (it is tied high
internally).
Short for Radio Frequency, RF refers to the frequencies that fall
within the electromagnetic spectrum associated with radio wave
propagation. When applied to an antenna.
…21…
RF current creates electromagnetic fields that propagate the applied
signal through space. Any RF field has a wavelength that is inversely
proportional to the frequency. This means that the frequency of an RF signal
is inversely proportional to the wavelength of the field received signal
strength indicator.
This line will supply an analog voltage that is proportional to the strength of
the received signal. When initiating communication between the RF
modules, a sync pulse should be sent to re-establish the radio connection
between the modules. Sending several characters can accomplish this,
however sending a pulse (which maintains a high state during the
synchronization) is more efficient.
Suppose I have a little device capable of emitting a beep sound. It's
just a little box, with a loudspeaker and an on/off switch. When you turn the
switch on, the device emits a continuous beep sound. When you turn the
switch off, the device becomes silent. This device is an emitter. Secondly,
suppose I have another little device capable of hearing the beep sound.

When you turn the emitter switch on, the lamp of the receiver begins
to glow. When you turn the switch of the emitter off, the lamp of the
receiver darkens. And so on. If the receiver has been build a basic way, then
the distance over which the communication works will be a few meters or a
few tens of meters. If you put the receiver, say 50 meters away of the
emitter, then there will be no more communication. When you turn the
switch of the emitter on, the lamp of the receiver will not begin to glow. But,
if you build a long distance receiver, then the Distance may be a lot more
than 50 meters.
…22…

But, after 1 kilometer walking away, the long distance receiver still
manages to hear the sound of the emitter. Amazingly, the communication
works.
A device is added to the receiver to make him listen as much as
possible only to the signal coming from the direction of the emitter. That's
what you do when you put your hands back your ears to hear better a weak
sound. The device best known is again the parabolic antenna, but there are a
lot of other ways to achieve directivity. Like using several antennas and
adding their signals. The bigger the device, the more directivity you get. A
parabolic antenna acts for radio waves just like a solar oven acts for the
sunlight, concentrating what it receives on one given point.

You can imagine for sure that making a receiver work in a noisy
environment reduces its performances. But a receiver also produces its own
"internal noise" every electronic component inside a receiver produces a
noise. That's why those components must be carefully choose or
manufactured to produce the less possible noise.

To decrease even more the remaining amount of noise, and it can


physically not be done another way, the receiver must be cooled down. It
can be plunged into liquid nitrogen or even liquid helium. This is true
whatever the type of communication system you are using: radio waves,
light, light trough fiber optics, sound, electric signals trough wires, even
interstellar gravitational waves.

Inside a simple component like a resistor, the noise is simply due to


the electrons moving around inside the resistor.
…23…

Thus there are two ways to increase the emitted power:

 Increase the electric tension of the signal send into the antenna. Just
like a lamp would glow lighter or a loudspeaker would give louder
sound, an antenna will broadcast more powerful radio waves.

 Increase the length of the antenna. The more the length is increased,
the littler becomes the impedance. Thus, the more current goes trough
the antenna and the more power is consumed an emitted as radio
waves. If you double the length of the antenna, you half the resistance
and thus you emit two times more power. Attention: once the antenna
becomes longer than half the wave length you get a disturbing
directivity. That's why half the wave length is the common length for
an antenna. Longer Antennas may emit no more power in the
direction of the receiver and thus give the impression they emit less
energy which is false (hence the illusion an antenna is a resonating
device, which is false too).

3.6.2 FEATURES:
 High – speed data RECEIVE rates.
 SIP header allows for ease of use.
 Compatible with all BASIC Stamp modules SX chips.
 AS easy to use as simple SEROUT/SERIN PBASIC instruction
 Power – down mode for conservative energy usage (longer battery
life)
 Line – of – sight range of 500 feet (or greater depending on
conditions)
…24…

3.7 IMPLEMENTER RF RECEIVER CIRCUIT:


…25…

CHAPTER - 4

WIRELESS ENERGY CONTROLL


UNIT
A power management system and associated method therefore
includes a plurality of local wireless energy control units at remote sites for
controlling power delivery to customer loads, and a central station with a
wireless transmitter for broadcasting commands to the wireless energy
control units. The wireless energy control units each comprise a bank of
switches for controlling power delivery to electrical loads at each local site.
The controllable switches preferably have a deformable bimetal member
controlled by a heated coil for engaging and disengaging electrical contacts.
Each wireless energy control unit is capable of being pre-configured so as to
specify the order or priority in which electrical loads are disengaged, in
response to commands to reduce power consumption received from the
central station. The central station may issue power reduction commands
according to different priority levels or alert stages. The local wireless
energy units respond to the power reduction commands by disengaging one
or more electrical loads in accordance with the priority level of the power
reduction command, and through their collective operation reduce overall
customer power demand.
A wireless energy control unit, comprising: a plurality of controllable
switches each having a first position wherein a power source is
electronically connected to an electrical load and a second position wherein
the power source is disconnected from the electrical load; a wireless
receiver.
…26…
wherein one or more of said controllable switches comprises: a
deformable member having a first end and a second end, said deformable
member anchored at said first end and residing in contact with an electrical
conductor at said second end; and a heating element in proximity with the
deformable member, said heating element responsive to a switch control
signal from said controller; and wherein an incoming wire drawing power
from said power source is connected to the deformable member at said
second end near the electrical conductor, said incoming wire being
electrically connected to said electrical conductor when the deformable
member resides in contact with the electrical conductor.
A wireless energy control unit, comprising: a plurality of identical
controllable switches each interposed between a power source and one of a
plurality of electrical loads, each controllable switch capable of engaging the
power source with, or disengaging the power source from, the switch's
respective electrical load; user interface means for selecting a priority order
according to which said controllable switches are to be disengaged from
their respective electrical loads in response to messages received from a
remote source; a wireless receiver; and a controller connected to said
wireless receiver, said controller receiving messages via said wireless
receiver and, in response thereto, causing selected ones of said controllable
switches to disengage the power source from, or engage the power source
with, each selected switch's respective electrical load; wherein one or more
of said controllable switches comprises: a deformable member having a first
end and a second end, said deformable member anchored at said first end
and residing in contact with an electrical conductor at said second end; and a
heating element in proximity with the deformable member.
…27…
Where in an incoming wire drawing power from said power source is
connected to the deformable member at said second end near the electrical
conductor, said incoming wire being electrically connected to said electrical
conductor when the deformable member resides in contact with the electrical
conductor.

In one aspect, a local energy control unit includes a set of controllable


switches for controlling power delivery from a power supply line to
individual electrical loads. The energy control unit preferably causes the
controllable switches to engage or disengage their respective electrical loads,
in a configurable order, when an external command is received. The energy
control unit can be user-configured (e.g., programmed) to prioritize the order
in which loads are disengaged. In a preferred embodiment, the controllable
switches are electrically connected in series with (e.g., downstream from) a
set of circuit breakers, and the controllable switches are preferably capable
of selectively disengaging and re-engaging electrical loads as may be
present, for example, at commercial or residential electrical outlets, while
drawing little or no power when conducting.
In a particular context, wireless energy control units may be utilized
within an energy management system, and placed at various remote
customer sites for controlling energy distribution to local electrical loads. A
user may pre-configure the energy control unit to specify the order or
priority in which electrical loads are disengaged, in response to commands
to reduce energy consumption. A wireless command system allows the
energy control units to receive commands from a distant location.

…28…

CHAPTER - 5

RADIO FREQUENCY
IDENTIFICATION
The object of any RFID system is to carry data in suitable
transponders, generally known as tags, and to retrieve data, by machine-
readable means, at a suitable time and place to satisfy particular application
needs. Data within a tag may provide identification for an item in
manufacture, goods in transit, a location, the identity of a vehicle, an animal
or individual. By including additional data the prospect is provided for
supporting applications through item specific information or instructions
immediately available on reading the tag. For example, the color of paint for
a car body entering a paint spray area on the production line, the set-up
instructions for a flexible manufacturing cell or the manifest to accompany a
shipment of goods.
A system requires, in addition to tags, a means of reading or
interrogating the tags and some means of communicating the data to a host
computer or information management system. A system will also include a
facility for entering or programming data into the tags, if this is not
undertaken at source by the manufacturer. Quite often an antenna is
distinguished as if it were a separate part of an RFID system. While its
importance justifies the attention it must be seen as a feature that is present
in both readers and tags, essential for the communication between the two.

…29…

5.1 WIRELESS COMMUNICATION AND THE AIR


INTERFACE:

Transmitting data is subject to the vagaries and influences of the


media or channels through which the data has to pass, including the air
interface. Noise, interference and distortion are the sources of data
corruption that arise in practical communication channels that must be
guarded against in seeking to achieve error free data recovery. To transfer
data efficiently via the air interface or space that separates the two
communicating components requires the data to be superimposed upon a
rhythmically varying (sinusoidal) field or carrier wave. This process of
superimposition is referred to as modulation, and various schemes are
available for these purposes, each having particular attributes that favor their
use. They are essentially based upon changing the value of one of the
primary features of an alternating sinusoidal source, its amplitude, frequency
or phase in accordance with the data carrying bit stream. In addition to non-
contact data transfer, wireless communication can also allow non-line-of-
sight communication. However, with very high frequency systems more
directionality is evident and can be tailored to needs through appropriate
antenna design.

5.2 CARRIER FREQUENCIES:

In wired communication systems the physical wiring constraints allow


communication links and networks to be effectively isolated from each
other.
...30…

The approach that is generally adopted for radio frequency


communication channels is to separate on the basis of frequency allocation.
This requires, and is generally covered by government legislation, with
different parts of the electromagnetic spectrum being assigned to different
purposes. Allocations may differ depending on the governments concerned,
requiring care in considering RFID applications in different countries.
Standardization efforts are seeking to obviate problems in this respect.
Three frequency ranges are generally distinguished for RFID systems,
low, intermediate (medium) and high. The following table summarizes these
three frequency ranges, along with the typical system characteristics and
examples of major areas of application.

Frequency Bands and Applications

Frequency Band Characteristics Typical Applications


Low 100-500 kHz Short to medium read Access control Animal
range Inexpensive low identification Inventory
reading speed control Car immobilizer
Intermediate 10-15 Short to medium read Access control Smart
MHz range potentially cards
inexpensive medium
reading speed
High 850-950 MHz 2.4- Long read range High Railroad car monitoring
5.8 GHz reading speed Line of Toll collection systems
sight required
Expensive
…31…

A degree of uniformity is being sought for carrier frequency usage,


through three regulatory areas, Europe and Africa (Region 1), North and
South America (Region 2) and Far East and Australasia (Region 3). Each
country manages their frequency allocations within the guidelines set out by
the three regions. Unfortunately, there has been little or no consistency over
time with the allocation of frequency, and so there are very few frequencies
that are available on a global basis for the technology. This will change with
time, as countries are required to try to achieve some uniformity by the year
2010.

5.3 DATA TRANSFER RATE AND BANDWIDTH:


Choice of field or carrier wave frequency is of primary importance in
determining data transfer rates. In practical terms the rate of data transfer is
influenced primarily by the frequency of the carrier wave or varying field
used to carry the data between the tag and its reader. Generally speaking the
higher the frequency the higher the data transfer or throughput rates that can
be achieved. This is intimately linked to bandwidth or range available within
the frequency spectrum for the communication process.

5.4 DATA CARRYING OPTIONS:


Data stored in data carriers invariable require some organization and
additions, such as data identifiers and error detection bits, to satisfy recovery
needs. This process is often referred to as source encoding. Standard
numbering systems, such as UCC/EAN and associated data defining
elements may also be applied to data stored in tags.

…32…
Basically, tags may be used to carry:
 Identifiers, in which a numeric or alphanumeric string is stored for
identification purposes or as an access key to data stored elsewhere
in a computer or information management system.
 Portable data files, in which information can be organized, for
communication or as a means of initiating actions without recourse
to, or in combination with, data stored elsewhere.
In terms of data capacity tags can be obtained that satisfy needs from
single bit to kilobits. The single bit devices are essentially for surveillance
purposes. Retail electronic article surveillance (EAS) is the typical
application for such devices, being used to activate an alarm when detected
in the interrogating field. They may also be used in counting applications.
Devices characterized by data storage capacities up to 128 bits are
sufficient to hold a serial or identification number together, possibly, with
parity check bits. Such devices may be manufacturer or user programmable.
Tags with data storage capacities up to 512 bits, are invariably user
programmable, and suitable for accommodating identification and other
specific data such as serial numbers, package content, key process
instructions or possibly results of earlier interrogation/response transactions.
Tags characterized by data storage capacities of around 64 kilobits
may be regarded as carriers for portable data files. With increased capacity
the facility can also be provided for organizing data into fields or pages that
may be selectively interrogated during the reading process.

…33…

5.6 STANDARDIZATION:
If the unique advantages and flexibility of RFID is the good news,
then the proliferation of incompatible RFID standards is the corresponding
bad news. All major RFID vendors offer proprietary systems, with the result
that various applications and industries have standardized on different
vendors’ competing frequencies and protocols. The current state of RFID
standards is severe disarray - standards based on incompatible RFID systems
exist for rail, truck, air traffic control, and tolling authority usage. The US
Intelligent Transportation System and the US Department of Defense (DOD)
Total Asset Visibility system are among other special-interest applications.
The lack of open systems interchangeability has severely crippled
RFID industry growth as a whole, and the resultant technology price
reductions that come with broad-based inter-industry use. However, a
number of organizations have been working to address and hopefully bring
about some commonality among competing RFID systems, both in the U.S.
and in Europe where RFID has made greater market inroads. Meanwhile in
the U.S.A., ANSI’s X3T6 group, comprising major RFID manufacturers and
users, is currently developing a draft document based systems’ operation at a
carrier frequency of 2.45 GHz, which it is seeking to have adopted by ISO.
ISO has already adopted international RFID standards for animal tracking,
ISO 11784 and 11785.

Radio Frequency (RF) refers specifically to the electromagnetic field,


or radio wave, that is generated when an alternating current is input to an
antenna. This field can be used for wireless broadcasting.

…34…

CHAPTER - 6

POWER SUPPLY REQUIRMENTS


Modules incorporate a built-in regulator which delivers a constant
2.8V to the module circuitry when the external supply voltage is 2.85V or
greater, with 40dB or more of supply ripple rejection. This ensures constant
performance up to the maximum permitted supply rail and removes the need
for external supply decoupling except in cases where the supply rail is
extremely poor (ripple/noise content >0.1Vp-p).
Note, however, that for supply voltages lower than 2.85V the
regulator is effectively inoperative and supply ripple rejection is
considerably reduced. Under these conditions the ripple/noise on the supply
rail should be below 10mVp-p to avoid problems. If the quality of the supply
is in doubt, it is recommended that a 10μF low-ESR tantalum or similar
capacitor be added between the module supply pin (Vcc) and ground,
together with a 10Ω series feed resistor between the Vcc pin and the supply
rail. The Enable pin allows the module to be turned on or off under logic
control with a constant DC supply to the Vcc pin. The module current in
power-down mode is less than 1μA.
NOTE: If this facility is used, the logic control signal must have a
slew rate of 40mV/μs or more. Slew rates less than this value may cause
erratic operation of the on-board regulator and therefore the module itself.
It incorporates a low voltage shutoff circuit which prevents any
possibility of erratic operation by disabling the RF output if the supply
voltage drops below 2.2V (±5%). This feature is self-resetting.
…35…
6.1 EXPECTED RANGE:
Predicting the range obtainable in any given situation is notoriously
difficult since there are many factors involved. The main ones to consider
are as follows:
 Type and location of antennas in use
 Type of terrain and degree of obstruction of the link path
 Sources of interference affecting the receiver
 Dead spots caused by signal reflections from nearby conductive
objects
 Data rate and degree of filtering employed
Assuming the maximum 64kbps data rate and unobstructed ¼-wave whip
antennas on transmitter and receiver, the following ranges may be used as a
rough guide only:
1) Cluttered/obstructed environment, e.g. inside a building: 25-75m
2) Open, relatively unobstructed environment: 100-300m
It must be stressed that range obtained in practice may lie outside
these figures. Range tests should always be performed before assuming that
a particular range can be achieved in any given application.
6.2 ANTENNA CONSIDERATIONS AND
OPTIONS:
The choice and positioning of transmitter and receiver antennas is of
the utmost importance and is the single most significant factor in
determining system range. The following notes apply particularly to integral
antennas and are intended to assist the user in choosing the most effective
arrangement for a given application.

…36…
However this is often not desirable for practical/ergonomic reasons
and a compromise may need to be reached. If an internal antenna must be
used try to keep it away from other metal components and pay particular
attention to the “hot” end (i.e. the far end), as this is generally the most
susceptible to detuning. The space around the antenna is as important as the
antenna itself.
Microprocessors and microcontrollers tend to radiate significant
amounts of radio frequency hash, which can cause desensitization of the
receiver if its antenna is in close proximity. 900MHz region is generally less
prone to this effect than lower frequencies, but problems can still arise.
Things become worse as logic speeds increase, because fast logic edges are
capable of generating harmonics across the UHF range which are then
radiated effectively by the PCB tracking. In extreme cases system range can
be reduced by a factor of 3 or more. To minimize any adverse effects, situate
the antenna and module as far as possible from any such circuitry and keep
PCB track lengths to the minimum possible. A ground plane can be highly
effective in cutting radiated interference and its use is strongly
recommended.
A simple test for interference is to monitor the receiver RSSI output
voltage, which should be the same regardless of whether the microcontroller
or other logic circuitry is running or in reset.
Integral antennas generally do not perform as well as externally
mounted types, however they result in physically compact equipment and
are the preferred choice for portable applications. The following can be
recommended.

…37…
Helical: This is a compact but slightly less effective antenna formed
from a coil of wire. It is very efficient for its size, but has high Q and tends
to suffer badly from detuning caused by proximity to nearby conductive
objects. It needs to be carefully trimmed for best performance in a given
situation and the required dimensional tolerances can be difficult to achieve
repeatable, nevertheless it can provide a very compact solution.
Loop: A loop of PCB track, tuned and matched with 2 capacitors.
Loops are relatively inefficient but have good immunity to proximity
detuning, so may be preferred in shorter range applications where very high
component packing density is necessary.
External antennas have several advantages if portability is not an
issue. They can be optimized for individual circumstances and may be
mounted in relatively good RF locations away from sources of interference,
being connected to the equipment by coax feeder. Apart from the usual
whips, helicals etc, low-profile types such as microstrip patches can be very
effective at these frequencies. Suitable antennas are available from many
different sources and are generally supplied pre-tuned to the required
frequency.

…38…
Integral Antenna Configuration

…39…

CHAPTER - 7

OTHER COMPONENTS

 ATMEL 553(AT24C08A)

 Voltage Regulator IC 7805

 Crystal Oscillator

 Transistor
 Resistor

 Capacitor

 Zener Diode

…40…

7.1 ATMEL 553(AT24C08A):


7.1.1 DESCRIPTION:

The AT24CO8A provides 8192 bits of serial electrically erasable and


programmable read only memory (EEPROM) organized as 1024 words of 8
bits each. The device iss optimized for use in many industrial and
commercial applications where the low power and the low voltage operation
are essential. The AT24CO8A is available in space saving 8 pin PDIP is
accessed via 2 wire serial interface. In addition, the entire family is available
in 1.8 volt - 5.0 volt versions.

…41…

7.1.2 PIN DESCRIPTION:


Serial Clock (SCL):
The SCL input is used to positive edge clock data in to each
EEPROM device and negative edge clock data out of each device.

Serial Data (SDA):

The SDA pin is bi-directional for serial data transfer.


This pin is open drain driven and may be wire – ORed with
any number of other open drain or open collector device.

Device/Page Address (A2, A1, A0):


The A2, A1, A0 pins are device addresses input, for the AT24CO8A
only used A2 input for hard wire addressing and total of two 8k device may
be addressed on single bus system. The A0 and A1 pins are no connects.

Write Protect (WP):


AT24CO8A has a Write Protect pin that provides hardware data
protection. Write Protect pin allows normal read/operation when connected
to ground (GND).

7.1.3 FEATURES OF ATMEL 553:


 Utilize different array protection compare to the other type IC’s.

 Automotive grade and extended temperature device.

 Low power and low voltage operation

 Bidirectional data transfer protocol.

 High reliability.

…42…

7.2 VOLTAGE REGULATOR (IC 7805):


I/P O/

commo

A voltage regulator is an electrical regulator designed to automatically


maintain a constant voltage level.

It may use an electromechanical mechanism, or passive or active


electronic components. Depending on the design, it may be used to regulate
one or more AC or DC voltages.

With the exception of shunt regulators, all modern electronic voltage


regulators operate by comparing the actual output voltage to some internal
fixed reference voltage. Any difference is amplified and used to control the
regulation element. This forms a negative feedback servo control loop. If the
output voltage is too low, the regulation element is commanded to produce a
higher voltage. For some regulators if the output voltage is too high, the
regulation element is commanded to produce a lower voltage; however,
many just stop sourcing current and depend on the current draw of whatever
it is driving to pull the voltage back down. In this way, the output voltage is
held roughly constant. The control loop must be carefully designed to
produce the desired tradeoff between stability and speed of response.

…43…

7.3 CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR:


A crystal oscillator is an electronic circuit that uses the mechanical
resonance of a vibrating crystal of piezoelectric material to create an
electrical signal with a very precise frequency. This frequency is commonly
used to keep track of time (as in quartz wristwatches), to provide a stable
clock signal for digital integrated circuits, and to stabilize frequencies for
radio transmitters.

t
A miniature 4 MHz quartz crystal enclosed in an hermetically sealed
HC-49/US package, used as the resonator in a crystal oscillator.

A crystal is a solid in which the constituent atoms, molecules, or ions


are packed in a regularly ordered, repeating pattern extending in all three
spatial dimensions. Almost any object made of an elastic material could be
used like a crystal, with appropriate transducers, since all objects have
natural resonant frequencies of vibration. For example, steel is very elastic
and has a high speed of sound. It was often used in mechanical filters before
quartz. The resonant frequency depends on size, shape, elasticity, and the
speed of sound in the material.

…44…
Low-frequency crystals, such as those used in digital watches, are
typically cut in the shape of a tuning fork. For applications not needing very
precise timing, a low-cost ceramic resonator is often used in place of a
quartz crystal.

When a crystal of quartz is properly cut and mounted, it can be made


to distort in an electric field by applying a voltage to an electrode near or on
the crystal. This property is known as piezoelectricity. When the field is
removed, the quartz will generate an electric field as it returns to its previous
shape, and this can generate a voltage. The result is that a quartz crystal
behaves like a circuit composed of an inductor, capacitor and resistor, with a
precise resonant frequency. (See RLC circuit.)

Quartz has the further advantage that its elastic constants and its size
change in such a way that the frequency dependence on temperature can be
very low. The specific characteristics will depend on the mode of vibration
and the angle at which the quartz is cut (relative to its crystallographic axes)1
Therefore, the resonant frequency of the plate, which depends on its size,
will not change much, either. This means that a quartz clock, filter or
oscillator will remain accurate. For critical applications the quartz oscillator
is mounted in a temperature-controlled container, called a crystal oven, and
can also be mounted on shock absorbers to prevent perturbation by external
mechanical vibrations. Quartz timing crystals are manufactured for
frequencies from a few tens of kilohertz to tens of megahertz. More than two
billion (2×109) crystals are manufactured annually. Most are small devices
for consumer devices such as wristwatches, clocks, radios, and cell phones.

…45…
7.4 TRANSISTOR:

A transistor is a three-terminal semiconductor device that can be used


for amplification, switching, voltage stabilization, signal modulation and
many other functions. The transistor is the fundamental building block of
both digital and analog integrated circuits — the circuitry that governs the
operation of computers, cellular phones, and all other modern electronics.

7.4.1 INTRODUCTION:

Transistors are divided into two main categories: bipolar junction


transistors (BJTs) and field effect transistors (FETs). Application of current
in BJTs and voltage in FETs between the input and common terminals
increases the conductivity between the common and output terminals,
thereby controlling current flow between them. For more details on the
operation of these two types of transistors, see field effect transistor and
bipolar junction transistor. In analog circuits, transistors are used in
amplifiers, (direct current amplifiers, audio amplifiers, radio frequency
amplifiers), and linear regulated power supplies. Transistors are also used in
digital circuits where they function as electronic switches.

7.4.2 IMPORTANCE:

The transistor is considered by many to be one of the greatest


inventions in modern history, ranking in importance with the printing press,
automobile and telephone.

…46…
It is the key active component in practically all modern electronics.
Its importance in today's society rests on its ability to be mass produced
using a highly automated process (fabrication) that achieves vanishingly low
per-transistor costs.

Although millions of individual (known as discrete) transistors are


still used, the vast majority of transistors are fabricated into integrated
circuits (often abbreviated as IC and also called microchips or simply chips)
along with diodes, resistors, capacitors and other electronic components to
produce complete electronic circuits. A logic gate comprises about twenty
transistors whereas an advanced microprocessor, as of 2006, can use as
many as 1.7 billion transistors (MOSFETs) .The transistor's low cost,
flexibility and reliability have made it a universal device for non-mechanical
tasks, such as digital computing. Transistorized circuits have replaced
electromechanical devices for the control of appliances and machinery as
well. It is often less expensive and more effective to use a standard
microcontroller and write a computer program to carry out a control function
than to design an equivalent mechanical control function.

Because of the low cost of transistors and hence digital computers,


there is a trend to digitize information. With digital computers offering the
ability to quickly find, sort and process digital information, more and more
effort has been put into making information digital. As a result, today, much
media data is delivered in digital form, finally being converted and presented
in analog form by computers. Areas influenced by the Digital Revolution
include television, radio, and newspapers.

…47…
7.4.3 SEMICONDUCTOR MATERIAL:

The first BJTs were made from germanium (Ge) and some high power
types still are. Silicon (Si) types currently predominate but certain advanced
microwave and high performance versions now employ the compound
semiconductor material gallium arsenide (GaAs) and the semiconductor
alloy silicon germanium (SiGe). Single element semiconductor material (Ge
and Si) is described as elemental.

Semiconductor Junction Electron Hole Max.junction temp.


material forward mobility mobility °C
voltage m/s @ 25 °C
V @ 25 °C m/s @ 25°C
Ge 0.27 0.39 0.19 70 to 100

Si 0.71 0.14 0.05

150 to 200
GaAs 1.03 0.85 0.05 150 to 200

Al–Si 0.03 — — 150 to 200


junction
…48…

7.5 RESISTOR:
Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an object
opposes an electric current through it, measured in ohms. Its reciprocal
quantity is electrical conductance measured in siemens. Assuming a uniform
current density, an object's electrical resistance is a function of both its
physical geometry and the resistivity of the material it is made from:

Where,

"l" is the length


"A" is the cross sectional area, and
"ρ" is the resistivity of the material

Electrical resistance shares some conceptual parallels with the


mechanical notion of friction. The SI unit of electrical resistance is the ohm,
symbol Ω. The resistance of an object determines the amount of current
through the object for a given potential difference across the object.
For a wide variety of materials and conditions, the electrical resistance
does not depend on the amount of current through or the amount of voltage
across the object, meaning that the resistance R is constant.

…49…

7.6 CAPACITOR:
A capacitor is an electrical device that can store energy in the electric
field between a pair of conductors (called "plates"). The process of storing
energy in the capacitor is known as "charging", and involves electric charges
of equal magnitude, but opposite polarity, building up on each plate.

Capacitors are often used in electrical circuit and electronic circuits as


energy-storage devices. They can also be used to differentiate between high-
frequency and low-frequency signals. This property makes them useful in
electronic filters.

Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. This is


considered an antiquated term in English, but most other languages use an
equivalent, like "Kondensator" in German.

7.6.1 CAPACITANCE:
The capacitor's capacitance (C) is a measure of the amount of charge
(Q) stored on each plate for a given potential difference or voltage (V) which
appears between the plates.

In SI units, a capacitor has a capacitance of one farad when one


coulomb of charge is stored due to one volt applied potential difference
across the plates. Since the farad is a very large unit, values of capacitors are
usually expressed in microfarads (µF), nanofarads (nF), or picofarads (pF).

…50…

When there is a difference in electric charge between the plates, an


electric field is created in the region between the plates that is proportional
to the amount of charge that has been moved from one plate to the other.
This electric field creates a potential difference V = E·d between the plates of
this simple parallel-plate capacitor.

The capacitance is proportional to the surface area of the conducting


plate and inversely proportional to the distance between the plates. It is also
proportional to the permittivity of the dielectric (that is, non-conducting)
substance that separates the plates.

7.6.2 STORED ENERGY:

As opposite charges accumulate on the plates of a capacitor due to the


separation of charge, a voltage develops across the capacitor due to the
electric field of these charges. Ever-increasing work must be done against
this ever-increasing electric field as more charge is separated. The energy
(measured in joules, in SI) stored in a capacitor is equal to the amount of
work required to establish the voltage across the capacitor, and therefore the
electric field.

The maximum energy that can be (safely) stored in a particular


capacitor is limited by the maximum electric field that the dielectric can
withstand before it breaks down. Therefore, all capacitors made with the
same dielectric have about the same maximum energy density (joules of
energy per cubic meter).

…51…

7.7 ZENER DIODE:


A Zener diode is a type of diode that permits current to flow in the
forward direction like a normal diode, but also in the reverse direction if the
voltage is larger than the breakdown voltage known as "Zener knee voltage"
or "Zener voltage". Named for Clarence Zener, discoverer of this electrical
property.

A conventional solid-state diode will not let significant current flow if


it is reverse-biased below its reverse breakdown voltage. When the reverse
bias breakdown voltage is exceeded, a conventional diode is subject to high
current flow due to avalanche breakdown. Unless this current is limited by
external circuitry, the diode will be permanently damaged. In case of large
forward bias (current flow in the direction of the arrow), the diode exhibits a
voltage drop due to its junction built-in voltage and internal resistance. The
amount of the voltage drop depends on the semiconductor material and the
doping concentrations. A Zener diode exhibits almost the same properties,
except the device is specially designed so as to have a greatly reduced
breakdown voltage, the so-called Zener voltage. A Zener diode contains a
heavily doped p-n junction allowing electrons to tunnel from the valence
band of the p-type material to the conduction band of the n-type material. In
the atomic model, this tunneling corresponds to the ionization of covalent
bonds. The Zener effect was discovered by physicist Clarence Melvin Zener.
A reverse-biased Zener diode will exhibit a controlled breakdown and let the
current flow to keep the voltage across the Zener diode at the Zener voltage.

…52…

The breakdown voltage can be controlled quite accurately in the


doping process. Tolerances to within 0.05% are available though the most
widely used tolerances are 5% and 10%.

Another mechanism that produces a similar effect is the avalanche


effect as in the avalanche diode. The two types of diode are in fact
constructed the same way and both effects are present in diodes of this type.
In silicon diodes up to about 5.6 volts, the zener effect is the predominant
effect and shows a marked negative temperature coefficient. Above 5.6
volts, the avalanche effect becomes predominant and exhibits a positive
temperature coefficient.

7.7.1 USES:

Zener diodes are widely used to regulate the voltage across a circuit.
When connected in parallel with a variable voltage source so that it is
reverse biased, a zener diode conducts when the voltage reaches the diode's
reverse breakdown voltage. From that point it keeps the voltage at that
value.

…53…

CHAPTER - 8

ADVANTAGES
 Combined hardware & software package used for automated
monitoring.
 Energy data is presented in a clear format which highlights west full
practices & areas for improved energy efficiency.
 Easy to use energy reporting tool that allows daily, weekly & weekly
energy cost consumption to be analyzed.
 Smart automated processes instead of manual work.
 Accurate information from the network load to optimize maintenance
and investments.
 Customize rates and billing dates.
 Better network performance and cost efficiency & Theft
identification.
BENEFITS OF WIRELESS ENERGY METER:

 Ability to detect tamper events and outage occurrence.

 Calculate transformer loading and sizing from interval data.

 Interval data gives accurate load information for supply scheduling,


switching operation, planning, etc.

 Monitor voltage at each premise to know conditions when to operate


switches and regulators.

 Consistent and granular data for improved accuracy.

…54…

CHAPTER - 9

LIMITATIONS
 Noise interference & distortion are the sources of data corruption.

 Required high frequency system.

 High frequency system is hazardous for human life.

 Appropriate antenna design.


…55…

CHAPTER - 10

APPLICATIONS

 Lower Cost RF solutions replace expensive hardwiring, greatly


reducing the high costs of cable installation or retrofitting.
 Less Environmental Impact RF eliminates the environmentally-
invasive damage of laying cable while reducing investments in
reconstruction.
 System Protection RF allows for isolation of sensitive equipment,
reducing the chances of failure due to power surges or severed cables.
 Greater Flexibility Equipment is no longer physically tied down. RF
enables easy relocation within a building or outdoors without
rewiring.
 Ideal for sharp monitoring studies of individual machines.

 Can be used for monitoring electrical energy consumes.

 Can incorporate production data for process management &


production efficiency.

 Consumption & monitoring.

 Billing & payment.

 Conservation & loss management.

 Machine health monitoring.

…56…

CHAPTER - 11

CONCLUSION
 Wireless communication is implemented, so that the consumed energy
information can be transmitted to a centralized monitoring station
through a F.M. transmitter & FM receiver.

 Design a perfect system which helps to overcome from the problem of


tampering of meter, faulty reading & poor metering efficiency.

 The present invention relates to improving the accuracy and reliability


of transmission of free-space optical digital communication signals.
More particularly, the present invention is directed to a system and
method for synchronizing transmitted optical digital communication
signals by simultaneously transmitting a radio frequency timing
signal.

…57…

CHAPTER - 12

FUTURE SCOPE
 If consumer may try to tamper the meter by shorting the relay
contacts, the receiver receives more pulse than the credit, immediately
alarm energizes at receiver.

 The energy data management system with energy theft identification.

 Robust enclosures can be mounted inside or outside building.

 Energy software to plot record and analysis energy consumption.

 Can develop in to prepaid electronic energy meter.


…58…

CHAPTER - 13

REFRENCES
 L-Li, Ju Halpem, “Wireless Energy Meter, concepts & applications”
ICC-2001, IEEE International conference on 2001.

 A.R. Al-Ali, “Wireless Distributed Energy Billing System” Page no.


202-207, International journal of computers & applications 2006.

 V.Rodople, T.H. Meng, “Minimum Energy Mobile Wireless


Networks”, IEEE Journal on selected areas in communications 1999.

 S.R.Gandham, M.Dawande, R.Prakash, S.Venkatesan, “ Energy


Efficient Schemes For Wireless Energy Meter”, IEEE
Telecommunication conference 2003.
 Integration Associates, Inc. Integration IEEE 802.15.4/Zig Bee TM
USB Dongle IA OEMDAUB12400. Datasheet. Internet,
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…60…

IMPLEMENTED MODEL FOR


WIRELESS ENERGY METER